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Rapport de l'Efsa sur les dangers de la consommation de boissons énergisantes en Europe.

Rapport de l'Efsa sur les dangers de la consommation de boissons énergisantes en Europe.

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  • Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 1 NOMISMA-ARETÉ Consortium2: Silvia Zucconia, Chiara Volpatoa, Felice Adinolfia, Evita Gandini a, Enrica Gentileb, Alberico Loi b, Linda Fioriti b a Nomisma SpA b Areté Srl 1 Question No EFSA-Q-2011-00309. 2 The Nomisma-Areté consortium acknowledges the EFSA steering Group and in particular the following staff members for their support and teamwork: Tobin Robinson (EMRISK Unit), Arianna Chiusolo (EMRISK Unit), Andrea Altieri (EMRISK Unit), Jean-Lou Dorne (EMRISK Unit), Davide Arcella (DCM Unit). Any enquiries related to this output should be addressed to emrisk@efsa.europa.eu Suggested citation: Zucconi S., Volpato C., Adinolfi F., Gandini E., Gentile E., Loi A., Fioriti L.; “Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks”. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394. [190 pp.]. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu/publications © European Food Safety Authority, 2013.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks ABSTRACT At the end of 2011, a study was commissioned by EFSA to the Consortium Nomisma-Areté, with the objective of gathering consumption data for “energy” drinks (ED) in specific consumer groups (adults, adolescents and children) in EU. The study also aims at estimating, for each consumer group, the exposure to specific active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, and D-glucurono-y-lactone) from ED consumption, and the relative contribution of ED to the total caffeine exposure. Moreover, specific consumption habits (co-consumption with alcohol and consumption associated to intense physical exercise) were analysed for adolescents and adults. Between February and November 2012, the study team conducted an EU-wide questionnaire-based survey - involving more than 52.000 participants from 16 different EU Member States3 - among adults (14.500 participants), adolescents (32.000), and children (5.500). The highest prevalence of consumption4 was observed for the adolescent consumers group (68%). In adults prevalence for consumption was 30%, and 18% in children. Among consumers, no relevant differences were observed in the target groups for prevalence of high chronic consumers5 (12% in adults and adolescents, 16% in children) and high acute consumers6 (11% for adults and 12% for adolescents). Concerning co-consumption with alcohol, similar prevalence was observed for adults (56%) and adolescents (53%). Consumption associated to sport activities showed prevalence of 52% in adults and 41% in adolescents. Among ED consumers, the estimated average exposures from ED to caffeine, taurine and Dglucurono-y-lactone were higher in children (1,01, 12,83 and 5,13 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively) than adolescents (0,38, 4,6 and 1,65 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively) and adults (0,32, 3,82 and 1,78 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). The calculated contribution from ED consumption to total caffeine exposure was 8% for adults, 13% for adolescents and 43% for children. The contribution increased for the high chronic consumers to 13% in adults, 16% in adolescents and 48% in children. © Nomisma-Areté consortium 2012. Parts of this publication may be reproduced, provided acknowledgement is given to the „Nomisma-Areté consortium‟ , along with the authors, title and year of publication as mentioned on page 1. KEY WORDS Energy drinks, caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-y-lactone, active ingredients, survey, consumption. 3 Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. 4 In the present study “consumers” of ED are subjects who declared to have drunk ED at least once over the last year. 5 In the present study “high chronic” consumers are respondents who regularly consumed ED “4-5 days a week” or more (identified in relation to a frequency distribution for ED consumption greater than or equal to the 90 th percentile). 6 In the present study “high acute” consumers are respondents consuming 1 litre or more of ED per single session in the case of adults and 1,065 litres or more of ED per single session in the case of adolescents (identified in relation with declared volume consumed in a single session and setting the threshold at the 90 th percentile). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 2 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks SUMMARY At the end of 2011, a study was commissioned by EFSA to the Consortium Nomisma-Areté, with the objective of gathering consumption data for “energy” drinks (ED) in specific consumer groups (adults, adolescents and children) in EU). The study also aims at estimating, for the different consumer groups, the exposure to specific active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, and D-glucurono-y-lactone) from ED consumption, and the relative contribution of ED to the total caffeine exposure. Moreover, specific consumption habits (co-consumption with alcohol and consumption associated to intense physical exercise) should be analysed for adolescents and adults. Between February and November 2012, the study team conducted an EU-wide questionnaire-based survey - involving more than 52.000 participants from 16 different EU Member States7(MS) - among adults (14.500 participants), adolescents (32.000), and children (5.500). Survey results Adults Around 30% of adults interviewed declared to have consumed ED at least once during the last year, with prevalence varying among MS from 14% in Cyprus to 50% in Austria, and mainly (53%) in “young adults” (18-29 years). Among ED consumers, the average volume consumed was 2 L/month. Approximately 12% of adult consumers were identified as “high chronic” consumers, i.e. consuming ED 4-5 times/week or more (13,3% in “young adult” consumers), consuming an average volume of 4,5 L/month. “High acute” consumers (consuming at least 1 L/single session), were 11% of the total adult ED consumers, mainly in “young adults” (13,4%). The co-consumption of ED and alcohol was evidenced for around 56% of adult ED consumers (71% in “young adults”). ED consumption in relation with physical exercise resulted for 52% of adult ED consumers, mainly (55%) in “old adults” (50-65 years). The average exposure to caffeine from ED was 22,4 mg/day (0,32 mg/kg b.w.8/day) for adult ED consumers, and the ED contribution to the total caffeine exposure was 8%. Caffeine exposure from ED increased to 48,3 mg/day (0,7 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, with a ED relative contribution of approximately 13%. Average exposure to taurine from ED was 271,9 mg/day (3,82 mg/kg b.w./day) in adult ED consumers, rising to 585,79 mg/day (8,49 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers. Average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED was 125,95 mg/day (1,78 mg/kg b.w./day) on average for ED consumers, up to 268,84 mg/day (3,91 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers. 7 Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. 8 Data on the exposure expressed for kg of body weight (b.w.) were calculated for each consumer on the basis of declared body weight collected through the survey. In case of missing data, data on body weight from EFSA scientific opinion “Guidance on selected default values to be used by the EFSA Scientific Committee, Scientific Panels and Units in the absence of actual measured data” (EFSA, 2012) were adopted. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 3 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors. View slide
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Adolescents Prevalence of ED consumption was 68%, varying from 48% in Greece to 82% in Czech Republic9, and mainly observed (73%) in the 15-18 age subgroup. Among ED consumers, the average volume consumed was 2,1 L/month. Around 12% of adolescent consumers were identified as “high chronic” consumers, i.e. consuming ED 4-5 times/ week or more, with an average ED volume of 7 L/month. Around 12% of adolescent ED consumers resulted to be “high acute” consumers, i.e. consuming at least 1,065 L of ED per single session. Co-consumption of ED and alcohol was observed in 53% of adolescent ED consumers, mainly (59%) in the 15-18 years subgroup, while ED consumption in relation with physical exercise resulted to interest 41% of adolescent consumers, mainly (48%) in the 10-14 years subgroup. The average exposure to caffeine from ED was 23,5 mg/day (0,38 mg/kg b.w./day) for adolescent ED consumers, with an average contribution of ED to the total caffeine exposure of 13%. The caffeine exposure from ED increased to 75,08 mg/day (1,18 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, contributing to 16% of total caffeine exposure. The average exposure to taurine from ED was 283,9 mg/day (4,6 mg/kg b.w./day) in adolescent ED consumers, rising up to 924,3 mg/day (14,5 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers. Average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED was 100,14 mg/day (1,65 mg/kg b.w./day), up to 311,6 mg/day (4,9 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers. Children Prevalence of ED consumption was 18%, mainly (19%) observed in the 6-10 years subgroup, and varying among MS from 6% in Hungary to 40% in in Czech Republic. Among ED consumers, the average volume consumed was 0,49 L/week. Approximately 16% of ED consumers resulted to be “high chronic” consumers, i.e. consuming ED 4-5 times/ week or more, with an average volume of around 0,95 L /week. Average caffeine exposure from ED was 21,97 mg/day (1 mg/kg b.w./day), with a relative contribution of ED to total caffeine exposure of 43%. Caffeine exposure from ED increased to 42,9 mg/day (1,98 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, with a ED relative contribution of 48%. Average exposure to taurine from ED was 278,37 mg/day (12,83 mg/kg b.w./day), increasing to 543,57 mg/day (25,05 mg/kg b.w./day) in the high chronic consumers. Finally, average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED was 111,35 mg/day (5,13 mg/kg b.w./day), increasing to 217,43 mg/day (10 mg/kg b.w./day) for high chronic consumers. Literature review Results emerging from the literature review highlighted a limited availability of recent and comprehensive studies or surveys at EU level, providing reliable data on ED consumption and exposure to specific ingredients (caffeine, taurine, and D-glucurono-y-lactone). Such limitation did not allow an analysis of the evolution of ED consumption over time. 9 The highest prevalence of ED consumption among total respondents was observed in Belgium (85%) but not reported due to the small dimension of the sample for this MS (sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 4 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors. View slide
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Recommendations The project represented the first effort at European level of data collection on ED consumption and contribution to some active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, and D-glucurono-y-lactone) exposure, in specific consumer groups and in different MS. Due to the exponential growth rate which characterised the ED market over the last years, the study team suggests to monitor possible further increases in ED consumption and eventually consider the possibility to update the study. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 5 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract .................................................................................................................................................... 2 Summary .................................................................................................................................................. 3 Table of contents ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Background .............................................................................................................................................. 8 Terms of reference.................................................................................................................................. 13 1. Introduction and Objectives ........................................................................................................... 14 2. Materials and Methods .................................................................................................................. 15 2.1. Literature review ................................................................................................................... 15 2.2. Stakeholders’ consultation .................................................................................................... 16 2.2.1. Pre-survey and post-survey consultations ........................................................................ 17 2.3. Survey ................................................................................................................................... 18 2.3.1. Selection of MS involved in the survey ............................................................................ 19 2.3.2. Study design ..................................................................................................................... 19 2.3.3. Pilot study and quality checks .......................................................................................... 23 2.3.4. Data processing methods for calculating the exposure to active ingredients ................... 25 2.3.4.1. Caffeine exposure from ED consumption................................................................ 25 2.3.4.2. Caffeine exposure from consumption of other food products and beverages .......... 29 2.3.4.3. Contribution of ED to total caffeine exposure ......................................................... 31 2.3.4.4. Contribution of ED to total exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone .......... 31 2.3.5. Criteria for defining patterns of ED consumption (acute and chronic consumers) .......... 32 2.3.6. Problems encountered, related solutions and limitations of the study .............................. 34 3. Results ........................................................................................................................................... 40 3.1. Literature review ................................................................................................................... 40 3.1.1. Overview .......................................................................................................................... 40 3.1.2. Focus on the most relevant references .............................................................................. 41 3.2. Stakeholders consultation: emerging issues .......................................................................... 44 3.2.1. Literature and sources ....................................................................................................... 45 3.2.2. ED market ......................................................................................................................... 45 3.2.3. Active ingredients ............................................................................................................. 45 3.3. Survey: results....................................................................................................................... 46 3.3.1. General overview.............................................................................................................. 46 3.3.2. Adults ............................................................................................................................... 48 3.3.2.1. ED consumption ...................................................................................................... 48 3.3.2.2. Co-consumption of ED and alcohol ......................................................................... 57 3.3.2.3. Consumption of ED during sport activities.............................................................. 61 3.3.2.4. ED contribution to total exposure to relevant substances ........................................ 65 3.3.2.5. ED acute consumption: analysis on high acute consumers...................................... 77 3.3.2.6. Exposure to active ingredients in high acute adult consumers ................................ 81 3.3.3. Adolescents....................................................................................................................... 90 3.3.3.1. ED consumption ...................................................................................................... 90 3.3.3.2. Co-consumption of ED with alcohol ....................................................................... 99 3.3.3.3. Consumption of ED during sport activities............................................................ 104 3.3.3.4. ED contribution to total exposure to relevant substances ...................................... 109 3.3.3.5. ED acute consumption: analysis on high acute consumers.................................... 124 3.3.3.6. Exposure to active ingredients in high acute adolescent consumers...................... 127 3.3.4. Children .......................................................................................................................... 136 3.3.4.1. ED consumption .................................................................................................... 136 3.3.4.2. ED contribution to total exposure to relevant substances ...................................... 143 4. Conclusions and recommendations ............................................................................................. 152 4.1. Literature review ................................................................................................................. 152 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 6 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 4.2. Results emerging from the survey ...................................................................................... 153 4.3. Recommendations ............................................................................................................... 157 References ............................................................................................................................................ 158 Appendices ........................................................................................................................................... 161 A. Appendix - Stakeholders consultation: complete list of contacts ................................................ 162 B. Appendix - Stakeholders consultation: list of questions.............................................................. 165 C. Appendix - Stakeholders consultation: reference documents for the interview .......................... 167 D. Appendix - Stakeholders consultation: main findings ................................................................. 173 E. Appendix - Content of relevant substances in different ed brands indicated as "other" by respondents in the questionnaire .......................................................................................................... 181 F. Appendix - Details on caffeine content for the categories of food selected for the calculation of exposure ............................................................................................................................................... 187 Glossary and abbreviations .................................................................................................................. 190 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 7 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks BACKGROUND Consumption of ED and related issues “Energy” drinks (ED) constitute a relatively new product category in the wider soft drinks market. Lipvitan D™, launched in Japan in 1960 by Taisho Pharmaceuticals, can be considered the first ED ever. The diffusion of ED in Europe started in 1987 with the launch of Red Bull™, a beverage containing taurine and produced in Austria, which quickly gained popularity in Europe and, from 1997 onwards, also in the USA. Commercial success of Red Bull™ sparked the proliferation of similar products on the market. With an agreed definition of “ED” still missing, such category includes a variety of non-alcoholic beverages containing caffeine, taurine and vitamins (often in combination with other ingredients), marketed for their actual or perceived effects as stimulants, energizers and performance enhancers. For this reason, ED – which should not be confused with isotonic beverages and “sport drinks” – are usually included in the wider group of “functional foods”. The most common active substance in ED is caffeine, which is often combined also with taurine, Dglucurono-y-lactone, guaranà, maltodextrin, ginseng, carnitine, creatine and gingko biloba; other common ingredients are vitamins and - usually – artificial and natural sweeteners (which are added also to “mask” the unpleasant flavour of some ingredients). Caffeine is an alkaloid, acting as central nervous system stimulant. It is present in many beverages and food products: its content in ED can vary from 70 to 400 mg/L and more (maximum limits concerning caffeine content are set by regulations in many countries). Taurine is an amino acid naturally produced by human body, and it is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina and the central nervous system D-glucurono-y-lactone is naturally present in human body, as important structural component of connective tissues. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has been one of the most notable trends in the soft drinks market of many countries (see next §). However, such expansion has also created concern in the scientific community, in national and international institutions dealing with health-related issues, as well as in the public opinion, in the light of a number of issues which are often associated to ED consumption. Indeed in the last years the attention for such issues has been remarkable in scientific literature, in institutional communication by national health agencies, in specialist publications focusing on the soft drinks sector10, and also in the general media. The issue of ED consumption and over-consumption is highly debated from a scientific point of view, especially for what the possible related health effects are concerned. Indeed a number of studies (Alford et al., 2011; Reissig et al., 2009; SHC, 2012; Arria et al., 2011; Marin Institute, 2011; Oteri et al., 2007) have recently investigated on potential and/or detected effects of “active” ingredients (caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-y-lactone, etc.) on highly sensitive subjects (children, pregnant women, heart patients, etc.), or on potential and/or detected effects of co-consuming of ED with alcohol or with other products containing active ingredients. 10 A recent example is the article “ANSES warns French nation of risky alcohol energy drink mix”, featured on Beverage Daily.com website on June 07, 2012: http://www.beveragedaily.com/Regulation-Safety/ANSES-warnsFrench-nation-of-risky-alcohol-energy-drink-mix Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 8 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Moreover, the issue of co-consumption of ED with alcohol is cause of particular concern, as it appears to be quite common among youths (Marin Institute, 2007; Miller, 2008; SHC, 2009). Indeed health effects of co-consumption of alcohol and ED have been dealt with by a number of scientific studies (Arria et al., 2010; Alford et al. 2011; Brache and Stockwell, 2011; Oteri et al., 2007) and technical reports (BfR, 2008; EUCAM, 2008, 2009). Finally, also the association between sport practice and high levels of consumption of ED has raised some concern, as the combined effect of intense physical effort and of the stimulant action of ED could pose health risks for some subjects. In 2003 the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission (DG SANCO)11 classified ED consumption levels into “mean chronic”, “high chronic” and “acute” (table 1). Table 1 – ED consumption levels Consumption N° of 250 ml cans per day ml/day Mean chronic High chronic Acute 0,5 1,4 3,0 125 350 750 Source: DG SANCO - Scientific Committee on Food (2003) Increasing consumption of ED implies a higher exposure to caffeine, taurine and D-glucurono-ylactone. Higher exposure to such active substances by children and young adults was identified as a potential emerging risk at European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Advisory Forum meeting of 19th20th May 2010. Indeed available information suggests that ED consumption is becoming more and more widespread among youths, especially in relation with mass-entertainment and sport practice. Despite the high scientific interest related to the possible side effects of ED, the limited availability of detailed and updated information on ED consumption in the EU has been highlighted by many experts and stakeholders. EFSA commissioned the present study to gather consumption data for ED and data on exposure to specific ingredients (caffeine, D-glucurono-y-lactone, taurine) in the context of ED consumption, for specific consumer groups (children, adolescents and adults) and addressing specific moments of consumption. The study is also aimed at estimating the relative contribution of ED to the total exposure to caffeine, D-glucurono-y-lactone and taurine in the diet (in comparison with the exposure deriving from consumption of coffee, tea, cola drinks and cacao, chocolate products, coffeebased beverages, etc.). The market of ED in Europe In the context of the overall market for non-alcoholic beverages, ED are usually considered as a segment of the wider category of “functional beverages”. According to Zenith International’s Global Energy Drinks Report (2009), world total consumption of ED in 2008 reached 3,9 billion litres (compared to 2 billion litres in 2003). Per capita consumption at world level was equal to 0,8 litres (up from 0,4 litres in 2003). North America accounted for a 37% share of overall world consumption in 2008, with the Asia/Pacific area accounting for another 30%; the share of Western Europe on world total was equal to 15%. According to estimates by Euromonitor International, the expansion of the ED market at global level has continued at a fast pace also in recent years (table 2). 11 European Commission health & consumer protection directorate-general Scientific Committee on Food, “Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Additional information on “energy” drinks”, 2003. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 9 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 2 – Growth of the functional drinks market at world level by segment (2006 – 2011; million litres) % growth Segments 2006 2011 (forecast) (2011 vs. 2006) Sports drinks 9.871 13.302 + 35% Energy drinks 2.429 3.534 + 45% Functional drinks TOTAL 12.621 17.202 + 36% Source: Euromonitor On the basis of data provided by the Canadean’s Global Beverage Report (2008), the annual growth rate for the ED segment in the 2008-2013 period was forecast at +9,3%, compared to a growth rate of +2,6% for the overall non-alcoholic beverages market. Red Bull™ is by far the leading brand at world level (40% of total sales in 2008), with Monster™ (owned by Hansen’s Beverage Company) and Rockstar™ ranked second and third, respectively (table 3). Table 3 – Leading ED brands at world level (2008, market shares) Brands share Red Bull™ 40% Monster™ 23% Rockstar™ 12,3% AMP™ 8% Full Throttle™ 4% Doubleshot™ 2% NOS™ 1,5% No Fear™ 1,4% Private Labels (retailers’ brands) SOBE Adrenaline™ 1% 0,7% Source: Bevnet With regards to the ED market in Europe, it has experienced a rapid growth of consumption, especially from 2005 onwards (Zenith International, 2008). Total production of ED in Europe was estimated at around 490 million litres in 2007, for a value of approximately 3,8 billion Euros. The expansion of the market has been especially remarkable in some MS (Germany and United Kingdom in particular12), and has often resulted in a proliferation of brands, with frequent launch of new products, many of them with eminently national diffusion. “Convenience” ED (many of them marketed under private label) and innovative product typologies (“energy shots”, “pre-mixed alcoholic 12 According to Zenith International data featured in the annual reports of the British Soft Drinks Association (BSDA), ED consumption in the United Kingdom has grown from 175 million litres in 2000 (1,5% of total soft drinks consumption) to 495 million litres in 2011 (3,4% of total soft drinks consumption, for an increase of 183% in terms of volume). Per capita consumption levels have increased from 3 litres per person in 2000 to 7,9 litres per person in 2011. In other MS the growth has been less intense, and overall consumption volumes are quite limited; in Italy, for instance, consumption of ED (according to GFK-Eurisko data published on MARK UP magazine, April 2009 and April 2010 issues) has passed from 2,67 million litres in 2006 to 2,97 million litres in 2009 (an increase of 11%). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 10 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks ED”, etc.) have also appeared in some national markets (Alard, Marìn, Cubillo, 2010; EUCAM, 2008 and 2009). Red Bull™ is by far the leading brand in virtually all national markets; smaller market shares are held by other international brands (Monster™, Burn™), by national brands (of which some are however owned by multinational groups) and by private labels. Outline of the relevant EU labeling legislation A short overview of the most relevant European legislation on food labelling - with particular attention to the rules concerning beverages containing active ingredients – is provided hereafter. Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on “the approximation of the laws of the MS relating to the labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs”. The Directive defines mandatory food information to be provided by producers, in order to assure a high level of protection of consumers’ health and interests. According to this Directive, among the other features (such as the name of the food) it is mandatory to indicate the list of ingredients and the quantity of certain ingredients, or category of ingredients, on the product label. Directive 2002/67/EC of the European Commission on “the labelling of foodstuffs containing quinine, and of foodstuffs containing caffeine”. The Directive establishes that beverages containing more than 150 mg of caffeine per litre must be labelled with the term “high caffeine content”, in a position close to the name of the food. Furthermore a clear indication of the amount of caffeine per 100 ml in the product must be provided in the label. In this Directive ED are explicitly indicated as caffeine containing products which, according to the Scientific Committee for Food opinion of 21st January 1999, do not represent a cause of concern for their contribution to the total consumption of caffeine (only for adults, pregnant women excluded). Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on “the provision of food information to consumers”. From 14th December 2014 this Regulation will enforce additional caffeine labelling for high caffeine drinks and foods where caffeine is added for its physiological effects13. In particular, the following categories of beverages must be labelled with the statement “High caffeine content. Not recommended for children or pregnant or breast-feeding women” placed near the name of the product and followed by the caffeine content specified in mg per 100 ml: - beverages intended for consumption without modification, containing at least 150 mg/l of caffeine; - beverages in concentrated or dried form which after reconstitution contain caffeine in a proportion in excess of 150 mg/l. The aforementioned provisions will instead not apply for: - drinks based on coffee, tea or coffee or tea extract where the name of the food includes the term “coffee” or “tea”; 13 http://www.food.gov.uk/policy-advice/additivesbranch/energydrinks Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 11 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks - beverages where caffeine is added as a flavouring rather than for a physiological purpose: in this case the term “caffeine” must appear in the ingredients list under the section “flavouring(s)”. As for labelling on beverages containing taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone, there are no specific rules to be enforced to indicate these substances. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 12 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks TERMS OF REFERENCE As already outlined, the main purpose of the study is gathering information and data on consumption of ED and of some specific ingredients (specifically caffeine, taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone) in welldefined consumer groups in a number of EU MS. The targeted groups of consumers include children (from 3 to 10 year old), adolescents (from 10 to 18), and adults (from 18 to 65); a focus is also foreseen on adolescents and adults practising intense physical exercise and co-consuming ED with alcohol. According to the terms of reference, in the context of the study: Consumption of ED is analysed at MS level and expressed per subgroup and per unit of time, in order to reflect acute and chronic exposure. Consumption of and exposure to specific ingredients (caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-y-lactone) are analysed per subgroup for acute and chronic ED consumers in each MS. As for caffeine consumption, the relative contribution of ED is determined and compared with caffeine consumption from major sources in the diet (coffee, tea, cola drinks and cacao, chocolate products, coffee based beverages, etc) to assess whether ED consumption is adding to exposure to caffeine or whether their consumption is substituting exposure via more traditional foods. This contract was awarded by EFSA to: Consortium Nomisma-Areté Contractor: Consortium Nomisma-Areté Contract title: Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Contract number: CFT/EFSA/EMRISK/2011/03 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 13 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES According to the terms of reference, the main objectives of the study can be identified in the following: - Gathering data about consumption of ED in the EU MS (Objective 1); - Collecting data at MS level about the exposure to specific active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-y-lactone) due to ED consumption, and estimating the relative contribution of ED to caffeine exposure, compared with caffeine consumption from major sources in the diet (Objective 2). In order to achieve the above mentioned objectives, a specific data collection strategy was defined, based on three main elements: 1. review of the relevant literature dealing with the subjects of interest available in the different MS and published over the last three years; 2. consultation of the relevant stakeholders (experts of EFSA national focal points; officials of competent authorities in the field of public health; representatives of the main beverages industry associations both at European and national levels); 3. ad hoc survey, aimed at gathering primary data on the consumption of ED and on the exposure to specific ingredients. The present document constitutes the final report for the study “Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks”, commissioned by EFSA to the Consortium Nomisma-Areté at the end of 2011. According to the tender specifications for the study, and taking into account EFSA’s guidelines for the submission of official reports, the document is structured as follows: - A description of the methodology applied in the study (chapter 2); - A description of the results of the study (chapter 3), divided into: o o A description of the results from the stakeholders’ consultation (§ 3.2); o - A description of the results from the literature review (§ 3.1); Final results from the survey (§ 3.3), as a summary of data on acute and chronic consumption of ED in the previously mentioned subgroups of the population, including summary statistics for each Member State (MS) and for all MS for which data were available. Conclusions and recommendations (chapter 4). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 14 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Due to the complexity of the study and the kind of information required for the purpose of the analysis, a specific data collection strategy was defined, including a combination of different methods and tools (Figure 1). Figure 1: Data collection strategy As foreseen in the data collection strategy, the preliminary phase of the study included: - Literature review, carried out also with the support and contribution of selected stakeholders. - Identification and contact of stakeholders, aimed at ensuring their contribute to the study via interviews (stakeholders’ consultation). - Survey. The following paragraphs provide details regarding the methodology and tools adopted for each main phase and specific element of the data collection strategy. 2.1. Literature review The literature review was performed with the main objectives of: - Identifying and collecting relevant studies, papers and articles, as well as previous surveys performed during the last three years with respect to the consumption of ED, the occurrence of specific ingredients and human exposure to active ingredients. - Identifying and collecting information and data useful to correctly define the survey design as well as specific contents for the questionnaires. Activities related to literature review were developed through the following main steps: Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 15 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 1. Identification of the available literature and information sources, in the light of the previously defined objectives and scope of the study. 2. Analysis of the documents collected during step 1. 3. Synthesis of the most relevant documents. 4. Use of the relevant literature for the purposes of the study (survey design and contents of questionnaires). The first phase of the literature review was mainly based on web-based research (specialized magazines, dedicated web-sites, institutional sources, etc.). After this preliminary phase, stakeholders’ consultation played a relevant role in supporting the identification of additional sources and studies as well as the selection of the proper and most relevant papers for the purposes of the study. Stakeholders were asked to comment on the preliminary list of references and sources collected by the study team, and to eventually add missing references or sources (§ 2.2). Literature review was focused on recent bibliography (published between 2008 and 2011) addressing ED and/or their specific ingredients, in terms of consumption habits and possible health effects caused by these products/ingredients. Due to the specific objectives of the study, however, studies and reports dealing exclusively with health effects of ED were deemed as falling outside the scope of the study itself. From the complete list of the relevant literature, resulting from the stakeholders’ consultation (Appendix A), a number of references featuring meaningful insights about the research topics were selected (§ 3.1.2). Stakeholders’ consultation 2.2. Two different rounds of stakeholders’ consultations were planned: before (pre-survey consultation) and after the survey (post-survey consultation). The main objectives of the pre-survey stakeholders’ consultation is summarised as follows: a) Supporting literature review, and specifically the identification of relevant sources, studies and surveys dealing with the issue of ED consumption over the last 3 years. b) Supporting the collection of data on ED market. c) Supporting and validating the identification of relevant ED brands for the different MS. d) Supporting the identification, for each MS, of relevant food products in the diet contributing to the exposure to active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-y-lactone). After the conclusion of the survey, stakeholders who had participated to the first round of consultation were contacted again as part of the post-survey consultation, whose main objective was to share with experts the structure of methodology adopted for the study as well as results emerging from the first round of consultations. On the basis of the aforementioned objectives, the categories of stakeholders involved in the pre- and post-survey consultations include: - Experts from EFSA national focal points14. 14 Focal Points act as an interface between EFSA and the national food safety authorities, research institutes, consumers and other stakeholders. The Focal Point network is made up of members from all 27 EU Member States, Iceland and Norway, as well as observers from Switzerland and (potential) EU candidate countries. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 16 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks - Representatives of the main industry associations, both at European level (Union of European Soft Drinks Associations; Energy Drinks Europe; etc.), and at MS level (national associations of soft drinks producers). - Researchers and experts in soft drinks and ED, in particular project managers of relevant studies on ED and related themes (e.g. University of Wien; European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing – EUCAM, etc.). - Representatives of consumers’ organizations at EU level (e.g. European Consumers’ Organization – BEUC). The pre-survey consultation was carried out between February and May 2012. The post-survey consultation was carried out in November 2012, when the survey activities were approaching completion. 2.2.1. Pre-survey and post-survey consultations Starting from the identification of the relevant categories of stakeholders to be involved, the study team selected a list of experts in the study subjects, specifically including: - experts from MS national health institutes/organisations; - representatives of EU-level industry organisations; - representatives of national industry organisations; - other experts in the field of ED (academics, consultants, etc.), with special focus on ED consumption and composition. The final list of stakeholders to be contacted and the list of questions to be asked were validated by the Steering Group prior to the start of the consultation. The final list of stakeholders also included ones from MS not covered by the survey, for a total of 40 experts (Appendix B). All the interviewed experts were provided in advance (Appendix C and D) with: - list of questions; - list of relevant literature collected by the study team; - list of relevant information sources identified by the study team; - list of the main ED brands marketed in the EU, compiled by the study team on the basis of the literature review; - list of food products in the diet (other than ED) supposed to play a significant role in the assumption of caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-y-lactone, theophylline and theobromine, compiled by the study team on the basis of the information retrieved through the literature review. The minutes of the interview were sent to each interviewee for validation. Interviews for the pre-survey consultation were organized around three main topics: literature and sources; ED market; active ingredients. However, the choice of semi-structured interviews, based on open-ended questions, encouraged experts not to limit their contributions to such topics, but to provide also general comments on the study as a whole, as well as additional inputs and ideas. Some stakeholders were also involved in the post-survey consultations, in which the structure of the methodology adopted for the survey, as well as results emerging from the first round of consultations were shared with them. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 17 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 2.3. Survey The literature review and the pre-survey stakeholders’ consultation enabled the study team to better define the reference frame for the survey, which actually represented the main source of data and information for the study. As already outlined, the survey aimed at collecting primary data on different population targets, and specifically: 1) children (3-10 years old); 2) adolescents (10-18 years old); 3) adults (18-65 years old); as well as: a) adolescents and adults practising intense sport activities; b) adolescents and adults consuming ED mixed with alcohol. For each target group mentioned at points from 1 to 3 above, a dedicated questionnaire was prepared and translated in all the languages of the MS covered by the survey. In the specific case of children aged 3-5 an additional questionnaire addressed to parents was also prepared. The survey was structured to collect data and information to achieve both Objective 1 and 2 (chapter 1). Questions related to each objective covered a specific section in the questionnaire. Each questionnaire started with an introductive section aimed at gathering some preliminary information on the respondent (gender, age, education level, etc.), followed by two dedicated sections, for each of the two objectives. Additional consumer profile information (e.g. on lifestyle, such as “smoker or not”) was collected through specific questions. Objective 1: Data on ED consumption – Study design A. This section featured a number of questions mainly aimed at investigating: - Frequency and volume of consumption. - Reasons for consumption and consumption habits. - Main typologies, size formats and brands consumed. - ED consumption and sport activities (in adults and adolescents). - Co-consumption of ED and alcohol (in adults and adolescents). Objective 2: Data on consumption of other food products containing caffeine, taurine, D-glucurono-ylactone – Study design B. This section featured a number of questions mainly aimed at investigating: - Relevant food products in the diet that constitute a source of caffeine, taurine and D-glucuronoy-lactone. - Consumption frequency and products content in caffeine, taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 18 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 2.3.1. Selection of MS involved in the survey The survey covered 16 MS out of 27, selected in order to guarantee an adequate coverage of the whole EU population and of the different consumption styles. The following selection criteria were adopted: - Size of ED potential market in terms of population in the relevant age group (from 3 to 65 years). - Balance among different geographical areas supposed to have potentially different consumption habits (Western vs. Eastern countries, Northern vs. Southern countries). - Balance among different food consumption patterns (e.g. Mediterranean countries vs. Nordic countries). On the basis of these criteria (also taking into account preliminary findings emerging from the literature review), and after final validation by the Steering Group, the following 16 MS were selected for the survey: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2.3.2. Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Germany Greece Finland France 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Hungary Italy Poland Romania Spain Sweden The Netherlands United Kingdom Study design In order to guarantee a wide coverage of each targeted group, the survey was differently defined on the basis of the target. A description of the survey structure and for each targeted group is provided below. 1. Children A. Children 3-5 years old Survey carried out with schools' support ("school survey"). Paper questionnaires, featuring images aimed at helping children to correctly understand each question and call back to mind food products and beverages. Questionnaires to be filled in by children, at school, with the help of their teachers. Additional questionnaires to be filled in by parents, aimed at collecting more accurate information on the children’s consumption habits and at confirming/adjusting what declared by children in the respective questionnaire. B. Children 6-10 years old “School survey”. Paper questionnaires, featuring images aimed at helping children to correctly understand each question and call back to mind food products and beverages. Questionnaires to be filled in by children, at school, with the help of their teachers. For a small sample of children, questionnaires to be filled in also by parents (specifically required for schools covering both the target groups). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 19 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 2. Adolescents A. Adolescents 10-13 years old “School survey”. Web questionnaires or alternatively paper questionnaires to be filled in by students. B. Adolescents 14-18 years old “School survey”. Web questionnaires or alternatively paper questionnaires to be filled in by students. 3. Adults (18-65 years old) Mixed mode survey – CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview) e CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview). Maximum share of telephone interviews = 20%. 4. Adolescents and adults practising Intense Physical Exercise (IPE) Covered through the questionnaires already addressed to adolescents and adults (points 2 and 3 above). Practice of sport and/or physical exercise at least twice a week. Target covered by Adolescent and Adults Survey (points 2 and 3 above). 5. Adolescents and adults Co-Consuming ED with alcohol (CC) Covered via questionnaires already addressed to adolescents and adults (points 2 and 3 above). At least one situation of co-consuming during the last year. Target covered by Adolescents and Adults Survey (points 2 and 3 above). For children and adolescents, the sample of schools for MS was determined on the basis of each target group (Tables 4 and 5). Official registries containing the complete list of schools, with related contact details, were requested to the Ministries of Education and other competent Authorities of the MS covered by the survey. On this basis, sampling activities were carried out on the complete lists of schools for each level involved (pre-primary, primary, secondary). For the survey on adults (18-65 years), a mixed mode was preferred, integrating CAWI and CATI methods. The questionnaires (adults, adolescents, children and parents) were translated in all the relevant languages for the MS covered by the survey, in order to promote people’s cooperation and participation. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 20 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Details on the minimum sample dimension defined for each country, in terms of schools to be contacted, are provided in Table 4. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 21 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 4: Sample design – Number of schools included in the sample by country SCHOOL SAMPLE AND POTENTIAL CONTACTS (20x3)(a) Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom 25 30 5 25 20 100 100 18 28 90 40 75 40 79 25 100 800 PRIMARY SCHOOL LOWER SECONDARY UPPER SECONDARY (20x5)(a) PRE-SCHOOL (25x3x2)(a) (22x5x3)(a) 25 30 5 25 20 100 100 18 28 90 40 75 40 79 25 100 800 10 12 5 10 10 39 39 7 11 35 16 30 16 31 10 39 320 6 5 5 6 5 23 23 5 7 22 10 18 10 19 6 24 194 TOTAL (a) Average number of pupils/students per class (class size) multiplied for the average number of school year levels. The number of contacts with schools in each MS was defined by means of a specific sampling methodology: the total number of potential contacts was distributed among the 16 MS according to the total population; the numbers obtained were then adjusted in order to guarantee a minimum number of contacts in the less compared to the more populous MS. The methodology adopted for the definition of sample size is therefore proportional with adjustments. The sample of schools to be contacted in each MS was defined by random sampling methodology, aimed at guaranteeing nation-wide coverage and representativeness of the group of interviews in terms of geographical areas for each target group. During the survey activities, the initially planned number of schools to be contacted was significantly increased, in order to guarantee a sufficient coverage also in those countries where the actual participation rate resulted to be much lower than initially expected (50%). The replacement procedure was based on the representativeness of the sample, including three more schools from the same region, with similar characteristics (level of education, area, number of students, etc.). Even if the sample was built on these premises, the results cannot be deemed as fully matching the scheme initially proposed, as the participation rate in the survey strongly depended on the schools’ availability. Therefore, a more intense effort was driven towards replacements and recalls in the MS where the number of potential ED consumers resulted to be lower. Details regarding the expected number of “consumers” (consumption of ED at least once over the last year) to be reached for each target category are reported in Table 5. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 22 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 5: Sample design – Expected number of consumers to be reached through the survey CONSUMERS(a) 3-10 years old 10-18 years old 19-65 years old of which: IPE(b) Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom 200 240 40 200 160 800 800 144 224 720 320 600 320 632 200 800 6.400 270 280 60 280 250 1.100 1.100 200 310 1.000 450 820 450 860 270 1.100 8.800 180 150 50 150 150 450 450 150 150 430 150 350 190 400 150 450 4.000 TOTAL (a) At least one intake over the last year. (b) Samples for IPE and CC are referred to both adolescents and adults. 2.3.3. CC(b) 72 60 20 60 60 180 180 60 60 172 60 140 76 160 60 180 1.600 72 60 20 60 60 180 180 60 60 172 60 140 76 160 60 180 1.600 Pilot study and quality checks The tools used in the survey, including questionnaires, were validated following a specific procedure. All the documents were drafted on the basis of the study team’s expertise in surveys on food consumption habits, with particular respect to the target groups covered by the study. Relevant literature in the dietary assessment methodology field has been reviewed in order to use upto-date methods to assess the consumption habits on a target population15. Moreover, a review of empirical studies on consumption habits was also made16, in order to grasp the critical aspects of the tools already used in other surveys and to avoid as much as possible bias in the outcomes of the survey. 15 One of the reference papers used was “Dietary Assessment Methodology” F. E. Thompson, A. F. Subar, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, 2008. 16 Specific reference was made to Safefood (A review of health effect of stimulant drinks), Expochi (Dietary exposure assessments for children in Europe), Food4You project (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence, European food information council) and Catch kids club (survey on consumption habits in youngsters). Edmunds, L.D. and Ziebland, S. (2002) Validation of a fruit and vegetable questionnaire for 7–9 year olds. Health Education Research 17: 211-20. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 23 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Professional translators were used to translate documents into the relevant languages; the use of simple wording and a close cooperation between the translators and the study team also ensured that all the survey questions and annexed documents were easy to understand. National experts the pre-survey consultations allowed to tailor the questionnaires to national characteristics concerning the main ED brands and/or other common food products/beverages containing caffeine. Questionnaires for surveys in schools were tested through a pilot survey in 3 MS (Italy, France and UK). A sample of schools for each level was contacted to complete the pilot questionnaires and to gather comments/suggestions on the structure and wording. Also head teachers or educational experts of some schools not involved in the pilot survey provided useful remarks and suggestions on the survey approach and questionnaires. Comments and suggestions gathered during the pilot phase were used for fine-tuning methodology and related tools prior starting the survey. Checks on the documents were initially based on the content validity, which was already part of the tender specifications and which was tested with the Steering Group. The specificity validity was achieved through adjustment of the standard methodology for investigating food consumption habits to the specific kind of product considered, i.e. ED: in particular, the consumption time reference scale and the occasions of consumption were based on each specific type of product. Moreover, a validation of the sensitivity was achieved through three check questions regarding ED consumption, to have further confirmation of the same and to avoid “non-consumers”. These check questions also allowed the selection of subgroups of consumers in the population and the investigation of their specific consumption habits. The external validity was assured by the outcomes of the pilot survey and by the stakeholders’ consultations, with the aim of allowing generalization of the survey results to the entire reference population. As for qualitative checks on the filled in questionnaires, accuracy in compiling the questionnaire was assured by the constrains foreseen in the online questionnaires (adults and adolescents), which enabled to continue with the compilation only if all the previous questions had been answered, and blocked the compilation in case of “unrealistic” answers regarding age, weight, slept hours, etc. With specific reference to ED consumption, in all those cases where the respondent had indicated a product which is not an ED (e.g. sport drink), the respondent was reclassified as non-ED consumer, and all the answers concerning ED consumption and related habits were consequently excluded from the analysis. As far as outliers are concerned, in all those answers where a number specification was required (e.g. “number of cans consumed in an average week”), a reclassification or elimination was always made for clearly extreme - and hence probably unrealistic - figures (e.g. 100 cans/week). An additional reclassification was made with specific regards to coffee consumption, in order to assure coherence in the overall consumption of the three product typologies: specifically, when respondents declared to consume more than 15 cups per day17 of beverages with coffee - combining declared consumption data espresso, coffee (instant, ground, ice-coffee) and cappuccino - the number of cups consumed daily has been reclassified as maximum 5 cup per day for each typology. 17 Over 15 cups of coffee per day have been considered an unrealistic consumption data. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 24 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Finally, the validity of results was also guaranteed by the choice to carry out the survey over a quite long time period (from March to November), thus avoiding - or at least sharply reducing - possible distortions due to seasonal trends in consumption. 2.3.4. Data processing methods for calculating the exposure to active ingredients Processing methods used for calculating the exposure to active ingredients (caffeine, taurine and Dglucurono-y-lactone) for each subject interviewed (“row analysis” of the data) were applied to data on: The exposure was derived: 1. ED consumption; 2. consumption of other food products and beverages containing the active substances object of the analysis. Such calculations were made for both ED consumers and all respondents18, and allowed to define the relative contribution of ED consumption as a source of caffeine, taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone through the diet. Throughout the analysis, calculations were always based on the data of the single respondent, while average data were used solely to give the final outputs/elaborations or to define the threshold for further breakdowns of the analysis (i.e. acute or chronic consumption). Final results on the exposure to active substances were expressed in mg/day and in mg/kg bw/day. 2.3.4.1. Caffeine exposure from ED consumption Calculation started from ED consumption data retrieved via survey. Data on number of cans of ED consumed in an average month were combined with data on: a. the size of cans usually consumed; b. the top-three ED brands usually consumed; c. the relative importance of the favourite ED brand among the top-three products; d. caffeine content of the ED brands concerned (table 6 and 7); in order to calculate the overall caffeine exposure from ED consumption, weighted according to the relative importance of the top-three ED brands consumed (each respondent was asked to indicate the three main ED brands consumed, in decreasing order of importance, and to specify the per cent share of his/her favourite brand in his/her total ED consumption). In the specific case of children, a different method had to be used, as no question about the top-three ED brands was asked. In this case, the average content of caffeine – as well as concerning Dglucurono-y-lactone and taurine - of the first 3 brands of ED comprehensively indicated by children has been used. With regards to the format of ED, a specific analysis was performed for the “energy shots” format: in this case, the occurrence of active substances results to be remarkably different (and normally higher) from that of the “standard” EDs, and to sharply vary from one energy shot brand to another. Table 7 provides the contents of active ingredients for the energy shots brands cited by respondents and 18 The calculation of the total exposure (ED and other foods/beverages) is not available for all the respondents in the target group of adults, since in this case respondents who declared not to consume ED were not asked additional information on the consumption of other food and beverages containing active ingredients. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 25 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks analysed in the study. When the exact occurrence of active ingredients was not available or considered not fully reliable, a standardized content of active substances was applied19 (§ 2.3.6). 19 The contents adopted for the calculations are: 1.345 mg/L for caffeine, 4.000 mg/L for taurine and 2.400 mg/L for glucurono-y-lactone. The size is 63 ml. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 26 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 6: Content of active ingredients in different ED brands included in the questionnaire (1) Caffeine (mg/L) Taurine (mg/L) D-glucurono-y-lactone (mg/L) Atomic™ 300 3700 2400 Bad Dog™ 300 4000 Not present Battery™ 320 4000 Not present Brand name Big Energy Shock™ Blu™ 322 300 Bomba™ Booster energy drink™ (a) 4000 (b) Not present b Not present 4000 320 4000 Not present 300 (a) 4000 (b) 2400(b) 320 4000 Not present Brava Italia™ (a) Bullet™ 300 Burn™ Carrefour™ 320 300 (a) 4000 4000 (b) 2400 2400(b) Chillo™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) 2400(b) Clever™ 320 300 2400(b) Control™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) 2400(b) Crazy horse™ 150 28 Not present Dark dog™ 320 4000 Not present Fireball™ 320 300 (a) 4000 4000 (b) 2400 2400(b) Flying horse™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) 2400(b) Full Throttle™ 288 2420 Not present Green go™ 300 4000 4000 (b) Not present Effect™ Grizzly™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) 4000 (b) Not present 2400(b) Hell™ 320 KX (Tesco)™ 300 4000 2400 Long Horn™ 320 Not present 4000 (b) Not present Mad bat™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) Not present 2400(b) Mixxed up™ 300 Mad croc™ 320 4000 240 Monster™ 307 4000 Not present MX Maximim™ 300 Nalu™ (a) 320 (a) 4000 (b) Not present 2400(b) Not present 2400(b) Natural Magic™ 300 Power horse™ Premium XO™ 320 300 (a) 4000 4000 (b) Raw™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) Not present 2400(b) Real Power™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) 2400(b) Red Bull™ 320 4000 2400 Red Devil™ 300 4000 Not present Relentless™ 320 4000 2400 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 4000 (b) Not present 2000 27 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Caffeine (mg/L) Taurine (mg/L) D-glucurono-y-lactone (mg/L) Rhino's™ 120 4000 (b) 2400(b) Rienergy Refresher™ 303 4000 2400 Rockstar™ 300 4000 Not present Rodeo™ 320 4000 2400 Semtex™ 320 4000 Not present 2400(b) Brand name Sexy Italia™ (a) 300 4000 (b) Shark™ 350 4000 2400(b) Tiger™ 320 4000 Not present Tonino Lamborghini™ 320 4000 2400 V Power™ 310 300 (a) 2000 4000 (b) 250 2400(b) V12™ 300 (a) 4000 (b) 2400(b) 320 Not present Not present V™ White Tiger™ 28 Black Acai™ 320 Not present Not present Note: values highlighted by the light grey background were assumed, as no information on actual content could be retrieved. (a) assumed as equal to the value in König, 2011. (b) assumed as equal to the modal value. (1) Contents of relevant substances in different ED brands indicated as “other” by respondents in the questionnaire are provided in Appendix F. Table 7: Content of active ingredients in different energy shots brands Brand name Battery™ Caffeine (mg/L) 1345 (a) Taurine (mg/L) 4000 b D-glucurono-y-lactone (mg/L) 2400(b) size (ml) 63 (a) Burn energy shot™ 1600 4000 1400 50 Dark Dog™ x10 Shot 1600 16000 Not present 63 (a) Mad Croc energy shot™ Monster Hitman Energy Shot™ Red Bull energy shot™ Relentless energy shot™ Rhino's energy shot™ Rockstar energy shot™ 13300 (a) 4000 b 2400 (b) 60 (a) 880 2247 Not present 89 1333 6666 4000 2400(b) 60 1600 (a) 1345 (a) 1345 (a) 4000 b 4000 b 4000 b 50 (a) 2400 (b) 63 (a) 2400 (b) 63 (a) Shark energy shot™ 1070 4000 Not present 75 Tiger energy shot™ 1333 16670 Not present 60 Note: values highlighted by the light grey background were assumed, as no validated information on actual content could be retrieved. (a) assumed as equal to the average of other energy shots indicated in the survey (b) assumed as equal to the modal value of occurrence in standard ED Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 28 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Calculation of the daily exposure to caffeine deriving from ED consumption was made through the following formula: ED_caffeine_daily exposure = (ED_monthly volume * ED_caffeine_content) / 30 where: ED_caffeine_daily exposure = daily exposure to caffeine deriving from ED consumption (mg) ED_monthly volume = volume of ED consumed in a month (l), calculated by combining the number of cans consumed in an average month with the size of the cans ED_caffeine_content = content of caffeine in ED (mg/l), weighted according to the brands consumed 2.3.4.2. Caffeine exposure from consumption of other food products and beverages Caffeine exposure from consumption of other food products and beverages was calculated by combining data: a. on consumption frequency (daily or weekly, according to the type of product concerned); b. on quantities consumed in a single occasion (taking into account container size or item weight, whenever relevant); c. on caffeine content of each product . The parameters considered in the calculations are reported in table 7. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 29 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 8: Caffeine occurrence in other food products and beverages: relevant parameters considered in the calculations Container Size with caffeine (mg/L or mg/kg) decaffeinated (mg/L or mg/kg) Espresso Coffee cup 0,03 l 1916 250 Coffee (instant, ground, ice coffee…) mug 0,24 l 400 10,7 Cappuccino cup 0,15 l 250 50 cup/glass 0,25 l 100 25 cup 0,25 l 150 Chocolate bars* 0,10 kg 180 Dark chocolate 0,10 kg 340 Milk chocolate 0,10 kg 183 White chocolate 0,10 kg 0 0,05 kg 140 Dark chocolate 0,05 kg 264 Milk chocolate 0,05 kg 142 White chocolate 0,05 kg 0 0,25 l 79,2 Type of product Tea (instant, tea bag, ice tea…) Hot chocolate Chocolate snacks (e.g. Mars, KitKat a Colas (e.g. Coca Cola, Pepsi) glass 0 (a) = whenever no distinction was made between dark, milk and white chocolate, values for generic chocolate products as featured in König J.) were used for calculations. Sources: König J., 2011., Final report: Assessment of caffeine intake in a representative sample of the Austrian population (age 14-39 years). NZFSA - New Zealand Food Safety Authority (2010), Risk profile: caffeine in energy drinks and energy shots. Report prepared by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR). Food Safety Promotion Board (2002), A review of the health effects of stimulant drinks – Final Report, Safe Food, Cork, Ireland. Web page on caffeine - University of Washington: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/caff.html Websites of individual producers. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 30 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks The general calculation method can be illustrated through an example referred to espresso coffee. Total consumed volume in a week was calculated through the formula: tot_espresso_week = number of cups per day * content of a cup (l) * weekly consumption frequency Daily exposure was then calculated by applying the formula: espresso_daily_exposure = (tot_espresso_week * caffeine content espresso mg/l) / 7 The above method was applied (mutatis mutandis) for the various types of coffee, tea and hot chocolate. In the case of chocolate bars, chocolate snacks and colas, no questions about daily consumption frequency were asked, as such products are not always consumed on a regular daily basis20. Daily exposure for such products was hence calculated ex-post, through the formulas: tot_product_week = (product content or size in l or kg * weekly consumption volume) product_daily_exposure = (tot_product_week * product caffeine content mg/l or mg/kg) / 7 In these specific cases, consumption volumes of each item were associated to the respective content of caffeine, and consumption frequency (already specified in the question – not in the answer) was reclassified on a daily basis, thus obtaining the exposure to caffeine in mg/day for each specific food/beverage for each respondent. 2.3.4.3. Contribution of ED to total caffeine exposure Total daily caffeine exposure was calculated as the sum of both daily exposure from ED consumption (§ 2.3.4.1) and daily exposure from consumption of all other food products and beverages (§ 2.3.4.2). Daily exposure from ED consumption was then referred to the above total, to express ED contribution to caffeine exposure as % of total daily exposure. Forthe relative contribution of ED to the total exposure to active substances, the mean value presented in this analysis is calculated as a ratio between the mean exposure to the ingredient (e.g. caffeine) deriving from ED and the total exposure to the ingredient (e.g. caffeine), on the other. 2.3.4.4. Contribution of ED to total exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone The calculation of daily exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED consumption was carried out by applying the same method used for calculating daily exposure of caffeine from ED consumption for the three targets involved in the survey (§ 2.3.4.1). On the contrary, lack of data on content of taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone in specific food products and beverages (except for limited “spot” information) did not allow to apply the analytical method of calculation of daily exposure used for caffeine (§ 2.3.4.2). As a consequence, data on daily exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone from consumption of other food products and beverages other than ED were not possible to be included in analysis for adolescents and children. 20 For these specific items a weekly frequency has been used, also taking into account indications from the relevant literature references; the adoption of a week as the reference time frame also allowed to include in the analysis all respondents consuming less frequently than once a day. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 31 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning adults, this analysis was carried out based on consistent data, derived from EFSA’s scientific opinion “The use of taurine and D-glucurono-γ-lactone as constituents of the so-called “energy” drinks” (adopted on January 15, 2009). More specifically, daily exposure from consumption of other food products and beverages other than ED was assumed: For taurine, equal to 58 mg (mean daily exposure to taurine from omnivore diets). For D-glucurono-y-lactone, equal to 1,5 mg (estimated daily exposure from naturally occurring sources in the diet). The calculation of the contribution of ED to total exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone was carried out by: 1. summing daily exposure from ED consumption to daily exposure from consumption of other food products and beverages, to obtain the total daily taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone exposure; 2. referring daily exposure from ED consumption to total daily exposure (point 1), to express ED contribution to the exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone as % of total daily exposure. As for caffeine, the relative contribution of ED to the total exposure to active substances, the mean values presented in the analysis were calculated as a ratio between the mean exposure to the ingredient deriving from ED and the total exposure to the ingredient for each subgroup considered in the analysis. 2.3.5. Criteria for defining patterns of ED consumption (acute and chronic consumers) The identification of respondents that could be defined as “high acute” or “high chronic” ED consumers was performed on the basis of the frequency distribution of the variables specifically linked to volume and frequency of ED consumption respectively21. This means that consumption habits that stand above or below the average were identified by using the upper decile of frequency distribution of the correspondent variables as threshold value. Specifically, “high acute” ED consumers were defined by making reference to the volume consumed in a single session22. In particular, the calculation derives from the variable “liters of ED in a single session”, that combines the number of cans consumed per single session with the size format indicated by each respondent in the questionnaire. The threshold beyond which ED consumers were considered “high acute” was set at the 90th percentile23 of frequency distribution for that variable (excluding outliers24), corresponding to a consumption of 1 litre of ED per single session in the case of adults and of 1,065 litres in the case of adolescents. 21 The methodology used to define acute and chronic consumers refers to the approach presented in the “Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Additional information on “energy” drinks”, European Commission health & consumer protection Directorate-General, Scientific Committee on Food, 2003. 22 According to the present study, “single session” is a period of time of a couple of hours (e.g. a night out, a study or sport session). 23 High acute consumers defined as ≥ 90th percentile. 24 99% of respondents who declared a consumption of more than 4 cans in a single session actually declared completely unrealistic consumption volumes (e.g. 30-40 cans in a single session): for such reason, values declared by these respondents were considered as outliers and were excluded from the analysis. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 32 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks For children, the identification of “high acute” consumers has not been assessed, because it was not foreseen to make specific question on volume of ED consumed in a single session for this target group. As for “chronic” ED consumers, two different categories were defined for both adults and adolescents, referring to weekly ED consumption frequency: 1. “Mean chronic” ED consumers were identified in relation to a frequency distribution for ED consumption comprised between the 75th and 90th percentile25 (respondents who on average consumed ED “2-3 days a week” in the case of adults, and from 1 to 3 days a week26 in the case of adolescents). 2. “High chronic” ED consumers were identified in relation to a frequency distribution for ED consumption greater than or equal to the 90th percentile (respondents who regularly consumed ED “4-5 days a week” or more). When frequency distribution for ED consumption was below the threshold set at the 75th percentile, ED consumers were considered “non-chronic”. a. In the specific case of children, the rationale adopted for identifying “chronic” ED consumers is similar, with a significant difference: “high chronic” ED consumers were identified in relation to the frequency distribution for the variable “weekly ED consumption frequency” beyond the 90th percentile (respondents who regularly consumed ED “3-5 days a week” or “about every day”). This subgroup actually corresponds, in this case, to the one identified by the threshold set for “mean chronic” ED consumers in the other two groups (75th percentile). Table 9: Parameters for the identification of “chronic” and “acute” consumers ED consumption Consumer category threshold (percentile) High acute ≥90th High chronic ≥90th Mean chronic Corresponding volume/frequency of ED consumption Adults Adolescents Children 1 L/single session 1,065 L/single session n.a. 4-5 times/week 4-5 times/week or more or more 75th - 90th (excluded) 2-3 times/week once a week and 2-3 times/week 3-5 times a week Results are presented specifically focussing on the comparison between “high acute” consumers and “non-high acute” consumers, and between “high chronic” and “non-high chronic” consumers: such comparisons are provided for each MS (based on the data collected through the survey) as well as for the 16 MS as a whole (based on weighted average data). 25 26 The 90th percentile has to be intended as excluded (<90th) Thus covering the two answer choices on frequency: “2-3 days a week” and “once a week”. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 33 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 2.3.6. Problems encountered, related solutions and limitations of the study The complexity of the study and a number of problems encountered in its carrying out required a number of ad hoc solutions. Some limitations deriving from the adopted solutions need to be considered when interpreting the results of the present study. Such limitations stem from issues of different nature: 1. Issues regarding difficulties encountered during the survey conduction. 2. Issues concerning data and information collected. 3. Issues concerning the methodology for data elaboration (mainly assumptions). Concerning problems encountered carrying out the study, a number of unforeseen events occurred during the survey, causing a substantial delay in the data collection process. Different procedures to allow the involvement of schools caused difficulties in some MS. In some cases, complex and timeconsuming procedures were required to obtain the official list of schools, or to obtain official authorization to contact pre-primary, primary and secondary schools for the purposes of the survey. Quite often schools contact details, as presented in the official registries provided by Ministries, resulted to be incomplete or incorrect. Finally, in some MS, cooperation by the contacted schools was actually low. Nevertheless, to overcome these difficulties in some MS, additional efforts were made, by contacting a higher number of schools than originally planned (§ 2.3.2), by frequent recalls, and by intensifying efforts to sensitize the involved institutions (also with the support from EFSA national contact points). Anyway, the approach adopted for the survey can be considered highly effective, taking into account a total number of around 51.000 respondents (14.557 adults, 31.901 adolescents, 5.558 children) were reached in the 16 MS covered, and – in the specific case of children - such coverage was achieved in spite of the final participation rate was lower than initially expected. In most of the MS covered by the study, the number of respondents was high enough to make the samples representative of the population. Only in France, Germany, Belgium and United Kingdom the number of respondents was lower than estimated in the survey design27. For the reliability and validity of survey results, it is important to highlight some methodological aspects in order to correctly interpret the findings of the study. In the case of children, the questionnaire was addressed to very young kids (from 3 to 10 years old) and specific technical measures were adopted both to improve children’s capacity of recalling their food consumption habits, and to minimize the risk of errors and misunderstandings: lower number of questions compared to the version for adolescents and adults28; very simple wording for the questions; introduction of images to help children to correctly understand each question; recommendation of filling in the questionnaire with the help of a teacher. 27 In order to take into account differences in composition of the sample among individual MS (see also § 2.3.2 providing a full picture of the sample dimension for each MS and each target group), a specific system of weights was adopted, structured to guarantee the weighted average data could correctly represent both the total population and the ED consumers for the 16 MS. 28 For example, for children, a simplified version of the questions regarding ED brands were adopted: children were asked to indicate just the most consumed brands, without providing information regarding the relative amount of the favorite brand compared to the total consumption. Similarly, as far as caffeine-containing products were concerned, children were not asked to make distinctions between caffeinated and decaffeinated products. For each food product cited in the questionnaire, the content of caffeine was calculated as a weighted average of the content of caffeinated and decaffeinated product according to the answers provided, with regards to this specific issue, by parents. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 34 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Despite these measures adopted, it has anyway been considered the possible difficulty, for young children, to provide reliable data regarding specific consumption habits: for this reason, in order to avoid losing information, data on more complex figures (i.e. single session consumption, specification of caffeinated or decaffeinated products, etc.) were gathered through the direct survey to parents. The two questionnaires and surveys – for children and for parents – were thus complementary and used to guarantee a higher reliability of data on children’s consumption habits. For specific issues on the methodology for data elaboration, some of these are linked to the selection of products to include in the questionnaires, for both ED and “other than ED” product categories. Limitations are the following: 1. Due to high number and variety of caffeine-containing products, the selection of such products to be included in the questionnaires was bound to be non-exhaustive. 2. Due to the extreme variability in caffeine content for individual product categories (even if defined in a very narrow way), “average” caffeine contents had to be assumed for the purposes of the study. For the selection of products “other than ED” to be included in the questionnaires, considering the rather extensive geographical coverage and the complexity of the research, the study team decided to follow the selection criteria reported below: only the most popular caffeine containing products had to be considered, with the aim of making the resulting selection sufficiently representative of the products present and consumed in every MS involved in the study; only categories of products with a “standard” content of caffeine had to be considered, in order to make the calculation of caffeine exposure comparable throughout the 16 MS covered by the survey. In this context, two potentially relevant categories of products for quantifying the total exposure to caffeine were not included in the questionnaire: Products with chocolate content, as caffeine concentration was too variable to find an average value for each MS. For example, the category “chocolate biscuits” was not included because no “standard” typology of such products could be identified which could be deemed as widely consumed and with comparable caffeine content in every MS. Only categories of products with a “standard” content of chocolate - and caffeine - were considered, in order to make the quantification of caffeine exposure comparable throughout the MS. Drugs, because it was not possible to consider a “standard” caffeine content for these products valid for all the MS considered. Furthermore, due to constraints related to safeguard of privacy, collecting consumption data for these products from individual respondents would have been not feasible. In this framework, another critical issue was the selection of coffee beverages to be included in the questionnaire. The study team included only three categories of coffee beverages - espresso coffee, coffee (including instant, ground and ice coffee) and cappuccino - mainly for the following reasons: The choice of clustering coffee beverages in these quite broad categories aimed at representing the most widely consumed products with the highest concentration of caffeine in all the MS covered by the study. As the present study covers 16 MS, there was the necessity of Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 35 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks standardizing as much as possible the caffeine content of different coffee beverages to gather reliable data on their consumption throughout different MS. For this reason, since there was no possibility of collecting punctual data on caffeine content for each kind of coffee beverages in single MS, the study team adopted for each category of homogenous products an average value of caffeine concentration 29 (more details on the assumptions made will be provided in the following sections). Instant, ground and ice coffee were included in the general category of “coffee” because they are the most popular non-espresso coffees, with a similar content of caffeine throughout Europe and with a caffeine concentration that sharply differs from espresso. The range of products described in the questionnaire could not be too wide and detailed, as the questionnaire had to be simple and quick to fill in30. Furthermore, due to the complexity of the survey design, the study team deemed not possible to gather information about the coffee preparation methods from the questionnaires. Aside from the above limitations, it should be noted that the identification of peculiar coffee-based beverages which are widely consumed only in specific MS was possible, from stakeholders’ suggestions and information deriving from the pilot survey. In some cases these peculiar beverages were included in the questionnaire for the survey, with the two-fold aim of making the questions more understandable and the answers more reliable (e.g. in the questionnaire for children of Greece and Cyprus the specification “frappe coffee” was included as an additional example within the option “cappuccino”, because in those countries “frappe coffee” is a very popular beverage containing coffee and milk, just like cappuccino, and with a very similar caffeine content). Finally, it is important to underline the assumptions related to the data processing methods applied in the present study. An estimated amount of caffeine, taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone for some ED brands was considered, in order to quantify the exposure to these substances from ED consumption. In some cases the quantities of these ingredients are claimed on the labels or in the producers’ websites, so the values used for the elaboration were derived directly from these sources. In few other cases the list of ingredients was provided directly by ED producers31. Due to the very high number of brands covered (a total number of 223 different brands of ED were considered among the 16 MS) and to the quite low number of information directly provided by producers (by labels, official websites, or direct consultation), concerning the brands for which no information was available the amount of caffeine was considered equal to the average quantity identified by König (2011) in his study about caffeine 29 Also König in his study “Final report: Assessment of caffeine intake in a representative sample of the Austrian population” (2011) identified different categories of coffee-based products to investigate caffeine exposure: coffee strong, coffee medium, coffee light, instant coffee, cappuccino, café latte, ice coffee. In the same way, he associated to each category a mean caffeine concentration, taking into account that this value varies for different products in the same class. 30 The methodological approach was based on gathering data on a wider sample of interviewees and on collecting information on a smaller amount of ordinary products, instead of achieving a narrower number of deep interviews on a wider range of products. 31 For a number of relevant brands for which the quantity of one or more specific ingredients was not indicated on labels or on the official website of the producing company, data were asked directly to producers. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 36 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks exposure in a sample of Austrian population (mean caffeine concentration = 300 mg/L) 32. Concerning D-glucurono-y-lactone and taurine, in ED brands for which it was not possible to retrieve official data, the amount of these ingredients was assumed equal to the modal value of their concentration in other ED brands. Similar difficulties affected the collection of data on the content of active ingredients for energy shots. Due to the frequent unavailability of official data, in these cases a standardised content of active ingredients was used grounding on information retrieved via official sources33. Specifically, for caffeine the value was assumed to be equal to the average reliable contents - after eliminating “outlier” data34. For taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone, the modal occurrence in standard ED was used, due to a lack of consistency of average data. Within the category of energy shots, in all cases in which also the size of the can resulted to be unknown or more than one energy shot had been indicated, an “average size” (63 ml) was adopted for the calculation. Further assumptions were made for the quantification of caffeine exposure and contribution of coffee beverages to total caffeine exposure itself. As previously underlined, three categories of coffee-based products were defined, on the basis of the homogeneity of caffeine content. An average content of caffeine was then associated to each category of products, as follows: Espresso: 1.916 mg/L of caffeine; Coffee (including instant, ground, ice-coffee): 400 mg/L of caffeine; Cappuccino: 250 mg/L of caffeine. Two main limitations arising from this approach must be underlined: Caffeine content varies for products in the same category. For instance, in this study drip coffee, brewed coffee and instant coffee are all included in the same category (coffee). However, considering a standard cup (225ml), drip coffee has the highest caffeine content, with 115 to 175 mg per cup; brewed coffee is the next most potent at 80 to 135 mg per cup; and instant coffee contains 65 to 100 mg per cup (Chou, 1992). As explained later in this chapter, this variability must be taken into account also for the other categories of caffeine containing products, such as teas or chocolates. Caffeine concentration may vary for the same typology of product (i.e. ground coffee) in different countries, because of different ways of preparing and/or consuming coffee. Indeed in every geographic area there is a traditional way to prepare and consume coffee that can influence the average amount of caffeine exposure of the population. Unfortunately, there is scarcity of academic studies investigating this phenomenon. As for possible differences in caffeine concentration for the same typology of product in different countries, a large body of literature assess substantial variations in caffeine content from the variety of coffee drinks, the preparation and from geographical source of the coffee bean (McCusker et al., 2003; Mandel, 2002). For instance, ground coffee identifies a wide range of traditional products which may 32 In the case of caffeine, specific data were found for 160 brands, while average data from Konig’s study were applied to the remaining 63 brands. 33 Specifically, the contents for energy shots used in the elaborations are 1345 mg/L for caffeine, 4000 mg/L for taurine and 2400 mg/L for glucuronolactone. 34 Energy shots with caffeine content of 13.300 mg/L and 1.600 mg/L were not considered in the calculation of the average. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 37 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks differ a lot in terms of caffeine content. Swedish/Scandinavian brewed coffee, used in Sweden as in other parts of the Nordic region, tends to be very strong. Greek coffee is prepared much like “Turkish coffee”, i.e. a very strong coffee served in 60 ml or 90 ml cups with sugar. Overall, drip filtered drinks are the most prevalent type of coffee beverage, but espresso and mocha were consumed by 100% of Italian coffee drinkers. Variability on caffeine concentrations must be considered also for the other categories of caffeine containing products, such as teas, chocolates and colas. Indeed, black tea is the most caffeinated of the tea varieties, followed by oolong and green teas (Chou, 1992). Different ranges of caffeine concentrations are reported in literature for different types of tea: for instance, in Heckman et al. (2001) a 240 ml cup of black tea was found to contain 25-110 mg of caffeine, while 240 ml of green tea were found to contain 30-50 mg of caffeine. Also due to such divergence in data on caffeine content of tea from different authors, the study team decided to associate an average value of caffeine concentration to the general category of “tea” (including instant tea, bag tea, ice tea): after comparing different sources, 100 mg of caffeine per litre was deemed to be the most reliable value (König, 2011).Concerning chocolate products, in the present study two categories were considered: chocolate bars and chocolate snacks. Each of them was split in three subcategories on the basis of the type of chocolate they can be made of (dark chocolate, milk chocolate and white chocolate). These three different categories of products have different caffeine concentrations, as reported in a number of studies (Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002; Gilbert et al., 1976; Heckam et al, 2001; Mayo Clinic article35; NZFSA - New Zealand Food Safety Authority, 2010). After a careful process of literature consultation and online research (snack producers’ web sites;), average values of caffeine concentration to be adopted in the present study for the calculation of caffeine exposure from chocolate products were identified36. The details of the references and the ranges of caffeine concentration evaluated for the study are provided in Appendix G. Another assumption to be taken into consideration is the daily exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-ylactone. As the questionnaire for the survey did not allow to collect consumption data of all food products in an omnivore diet, the average daily exposures to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone (which were needed to calculate the contribution of ED to total exposure of such substances in the diet) were derived from literature. According to EFSA’s scientific opinion “The use of taurine and Dglucurono-γ-lactone as constituents of the so-called “energy” drinks” (adopted on January 15, 2009), the daily exposure to taurine can be assumed equal to 58 mg (mean daily exposure to taurine from omnivore diets); while 1,5 mg is the estimated daily exposure from naturally occurring sources in the diet for D-glucurono-y-lactone. In this framework, in absence of solid indications in literature about daily exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone for children and adolescents, the calculation of the contribution of ED to total daily exposure was not carried out for this specific age group. Finally, assumptions were also made to manage missing data concerning the variable “weight of respondent” in the questionnaire, as they were necessary to represent the daily exposure to active ingredients (mg/kg bw/day). Following the indication of the Steering Group, in case of missing information about weight, the values indicated in the EFSA scientific opinion “Guidance on selected 35 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/caffeine/AN01211 Chocolate bar 180 mg/kg (dark 340 mg/kg; milk 183 mg/kg; white 0 mg/kg); chocolate snack 140 mg/kg (dark 264 mg/kg; milk 142 mg/kg; white 0 mg/kg). After a similar evaluation process of the different data sources, the average caffeine content associated to the category of colas in this research was assumed equal to 79,2 mg/L (König, 2011). 36 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 38 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks default values to be used by the EFSA Scientific Committee, Scientific Panels and Units in the absence of actual measured data” (2012) were adopted. In any case, these “standard” values were also crosschecked and compared to the average and median values of the relative age group in the MS concerned. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 39 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3. RESULTS A short description of the main findings emerging from literature review and pre-survey stakeholders’ consultation is provided at § 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. Details in this respect are provided in the annexes (Appendices A and E for further details). Final results from the survey, for each target subgroup, are instead outlined at § 3.3. 3.1. Literature review 3.1.1. Overview Results from the literature review is outlined as follows. - The issue of ED is highly debated from a scientific point of view, especially for health effects related to the consumption and over-consumption of these products. Several studies (Alford et al., 2011; Reissig et al., 2009; SHC, 2012; Arria et al., 2011; Marin Institute, 2011; Oteri et al., 2007) focus: o on potential and/or evidenced effects of “active” ingredients (caffeine, taurine, Dglucurono-y-lactone, etc.) on highly sensitive subjects, such as children, pregnant women, heart-patients, etc.; o on potential and/or evidenced effects of co-consuming of ED with alcohol or with other products containing active ingredients. There is great availability of advisory reports produced by national food safety authorities (SHC, 2008, 2009; Meltzer et al. 2008) and academic papers (Seifert et al., 2011; Reissig et al., 2009) aiming at assessing the exposure of caffeine through food other than food supplements (e.g. via coffee, tea, cola beverages and ED), including specific reference to well-defined population groups, such as children, teenagers and young adults. Most studies also provide analysis and evaluations on the adverse effects and possible risks from caffeine (BfR, 2009; James et al., 2011). There is also evidence for increased ED consumption trend in excessive quantities and in combination with alcoholic beverages by young people (Miller, 2008; SHC, 2009). Indeed a number of recent academic studies (Arria et al., 2010; Alford et al. 2011; Brache and Stockwell, 2011; Oteri et al., 2007) and technical reports (BfR, 2008; EUCAM, 2008, 2009) focused on the issue of health effects of co-consumption of alcohol and ED on young people. - On the contrary, on consumption habits are much less frequent than those focusing on health issues. US literature in this sense seems to be wider than the EU one, and studies have recently been conducted also in Canada and New Zealand (Heckman et al., 2010; Miller, 2008; O’Brien et al., 2008), even though a number of advisory reports on this issue were recently published in some MS where the phenomenon seems to have higher relevance (BfR, 2008; Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, 2009; SHC, 2009). - With reference to studies and surveys providing data on ED consumption and human exposure to caffeine in specific MS, one of the most relevant is the König’s study on caffeine exposure assessment in a sample of the Austrian population (König, 2011). Moreover, in 2002 a comprehensive study has been carried out in Ireland and Northern Ireland with the aim of reviewing the health effects of stimulant drinks, through a survey of the consumption of these beverages in a representative sample of 11–35 year olds in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland. Results of the research demonstrated that the main concerns related to stimulant Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 40 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks drinks were co-consumption with alcohol, the high caffeine content and the uncertainty among consumers regarding the actual content in other ingredients (Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002). 3.1.2. Focus on the most relevant references The final version of the literature review – defined with the support from stakeholders - includes around 40 references (Appendix A for full references and table 10 for summary).Some of the most relevant references were selected according to their consistency with the study, their content, and reference geographical area. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 41 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 10: Abstracts of relevant references Paper Objective Methodology Results A group of 700 subjects (aged 14-39 years) was selected in Austria. A food frequency questionnaire was developed for the purpose of caffeine exposure estimation. A total of 124 samples of different foods and beverages were analysed in their caffeine concentration. The vast majority of caffeine exposure resulted from coffee, providing 60,8% of total caffeine exposure. ED, as second highest contributor, provided 11,9% and colas provided 9,5%. König J, 2011 To determine total caffeine exposure from all foods in the average healthy population and the contribution of ED to this exposure. Heckman MA, Sherry K, Gonzalez de Mejia E, 2010 To analyse the current situation of U.S. ED market with emphasis on market size, social aspects of consumers, active ingredients, potential benefits, safety and regulations. Socio-economic market analysis. ED have experienced exponential growth since their launch in the US. The market is becoming flooded with new ED, many with unusual names and claims of a higher energy boost compared to the previous ones. Research needs to continue regarding the potential benefits of these products to support the claims. Gambon DL, Brand HS, Boutkabout C, Levie D, Veerman EC, 2011 To determine the frequency of occurrence and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on consumption of soft drinks, ED, sports drinks and alcopops were obtained through a self-reported questionnaire. Consumption of soft drinks, ED, sports drinks and alcoholic products by school children is related to age and gender. Evidence from the study suggests that a subgroup of school children with a high cumulative exposure to these potentially erosive drinks does exist. Gathering information about food habits and behaviours of the students of the School of Medicine of Messina (Italy) Dedicated questionnaire focusing on ED in order to gather information about consumption patterns of these products, consumed alone or in association with alcoholic beverages. Five hundred students of the School of Medicine of the University of Messina were interviewed, and 450 filled the questionnaire. Association of ED + alcohol is very popular among students. Users of ED + alcoholic beverages might not feel the signs of alcohol intoxication, thus increasing the probability of accidents and/or favouring the possibility of development of alcohol dependence. Oteri A, Salvo F, Caputi AP, Calapai G, 2007 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 42 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Paper Methodology Results To picture the situation of energy beverages (EBs) market, describing their ingredients, discussing safety aspects, and providing recommendations regarding their use. The research query included studies and information involving non-athlete consumers. Also, the review offers recommendations which are specific to each group. A search of the English-language scientific literature was performed primarily by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and using the Google Internet search engine for the period January 1976 through May 2010. Ingestion of EBs before an event or during training can have serious adverse effects. Limited ingestion of EBs by healthy people is not likely to cause major adverse effects, but binge consumption or consumption with alcohol may lead to adverse effects. Individuals with medical illnesses, especially underlying heart disease, should check with their physician before using EBs. Meltzer HM, Nordisk Ministerråd N, Råd Nordisk, 2008 To develop a risk assessment of caffeine in children and adolescents in Nordic countries. The report focuses on effects of caffeine on the central nervous system. An overview of consumption data on caffeinecontaining foods, among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, is presented in the exposure characterisation. Authors transformed the total caffeine exposure in the various age-groups and exposure levels into exposure per kg. This enabled them to compare more directly Nordic exposure levels with exposure levels provided in international literature. Many Nordic teenagers have an exposure to caffeine which can be associated with tolerance development and withdrawal symptoms, while approximately 20% of the teenagers might be exposed to levels of caffeine from caffeinecontaining soft drinks inducing anxiety and jitteriness. If other sources of caffeine such as chocolate, tea and coffee were also considered, these figures might be higher.. Alard J, Marìn C, Cubillo JM, 2010 To analyse different types of promotion strategies used by the leading brands (including private labels) of ED in each country, as well as their long-run effects on sales for both categories. The survey, based on scanner data at store-level in a series which covers 7 years, provides almost all of the history of the category. The effect of promotions results to be less intense for Private Label than for the other brands. Impacts of different promotional activities are presented and commented. Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002 The Food Safety Promotion Board (FSPB) convened an expert Committee to review the health effects of stimulant drinks. A survey of the consumption of stimulant drinks in a representative sample of 11 – 35 year olds in the Republic of Ireland (total sample number (n) = 625)and in Northern Ireland (n = 635). Results of the research demonstrated that the main concerns vis à vis stimulant drinks were its consumption with alcohol, the perceived ‘high’ caffeine content and the sense of ambiguity and uncertainty regarding the other ingredients. Higgins, JP, Phil M, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL, 2010 Objective Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 43 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.2. Stakeholders consultation: emerging issues The pre-survey consultation of stakeholders was carried out to identify useful sources and suggestions for the study, in order to fine-tune the survey design. The post-survey consultation aimed instead at gathering comments from stakeholders on the analysis developed in the study as well as on results emerging from the first round of consultations. During the pre-survey consultation, the rationale and the purpose of the study was introduced by e-mail sent to 41 subjects, as identified in the list of relevant stakeholders agreed with EFSA. Following this preliminary contacts, and according to the stakeholders’ availability to cooperate, a total number of 17 interviews (13 phone interviews and 4 based on written contributes) were made between February and May 2012 (table 11). As for the post-survey consultation, a selection of the stakeholders already interviewed during the first round of consultations were contacted by email. Written comments were collected by 9 experts on November 2012 (table 11). Table 11: List of the contacted stakeholders: pre-survey and post-survey consultation Country Stakeholder Pre-survey EUCAM – European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol EU Phone interview Marketing EU UNESDA – Union of European Beverages Associations FIEB/VIWF - Fédération des Industries des Eaux et des Belgium Phone interview Boissons Rafraîchissantes Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Cyprus Phone interview Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology Post - Survey Contacted Contacted Written comments - EDE – Energy Drinks Europe Phone interview Written comments NVWA – Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety University of Vienna - Department of Nutritional Sciences EFET - Hellenic Food Authority, Nutrition Policy & Research Directorate Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic - Food Production and Legislation Department INRAN – Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione WAFG - Wirtschaftsvereinigung Alkoholfreie Getränke e.V. Phone interview /written answers - Cyprus Ministry of Health - State General Laboratory Phone interview Belgium SHC - Superior Health Council Latvia Assessment and Registration Agency of Food and Veterinary Service of Latvia Phone interview Phone interview/ written answers Hungary Hungarian Food Safety Office Phone interview Iceland MAST – Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority Phone interview Germany BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment Phone interview/ written answers EU Netherlands France Austria Greece Czech Republic Italy Germany Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Phone interview Phone interview Phone interview Phone interview Phone interview Phone interview Written comments Contacted Written comments Written comments Written comments Written comments Contacted Written comments Written comments - 44 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks A short description of the main issues emerging from the stakeholders’ consultation is provided at § 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and 3.2.3 (details in Appendix E). 3.2.1. Literature and sources Stakeholders’ contribution to literature review was useful for the identification of relevant scientific studies, and above all for the collection of reports investigating national features related to the ED sector in specific MS. Stakeholders also provided interesting remarks on the selection of study references. 3.2.2. ED market Interviewees were asked to provide data and information about the situation of the market both at EU level and for their MS. Before the interviews, the study team sent the stakeholders a list of the main brands of ED for each MS; these lists had been compiled mostly using relevant online sources (i.e. ED websites, blogs, web magazines, etc.). Stakeholders were then asked to comment and - if deemed opportune - modify such list of brands, on the basis of their knowledge of the market. In most cases, stakeholders were unable to provide any additional information regarding ED brands and market shares, but they generally confirmed the validity of information on the 4-5 leading brands in each national market. In some cases, useful information was provided by stakeholders on the growing importance of private labels (especially among youngsters), as well as on the significant presence, in some MS, of pre-mixed alcoholic ED. With specific reference to the list of ED brands marketed in each MS, most stakeholders confirmed its validity and representativeness. 3.2.3. Active ingredients On the basis of outcomes from the literature review, a list of the most relevant food products containing caffeine, taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone had been identified for each MS and provided to the stakeholders. Experts were then asked to comment this list, especially for the role of the listed products as potential sources of active ingredients considered in the study. In some cases the stakeholders’ contribution was extremely helpful to identify a number of food products containing caffeine which were widely consumed in some MS only37. In some cases, experts highlighted that caffeine content in specific products belonging to the same category may vary significantly38. As a consequence, some experts suggested the adoption of questionnaires with reference to local foods/beverages and brands for each MS considered in the study, and the evaluation of caffeine content for any specific product. 37 This was the case of Frappè coffee, which is an extremely popular coffee-based drink in Greece and Cyprus. For instance, a cappuccino in a bar may contain 70 mg of caffeine whilst a large cappuccino from a coffee house such as Starbucks may contain 200-250 mg of caffeine. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 45 38 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks A substantial share of interviewees also highlighted the relevant role played by drugs and medicines in determining the total exposure to “active ingredients” in the diet, especially for some specific groups of consumers, thus suggesting the inclusion of these product categories in the questionnaires39. 3.3. Survey: results 3.3.1. General overview The survey activities were started in February and closed in November 2012. Table 12 below provides the total number of respondents by target group and by MS at the date when the survey was officially closed (12th November 2012). Table 12: Number of total validated respondents (a) Country Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United kingdom Adults Adolescents Children TOTAL 368 993 363 408 515 2.113 1.553 520 469 1.533 718 799 537 1.331 679 1.658 2.115 67 1.443 2.682 1.547 666 1.068 1.381 3.365 6.449 1.028 4.368 865 1.794 1.398 834 57 12 155 479 261 209 30 197 218 1.627 144 326 379 533 202 131 2.540 1.072 1.961 3.569 2.323 2.988 2.651 2.098 4.052 9.609 1.890 5.493 1.781 3.658 2.279 2.623 Validated respondents 14.557 31.070 4.960 50.587 Total respondents 14.557 31.901 5.558 52.016 Source: Survey Nomisma – Areté for EFSA (a) The total number of respondents, including not validated respondents, amount at 52.016. A total number of 1.429 respondents were eliminated after applying quality check procedures. Survey data are presented as average values of the 16 MS as a whole, or for individual MS in specific cases. Additional elaborations by gender (for all the target groups) and by age (only for adults) were made with the aim of investigating potential differences. 39 In the light of considerations concerning both protection of the respondents’ privacy and operational difficulties posed by the extremely wide variety of drugs and medicines marketed in the 16 MS covered by the survey, the study team agreed with the steering group the exclusion of any question on drugs and medicine consumption from the questionnaire. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 46 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With reference to the results of the analysis in the different samples and subsamples, it is important to clarify that the figures provided in the following chapters refer to actual sample sizes observed in the survey - which indicate the actual number of interviews - whilst incidence figures in relation to the analysis on the 16 MS as a whole are based on weighted data, in order to have more accurate data replicating the differences in sample composition among individual MS. The system of weights adopted in the analysis was structured to guarantee that the weighted data correctly represent the proportion both of the total population and the ED consumers for the 16 MS as a whole. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 47 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.2. Adults The sample of “adults” (14.557 – total respondents) was composed for 55% by women and 43%40 by men, the 43% were of the age group 30-49 years and around 72% of total respondents lived in urban areas. Most respondents declared to have completed the upper secondary school (37%) or to have university degree 29%). The 63% were workers. 3.3.2.1. ED consumption Around 30% of the total respondents (14.557 – total respondents) declared to have consumed ED at least once in the last year, and this value varied from around 14% in Cyprus to 50% in Austria (figure 2). This percentage increased to 53% in the age group 18-29, and decreased to around 17% for respondents older than 50 (figure 3). As for ED consumers (4.180 ED consumers), the sample was composed for 53% by men and 47% by women, and around 75% of them lived in urban areas. Most respondents declared to have completed the upper secondary school (39%) or to have a university degree (29%). Regular smokers accounted for around 35% of the sample. Figure 2: Adults – Prevalence41 of ED consumption by country (Sample size: 14.557 - Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 40 Being this information N.A. for 2% of respondents. In the present study ED consumers are defined as subjects who have been drinking ED at least once over the last year, so prevalence of ED consumption was calculated on the basis of this assumption. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 48 41 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 3: Adults – Prevalence of ED consumption for each age group (Sample size: 14.557 - Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Considering the prevalence of ED consumption by gender, around 26% of females and 37% of males declared to have consumed ED at least once in the last year. Around 25% of total adult consumers affirmed to have been drinking ED once or twice a month, while 21% of consumers to have done it once a week. Higher consumption frequencies (at least twice a week) concern around 33% of consumers. The most common format consumed was the 250 ml can, while around 6% of consumers declared to consume energy shots42. Around 22% of consumers resulted to be used to drink more than 10 cans in a month, while for most consumers the volume was 2-4 cans per month (33%) or 5-10 cans per month (23%). Around 52% of adult consumers declared to have drunk only 1 can of ED in a single session, and only 3% to consume more than 4 cans in the same occasion (Figure 4). As for volumes, the average volume consumed by adults was approximately 2 L/month for ED consumers, ranging from 1,3 L/month in Italy and 2,9 L/month in Romania. 42 Even if energy shots just cover 6,4% of adult consumers, a particular attention is suggested to be paid to this product category, due to peculiarities in the content of active substances. Indeed, focusing the analysis on the specific energy shots brands indicated by respondents, the occurrence of active substances reveals to sharply differ among energy shots brands: in most cases the absolute content of active substances in mg per serving is approximately equal to that of the “standard” ED (i.e. 80 mg of caffeine in a 60 ml can), but the concentration of these substances is consequently much higher. See also details in the chapter “materials and methods”, §2.3.6. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 49 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 4: Adults - ED consumption related features (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 50 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks According to the final results of the survey, around 25% of adult consumers stated to usually consume ED in association with sport and physical exercise; for an additional 39% consumption is “sometimes” associated to such activities. The most common situations of ED consumption resulted to be “at home in ordinary situations” and “at home with friends during parties” (both accounting for around 65% of consumers). Also sport and physical exercise registered high percentages (around 63% of consumers), followed by bar/pubs (52%) and discos (47%). As for reasons for consumption, most adult consumers (around 40%) declared to consume ED mainly as a “source of energy”, or less frequently “to stay awake” (18%), simply because of their taste (16%) or “to drive for a long time” (around 8%). It is however worth highlighting the presence of other “secondary” reasons, such as “enhancing sport performance”, ”concentration augmenting” or “stimulating metabolism” (figure 5). Red Bull™ resulted to be the most common ED brand: it was included as first choice among the topthree brands by nearly 89% of consumers. Red Bull™ is followed by Monster™ (first choice for 45% of consumers) and Burn™ (first choice for 42% of consumers). Figure 5: Adults – Motivations for ED consumption (first choice) (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 51 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Survey data were elaborated according to a specifically defined methodology (§ 3.3.5) in order to identify “high acute” and “high chronic” consumers. On this basis, high acute consumers accounted for a 3% of the total respondents, while high chronic consumers represented around 4% (figure 6). Figure 6: Adults - Prevalence of ED consumption for ED consumers, high acute consumers and high chronic consumers on total respondents (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Adults identified to be both “high acute” and “high chronic” consumers accounted for 3,4% of ED consumers, (corresponding to 1% of total respondents): this share was anyway much smaller than the ones for the purely “high chronic” and “high acute” consumer groups. The “high acute” consumer profile is provided at § 3.3.2.6. Table 13: Adults – Overlap between high chronic and high acute ED consumers (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) % on total ED consumers High acute High chronic Non high chronic Total Non high acute Total 3,4% 8,4% 11,8% 7,6% 80,6% 88,2% 11,0% 89,0% 100,0% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 52 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks High chronic ED consumers resulted to account for around 12% of adult consumers. This average value varied from around 21% of adult consumers in United Kingdom, and 5% Italy and Hungary (figure 7). Figure 7: Prevalence of high chronic ED consumption by country (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 53 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks The prevalence of high chronic consumers was 13,3% in “young adult” consumers. Table 8 provides the distribution of ED consumers and high chronic ED consumers among different age groups. Among high chronic consumers the percentage of 18-29 years rose from 27% to 31% of the target group. High chronic consumption resulted to be higher among consumers who declared to smoke regularly: 15% against 10% of non-smokers. Figure 8: Adults - Distribution of high chronic ED consumption by age groups (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Around 95% of high chronic consumers declared to have consumed ED in the three days before the survey, while this share decreased to 60% considering total consumers. The share of consumers who declared to drink ED at least 4 times a week was higher for high chronic consumers than for total consumers (73% and 9%, respectively). As for consumed volumes, only 21% of total consumers resulted to drink more than 10 cans of ED per month, against a share of 61% of “high chronic” consumers (figure 9). The average consumed volume was 4,47 L/month in the case of adult high chronic consumers. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 54 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 9: Adults – ED consumption patterns: characteristics for high chronic and ED consumers (Sample size: 4.180 - ED consumers; 486 - High chronic consumers) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 55 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 56 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.2.2. Co-consumption of ED and alcohol Survey results highlighted the co-consumption habit (ED and alcohol)43 among adults. Around 56% of ED consumers declared to consume ED and alcohol, ranging from 24% in Cyprus to 67% in Germany. With reference to the total respondents, this percentage decreased to 17%, and ranged from 3% in Cyprus to 29% in Austria, while percentages for ED consumers varied from 24% in Cyprus and 67% in Germany (figure 10). Figure 10: Adults - Prevalence of co-consumption of ED and alcohol by country (Sample size: 14.557 Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 43 In this study, co-consumers of ED and alcohol are defined as subjects who have been drinking ED and alcohol in a single session at least once over the last year. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 57 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning the different age groups identified within the target group “adults”, the highest prevalence of co-consumption of ED and alcohol was reported in the age group 18-29, as around 71% of ED consumers and 38% of total respondents in this group declared to consume ED with alcohol in the same session (figure 11). Focusing on ED consumers, there were no differences in co-consumption habits by gender. On the other hand, only 14% of female declared to consume ED and alcohol, while prevalence of such habit increased for male (21%). Figure 11: Adults - Prevalence of co-consumption of ED and alcohol by age groups – Comparison between total respondents (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 58 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 60% of respondents declared to co-consume ED and alcohol mostly mixing them at the moment of consumption. Co-consumption resulted to occur at least once a week for 38% of ED consumers drinking ED and alcohol. Around 57% of ED consumers stated that they mix ED and alcohol at least twice in a single session of consumption (figure 12). Figure 12: Adults - Co-consumption of ED and alcohol and related features (Sample size: 4.180 - ED consumers) (Sample size: 2.276 – Consumers drinking ED and alcohol) (Sample size: 2.276 - Consumers drinking ED and alcohol) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (Sample size: 2.276 – Consumers drinking ED and alcohol) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 59 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks As illustrated in figure 13, co-consumption was identified to occur at least twice a week for 56% of high chronic consumers, against 20% of consumers. The share of high chronic consumers combining ED with alcohol about every time was 23% (against an average 9% for consumers). Figure 13: Adults – Monthly frequency of co-consumption of ED and alcohol: high chronic and average consumers drinking ED and alcohol (Sample size: 2.276 - Consumers drinking ED and alcohol; 486 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 60 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.2.3. Consumption of ED during sport activities Around 52% of adult ED consumers declared to usually drink ED before/in association with/after sport activities44. Remarkably, this percentage increased for ED consumers practising sport activities. Around 49% of consumers stated to practise sport or physical exercise at least twice a week (figure 14). Figure 14: Adults – Consumption of ED during sport activities (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 44 In the context of the study respondents who declare to practice physical activities at least once a week are considered as “subjects practicing sport activities”. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 61 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 75% of ED consumers who practise sport activities at least once a week declared to drink ED at least “sometimes” during such activities, with 14% drinking ED “about every time” they practise such activities. Around 53% of consumers declared to drink 2 cans or more in a single sport/physical exercise session (figure 15). Figure 15: Adults - Consumption of ED during sport activities and related features (Sample size: 2.832 – ED consumers practicing sport activities) (Sample size: 2.070- ED consumers drinking ED during sport activities) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA The average prevalence of ED consumption during sport activities masks some differences at MS level (figure 16): the lowest prevalence was recorded in Hungary (around 41% of ED consumers), while the highest in the United Kingdom and Greece (around 88% of ED consumers). With regards to the total respondents and ED consumers, the highest prevalence of ED consumption during physical activities was registered respectively in Poland (26%) and in Spain (62%). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 62 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 16: Adults - Prevalence of ED consumption during sport activities by country (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 2.832 - ED consumers practicing sport activities) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA The main reasons for ED consumption during sport practice were “endurance time at the maximum intensity” (40%) and “vitality” (26%), but also “aerobic endurance” and “concentration” were mentioned (figure 17). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 63 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 17: Adults – Motivations for consumption of ED during sport practice (Sample size: 2.070 – ED consumers drinking ED during sport activities) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Concerning respondents who practise physical activities, the share of high chronic consumers who declared to consume ED about every time they engage in sport activities (figure 18) was much higher (45%) than the share of total respondents (14%). Figure 18: Adults – Prevalence and frequency of consumption of ED during sport activities: high chronic and average consumers practicing sport (Sample size: 2.832 – ED consumers practicing sport activities; 486 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 64 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.2.4. ED contribution to total exposure to relevant substances Tables 14 and 15 provide absolute values of chronic exposure45 to caffeine for total respondents, ED consumers and high chronic consumers, calculated on the basis of the methodology (§ 2.3.4.1). For adults, chronic exposure to caffeine from ED varied from around 7 mg/day for total respondents to around 48 mg/day for high chronic consumers. Accordingly, total caffeine exposure (from ED and other products in the diet) varied from 272 mg/day (ED consumers) to around 382 mg/day (high chronic consumers). Consequently, chronic exposure to caffeine from ED ranged from 0,10 mg/kg bw/day for total respondents to 0,70 mg/kg bw/day for high chronic consumers. Table 14: Adults – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (a) (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 – ED consumers; 486– High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED: Total respondents 6,82 0,00 0,00 229,33 2,78 22,43 11,15 0,53 229,33 28,17 High chronic consumers 48,32 Total exposure: 39,80 2,50 228,98 56,80 NA ED consumers 20,00 39,79 19,10 50,63 77,30 29,14 107,72 158,65 43,12 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ED consumers 271,73 237,67 2,67 1.920,36 365,83 528,36 670,39 202,09 High chronic consumers 381,91 334,01 11,07 1.920,36 503,71 688,96 855,94 252,33 Total respondents Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Table 15: Adults – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (a) (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 – ED consumers; 486 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED: Total respondents 0,10 0,00 0 6,15 0,05 0,29 0,53 0,29 ED consumers 0,32 0,15 0 6,15 0,38 0,71 1,02 0,46 High chronic consumers Total exposure: 0,70 0,51 0 6,15 0,80 1,59 2,32 0,76 Total respondents NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ED consumers 3,87 3,11 0 79,60 5,05 7,54 9,60 4,08 High chronic consumers 5,78 4,35 0 76,09 7,17 10,60 13,90 6,66 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) *Including ED 45 The calculations of exposure to the different active ingredients were based on usual consumption patterns: hence, the volume of consumption for each food/beverage investigated in the survey was linked to the average consumption frequency, e.g. “average month over the last year”. Therefore the exposure here represented has to be considered as chronic exposure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 65 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks On average, ED consumption contributed for 8% of the overall daily exposure to caffeine (figure 19), a figure increasing to 13% for high chronic consumers (to 12% considering daily caffeine exposure per kg bw). Figure 19: Adults – ED contribution to the total daily exposure to caffeine (%): high chronic and ED consumers (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers; 486 - High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 66 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning total respondents at MS level, chronic exposure to caffeine from ED ranged from around 14 mg/day (0,20 mg/kg bw/day) in Austria to around 3 mg/day (0,04 mg/kg bw/day) in Cyprus (tables 16 and 17). Table 16: Adults – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 13,99 2,52 0 228,98 19,54 40,00 66,67 30,21 Belgium 3,53 0,00 0 227,20 0,00 7,95 20,00 15,55 Cyprus 2,67 0,00 0 160,42 0,00 7,63 19,10 12,04 Czech Republic 8,81 0,00 0 227,20 8,01 21,26 39,80 20,68 Finland 5,20 0,00 0 151,00 2,67 10,99 28,40 17,16 France 6,09 0,00 0 229,33 0,00 11,47 38,90 22,30 Germany 6,33 0,00 0 162,41 2,67 19,83 39,20 16,93 Greece 5,83 0,00 0 227,24 3,78 20,13 39,15 15,19 Hungary 6,80 0,00 0 160,00 7,52 20,00 39,88 17,35 Italy 4,46 0,00 0 159,03 2,66 11,39 23,31 12,56 Netherlands 4,34 0,00 0 159,19 0,00 8,34 28,35 14,52 Poland 10,57 0,00 0 218,06 8,00 39,59 40,64 23,14 Romania 12,10 0,00 0 183,18 17,38 39,81 56,46 25,42 Spain 7,53 0,00 0 227,20 7,75 26,77 39,89 20,08 Sweden 3,46 0,00 0 158,38 0,00 8,00 19,90 12,27 0,00 0 228,27 2,66 20,00 39,75 17,44 United Kingdom 6,36 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 17: Adults – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw /day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 0,20 0,03 0 3,63 0,17 0,54 0,95 0,48 Belgium 0,05 0,00 0 2,78 0,00 0,11 0,31 0,21 Cyprus 0,04 0,00 0 1,93 0,00 0,11 0,24 0,17 Czech Republic 0,11 0,00 0 3,07 0,11 0,33 0,53 0,27 Finland 0,07 0,00 0 1,99 0,03 0,12 0,45 0,23 France 0,09 0,00 0 3,72 0,00 0,18 0,47 0,34 Germany 0,08 0,00 0 3,25 0,04 0,28 0,47 0,23 Greece 0,08 0,00 0 3,92 0,06 0,27 0,44 0,23 Hungary 0,11 0,00 0 5,51 0,07 0,26 0,51 0,37 Italy 0,06 0,00 0 2,65 0,04 0,20 0,34 0,18 Netherlands 0,06 0,00 0 3,15 0,00 0,14 0,35 0,23 Poland 0,14 0,00 0 2,97 0,13 0,45 0,67 0,31 Romania 0,17 0,00 0 2,82 0,19 0,60 0,85 0,35 Spain 0,11 0,00 0 4,94 0,09 0,34 0,57 0,29 Sweden 0,04 0,00 0 1,79 0,00 0,12 0,25 0,15 0,00 0 6,15 0,03 0,30 0,57 0,35 United Kingdom 0,10 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 67 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Comparing the average values in the 16 MS for adult ED consumers, the highest level of chronic exposure to caffeine from ED was around 32 mg/day for Romanian consumers (against a total daily exposure to caffeine of 277 mg) (table 18). Table 18: Adults – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (a) in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 27,82 19,28 2,51 228,98 39,75 66,67 126,32 37,86 246,91 225,56 3,56 891,67 351,40 472,67 611,95 % from ED/Total 169,71 23,38 8,00 2,51 227,20 28,40 41,84 91,55 33,80 324,30 258,46 16,27 1.228,94 466,42 713,23 819,21 11,3% 257,56 19,35 8,75 2,50 160,42 21,88 43,72 85,84 27,23 204,89 156,66 11,43 680,59 270,35 390,59 507,00 141,34 19,23 8,05 2,08 227,20 20,09 39,95 56,71 27,11 248,24 211,28 7,50 958,42 355,30 467,71 544,04 7,2% 171,95 18,11 7,98 1,33 151,00 15,99 55,92 80,00 28,19 343,98 323,24 11,07 1.238,85 493,99 684,03 704,80 27,30 11,13 2,01 229,33 28,11 65,63 133,33 40,67 225,19 3,74 1.275,49 399,58 540,47 687,25 215,31 21,01 10,98 1,51 162,41 27,31 52,90 64,34 25,37 311,82 268,20 2,67 1.335,02 431,06 630,46 718,75 222,63 18,48 11,07 2,52 227,24 27,99 40,03 55,14 22,35 207,15 183,94 9,48 669,52 279,86 404,48 490,10 132,18 16,97 7,99 0,53 160,00 19,99 40,00 69,67 24,08 224,13 211,45 4,30 1.074,50 292,54 434,10 493,38 7,7% 232,00 276,66 9,4% 168,63 15,76 8,00 1,33 159,03 20,00 39,92 41,33 19,48 231,95 234,50 9,41 736,46 307,93 416,19 477,80 8,00 2,50 159,19 28,17 52,50 76,56 25,94 327,69 274,90 8,98 926,06 511,48 708,96 776,56 23,34 11,31 2,50 218,06 28,40 41,73 71,85 29,76 255,45 3,81 960,64 366,40 460,04 565,63 31,71 20,00 2,54 183,18 39,87 78,17 109,70 32,77 242,76 8,00 1.271,05 369,82 525,05 638,10 24,39 15,42 2,50 227,20 29,20 55,43 79,42 29,92 167,26 8,00 1.057,87 307,84 454,29 589,73 177,36 15,79 7,98 1,31 158,38 19,74 39,76 54,04 22,23 318,60 273,98 5,32 1.252,61 432,67 696,14 738,81 236,01 22,96 11,36 1,27 228,27 28,40 55,91 63,25 26,80 308,27 251,59 4,27 1.920,36 435,30 637,94 786,37 7,6% 196,45 215,04 8,9% 162,59 276,93 6,7% 242,39 269,27 9,9% 138,23 20,92 5,3% 255,29 6,8% 6,4% 8,7% 11,5% 11,3% 5,0% 7,4% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 68 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Exposure to caffeine from ED ranged from 0,20 mg/kg bw/day for Swedish ED consumers to 0,44 mg/kg bw/day for Romania (table 19). Table 19: Adults – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (a) in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED 0,40 0,16 0,03 3,63 0,43 0,95 1,68 0,62 total exposure 3,34 3,03 0,06 12,49 4,52 6,66 7,42 2,32 exposure from ED 0,32 0,13 0,03 2,78 0,37 0,70 1,39 0,45 total exposure 4,53 3,47 0,22 16,61 5,98 9,90 13,28 3,77 exposure from ED 0,28 0,14 0,03 1,93 0,28 0,56 1,46 0,38 total exposure 2,91 2,23 0,16 9,07 4,15 6,04 7,24 2,00 exposure from ED 0,25 0,13 0,00 3,07 0,30 0,55 0,78 0,36 total exposure 3,17 2,76 0,00 14,30 4,36 6,47 8,11 2,35 exposure from ED 0,24 0,09 0,00 1,99 0,23 0,68 1,17 0,39 total exposure 4,33 3,94 0,00 34,98 6,12 8,36 10,03 3,93 exposure from ED 0,40 0,16 0,03 3,72 0,41 0,99 1,76 0,62 total exposure 4,12 3,18 0,06 24,53 5,47 8,68 10,80 3,51 exposure from ED 0,28 0,14 0,00 3,25 0,34 0,62 0,86 0,35 total exposure 4,17 3,48 0,00 16,59 5,64 8,46 10,78 3,15 exposure from ED 0,24 0,14 0,02 3,92 0,32 0,50 0,66 0,35 total exposure 2,72 2,44 0,14 9,75 3,94 5,15 5,60 1,83 exposure from ED 0,27 0,11 0,00 5,51 0,26 0,57 1,35 0,55 total exposure 3,37 2,65 0,00 47,53 4,36 6,18 8,03 4,09 exposure from ED 0,22 0,13 0,00 2,65 0,28 0,50 0,71 0,29 total exposure 3,23 3,10 0,00 14,34 4,43 5,56 6,97 2,06 exposure from ED 0,30 0,13 0,02 3,15 0,35 0,69 1,03 0,44 total exposure 4,28 3,26 0,14 14,72 6,19 8,84 10,80 3,23 exposure from ED 0,31 0,16 0,00 2,97 0,39 0,70 0,98 0,40 total exposure 3,71 3,45 0,00 14,18 5,06 6,84 8,10 2,38 exposure from ED 0,44 0,29 0,00 2,82 0,62 0,95 1,31 0,45 total exposure 3,90 3,27 0,00 19,05 5,42 7,72 10,01 2,88 exposure from ED 0,34 0,20 0,00 4,94 0,42 0,73 1,02 0,45 total exposure 3,01 2,38 0,00 13,93 4,22 6,52 8,20 2,53 exposure from ED 0,20 0,11 0,02 1,79 0,24 0,49 0,72 0,27 total exposure 4,18 3,35 0,10 15,86 5,89 8,96 11,25 3,28 exposure from ED 0,37 0,17 0,00 6,15 0,42 0,78 1,09 0,59 total exposure 5,25 3,14 0,00 79,60 5,90 9,76 14,91 % from ED/Total 8,66 11,9% 7,0% 9,5% 7,8% 5,6% 9,8% 6,6% 8,8% 8,1% 6,9% 6,9% 8,5% 11,2% 11,4% 4,9% 7,0% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED As for the differences between genders, chronic caffeine exposure from ED consumption was equal to nearly 21 mg/day for female consumers and to about 23 mg/day for male ones. The values of total daily caffeine exposure were similar between genders. The highest value of caffeine exposure deriving from ED consumption was around 23 mg/day reported in the 30-49 age group, whereas the highest value of total caffeine exposure concerned the 50-65 age group, with an average value of 310 mg/day. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 69 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning the contribution of ED to chronic exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone, differences between total respondents, ED consumers and high chronic consumers showed to be much higher than those observed for caffeine. Tables 20 and 21 show that average taurine exposure in high chronic consumers resulted to be nearly twice the average value for all consumers, and seven times higher than the average value for total respondents. Table 20: Adults – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 – ED consumers; 486 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 82,71 0,00 0,00 2.840 33,33 250,00 500,00 236,26 ED consumers 271,88 120,71 0,00 2.840 355,00 500,00 915,40 363,42 High chronic consumers 585,79 500,00 7,10 2.840 710,00 1.337,70 2.000,00 544,46 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 21: Adults – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 – ED consumers; 486 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 1,16 0,00 0 76,92 0,55 ED consumers 3,82 1,80 0 76,92 High chronic consumers 8,49 6,25 0 76,92 3,47 6,46 3,58 4,46 8,76 12,50 5,65 9,96 19,08 29,24 9,42 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA The relative contribution from ED to the total exposure to taurine resulted to be 82% in ED consumers, picking up to 91% in high chronic consumers. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 70 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Tables 22 and 23 report the daily exposure to taurine from ED for total respondents (respectively in mg/day and in mg/kg bw/day) in the 16 MS covered by the survey. Table 22: Adults – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 157,25 5,58 0 2.840,00 108,44 Belgium 36,92 0,00 0 2.840,00 Cyprus 31,49 0,00 0 1.833,33 109,80 0,00 Finland 64,46 France 71,25 Germany 500,00 767,14 359,25 0,00 68,80 178,75 180,55 0,00 100,00 250,00 139,63 0 2.840,00 100,00 308,50 500,00 259,17 0,00 0 2.000,00 33,33 134,13 355,00 216,24 0,00 0 2.840,00 0,00 142,00 355,00 266,35 80,81 0,00 0 2.130,00 33,33 250,00 500,00 219,22 Greece 70,64 0,00 0 2.840,00 41,95 250,00 355,00 188,63 Hungary 85,03 0,00 0 2.000,00 77,40 250,00 500,00 217,95 Italy 51,45 0,00 0 2.000,00 33,33 142,00 250,00 150,61 Czech Republic Netherlands 49,85 0,00 0 2.000,00 0,00 100,00 355,00 168,11 Poland 130,14 0,00 0 2.840,00 100,00 500,00 500,00 290,49 Romania 150,07 0,00 0 2.366,67 142,00 500,00 710,00 322,97 Spain 89,56 0,00 0 2.840,00 57,48 250,00 500,00 246,55 Sweden 42,86 0,00 0 2.000,00 0,00 100,00 250,00 155,06 United Kingdom 77,80 0,00 0 2.840,00 33,33 250,00 500,00 217,09 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 23: Adults – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 2,27 0,08 0 45,08 1,72 5,63 11,58 5,79 Belgium 0,51 0,00 0 30,45 0,00 0,86 2,29 2,42 Cyprus 0,45 0,00 0 22,09 0,00 1,30 2,85 1,98 Czech Republic 1,41 0,00 0 38,38 1,37 4,44 6,72 3,39 Finland 0,85 0,00 0 25,00 0,36 1,50 4,75 2,94 France 1,05 0,00 0 47,33 0,00 2,03 5,55 3,98 Germany 1,06 0,00 0 42,60 0,53 3,53 6,10 2,99 Greece 0,92 0,00 0 48,97 0,64 3,13 5,41 2,81 Hungary 1,37 0,00 0 70,00 0,86 3,33 6,49 4,71 Italy 0,72 0,00 0 33,33 0,41 2,00 3,99 2,18 Netherlands 0,70 0,00 0 41,67 0,00 1,54 4,13 2,69 Poland 1,76 0,00 0 37,10 1,67 5,56 8,33 3,91 Romania 2,06 0,00 0 36,41 2,11 7,20 11,11 4,41 Spain 1,25 0,00 0 61,74 0,83 3,99 7,12 3,60 Sweden 0,55 0,00 0 23,67 0,00 1,45 3,21 1,92 United Kingdom 1,24 0,00 0 76,92 0,41 3,49 6,95 4,33 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 71 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Focusing only on ED consumers, the highest exposure to taurine from ED was evidenced for Romania (around 393 mg/day, corresponding to 5,41 mg/kg bw/day) (tables 24 and 25), while the relative contribution from ED to the total exposure to taurine varied from 75,8% in Italy and 87,1% in Romania. Chronic taurine exposure from ED showed the highest value in the 30-49 age group of consumers, even though differences among values for the different age groups were limited. The average exposure to taurine for male consumers resulted slightly higher than the one for female consumers. Table 24: Adults – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev % taurine ED/total taurine Austria 312,81 100,00 5,58 2.840,00 369,69 757,92 1.404,79 456,61 84,4% Belgium 244,40 99,51 0,00 2.840,00 250,00 500,00 972,50 407,42 80,8% Cyprus 228,62 100,00 33,33 1.833,33 250,00 500,00 1.000,00 313,11 79,8% Czech Republic 239,56 100,00 13,33 2.840,00 250,00 500,00 710,00 340,19 80,5% Finland 224,31 100,00 0,00 2.000,00 200,00 710,00 1.000,00 356,93 79,5% France 319,63 100,00 6,01 2.840,00 355,00 710,00 1.654,09 489,10 84,6% Germany 268,15 142,00 0,00 2.130,00 355,00 710,00 833,33 330,71 82,2% Greece 223,97 142,00 0,00 2.840,00 315,44 500,00 710,00 280,59 79,4% Hungary 212,13 100,00 5,65 2.000,00 250,00 500,00 880,00 302,95 78,5% Italy 181,73 100,00 6,67 2.000,00 250,00 500,00 500,00 237,76 75,8% Netherlands 240,23 100,00 0,00 2.000,00 250,00 500,00 933,33 301,43 80,6% Poland 287,24 142,00 6,67 2.840,00 355,00 500,00 928,33 375,87 83,2% Romania 393,11 250,00 7,10 2.366,67 500,00 1.000,00 1.394,00 421,96 87,1% Spain 290,03 142,00 8,40 2.840,00 355,00 674,50 988,75 372,70 83,3% Sweden 195,30 100,00 5,00 2.000,00 250,00 500,00 710,00 283,14 77,1% United Kingdom 281,04 142,00 0,00 2.840,00 355,00 710,00 733,33 336,54 82,9% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 72 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 25: Adults – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 4,51 1,72 0 45,08 4,78 11,52 18,34 7,52 Belgium 3,35 1,33 0 30,45 3,92 7,40 16,93 5,41 Cyprus 3,26 1,79 0 22,09 3,27 6,90 16,95 4,44 Czech Republic 3,08 1,54 0 38,38 3,85 6,90 9,77 4,47 Finland 2,97 1,09 0 25,00 2,83 8,78 14,66 4,89 France 4,70 1,82 0 47,33 4,90 11,73 19,72 7,35 Germany 3,53 1,80 0 42,60 4,18 7,89 11,40 4,58 Greece 2,91 1,68 0 48,97 3,70 6,25 8,19 4,38 Hungary 3,43 1,39 0 70,00 3,32 7,49 16,94 6,96 Italy 2,56 1,44 0 33,33 3,21 5,93 8,33 3,49 Netherlands 3,36 1,52 0 41,67 3,85 7,97 12,46 5,09 Poland 3,88 1,90 0 37,10 4,81 8,77 12,24 5,06 Romania 5,41 3,57 0 36,41 7,47 12,12 16,51 5,74 Spain 4,05 2,04 0 61,74 5,10 8,84 12,00 5,53 Sweden 2,52 1,28 0 23,67 2,89 6,01 9,12 3,45 United Kingdom 4,46 2,06 0 76,92 5,07 10,00 13,33 7,30 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA The average chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone in high chronic consumers was 269 mg/day, around twice the average value for all consumers (126 mg/day). The average value for total respondents was 38 mg/day (tables 26 and 27). The relative contribution from ED to the total exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone was 98,8% among ED consumers and 99,4% in high chronic consumers. Table 26: Adults – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone exposure from ED (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 – ED consumers; 486– High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 38,31 0,00 0 1.704 18,64 120,00 225 117,65 ED consumers 125,95 60,00 0 1.704 150,00 300,00 426 185,65 High chronic consumers 268,84 200,59 0 1.704 340,80 633,62 900 284,32 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 27: Adults – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 – ED consumers; 486 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 0,54 0,00 0 46,15 0,24 1,53 3,00 1,82 ED consumers 1,78 0,83 0 46,15 2,08 4,27 6,20 2,95 High chronic consumers 3,91 2,49 0 46,15 4,90 7,90 13,33 5,04 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Tables 28 and 29 illustrate the daily exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (in mg/day and in mg/kg bw/day) for total respondents, comparing the 16 MS covered by the survey. In both cases the highest data were registered in Romania (83 mg/day corresponding to 1,14 mg/ kg bw/day respectively). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 73 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 28: Adults – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 79,69 0 0 1.704,00 60,00 255,00 340,35 189,84 Belgium 19,60 0 0 1.704,00 0,00 26,99 60,00 105,70 Cyprus 17,43 0 0 1.100,00 0,00 20,00 85,20 82,88 Czech Republic 31,78 0 0 1.704,00 20,00 85,20 146,63 108,25 Finland 15,18 0 0 1.080,00 0,10 19,00 64,75 78,91 France 33,11 0 0 1.704,00 0,00 60,00 159,75 129,91 Germany 38,04 0 0 1.278,00 19,00 127,68 213,00 112,16 Greece 32,30 0 0 1.704,00 19,38 113,85 201,82 99,33 Hungary 23,32 0 0 576,52 10,00 52,50 116,25 76,12 Italy 27,34 0 0 1.020,00 17,00 72,26 150,00 81,43 Netherlands 22,76 0 0 1.080,00 0,00 58,68 142,50 86,30 Poland 50,03 0 0 1.513,60 51,00 150,00 262,50 118,26 Romania 83,33 0 0 1.200,00 60,00 300,00 420,25 180,48 Spain 44,44 0 0 1.704,00 20,00 146,25 255,00 128,28 Sweden 19,35 0 0 900,00 0,00 57,00 90,00 71,25 United Kingdom 37,43 0 0 1.704,00 18,00 127,50 240,00 112,77 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 29: Adults – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 1,13 0 0 27,05 0,97 3,10 5,44 2,95 Belgium 0,27 0 0 18,27 0,00 0,35 1,01 1,40 Cyprus 0,25 0 0 13,25 0,00 0,35 1,36 1,18 Czech Republic 0,43 0 0 23,03 0,30 1,00 2,08 1,52 Finland 0,20 0 0 13,25 0,00 0,22 0,82 1,03 France 0,49 0 0 26,22 0,00 1,00 2,35 1,98 Germany 0,50 0 0 25,56 0,24 1,50 2,69 1,57 Greece 0,43 0 0 29,38 0,28 1,35 2,52 1,54 Hungary 0,42 0 0 42,00 0,14 0,68 1,85 2,24 Italy 0,39 0 0 19,61 0,21 1,08 2,19 1,19 Netherlands 0,33 0 0 22,50 0,00 0,75 1,79 1,44 Poland 0,68 0 0 22,26 0,63 2,13 3,64 1,66 Romania 1,14 0 0 17,14 1,13 4,20 6,26 2,44 Spain 0,62 0 0 37,04 0,34 1,97 3,50 1,91 Sweden 0,24 0 0 9,28 0,00 0,71 1,39 0,83 United Kingdom 0,59 0 0 46,15 0,14 1,59 3,22 2,27 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 74 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Tables 30 and 31 provide the daily exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (in mg/day and in mg/kg bw/day) for ED consumers, comparing the 16 MS covered by the survey. Exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED showed the highest value in Romania, where the average daily exposure for ED consumers was around 218 mg (3 mg/kg bw/day). The lowest value was recorded in Finland (69 mg/day corresponding to 0,70 mg/kg bw/day). Similarly, the relative contribution from ED to the total exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone varied from 97,2% in Finland and 99,3% in Romania. Table 30: Adults – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. % ED glucuronolactone / StdDev total glucuronolactone Austria 158,51 60,00 0 1.704,00 150,00 334,80 671,65 243,56 99,1% Belgium 129,78 50,76 0 1.704,00 115,50 300,00 570,00 244,92 98,9% Cyprus 126,51 60,00 0 1.100,00 150,00 300,00 600,00 191,50 98,8% Czech Republic 69,33 24,00 0 1.704,00 75,00 150,00 270,00 151,73 97,9% Finland 52,83 10,00 0 1.080,00 40,47 120,10 271,65 140,60 97,2% France 148,55 60,00 0 1.704,00 142,50 300,00 776,00 242,19 99,0% Germany 126,24 60,00 0 1.278,00 150,00 300,00 426,00 175,08 98,8% Greece 102,40 59,07 0 1.704,00 142,50 237,50 300,00 155,54 98,6% Hungary 58,17 15,00 0 576,52 52,50 193,53 300,00 111,63 97,5% Italy 96,58 57,00 0 1.020,00 135,00 255,00 300,00 129,45 98,5% Netherlands 109,68 57,00 0 1.080,00 138,75 271,56 355,73 162,74 98,7% Poland 110,42 57,00 0 1.513,60 135,00 270,00 383,40 155,66 98,7% Romania 218,29 150,00 0 1.200,00 300,00 447,60 800,00 236,61 99,3% Spain 143,91 63,90 0 1.704,00 181,05 300,00 431,60 197,56 99,0% 88,19 54,00 0 900,00 80,94 210,00 300,00 130,94 98,3% United Kingdom 135,21 60,00 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0 1.704,00 181,05 300,00 390,00 181,00 98,9% Sweden Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 75 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 31: Adults – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 2,25 0,96 0 27,05 2,33 5,43 8,51 3,85 Belgium 1,77 0,64 0 18,27 1,72 4,44 9,63 3,23 Cyprus 1,82 0,88 0 13,25 1,89 4,14 10,17 2,72 Czech Republic 0,93 0,33 0 23,03 0,92 2,14 3,39 2,15 Finland 0,70 0,11 0 13,25 0,44 1,71 3,41 1,84 France 2,20 0,86 0 26,22 2,13 5,18 10,05 3,72 Germany 1,67 0,85 0 25,56 2,11 3,79 5,53 2,49 Greece 1,36 0,78 0 29,38 1,73 3,17 3,80 2,51 Hungary 1,04 0,23 0 42,00 0,68 2,92 3,88 3,45 Italy 1,36 0,76 0 19,61 1,66 3,33 5,00 1,92 Netherlands 1,58 0,71 0 22,50 1,78 3,57 5,25 2,83 Poland 1,51 0,74 0 22,26 1,91 3,94 4,95 2,20 Romania 3,00 1,88 0 17,14 4,33 6,99 9,41 3,18 Spain 2,02 1,03 0 37,04 2,54 4,60 6,24 2,99 Sweden 1,11 0,66 0 9,28 1,30 2,59 4,48 1,48 United Kingdom 2,14 0,94 0 46,15 2,50 4,56 6,39 3,91 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 76 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.2.5. ED acute consumption: analysis on high acute consumers Prevalence of high acute consumption on the population was around 8% (figure 6). High acute consumers were approximately 11% of total adult ED consumers, ranging from 19% in Germany, to 0% in Cyprus (figure 20). Figure 20: Adults – Prevalence of high acute ED consumption by country (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 77 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning the different age groups of ED consumers (figure 21), the highest prevalence of high acute consumption was in “young adults” (13% in 18-29 years). The distribution of high acute consumers among age groups evidenced a higher percentage of 30-49 aged consumers (49%). Prevalence of high consumption of ED was about 11% among ED consumers, and approximately 16% among regular smoking consumers. Figure 21: Adults - Prevalence of high acute ED consumption by age (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 78 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Approximately 96% of high acute consumers declared to drink at least 3 cans of ED in a single session, against about 18% of ED consumers (figure 22). Figure 22: Adults - Recent ED consumption acts: high acute and total consumers (Sample size: 4.180 – ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA As illustrated in figure 23, around 61% of high acute consumers resulted to drink 3 or more cocktails of ED and alcohol in a single session, compared to 30% for ED consumers. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 79 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 23: Adults – Acute consumption of ED in association with alcohol: high acute and average consumers drinking ED and alcohol (Sample size: 2.832 – ED consumers drinking ED and alcohol; 448 – High acute consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Concerning acute consumption of ED during sport activities, 57% of high acute consumers resulted to drink 3 or more cocktails of ED and alcohol in a single session; 27% of total consumers consumed the same quantity in a single session of physical activity (figure 24). Figure 24: Adults – Acute consumption of ED during sport practice: high acute and average consumers practicing sport (Sample size: 2.832 – ED consumers practicing sport activities; 448 – High acute consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 80 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.2.6. Exposure to active ingredients in high acute adult consumers Tables 32 and 33 provide the average values of exposure to caffeine in a single session of consumption for total respondents, ED consumers and high acute consumers. Acute exposure form ED ranged from about 47 mg/single session for total respondents to around 374 mg for high acute consumers. Considering exposure to caffeine expressed in mg/kg bw/single session, the highest value was around 5 mg/kg bw/single session for high acute consumers. Table 32: Adults – Acute exposure to caffeine from ED (values in mg/single session) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Mean Median Total respondents Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 47,17 0,00 0,00 800 79,59 160,00 237,53 89,45 155,07 113,60 16,00 800 215,40 316,19 344,25 97,84 High acute consumers 373,70 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 340,35 175,05 800 400,00 464,35 565,24 76,80 ED consumers Table 33: Adults – Acute exposure to caffeine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/single session) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 0,66 0,00 0,00 10,90 1,03 2,33 3,37 1,27 ED consumers 2,16 1,64 0,29 10,90 2,75 4,13 5,08 1,44 High acute consumers Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 5,14 4,91 2,43 10,90 6,00 7,15 8,15 1,48 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 81 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Tables 34 and 35 provide results for acute exposure to caffeine from ED in a single session (in mg/single session and in mg/kg bw/single session) for total respondents, comparing the 16 MS covered by the survey. Values expressed in mg/single session ranged from around 12 in Cyprus to around 81 in Austria. Table 34: Adults – Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 80,73 75 0 454,40 152,00 240,00 320,00 107,11 Belgium 24,24 0 0 568,00 0,00 80,00 160,00 70,01 Cyprus 12,08 0 0 150,00 0,00 83,07 87,50 30,66 Czech Republic 77,08 0 0 480,90 122,09 239,52 321,10 109,49 Finland 39,93 0 0 800,00 79,50 113,60 219,51 86,39 France 32,20 0 0 565,69 0,00 153,78 194,29 71,61 Germany 53,96 0 0 574,04 78,76 204,76 310,10 103,35 Greece 49,22 0 0 571,02 80,00 160,81 243,06 93,48 Hungary 61,68 0 0 568,00 80,00 225,82 319,63 101,94 Italy 36,70 0 0 565,69 79,40 158,38 160,75 71,00 Netherlands 30,83 0 0 449,43 0,00 151,72 160,76 71,58 Poland 67,98 0 0 562,68 87,34 224,43 240,00 95,82 Romania 58,23 0 0 568,00 80,00 160,00 238,85 94,72 Spain 48,32 0 0 771,25 79,68 159,68 234,20 89,07 Sweden 34,03 0 0 636,10 0,00 113,60 226,03 81,56 United Kingdom Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 43,66 0 0 583,98 78,52 159,19 228,10 88,80 Table 35: Adults - Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) - Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 1,12 0,62 0 7,65 1,69 3,05 4,69 1,57 Belgium 0,34 0,00 0 10,90 0,00 1,23 2,44 1,02 Cyprus 0,17 0,00 0 2,63 0,00 1,05 1,33 0,46 Czech Republic 1,03 0,00 0 7,61 1,46 3,16 4,35 1,52 Finland 0,51 0,00 0 9,39 0,89 1,67 2,42 1,12 France 0,48 0,00 0 9,12 0,00 1,80 2,97 1,10 Germany 0,73 0,00 0 9,29 1,03 2,66 3,78 1,42 Greece 0,66 0,00 0 8,83 1,06 2,27 3,66 1,26 Hungary 0,87 0,00 0 10,33 1,22 2,67 4,38 1,54 Italy 0,52 0,00 0 6,98 0,95 1,88 2,64 1,01 Netherlands 0,41 0,00 0 6,81 0,00 1,67 2,48 0,98 Poland 0,94 0,00 0 9,70 1,46 2,86 3,53 1,34 Romania 0,83 0,00 0 8,89 1,27 2,65 3,85 1,39 Spain 0,69 0,00 0 9,22 1,14 2,36 3,37 1,29 Sweden 0,45 0,00 0 9,69 0,00 1,68 2,76 1,09 United Kingdom Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0,60 0,00 0 10,18 0,93 2,19 3,41 1,26 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 82 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With regards to ED consumers, acute exposure to caffeine from ED ranged from around 88 mg/single session in Cyprus to around 180 mg/single session for Austrian consumers. At the same time, acute exposure per body weight in a single session ranged from 1,27 mg /kg bw/single session in Cyprus to 2,42 mg/kg bw/single session in Germany (tables 36 and 37). Table 36: Adults - Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 160,58 152,00 75,00 454,40 230,18 320,00 397,54 99,95 Belgium 160,47 113,87 60,21 568,00 227,95 319,64 340,80 103,05 Cyprus 87,69 87,50 75,00 150,00 87,50 104,60 122,30 13,38 Czech Republic 168,17 157,20 62,50 480,90 233,40 323,52 400,15 104,06 Finland 138,94 80,00 39,75 800,00 160,00 290,21 360,99 110,66 France 144,45 112,91 60,21 565,69 163,75 240,00 320,00 82,44 Germany 179,07 155,46 49,70 574,04 230,63 337,37 401,13 114,21 Greece 156,07 110,92 69,50 571,02 226,16 321,78 345,10 105,11 Hungary 153,88 80,00 16,00 568,00 211,39 320,00 396,38 108,37 Italy 129,63 82,06 39,92 565,69 159,84 237,04 319,35 75,90 Netherlands 148,59 150,68 75,00 449,43 160,00 281,23 331,75 84,91 Poland 150,05 113,60 75,00 562,68 164,80 245,29 320,00 89,14 Romania 152,54 113,60 64,00 568,00 175,10 312,18 346,31 95,47 Spain 156,48 154,15 39,63 771,25 220,74 243,83 339,21 93,63 Sweden 155,09 113,60 39,25 636,10 192,07 301,35 396,94 107,57 United Kingdom 157,70 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 113,01 38,19 583,98 221,34 320,00 350,39 102,50 Table 37: Adults - Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 2,22 1,67 0,62 7,65 2,78 4,69 6,22 1,56 Belgium 2,26 1,68 0,61 10,90 2,94 4,81 5,17 1,58 Cyprus 1,27 1,17 0,73 2,63 1,48 1,60 2,08 0,35 Czech Republic 2,24 1,62 0,65 7,61 2,93 4,40 5,74 1,53 Finland 1,79 1,21 0,35 9,39 1,99 3,70 4,96 1,45 France 2,16 1,63 0,69 9,12 2,86 3,74 4,93 1,35 Germany 2,42 1,98 0,66 9,29 3,08 4,86 5,93 1,62 Greece 2,08 1,51 0,65 8,83 2,81 4,32 4,87 1,43 Hungary 2,18 1,38 0,29 10,33 2,67 4,62 6,48 1,74 Italy 1,83 1,43 0,57 6,98 2,20 3,17 4,35 1,08 Netherlands 1,98 1,58 0,71 6,81 2,43 3,82 4,47 1,23 Poland 2,06 1,59 0,70 9,70 2,75 3,78 4,63 1,28 Romania 2,17 1,59 0,66 8,89 2,70 4,19 5,44 1,47 Spain 2,22 1,78 0,59 9,22 2,71 4,09 5,08 1,41 Sweden 2,05 1,58 0,51 9,69 2,64 4,08 4,89 1,45 United Kingdom Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 2,18 1,60 0,58 10,18 2,79 4,26 5,19 1,51 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 83 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning the analysis of acute exposure to taurine, data expressed in mg/single session varied from around 568 mg for total respondents, 1.869 for ED consumers, and around 4.654 mg for high acute consumers (tables 38). Values are also provided in mg/ kg bw/single session (table 39). Table 38: Adults – Acute exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/single session) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Mean Total respondents Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 568,61 0 0 10.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 1.104,87 1.869,16 1.420 0 10.000 2.000 4.000 4.260 1.257,80 High acute consumers 4.654,53 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 4.260 142 10.000 5.000 5.680 7.100 1.061,20 ED consumers Table 39: Adults – Acute exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/single session) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Mean Total respondents Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 7,89 0,00 0 140,00 12,35 28,19 40,82 15,65 25,95 19,23 0 140,00 33,33 50,58 63,58 18,35 High acute consumers 64,04 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 61,54 2 136,54 74,93 88,96 101,43 19,54 ED consumers Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 84 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With reference to the variations registered among the 16 MS, acute exposure to taurine from ED ranged from around 145 mg/day in Cyprus to around 972 mg/day in Czech Republic (table 40). Calculations in terms of mg/kg bw/single session are provided in table 41. Table 40: Adults - Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. Austria 881,45 158,75 0 5.680 1.000,00 Belgium 248,60 0,00 0 7.100 Cyprus 145,12 0,00 0 2.000 Czech Republic 971,88 0,00 0 Finland 493,54 0,00 0 France 378,77 0,00 0 Germany 680,01 0,00 0 Greece 584,66 0,00 Hungary 766,84 0,00 Italy 421,11 Netherlands Poland StdDev 2.734,25 3.843,02 1.218,43 0,00 950,00 1.994,75 778,23 0,00 1.000,00 1.000,00 369,49 9.100 1.420,00 3.000,00 4.000,00 1.425,54 10.000 1.000,00 1.420,00 2.168,00 1.084,00 7.100 0,00 1.420,00 2.000,00 871,05 7.100 1.000,00 2.840,00 4.000,00 1.317,51 0 7.100 1.000,00 2.000,00 3.000,00 1.127,63 0 7.100 1.000,00 2.000,00 4.000,00 1.282,15 0,00 0 7.100 789,76 1.420,00 2.000,00 854,41 362,56 0,00 0 5.680 0,00 1.420,00 2.000,00 864,70 824,78 0,00 0 7.100 1.000,00 2.840,00 3.000,00 1.182,32 Romania 706,77 0,00 0 7.100 1.000,00 2.000,00 3.000,00 1.153,44 Spain 571,44 0,00 0 10.000 1.000,00 2.000,00 2.840,00 1.081,02 Sweden 410,10 0,00 0 8.000 0,00 1.420,00 2.700,00 1.001,32 United Kingdom 532,26 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0,00 0 7.100 1.000,00 2.000,00 2.840,00 1.092,88 Table 41: Adults - Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) - Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 12,31 1,25 0 98,04 18,18 34,48 47,99 17,99 Belgium 3,51 0,00 0 136,54 0,00 12,47 25,00 11,25 Cyprus 2,11 0,00 0 35,09 0,00 12,69 15,63 5,55 12,97 0,00 0 140,00 18,62 40,61 55,10 20,02 Finland 6,35 0,00 0 117,65 10,53 20,95 29,91 14,07 France 5,66 0,00 0 118,33 0,00 20,88 35,77 13,44 Germany 9,18 0,00 0 118,33 13,16 33,33 48,39 18,11 Greece 7,77 0,00 0 109,23 12,63 24,39 44,43 15,08 10,89 0,00 0 129,09 15,15 33,33 54,80 19,36 5,91 0,00 0 87,65 9,41 20,67 30,91 12,01 Czech Republic Hungary Italy Netherlands 4,77 0,00 0 86,06 0,00 19,28 28,59 11,62 Poland 11,35 0,00 0 122,41 17,86 35,50 43,48 16,57 Romania 10,05 0,00 0 116,28 15,50 33,33 46,59 17,00 Spain 8,09 0,00 0 116,11 13,33 28,57 40,00 15,60 Sweden 5,39 0,00 0 91,03 0,00 20,29 33,90 13,00 United Kingdom 7,37 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0,00 0 129,09 10,48 26,33 41,92 15,50 Concerning ED consumers, acute exposure to taurine showed the highest value in Germany (around 2.256 mg/single session and 30 mg/kg bw/single session), and the lowest in Cyprus (tables 42 and 43). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 85 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 42: Adults - Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 1.753,37 1.000 150,00 5.680 2.000 3.835,38 4.630 1.193,30 Belgium 1.645,71 1.000 0,00 7.100 2.000 3.792,75 4.117 1.310,52 Cyprus 1.053,60 1.000 1.000,00 2.000 1.000 1.378,00 1.420 178,54 Czech Republic 2.120,46 2.000 399,96 9.100 3.000 4.260,00 5.000 1.413,54 Finland 1.717,38 1.000 0,00 10.000 2.000 3.640,00 4.667 1.411,59 France 1.699,23 1.420 185,74 7.100 2.000 3.000,00 4.000 1.077,44 Germany 2.256,51 2.000 0,00 7.100 3.000 4.260,00 5.000 1.484,51 Greece 1.853,81 1.310 0,00 7.100 2.840 4.000,00 4.260 1.296,73 Hungary 1.913,03 1.000 169,40 7.100 2.000 4.000,00 5.000 1.381,94 Italy 1.487,46 1.000 152,60 7.100 2.000 2.840,00 4.000 996,51 Netherlands 1.747,08 1.420 0,00 5.680 2.000 3.000,00 4.260 1.089,55 Poland 1.820,44 1.420 200,00 7.100 2.000 3.000,00 4.000 1.128,04 Romania 1.851,38 1.420 142,00 7.100 2.000 3.400,00 4.182 1.168,81 Spain 1.850,57 1.420 199,89 10.000 2.000 3.000,00 4.260 1.190,77 Sweden 1.868,83 1.420 150,00 8.000 2.000 3.976,00 5.000 1.359,66 United Kingdom 1.922,65 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 1.420 0,00 7.100 2.840 4.000,00 4.260 1.281,46 Table 43: Adults - Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 24,48 18,18 1,15 98,04 29,80 47,59 69,97 18,60 Belgium 23,22 16,26 0,00 136,54 31,79 53,79 61,88 19,54 Cyprus 15,30 14,29 9,52 35,09 17,32 19,89 26,06 4,66 Czech Republic 28,29 20,41 5,00 140,00 37,50 56,80 72,88 21,00 Finland 22,11 15,15 0,00 117,65 24,87 48,62 63,62 18,48 France 25,41 18,87 2,55 118,33 34,48 45,74 60,60 17,58 Germany 30,45 25,00 0,00 118,33 38,46 62,56 75,30 20,99 Greece 24,63 17,92 0,00 109,23 32,94 50,06 58,51 17,51 Hungary 27,16 17,28 1,88 129,09 33,33 58,91 82,86 22,21 Italy 20,88 15,87 2,13 87,65 25,97 37,80 53,64 14,03 Netherlands 22,97 18,87 0,00 86,06 28,45 44,44 51,89 15,26 Poland 25,05 19,23 2,86 122,41 34,04 46,88 57,56 16,20 Romania 26,32 19,23 2,03 116,28 33,33 51,81 66,02 18,14 Spain 26,19 21,88 2,68 116,11 31,91 47,73 61,62 17,72 Sweden 24,57 18,68 2,38 91,03 31,40 47,62 61,25 17,31 United Kingdom 26,62 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 20,00 0,00 129,09 34,48 53,25 64,55 18,85 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 86 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks The average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone in acute consumers ranged from 263 mg/single session for total respondents, to 864 mg for ED consumers, and 2.119 mg for high acute consumers (tables 44 and 45). Table 44: Adults – Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/single session) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 262,98 0 0 4.344 360 960 1.440 548,48 ED consumers 864,50 600 0 4.344 1.170 1.737 2.300 684,82 High acute consumers 2.118,90 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 2.280 0 4.344 2.726 3.191 3.616 959,27 Table 45: Adults – Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/kg bw/single session) (Sample size: 14.557 – Total respondents; 4.180 - ED consumers; 448 - High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 3,66 0,00 0 77,83 4,62 12,92 19,88 7,77 12,03 9,13 0 77,83 15,62 24,88 32,77 9,89 High acute consumers 29,15 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 29,78 0 77,83 38,13 47,31 53,32 14,52 ED consumers Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 87 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Concerning the differences among MS, the highest values of acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone for total respondents were registered in Austria (around 488; tables 46 and 47). Table 46: Adults - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 488,14 0 0 3.237,60 600,00 1.542,24 1.800,00 700,01 Belgium 126,28 0 0 4.260,00 0,00 450,00 858,00 420,56 Cyprus 78,48 0 0 1.200,00 0,00 600,00 600,00 212,38 Czech Republic 296,20 0 0 3.067,20 450,00 960,00 1.600,29 547,54 Finland 109,28 0 0 4.344,00 3,00 320,58 600,00 373,08 France 178,20 0 0 3.834,00 0,00 639,00 1.140,00 423,56 Germany 324,57 0 0 4.260,00 420,00 1.200,00 1.800,00 679,98 Greece 269,53 0 0 4.047,00 420,00 828,57 1.704,00 567,09 Hungary 199,23 0 0 3.621,00 180,00 600,00 1.080,00 456,19 Italy 222,69 0 0 3.834,00 255,60 722,52 1.200,00 463,54 Netherlands 169,97 0 0 2.811,60 0,00 600,00 1.142,46 426,63 Poland 324,05 0 0 3.621,00 540,00 1.022,40 1.440,00 522,28 Romania 394,16 0 0 4.260,00 600,00 1.200,00 1.785,42 656,70 Spain 279,86 0 0 4.260,00 450,00 1.050,00 1.592,52 544,53 Sweden 199,78 0 0 4.260,00 0,00 600,00 1.170,00 512,44 United Kingdom 252,67 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0 0 4.260,00 300,00 852,00 1.440,42 542,78 Table 47: Adults - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) - Total respondents (Sample size: 14.557) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 6,71 0 0 54,55 9,74 20,14 26,79 10,07 Belgium 1,77 0 0 77,83 0,00 5,72 10,91 6,05 Cyprus 1,14 0 0 21,05 0,00 7,04 9,35 3,20 Czech Republic 4,01 0 0 48,39 4,99 13,09 21,71 7,82 Finland 1,42 0 0 63,88 0,03 4,18 9,01 4,98 France 2,67 0 0 61,84 0,00 10,36 16,47 6,50 Germany 4,37 0 0 68,16 5,52 16,20 23,72 9,32 Greece 3,60 0 0 52,43 4,87 10,96 20,80 7,62 Hungary 2,85 0 0 54,22 2,38 8,57 14,49 6,81 Italy 3,13 0 0 48,56 4,11 11,07 16,24 6,50 Netherlands 2,29 0 0 45,00 0,00 9,38 14,25 5,97 Poland 4,46 0 0 62,43 7,29 13,92 19,81 7,32 Romania 5,61 0 0 69,77 8,57 17,94 25,85 9,70 Spain 3,97 0 0 65,22 6,00 14,19 20,48 7,97 Sweden 2,60 0 0 54,62 0,00 9,50 15,85 6,53 United Kingdom 3,52 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0 0 61,34 3,57 12,40 19,94 7,70 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 88 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Regarding ED consumers (tables 48 and 49), acute exposures ranged from around 380 mg/single session in Finland to over 1.000 mg in Germany. Table 48: Adults - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 970,99 600,00 0 3.237,60 1.200 1.800,00 2.554,20 711,30 Belgium 836,00 570,00 0 4.260,00 1.140 2.082,00 2.307,00 761,75 Cyprus 569,76 600,00 0 1.200,00 600 826,80 852,00 218,17 Czech Republic 646,25 511,20 0 3.067,20 900 1.620,00 2.136,00 654,66 Finland 380,25 150,00 0 4.344,00 480 982,80 1.557,00 618,82 France 799,42 600,00 0 3.834,00 1.080 1.575,96 1.800,00 555,41 1.077,05 809,40 0 4.260,00 1.530 2.400,00 3.000,00 851,13 Greece 854,62 585,00 0 4.047,00 1.080 1.800,00 2.428,20 721,72 Hungary 497,01 300,00 0 3.621,00 600 1.237,86 1.800,00 609,95 Italy 786,60 600,00 0 3.834,00 1.080 1.363,20 1.829,25 561,80 Netherlands 819,04 600,00 0 2.811,60 1.140 1.704,00 2.010,00 588,69 Poland 715,24 570,00 0 3.621,00 1.020 1.530,00 1.797,30 567,81 Germany Romania 1.032,52 809,40 0 4.260,00 1.200 1.800,00 2.400,00 686,12 Spain 906,32 681,60 0 4.260,00 1.200 1.710,00 2.167,49 626,67 Sweden 910,43 600,00 0 4.260,00 1.140 1.710,00 2.662,50 742,71 United Kingdom 912,70 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 600,00 0 4.260,00 1.188 1.800,00 2.400,00 679,82 Table 49: Adults - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 4.180) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 13,35 9,68 0 54,55 17,44 26,70 36,80 10,64 Belgium 11,69 8,01 0 77,83 14,40 30,26 34,31 11,24 Cyprus 8,30 8,22 0 21,05 10,29 11,36 15,63 3,88 Czech Republic 8,75 5,88 0 48,39 11,49 22,61 29,26 9,59 Finland 4,92 1,72 0 63,88 5,57 13,17 22,89 8,32 France 11,96 9,50 0 61,84 15,43 24,00 29,86 8,85 Germany 14,51 11,05 0 68,16 18,99 31,13 40,85 11,89 Greece 11,43 8,00 0 52,43 13,90 26,67 32,38 9,73 Hungary 7,10 4,11 0 54,22 8,52 17,50 27,83 9,25 Italy 11,06 8,77 0 48,56 13,90 20,34 28,29 7,85 Netherlands 11,04 9,19 0 45,00 13,85 22,48 30,38 8,68 9,85 7,86 0 62,43 12,98 21,12 25,69 8,07 Romania 14,70 10,80 0 69,77 18,32 29,77 36,46 10,62 Spain 12,87 10,25 0 65,22 16,67 24,84 33,40 9,55 Sweden 11,86 8,81 0 54,62 14,55 23,75 33,06 9,22 United Kingdom 12,71 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 9,38 0 61,34 17,14 26,98 32,98 9,86 Poland Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 89 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.3. Adolescents As already mentioned at § 2.3.6, the sample of schools for the survey on adolescents was considerably enlarged with respect to the original sample design, especially for all the MS where the progress of survey activities was slower than expected. A total number of 31.901 filled-in questionnaires (of which 31.070 validated) were collected in the 16 MS covered by the survey. It is worth highlighting that the average results presented in this paragraph often hide relevant differences at MS level, which are highlighted wherever opportune. The sample appeared to be well balanced between boys and girls, with an average age of 16 years. 58% of the total respondents resided in urban areas and 90% lived with parents. Regular smokers accounted for 17% of the total number of respondents. 3.3.3.1. ED consumption With reference to the prevalence of ED consumption, around 68% of the total respondents (31.070 – Total respondents) declared to have consumed ED at least once during the last year, while around 28% of total respondents declared to have consumed ED in the three days before the survey (figure 25). Figure 25: Adolescents – ED consumption and related features (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 90 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks As highlighted by figure 26, prevalence of ED consumption varied from around 48% in Greece to 82% in Czech Republic46. Figure 26: Adolescents - Prevalence of ED consumption by country (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 46 The highest prevalence of ED consumption among total respondents was observed in Belgium (85%). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred to indicate the highest value as observed in Czech Republic. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 91 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks ED consumers had higher prevalence in the 15-18 age group (73% of total population; figure 27) than in the 10-14 age group (55% of total population). Among male respondents a higher prevalence of ED consumption was reported (74 %) than among female ones (63%). Share of ED consumers increased among respondents who smoke regularly: around 85% of regular smokers consumed ED, against 64% of non-smokers. Figure 27: Adolescents - Prevalence of ED consumption by age groups and by gender (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 92 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 26% of total consumers has been usually drinking ED twice a week or more (with around 5% drinking ED every day and around 6% drinking them 4-5 times a week). The most consumed size format was by far the 250 ml can (around 60% of total consumers), while around 11% of consumers declared to consume energy shots47. Around 19% of ED consumers stated to have been drinking more than 10 can per month; around 49% of ED consumers declared to drink two or more cans in a single occasion (figure 28). As for volumes, adolescent ED consumers declared to drink on average around 2 L/month, varying from 1,3 L/month in Italy to 3,1 L/month in the UK. Figure 28: Adolescents - Features of ED consumption (Sample size: 20.713- ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 47 See also considerations on energy shots at § 3.3.2. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 93 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks As for the reasons behind ED consumption (figure 29), the most important (“first choice”) among adolescents resulted to be the taste of the product (for around 40% of ED consumers), the need for energy (21%) and the need to stay awake (17%); also mentioned were consumption to enhance sport performance (7%) and to treat hangover (4%). The most common situations of ED consumption resulted to be “at home with friends during parties” (for around 65% of consumers) and “at home in ordinary situations” (for around 56% of consumers). Also discos and bar/pubs resulted to be quite common consumption situations, together with sport and physical exercise (these three were mentioned by at least 40% of consumers). Red Bull™ was by far the most popular brand among adolescents (it was mentioned as first choice among the top-three ED brands by 48% of consumers), followed by Monster™ (22%). No other ED brands were mentioned as first choice among the top-three ones by more than 5% of consumers. Figure 29: Adolescents - Motivations for ED consumption (First choice) (Sample size: 20.713 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 94 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks As previously seen for adults (§ 3.3.2.2), also in the case of adolescents data were elaborated according to a specifically defined methodology (§ 2.3.5), in order to identify “high acute” and “high chronic” consumers. With reference to total respondents, prevalence of ED high acute consumption was about 8% and the same share is recorded for the prevalence of high chronic consumption (figure 30). As highlighted in figure 31, high chronic consumers represent around 17% of total ED consumers. Figure 30: Adolescents - Prevalence of ED consumption for ED consumers, high acute consumers and high chronic consumers on total respondents (Sample size: 31.070– Total respondents) Similarly to adults, an overlap between “high acute” and “high chronic” profiles was observed in adolescents, accounting for 4,5% of ED consumers (corresponding to 3% of total respondents). Again, being this percentage smaller than the overall incidence of purely “high acute” and “high chronic” consumers on total ED consumers, a dedicated analysis for “high acute” consumers will be provided at § 3.3.3.5. Table 50: Adolescents – Overlap between high chronic and high acute groups of ED consumers % on total ED consumers High acute Non high acute Total High chronic 4,5% 7,2% 11,7% Non high chronic 7,2% 81,1% 88,3% 11,7% 88,3% 100,0% Total Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 95 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Considering the 16 MS involved in the survey, high chronic consumers had the lowest prevalence in Italy and France (7% of total ED consumers) and the highest one in the Netherlands (27%) (figure 31). Among ED consumers who declared to regularly smoke the percentage of high chronic ED consumers was about 21%, while among total consumers this share decreases at 12%. Concerning the different age groups of the target group “adolescents”, the highest prevalence of high chronic ED consumers was recorded among consumers aged 10-14 (15% against 11% in 15-18 years group). Figure 31: Prevalence of high chronic ED consumption by country (Sample size: 20.713 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 96 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 88% of high chronic consumers declared to have consumed ED in the three days before the survey, compared to around 42% of total ED consumers. As for the frequency of consumption, around 47% of high chronic consumers drank ED every day. About 69% of high chronic consumers declared to drink more than 10 cans of ED in an average month and with an average ED volume of around 7 L/month, against 18% of total consumers (figure 32). Figure 32: Adolescents – Recent consumption acts: high chronic and total consumers (Sample size: 20.713 ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 97 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 98 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.3.2. Co-consumption of ED with alcohol In the case of adolescents, the phenomenon of co-consumption of ED and alcohol involved, on average, around 36% of the total population (figure 33) and around 53% of ED consumers. Figure 33: Adolescents - Co-consumption of ED and alcohol (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 99 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Prevalence of co-consumption among ED consumers ranged from 29% in the Netherlands to 71% in Austria48 (figure 34). When referring to total respondents, the prevalence ranged from 20% in the Netherlands to 57% in Czech Republic. Figure 34: Adolescents – Co-consumption of ED and alcohol by country (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713– ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 48 The highest prevalence of co-consumption of ED and alcohol was observed in Belgium (81%). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 100 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Prevalence of co-consumption among ED consumers was higher in the 15-18 age group (59%: figure 35) than in the 10-14 one (32%). Even if the prevalence of co-consumption was slightly higher in the male population (38% vs. 35%), prevalence among male ED consumers was lower than prevalence among female ones (51% vs. 55% respectively). Figure 35: Adolescents - Prevalence of co-consumption of ED and alcohol by age groups and gender (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 101 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Consumers drinking ED and alcohol “about every time” or “often” accounted for 29% of the total number of co-consumers. Co-consumption occurred every day for a relatively small share of coconsumers (7%); most consumers experienced co-consumption less frequently (16% once a week, 24% once-twice a month, 31% with lower frequency). Around 39% of co-consumers mixed ED and alcohol more than twice in a single session (figure 36). Figure 36: Adolescents - Co-consumption of ED and alcohol and related features (Sample size: 20.713 – ED consumers) (Sample size: 11.034 – ED consumers drinking ED and alcohol) (Sample size: 11.034 – ED consumers drinking ED (Sample size: 11.034– ED consumers drinking ED and and alcohol) alcohol) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 102 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Among co-consumers, 31% of high chronic ones mixed ED and alcohol every day, while just 12% of total co-consumers do the same. About 36% of high chronic consumers declared to drink ED in association with alcohol about every time they drink ED (figure 37). Figure 37: Adolescents – Monthly frequency of co-consumption of ED with alcohol: high chronic and total co-consumers (Sample size: 11.034 – ED consumers drinking ED and alcohol; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 103 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.3.3. Consumption of ED during sport activities Around 77% of ED consumers were found to usually practise sport or physical exercise, while around 41% of total ED consumers declared to consume ED before, during, or just after practising sport or physical activities (figure 38). Figure 38: Adolescents - Consumption of ED during sport activities (Sample size: 20.713- ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 104 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 37% of ED consumers usually practising sport declared to associate ED consumption with sport practice “about every time” or “often”. Around 14% of ED consumers usually practising sport drank four or more cans of ED in a single sport session; 48% of them limited instead themselves to one can only (figure 39). Figure 39: Adolescents – Consumption of ED during sport practice and related features (Sample size: 16.055 – ED consumers practicing (Sample size: 7.767 - ED consumers drinking ED during sport activities) sport) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 105 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Prevalence of ED consumption during sport activities showed substantial differences at MS level (figure 40): the lowest prevalence was recorded in Sweden (around 14% of ED consumers and 10% of total respondents), while the highest prevalence was recorded in the United Kingdom (around 65% of ED consumers and 45% of total respondents, reaching 81% of ED consumers practicing sport activities). Figure 40: Adolescents - Prevalence of ED consumption during sport activities by country (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 - ED consumers; 16.055 - ED consumers practicing sport activities) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 106 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks The most common motivations behind ED consumption during sport activity (first choice: figure 41) were ED capacity to increase endurance time at a high intensity (43%) and power (21%); also cited as the most important reason were ED capacity to improve vitality (12%), concentration (11%), and aerobic endurance (8%). Figure 41: Adolescents - Motivations for consumption of ED during sport activity (Sample size: 7.767 – ED consumers drinking ED during sport activities) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Around 65% of high chronic consumers drank ED during sport activities, while the prevalence was 41% among total consumers (figure 42). Figure 42: Adolescents - Prevalence and frequency of consumption of ED during sport activities: high chronic and total consumers (Sample size: 20.713 – ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 107 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 62% of high chronic consumers drank ED in association with sport practice “about every time” or “often” (figure 43), whereas this happened for just around 21% of ED consumers usually practising sports. Figure 43: Adolescents - Frequency of consumption of ED during sport practice: high chronic and ED consumers practicing sport activities (Sample size: 16.055- ED consumers practicing sport activities; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 108 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.3.4. ED contribution to total exposure to relevant substances Tables 51 and 52 report data on chronic exposure to caffeine for the different categories of consumers, calculated on the basis of the methodology (§ 2.3.4.1). Average caffeine exposure from ED varied from around 16 mg/day for total respondents to around 75 mg/day for high chronic consumers. Accordingly, total caffeine exposure (from ED and other products in the diet) varied from around 150 mg/day (total respondents) to around 477 mg/day (high chronic consumers), with an average caffeine exposure for ED consumers of around 185 mg/day. Average caffeine exposure from ED in high chronic consumers was nearly three times the average value for total ED consumers and was seven times higher than the average value for total respondents. ED contribution to total caffeine exposure in high chronic consumers was around 16%, and not remarkably higher than the average one (13%) applying for all ED consumers (table 51). (a) Table 51: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713- ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED: Total respondents 15,91 3,63 0,00 340,70 17,67 41,08 79,39 32,45 ED consumers 23,51 8,00 0,01 340,70 20,31 58,10 106,64 37,08 High chronic consumers 75,08 Total exposure: 57,98 2,05 340,70 110,73 155,67 195,06 61,89 Total respondents 149,20 74,51 0,00 2395,54 170,52 329,87 505,87 239,68 ED consumers 184,92 101,85 0,62 2395,54 215,21 404,85 636,09 265,84 High chronic consumers 476,99 267,79 2,50 2395,54 574,70 1281,04 1895,09 536,38 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Data for the chronic exposure to caffeine in mg//kg bw/day are provided in table 52. The total exposure varied from 2,45 mg in total respondents to around 3 in ED consumers and 7,3 in high chronic consumers. The average ED contribution to total caffeine exposure was 13% in ED consumers and 16% in in high chronic consumers (figure 44). (a) Table 52: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 31.072 – Total respondents; 20.709 - ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED: Total respondents 0,26 0,06 0,00 6,95 0,25 0,71 1,20 0,53 ED consumers 0,38 0,15 0,00 6,95 0,41 0,94 1,59 0,60 High chronic consumers Total exposure: 1,18 0,89 0,02 6,40 1,76 2,66 3,09 1,01 Total respondents 2,45 1,28 0,00 50,17 2,93 5,58 8,59 3,71 ED consumers 3,01 1,73 0,01 50,17 3,53 6,74 10,27 4,12 High chronic consumers 7,30 4,11 0,05 49,54 9,75 18,60 25,78 8,07 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 109 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 44: Adolescents - ED contribution to total daily exposure to caffeine (%) (Sample size: 20.713- ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA As for the variations registered among different MS, it can be observed that: chronic exposure to caffeine from ED for total respondents varied from around 6,9% (9 mg/day and 0,24 mg/kg bw/day) in Italy, to around 14,2% (22,3 mg/day and 0,39 mg/kg bw/day) in the UK (tables 53 and 54); chronic exposure to caffeine from ED for ED consumers varied from around 9% (around 16 mg/day) in the case of Italy to nearly 17% (around 32 mg/day) in the case of United Kingdom (tables 55 and 56); As for variations among different age groups, chronic exposure to caffeine from ED varied from around 12% (corresponding to 23 mg/day) in adolescents aged 15-18, to around 15% (corresponding to 26 mg/day) in the age group 10 - 14 years; Some differences were also registered according to gender: the ED contribution was around 11% (corresponding to 16 mg/day) for female consumers, around 14% (corresponding to 28 mg/day) for male ones. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 110 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 53: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 16,53 7,90 0 320,00 19,80 41,33 79,55 30,52 122,45 65,43 0 2.233,65 140,57 266,09 391,83 192,36 25,14 8,00 0 218,50 20,00 76,52 148,16 43,83 264,64 148,62 0 2.062,77 284,61 885,75 1217,75 386,71 10,36 2,56 0 340,70 8,30 21,73 44,27 27,62 107,34 51,78 0 2.116,23 113,98 247,46 389,53 182,62 15,42 7,70 0 210,27 19,24 40,96 66,11 26,16 134,73 80,89 0 1.959,07 162,83 303,37 424,64 179,18 15,29 2,67 0 227,20 11,36 40,00 82,67 33,33 167,58 79,37 0 2.229,59 210,85 406,56 525,67 258,63 13,89 2,76 0 326,00 10,22 39,73 58,25 31,30 141,36 86,12 0 1.281,04 177,81 316,10 488,11 168,92 13,19 2,64 0 305,60 11,13 39,03 57,50 28,94 129,48 54,89 0 2.229,14 142,91 305,28 477,69 221,42 9,34 0,00 0 314,00 7,90 20,08 40,99 27,91 95,91 40,08 0 2.153,32 101,53 230,05 336,17 172,17 18,59 7,81 0 320,00 19,96 41,33 80,00 34,25 153,50 84,37 0 2.204,71 188,90 351,40 497,89 216,03 8,94 2,64 0 226,49 7,99 20,00 41,12 21,27 130,48 70,18 0 2.395,54 159,20 298,98 426,84 % from ED/Total 199,76 exposure from ED 13,04 2,67 0 317,13 10,94 40,49 57,98 26,62 total exposure 98,91 56,54 0 2.189,21 113,11 214,66 302,91 16,20 3,79 0 320,00 19,35 41,33 76,83 32,71 101,85 0 2.361,57 195,83 373,18 534,73 17,79 7,58 0 211,13 20,00 41,76 101,39 29,96 78,57 0 2.110,16 163,02 334,09 463,51 9,7% 11,4% 9,1% 9,8% 10,2% 9,7% 12,1% 6,9% 237,54 143,15 9,5% 171,12 171,44 13,5% 220,24 exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED 12,60 2,66 0 224,89 11,09 38,60 57,98 25,98 total exposure 95,92 41,00 0 2.060,74 111,10 254,59 363,82 13,63 2,67 0 296,07 11,13 39,45 58,70 29,87 46,77 0 2.228,34 129,03 302,69 461,71 22,29 7,57 0 304,00 19,63 66,69 123,45 40,90 63,48 0 2.190,67 165,13 323,28 672,59 12,4% 227,97 156,48 9,4% 161,53 122,15 13,2% 288,98 exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure 13,1% 11,2% 14,2% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 111 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 54: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED 0,28 0,12 0 4,94 0,31 0,75 1,33 0,52 total exposure 2,14 1,17 0 46,47 2,48 4,62 7,00 3,42 exposure from ED 0,44 0,14 0 3,97 0,43 1,23 3,04 0,82 total exposure 4,19 2,37 0 25,78 4,28 15,09 19,12 5,74 exposure from ED 0,18 0,04 0 5,41 0,16 0,45 0,77 0,45 total exposure 1,88 0,94 0 50,17 2,06 4,42 6,71 3,14 exposure from ED 0,25 0,11 0 3,77 0,28 0,66 1,00 0,42 total exposure 2,17 1,32 0 43,47 2,65 4,90 7,15 2,88 exposure from ED 0,23 0,05 0 4,92 0,19 0,61 1,20 0,49 total exposure 2,56 1,26 0 40,89 3,39 6,30 8,22 3,87 exposure from ED 0,23 0,06 0 5,02 0,18 0,61 0,97 0,48 total exposure 2,42 1,51 0 20,02 3,26 5,53 8,11 2,79 exposure from ED 0,22 0,05 0 6,95 0,20 0,62 1,04 0,48 total exposure 2,18 1,03 0 49,54 2,50 5,10 7,83 3,68 exposure from ED 0,14 0,00 0 4,48 0,12 0,34 0,61 0,40 total exposure 1,47 0,69 0 42,24 1,63 3,58 5,51 2,44 exposure from ED 0,29 0,11 0 5,61 0,34 0,77 1,23 0,53 total exposure 2,46 1,40 0 42,85 3,08 5,62 8,39 3,32 exposure from ED 0,14 0,04 0 4,26 0,14 0,37 0,67 0,34 total exposure 2,15 1,19 0 47,41 2,62 4,88 7,16 3,16 exposure from ED 0,24 0,06 0 3,59 0,20 0,67 1,09 0,46 total exposure 1,82 1,05 0 45,87 2,14 3,93 5,63 3,01 exposure from ED 0,26 0,07 0 6,40 0,25 0,69 1,07 0,53 total exposure 2,79 1,68 0 48,14 3,24 6,26 9,04 3,76 exposure from ED 0,32 0,11 0 4,69 0,39 0,89 1,43 0,55 total exposure 2,63 1,45 0 44,56 3,09 5,99 8,67 3,91 exposure from ED 0,21 0,05 0 4,59 0,20 0,59 1,02 0,43 total exposure 1,62 0,71 0 29,63 1,99 4,31 6,09 2,53 exposure from ED 0,20 0,05 0 4,14 0,16 0,52 1,02 0,44 total exposure 1,86 0,72 0 47,00 1,97 4,72 6,83 3,54 exposure from ED 0,39 0,12 0 4,83 0,40 1,23 2,02 0,73 total exposure 2,64 1,18 0 31,77 2,95 6,18 10,33 % from ED/Total 4,26 13,2% 10,6% 9,3% 11,3% 8,8% 9,4% 10,0% 9,4% 11,9% 6,7% 13,1% 9,2% 12,2% 13,2% 10,9% 14,9% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 112 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 55: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. (a) in the 16 MS StdDev 22,05 8,00 1,07 320,00 20,00 57,78 105,76 33,49 140,77 80,77 2,58 2.233,65 159,37 296,11 438,42 207,41 29,55 11,18 2,51 218,50 27,83 112,90 152,49 46,17 304,22 178,24 5,82 2.062,77 334,70 1015,87 1301,61 405,93 19,64 8,20 0,26 340,70 20,08 43,21 75,70 35,57 153,11 82,25 1,36 2.116,23 175,13 329,22 519,11 227,52 18,88 7,97 0,10 210,27 19,92 41,36 79,74 27,80 148,73 91,10 2,56 1.959,07 181,31 328,25 445,48 186,23 23,58 8,00 0,11 227,20 21,06 66,02 106,67 38,97 210,24 118,32 1,60 2.229,59 282,76 467,21 594,25 287,96 21,07 8,00 0,11 326,00 20,00 45,23 80,75 36,55 172,36 110,41 2,34 1.281,04 213,29 415,17 580,33 190,08 21,90 8,00 0,79 305,60 20,00 55,48 81,65 34,65 173,20 88,68 2,50 2.229,14 205,20 400,95 629,39 257,82 19,33 7,96 0,10 314,00 19,63 41,20 80,25 37,69 143,20 75,57 2,08 2.153,32 158,92 312,80 551,38 213,67 23,74 8,00 0,26 320,00 26,87 56,95 105,07 37,09 176,18 104,63 2,50 2.204,71 217,11 395,24 546,67 228,89 15,97 7,94 0,02 226,49 19,76 40,91 58,39 26,38 172,45 102,45 2,13 2.395,54 214,07 367,92 503,06 232,94 19,57 7,97 0,81 317,13 20,00 41,33 79,36 30,59 121,02 70,59 2,63 2.189,21 138,09 237,99 348,36 199,48 22,24 8,00 0,01 320,00 20,00 56,00 104,57 36,53 198,81 118,71 2,43 2.361,57 232,73 416,74 629,56 259,30 25,51 9,24 0,11 211,13 39,14 76,26 106,66 33,03 183,76 110,91 2,67 2.110,16 215,77 391,80 580,77 248,81 20,36 8,00 0,10 224,89 19,96 56,31 80,48 30,54 127,60 63,63 0,62 2.060,74 150,93 307,36 432,39 % from ED/Total 188,00 19,79 7,92 0,21 296,07 19,84 42,96 90,12 34,26 155,78 70,57 0,65 2.228,34 184,15 343,83 553,15 32,11 11,22 2,07 304,00 39,00 99,31 145,67 45,77 91,83 2,07 2.190,67 209,13 422,31 796,85 9,7% 12,8% 12,7% 11,2% 12,2% 12,6% 13,5% 13,5% 9,3% 16,2% 11,2% 13,9% 16,0% 258,15 189,86 15,7% 309,77 12,7% 16,9% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 113 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks In table 56, data on exposure to caffeine are expressed in mg/kg bw/day. The highest exposure to caffeine deriving from ED was reported for United Kingdom’s consumers (0,57 mg/kg bw/day), while the lowest value was registered in Italy (0,26 mg/kg bw/day). Table 56: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. (a) in the 16 MS StdDev exposure from ED 0,38 0,15 0,02 4,94 0,38 0,91 1,65 0,58 total exposure 2,41 1,40 0,03 46,47 2,76 5,08 7,42 3,62 exposure from ED 0,52 0,18 0,02 3,97 0,45 1,95 3,05 0,87 total exposure 4,80 2,93 0,10 25,78 4,66 15,76 20,06 6,00 exposure from ED 0,33 0,15 0,00 5,41 0,35 0,75 1,31 0,57 total exposure 2,64 1,43 0,02 50,17 2,90 5,95 9,02 3,93 exposure from ED 0,30 0,13 0,00 3,77 0,33 0,74 1,18 0,44 total exposure 2,39 1,47 0,03 43,47 2,92 5,28 7,46 3,01 exposure from ED 0,35 0,13 0,00 4,92 0,36 0,95 1,61 0,57 total exposure 3,16 1,81 0,01 40,89 4,17 7,06 9,63 4,21 exposure from ED 0,35 0,15 0,00 5,02 0,36 0,81 1,44 0,56 total exposure 2,90 1,91 0,04 20,02 3,74 6,26 9,24 3,10 exposure from ED 0,36 0,16 0,02 6,95 0,39 0,92 1,34 0,57 total exposure 2,84 1,51 0,04 49,54 3,32 6,42 10,55 4,27 exposure from ED 0,29 0,12 0,00 4,48 0,27 0,63 1,04 0,54 total exposure 2,14 1,18 0,03 42,24 2,39 4,89 7,79 3,01 exposure from ED 0,38 0,15 0,01 5,61 0,42 0,90 1,46 0,57 total exposure 2,82 1,72 0,02 42,85 3,46 6,45 9,21 3,54 exposure from ED 0,26 0,12 0,00 4,26 0,28 0,62 0,98 0,42 total exposure 2,76 1,68 0,03 47,41 3,44 6,17 8,37 3,57 exposure from ED 0,36 0,16 0,01 3,59 0,41 0,89 1,44 0,52 total exposure 2,20 1,31 0,05 45,87 2,58 4,47 6,43 3,47 exposure from ED 0,35 0,15 0,00 6,40 0,37 0,84 1,44 0,59 total exposure 3,20 1,91 0,02 48,14 3,76 7,16 10,28 4,13 exposure from ED 0,46 0,19 0,00 4,69 0,62 1,24 1,85 0,60 total exposure 3,33 2,09 0,05 44,56 4,07 7,33 10,28 4,40 exposure from ED 0,35 0,16 0,00 4,59 0,40 0,89 1,34 0,51 total exposure 2,13 1,11 0,01 29,63 2,56 5,22 7,47 2,90 exposure from ED 0,30 0,11 0,00 4,14 0,30 0,75 1,43 0,50 total exposure 2,36 1,08 0,01 47,00 2,58 5,54 8,71 4,04 exposure from ED 0,57 0,21 0,02 4,83 0,63 1,59 2,33 0,82 total exposure 3,21 1,64 0,02 31,77 3,55 7,23 13,36 % from ED/Total 4,62 15,7% 10,9% 12,6% 12,6% 11,0% 11,9% 12,7% 13,4% 13,3% 9,3% 16,3% 11,0% 13,8% 16,2% 12,5% 17,7% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 114 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 45 focuses on the average values of ED contribution to total caffeine exposure for the 16 MS covered by the study, considering both total respondents and ED consumers. The relative contribution from ED in total respondents varies from around 6% in Greece to 14% in Austria, while referring only to ED consumers the relative contribution varies from 9% in Italy to around 17% in the UK. Figure 45: Adolescents - ED contribution to total daily exposure to caffeine (%) by country (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 –ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 115 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Also in the case of adolescents, as already seen for adults (§ 3.3.2.5), differences in the total exposure to active ingredients other than caffeine (i.e. taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone) among total respondents, ED consumers, and high chronic consumers were higher than the differences already described for the case of caffeine. Exposure to taurine from ED varied from an average value of 192 mg/day in total respondents, to around 283 mg/day in ED consumers, till around 924 in high chronic consumers (tables 57 and 58). Table 57: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 - ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 192,01 33,33 0,00 4000 ED consumers 283,88 100,00 0,00 4000 924,34 733,67 0,00 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 4000 High chronic consumers 196,25 516,67 994,00 405,19 250,00 733,67 1333,33 465,05 1333,33 2000,00 2366,67 795,41 Table 58: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 - ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 3,14 0,67 0,00 90,91 2,91 8,61 14,72 6,60 ED consumers 4,63 1,82 0,00 90,91 4,90 11,48 18,81 7,56 10,33 0,00 80,00 21,42 33,81 41,16 13,09 High chronic consumers 14,53 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 116 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With regards to differences among MS, it is worth noting that: for total respondents, average value of exposure to taurine ranged from around 100 mg/day (corresponding to 1,62 mg/kg bw/day) in Italy, to around 284 mg/day (corresponding to 5 mg/kg bw/day) in United Kingdom (tables 58 and 59); for ED consumers the highest value in absolute terms – around 410 mg/day in the United Kingdom (corresponding to around 7mg/kg bw/day) – was more than twice the lowest one (around 180 mg/day corresponding to around 3 mg/kg bw/day in Italy: tables 60 and 61). With regards to differences between genders, exposure was around 345 mg/day in male ED consumers, versus around 213 mg/day in female ones. Table 59: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 178,93 64,55 0 3075,00 180,63 516,67 833,33 349,48 Belgium 302,22 85,00 0 2840,00 250,00 960,00 1893,33 564,87 Cyprus 120,32 13,33 0 4000,00 100,00 250,00 516,67 327,04 Czech Republic 191,02 100,00 0 2666,67 250,00 516,67 833,33 332,58 Finland 191,75 33,33 0 2840,00 142,00 500,00 1033,33 420,09 France 157,14 33,33 0 4000,00 100,00 362,92 733,67 372,85 Germany 165,07 33,33 0 4000,00 142,00 500,00 733,67 368,19 Greece 106,66 0,00 0 4000,00 100,00 250,00 516,67 326,05 Hungary 229,50 100,00 0 4000,00 250,00 516,67 1000,00 433,88 Italy 100,98 13,33 0 2840,00 100,00 250,00 516,67 260,87 Netherlands 160,62 33,33 0 3750,00 100,00 516,67 733,67 332,94 Poland 195,81 47,33 0 4000,00 200,00 516,67 800,00 405,17 Romania 209,31 40,00 0 2666,67 250,00 516,67 1183,33 369,52 Spain 148,54 33,33 0 2840,00 142,00 355,00 733,67 324,06 Sweden 163,04 33,33 0 2840,00 142,00 465,00 733,67 358,17 United Kingdom 284,45 100,00 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0 4000,00 250,00 850,00 1641,67 526,56 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 117 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 60: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 3,06 1,02 0 61,45 3,00 8,13 14,16 6,05 Belgium 5,35 1,43 0 51,64 4,46 15,40 38,77 10,64 Cyprus 2,05 0,27 0 63,11 1,87 5,46 8,88 5,39 Czech Republic 3,03 1,22 0 47,33 3,38 8,34 12,55 5,31 Finland 2,83 0,61 0 61,74 2,37 7,69 15,11 6,18 France 2,57 0,62 0 61,54 2,13 6,78 10,78 5,79 Germany 2,73 0,61 0 90,91 2,50 7,72 13,34 6,13 Greece 1,58 0,00 0 54,79 1,35 3,95 7,38 4,64 Hungary 3,63 1,31 0 72,73 4,17 9,41 15,43 6,73 Italy 1,62 0,24 0 53,33 1,54 4,24 7,62 4,11 Netherlands 2,94 0,74 0 47,33 2,50 8,08 13,34 5,75 Poland 3,09 0,75 0 80,00 2,96 7,96 13,34 6,49 Romania 3,76 0,95 0 59,26 4,44 10,51 17,47 6,76 Spain 2,52 0,56 0 57,96 2,22 7,10 12,34 5,41 Sweden 2,43 0,60 0 51,64 2,00 6,42 11,29 5,26 1,52 0 63,49 5,00 15,78 26,04 9,42 United Kingdom 5,03 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 61: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 238,76 100,00 3 3075,00 250,00 516,67 1033,33 385,63 Belgium 355,24 130,68 10 2840,00 253,69 1413,33 1904,00 597,40 Cyprus 228,14 100,00 0 4000,00 250,00 516,67 733,67 422,26 Czech Republic 233,83 100,00 0 2666,67 250,00 516,67 1000,00 354,10 Finland 295,75 100,00 0 2840,00 250,00 833,33 1333,33 491,42 France 238,39 100,00 1 4000,00 250,00 516,67 944,94 437,78 Germany 274,17 100,00 0 4000,00 250,00 733,67 1033,33 441,98 Greece 220,84 100,00 0 4000,00 225,00 516,67 800,00 441,62 Hungary 293,08 100,00 0 4000,00 250,00 733,33 1333,33 470,94 Italy 180,40 100,00 0 2840,00 173,59 512,60 733,67 327,49 Netherlands 241,04 100,00 0 3750,00 250,00 516,67 1000,00 383,44 Poland 268,79 100,00 0 4000,00 250,00 700,00 1183,33 453,59 Romania 300,26 100,00 1 2666,67 355,00 733,67 1333,33 410,64 Spain 240,07 100,00 0 2840,00 250,00 718,00 1033,33 384,44 Sweden 236,69 100,00 0 2840,00 250,00 516,67 1033,33 410,91 United Kingdom 409,73 142,00 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 6 4000,00 500,00 1230,67 1893,33 590,05 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 118 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 62: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 4,08 1,67 0 61,45 4,31 9,94 17,56 6,68 Belgium 6,29 2,18 0 51,64 5,12 24,27 39,41 11,29 Cyprus 3,89 1,79 0 63,11 4,02 8,63 13,54 6,93 Czech Republic 3,71 1,67 0 47,33 4,17 9,39 14,44 5,65 Finland 4,37 1,56 0 61,74 4,55 11,83 20,11 7,22 France 3,90 1,72 0 61,54 4,31 9,39 14,71 6,76 Germany 4,54 1,92 0 90,91 5,00 11,47 17,05 7,36 Greece 3,27 1,43 0 54,79 3,08 7,38 11,81 6,24 Hungary 4,63 1,82 0 72,73 5,10 11,23 18,50 7,30 Italy 2,89 1,31 0 53,33 2,91 6,88 11,48 5,15 Netherlands 4,41 1,95 0 47,33 5,04 10,86 18,38 6,57 Poland 4,24 1,72 0 80,00 4,55 10,33 16,67 7,28 Romania 5,40 2,22 0 59,26 7,40 14,54 21,10 7,53 Spain 4,07 1,79 0 57,96 4,55 11,03 16,47 6,40 Sweden 3,53 1,42 0 51,64 3,52 8,69 15,54 6,03 2,63 0 63,49 7,95 21,21 30,30 10,58 United Kingdom 7,25 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 119 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Contribution from ED to chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone in high chronic consumers was more than three times the average value for all ED consumers, and over four times the average value for total respondents (tables 63 and 64). Table 63: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 - ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 67,72 14,00 0 2400 60,00 159,75 310 167,29 100,14 32,68 0 2400 105,00 248,00 420 195,09 High chronic consumers 311,60 156,49 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 0 2400 425,00 875,00 1136 368,58 ED consumers Table 64: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 - ED consumers; 2.077 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 1,12 0,22 0 43,64 0,96 ED consumers 1,65 0,55 0 43,64 1,67 2,56 0 43,64 6,73 High chronic consumers 4,98 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 2,82 5,22 2,73 4,13 6,77 3,18 14,20 18,26 6,11 120 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Focussing on the differences registered among MS, with reference to the chronic exposure to Dglucurono-y-lactone, it can be highlighted that: with regards to total respondents, average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone ranged from around 41 mg/day (0,60 mg/kg bw/day) in Greece, to around 104,5 mg/day (1,91 mg/kg bw/day) in Romania49 (tables 65 and 66); with regards to ED contribution in ED consumers, values varied from around 51 mg/day in Czech Republic to around 150 mg/day in Romania; Similarly to what observed for taurine, some differences also appeared between genders: ED contribution to total exposure was around 117 mg/day for male ED consumers, versus around 80 mg/day for female ones. Table 65: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 95,94 24,00 0 2400,00 85,20 279,00 440,20 196,48 Belgium 105,21 40,00 0 1136,00 120,00 213,00 662,00 208,98 Cyprus 46,04 0,00 0 2160,00 30,00 105,00 191,70 149,52 Czech Republic 41,73 6,00 0 1200,00 30,00 105,00 205,37 112,40 Finland 59,04 6,39 0 1600,00 33,00 139,52 300,00 168,77 France 62,59 15,06 0 2400,00 57,00 150,00 265,01 163,55 Germany 54,39 6,00 0 1695,48 42,00 149,19 270,69 151,08 Greece 40,86 0,00 0 1704,00 20,08 80,94 150,00 151,00 Hungary 41,51 4,00 0 2160,00 26,25 93,00 186,00 132,10 Italy 46,05 5,63 0 1704,00 42,00 120,00 213,00 127,48 Netherlands 69,85 19,00 0 1831,25 60,00 186,00 310,00 156,82 Poland 51,84 8,00 0 2400,00 42,00 124,00 253,65 143,11 104,45 20,00 0 1600,00 136,25 310,00 500,00 191,94 Spain 46,10 4,92 0 1704,00 36,00 124,72 217,00 126,36 Sweden 67,39 16,60 0 1600,00 59,64 155,00 310,00 162,44 15,00 0 1600,00 66,56 215,00 397,14 181,62 Romania United Kingdom 81,08 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 49 The highest chronic exposure to glucuronolactone on total respondents was observed in Belgium (105 mg/day corresponding to 1,95 mg/kg bw/day). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 121 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 66: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 1,64 0,44 0 36,86 1,42 4,46 7,08 3,34 Belgium 1,95 0,54 0 24,70 1,76 3,60 11,82 4,42 Cyprus 0,77 0,00 0 37,87 0,54 1,88 3,48 2,42 Czech Republic 0,66 0,10 0 22,72 0,50 1,61 3,13 1,80 Finland 0,87 0,10 0 33,34 0,51 2,06 4,25 2,50 France 1,01 0,26 0 36,92 0,97 2,72 4,57 2,43 Germany 0,89 0,10 0 29,43 0,67 2,45 4,44 2,30 Greece 0,60 0,00 0 27,61 0,36 1,24 2,50 2,06 Hungary 0,64 0,06 0 27,88 0,43 1,50 3,10 1,95 Italy 0,74 0,09 0 30,98 0,65 1,90 3,30 2,00 Netherlands 1,25 0,33 0 21,82 1,13 3,56 5,64 2,50 Poland 0,81 0,13 0 43,64 0,65 2,00 3,88 2,26 Romania 1,91 0,43 0 35,56 2,28 5,58 9,10 3,60 Spain 0,78 0,08 0 26,08 0,60 2,12 3,78 2,08 Sweden 1,01 0,25 0 23,24 0,86 2,54 5,21 2,37 0,27 0 29,09 1,33 3,68 7,53 3,23 United Kingdom 1,44 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Table 67: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 128,02 56,70 0 2400,00 135,00 310,00 567,00 217,74 Belgium 123,67 48,00 0 1136,00 129,78 247,44 817,76 221,69 Cyprus 87,30 28,97 0 2160,00 75,00 186,00 328,14 197,00 Czech Republic 51,09 14,00 0 1200,00 45,00 127,20 248,00 122,42 Finland 91,06 20,00 0 1600,00 68,20 226,84 440,20 202,56 France 94,96 42,00 0 2400,00 93,00 217,00 374,17 193,73 Germany 90,33 30,00 0 1695,48 85,20 240,00 358,43 186,24 Greece 84,61 22,68 0 1704,00 60,00 150,00 310,00 208,66 Hungary 53,01 10,00 0 2160,00 40,30 124,00 248,00 147,23 Italy 82,27 28,40 0 1704,00 68,62 185,82 310,00 161,42 104,83 48,00 0 1831,25 132,47 279,00 419,46 182,35 71,16 18,00 0 2400,00 60,00 174,69 308,40 163,53 149,83 60,00 0 1600,00 170,50 323,75 704,32 214,63 Spain 74,50 21,30 0 1704,00 60,86 175,51 310,00 153,94 Sweden 97,83 30,00 0 1600,00 90,00 270,75 426,44 187,99 45,00 0 1600,00 120,00 310,00 528,24 208,24 Netherlands Poland Romania United Kingdom 116,78 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 122 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks The highest contribution from ED to D-glucurono-y-lactone exposure was recorded in Romania (2,74 mg/kg bw/day, against an average value of 1,65 mg/day/kg for total ED consumers). Table 68: Adolescents – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 2,18 0,93 0 36,86 2,32 5,52 8,82 3,70 Belgium 2,29 0,86 0 24,70 2,19 3,95 15,82 4,71 Cyprus 1,46 0,48 0 37,87 1,26 3,40 5,49 3,18 Czech Republic 0,81 0,20 0 22,72 0,69 2,02 3,70 1,96 Finland 1,34 0,34 0 33,34 1,09 3,43 6,55 3,00 France 1,54 0,65 0 36,92 1,63 3,67 5,64 2,85 Germany 1,47 0,47 0 29,43 1,50 4,01 6,12 2,81 Greece 1,24 0,39 0 27,61 1,07 2,59 4,43 2,83 Hungary 0,82 0,17 0 27,88 0,64 2,02 3,82 2,17 Italy 1,32 0,49 0 30,98 1,25 3,00 5,17 2,53 Netherlands 1,88 0,86 0 21,82 2,34 4,98 7,71 2,87 Poland 1,12 0,30 0 43,64 0,99 2,72 4,94 2,58 Romania 2,74 1,15 0 35,56 3,49 6,77 10,79 4,04 Spain 1,27 0,39 0 26,08 1,14 3,26 5,46 2,53 Sweden 1,46 0,45 0 23,24 1,32 3,88 6,52 2,73 0,75 0 29,09 2,17 5,54 9,57 3,71 United Kingdom 2,07 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 123 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.3.5. ED acute consumption: analysis on high acute consumers As previously seen for adults (§ 3.3.2.2), also in the case of adolescents data were elaborated according to a specifically defined methodology, in order to identify “high acute” consumers (§ 2.3.5). High acute consumers represented around 12% of total ED consumers; prevalence of high acute consumers ranged from 7% of total ED consumers in Romania and the Netherlands to 17% in Germany and Sweden50 (figure 46). Figure 46: Adolescents – Prevalence of high acute ED consumption by country (Sample size: 20.713 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Prevalence of high acute consumption was slightly higher in the 15-18 years age group towards the younger one (12% and 11% respectively). It reached a share of 23% among smokers (ED consumers who declare to regularly smoke), while among non-smoker consumers it was around 9%. Around 54% of high acute consumers declared to have consumed more than 4 cans of ED in a single session of consumption over the last year. About 50% of high acute consumers among the adolescents involved in the survey have drunk 4 or more cocktails of ED and alcohol in a single session. Then, 22% of high acute consumers declared of having drunk more than 4 cans of ED during sport activities (figure 47). 50 The highest prevalence of high acute ED consumption was observed in Belgium (26%). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 124 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 47: Adolescents - ED consumption: high acute and total consumers (Sample size: 20.713 – ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers; 11.034 – ED consumers drinking ED and alcohol; 16.055 - ED consumers practicing sport activities) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 125 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 126 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.3.6. Exposure to active ingredients in high acute adolescent consumers Tables 69 and 70 illustrate the average values of acute exposure to caffeine of total respondents, ED consumers and high acute consumers. Values in mg/single session varied from around 119 mg for total respondents, to 175 for ED consumers till around 458 for high acute consumers. Table 69: Adolescents – Acute exposure to caffeine from ED (values in mg/single session) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713 - ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers) Mean Median Total respondents 118,63 79,84 ED consumers 175,62 High acute consumers 457,98 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 0,00 1.110,25 159,96 316,10 397,56 135,76 149,00 0,32 1.110,25 229,80 340,80 449,51 131,45 426,67 197,50 1.110,25 546,26 614,85 760,00 119,59 Table 70: Adolescents – Acute exposure to caffeine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/single session) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713- ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 1,97 1,44 0,00 17,78 2,84 4,92 6,43 2,24 ED consumers 2,92 2,13 0,00 17,78 3,67 5,82 7,24 2,16 High acute consumers Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 7,21 6,76 2,06 17,78 8,66 10,83 11,87 2,39 Also with respect to acute exposure to caffeine from ED, some differences were observed at MS level: as for total respondents, acute exposure to caffeine ranged from around 83 mg/single session (1,32 mg/kg bw/single session) in the case of Greece, to nearly 146 mg/single session (2,34 mg/kg bw/single session) in the case of Czech Republic51 (tables 71 and 72); as for ED consumers, the highest value of acute exposure to caffeine was registered in Germany52, with around 202 mg/single session (3,44 mg/kg bw/single session) Belgium, with around 226 mg/single session (3,77 mg/kg bw/single session) (tables 73 and 74). As for differences among age groups, the average value of acute exposure to caffeine for total respondents was around 130 mg/single session in adolescents aged 15-18, versus around 92 mg/single session in the age group between 10 and 14 years; With regards to differences between genders, male respondents presented an average acute exposure to caffeine equal to about 140 mg/single session, against 100 mg/single session registered for female respondents. 51 The highest acute exposure to caffeine on total respondents was observed in Belgium (192 mg/single session corresponding to 3,21 mg/kg bw/single session). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. 52 The highest acute exposure to caffeine on ED consumers was observed in Belgium (226 mg/single session and 3,77 mg/kg bw/single session). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 127 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 71: Adolescents – Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 143,38 80,82 0 800,00 237,08 337,93 400,00 133,05 Belgium 192,38 159,35 0 779,38 240,00 449,88 540,75 171,77 Cyprus 99,15 76,43 0 851,75 160,85 309,80 352,90 133,37 Czech Republic 145,96 109,66 0 805,00 220,17 320,24 398,59 130,75 Finland 113,50 80,00 0 800,00 159,50 320,00 400,00 144,17 France 105,81 79,84 0 652,00 159,19 239,30 338,24 118,60 Germany 121,88 77,53 0 920,05 159,89 322,44 447,21 155,29 82,84 0,00 0 785,00 113,60 237,53 343,95 122,43 136,65 80,00 0 800,00 160,01 320,00 400,00 130,66 87,36 79,03 0 799,84 153,44 236,29 329,87 113,11 Netherlands 105,56 79,55 0 781,15 158,35 240,00 320,00 117,32 Poland 110,44 80,00 0 800,00 158,38 240,00 340,80 117,49 Romania 103,67 79,68 0 800,00 156,13 240,00 323,88 115,82 97,02 78,09 0 822,50 153,15 237,08 329,28 119,35 138,36 80,00 0 1.110,25 224,87 339,42 449,87 153,31 United Kingdom 125,66 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 79,19 0 800,00 159,00 316,70 409,31 142,44 Greece Hungary Italy Spain Sweden Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 128 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 72: Adolescents - Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) - Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 2,47 1,78 0,00 15,42 3,75 5,85 7,01 2,32 Belgium 3,21 2,37 0,00 11,58 4,90 7,88 9,59 2,97 Cyprus 1,73 1,12 0,00 13,74 2,73 4,97 6,27 2,31 Czech Republic 2,34 1,75 0,00 16,34 3,24 5,16 6,45 2,09 Finland 1,71 1,33 0,00 16,00 2,27 4,27 6,15 2,14 France 1,81 1,43 0,00 11,24 2,67 4,41 5,80 2,01 Germany 2,07 1,35 0,00 15,35 3,05 5,78 7,59 2,63 Greece 1,31 0,00 0,00 14,88 1,83 3,81 5,20 1,96 Hungary 2,23 1,54 0,00 17,78 3,14 5,31 6,68 2,17 Italy 1,44 1,13 0,00 17,77 2,10 3,74 5,23 1,90 Netherlands 1,98 1,51 0,00 16,76 2,86 5,17 6,38 2,22 Poland 1,79 1,38 0,00 15,99 2,35 4,25 5,62 1,92 Romania 1,92 1,59 0,00 17,59 2,61 4,64 6,27 2,14 Spain 1,69 1,33 0,00 16,35 2,34 4,45 5,78 2,07 Sweden 2,07 1,43 0,00 11,88 3,19 5,33 6,88 2,24 United Kingdom Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 2,24 1,67 0,00 14,55 3,21 5,52 7,12 2,50 Table 73: Adolescents - Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max Austria 191,32 159,68 32,00 800,00 240,00 397,20 400,00 120,20 Belgium 226,13 160,00 67,57 779,38 340,75 454,36 548,73 164,33 Cyprus 188,02 159,96 7,72 851,75 245,91 349,80 435,64 130,46 Czech Republic 178,67 155,60 3,07 805,00 235,13 335,90 400,78 122,80 Finland 175,06 113,60 3,20 800,00 164,50 340,80 490,80 145,89 France 160,52 113,14 3,23 652,00 224,43 318,70 397,53 112,04 Germany 202,44 153,89 21,00 920,05 302,70 426,73 546,70 154,10 Greece 171,53 116,62 3,07 785,00 223,35 359,67 445,08 125,80 Hungary 174,51 154,80 3,20 800,00 236,10 375,00 400,00 123,26 Italy 156,06 112,22 0,61 799,84 165,85 319,91 398,38 110,15 Netherlands 158,41 113,60 16,17 781,15 217,26 316,10 394,28 110,82 Poland 151,61 85,66 0,32 800,00 160,00 320,00 395,13 112,72 Romania 148,72 85,66 3,20 800,00 160,00 314,22 383,32 112,00 Spain 156,81 109,91 3,07 822,50 217,84 319,83 397,93 116,81 Sweden 200,86 158,38 6,37 1.110,25 249,00 400,00 513,98 146,85 United Kingdom 181,00 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 150,00 60,00 800,00 227,20 340,80 468,00 138,58 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 129 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 74: Adolescents - Acute exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 3,30 2,75 0,53 15,42 4,53 6,35 7,27 2,11 Belgium 3,77 2,75 0,68 11,58 5,65 8,67 10,07 2,87 Cyprus 3,27 2,63 0,12 13,74 4,34 6,17 7,59 2,25 Czech Republic 2,86 2,31 0,08 16,34 3,69 5,64 6,90 1,96 Finland 2,64 1,88 0,05 16,00 2,91 5,34 7,38 2,15 France 2,74 2,00 0,06 11,24 3,54 5,14 6,32 1,89 Germany 3,44 2,57 0,42 15,35 4,52 6,82 9,20 2,61 Greece 2,71 1,92 0,06 14,88 3,42 5,24 6,88 2,04 Hungary 2,85 2,13 0,07 17,78 3,66 5,85 7,11 2,06 Italy 2,57 1,85 0,01 17,77 3,16 4,99 6,40 1,87 Netherlands 2,97 2,21 0,16 16,76 3,73 5,87 7,23 2,11 Poland 2,45 1,67 0,00 15,99 3,02 4,88 6,28 1,85 Romania 2,75 1,88 0,06 17,59 3,33 5,34 7,05 2,07 Spain 2,73 1,93 0,05 16,35 3,41 5,33 6,77 2,03 Sweden 3,00 2,32 0,14 11,88 4,06 6,06 7,51 2,12 United Kingdom Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 3,23 2,37 0,64 14,55 4,08 6,54 8,47 2,41 Acute exposure to taurine from ED in high acute consumers was more than two times the average value for all ED consumers, and over four times the average value for total respondents (tables 75 and 76). Table 75: Adolescents – Acute exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/single session) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713- ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. Total respondents 1.414,48 1.000 0 10.000 2.000 4.000 ED consumers 2.094,16 1.420 0 10.000 2.840 High acute consumers 5.821,87 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 5.396 0 10.000 7.100 StdDev 5.000 1.722,44 4.260 5.680 1.723,13 8.000 10.000 1.577,68 Table 76: Adolescents – Acute exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/single session) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713- ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. Total respondents 23,47 16,67 0 222,22 ED consumers 34,70 23,81 0 222,22 44,44 High acute consumers 91,58 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 86,21 0 222,22 109,23 33,33 61,54 StdDev 80,00 28,44 72,73 90,91 28,35 136,29 154,35 31,19 Tables from 77 to 80 provides data on acute exposure to taurine from ED (in mg/single session and mg/kg bw/single session) in the 16 MS considered in the study (total respondents and ED consumers).Concerning differences among MS, the highest values of acute exposure to taurine for total respondents (tables 77 and 78) were registered in Czech Republic53 with 1.791 mg/single session (28,62 mg/kg bw/single session). 53 The highest acute exposure to taurine on total respondents was observed in Belgium (2.222 mg/single session corresponding to 37,1 mg/kg bw/single session). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 130 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 77: Adolescents - Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Austria 1.558,12 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.167,50 4.000 5.000 1.577,45 Belgium 2.222,25 1.500,00 0 9.812,50 3.000,00 5.680 7.100 2.183,24 Cyprus 1.155,69 375,32 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 3.000 4.260 1.619,02 Czech Republic 1.790,56 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.840,00 4.000 5.000 1.692,00 Finland 1.414,45 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 4.000 5.000 1.822,57 France 1.202,62 1.000,00 0 8.000,00 2.000,00 3.000 4.169 1.488,84 Germany 1.514,17 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 4.025 5.680 2.000,93 942,75 0,00 0 10.000,00 1.199,94 2.840 4.234 1.476,85 1.653,05 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 4.000 5.000 1.673,26 Greece Hungary Italy Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 952,01 375,32 0 10.000,00 1.200,00 2.840 4.000 1.378,07 Netherlands 1.297,04 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 3.000 4.000 1.476,73 Poland 1.322,45 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 3.000 4.260 1.460,94 Romania 1.192,18 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 3.000 4.000 1.456,53 Spain 1.119,39 992,50 0 10.000,00 1.420,00 3.000 4.260 1.502,39 Sweden 1.685,33 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.840,00 4.260 5.680 1.902,17 United Kingdom 1.590,74 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 1.000,00 0 10.000,00 2.000,00 4.000 5.170 1.837,52 Table 78: Adolescents – Acute exposure to taurine from ED acute consumption in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) - Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 26,80 18,53 0 185,19 40,00 67,12 83,33 27,43 Belgium 37,10 27,88 0 154,35 55,10 98,66 124,51 38,08 Cyprus 20,08 7,27 0 177,50 31,56 60,00 76,07 28,06 Czech Republic 28,62 20,41 0 212,77 40,54 66,67 81,63 26,93 Finland 21,35 16,67 0 200,00 28,40 54,56 76,92 27,07 France 20,48 15,33 0 142,00 29,94 54,55 71,43 25,24 Germany 25,71 15,70 0 200,00 37,83 73,29 95,81 34,07 Greece 14,83 0,00 0 166,67 20,73 44,44 62,50 23,31 Hungary 26,88 18,18 0 222,22 38,46 66,67 83,53 27,70 Italy 15,59 6,15 0 222,22 21,74 43,69 61,74 22,85 Netherlands 24,31 18,18 0 217,39 35,71 64,59 80,35 27,98 Poland 21,32 16,67 0 200,00 28,17 51,56 66,67 23,76 Romania 21,90 17,39 0 222,22 30,15 53,77 76,92 26,76 Spain 19,43 14,25 0 212,77 26,30 52,94 71,43 26,03 Sweden 25,13 17,54 0 145,45 38,99 65,54 83,34 27,78 United Kingdom 28,36 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 21,24 0 181,82 41,29 71,00 88,99 32,16 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 131 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With regards to ED consumers, the highest values of acute exposure to taurine among MS (tables 79 and 80) were registered in Germany54 with 2.515 mg/single session (42.71 mg/kg bw/single session). Table 79: Adolescents - Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 2.079,14 1.815,00 75,00 10.000,00 3.000 4.260 5.000,00 1.495,66 Belgium 2.612,11 2.000,00 252,92 9.812,50 4.047 5.744 7.100,00 2.140,36 Cyprus 2.191,41 2.000,00 0,00 10.000,00 3.000 4.260 5.000,00 1.643,40 Czech Republic 2.191,82 2.000,00 7,00 10.000,00 3.000 4.260 5.000,00 1.620,13 Finland 2.181,60 1.420,00 0,00 10.000,00 2.000 4.260 6.000,00 1.857,39 France 1.824,48 1.000,00 40,00 8.000,00 2.808 4.000 5.000,00 1.492,75 Germany 2.514,98 2.000,00 0,00 10.000,00 4.000 5.680 7.100,00 2.033,03 Greece 1.951,94 1.420,00 0,00 10.000,00 2.769 4.260 5.520,00 1.595,79 Hungary 2.111,01 2.000,00 0,00 10.000,00 3.000 4.260 5.000,00 1.615,13 Italy 1.700,69 1.000,00 0,00 10.000,00 2.000 4.000 5.000,00 1.455,79 Netherlands 1.946,51 1.420,00 0,00 10.000,00 2.000 4.000 5.000,00 1.417,13 Poland 1.815,35 1.000,00 0,00 10.000,00 2.000 4.000 5.000,00 1.426,55 Romania 1.710,17 1.000,00 40,00 10.000,00 2.000 4.000 5.000,00 1.468,82 Spain 1.809,18 1.295,81 0,00 10.000,00 2.000 4.000 5.000,00 1.549,28 Sweden 2.446,62 2.000,00 0,00 10.000,00 3.000 5.000 6.640,50 1.841,15 United Kingdom 2.291,32 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 1.420,00 180,44 10.000,00 2.840 4.260 6.000,00 1.805,01 Table 80: Adolescents – Acute exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 35,76 28,57 0,63 185,19 48,98 74,67 88,75 26,15 Belgium 43,61 30,77 2,86 154,35 61,56 109,68 130,40 37,68 Cyprus 38,07 30,77 0,00 177,50 50,00 74,74 90,50 28,43 Czech Republic 35,03 27,78 0,13 212,77 46,15 71,43 86,21 25,75 Finland 32,93 23,67 0,00 200,00 36,36 67,42 92,55 27,36 France 31,07 21,28 0,70 142,00 42,39 63,11 78,89 25,25 Germany 42,71 31,25 0,00 200,00 57,14 89,13 119,95 34,67 Greece 30,71 21,28 0,00 166,67 40,00 63,54 82,79 25,24 Hungary 34,33 24,48 0,00 222,22 44,78 72,96 88,89 26,91 Italy 27,85 19,72 0,00 222,22 35,71 59,70 76,92 24,31 Netherlands 36,49 26,30 0,00 217,39 46,15 73,90 90,30 27,04 Poland 29,27 20,00 0,00 200,00 36,36 59,06 76,92 23,28 Romania 31,41 22,22 0,71 222,22 37,74 64,94 88,54 26,98 Spain 31,40 21,85 0,00 212,77 40,82 65,54 86,54 26,82 Sweden 36,49 27,84 0,00 145,45 50,00 72,73 94,60 26,57 United Kingdom 40,86 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 30,77 3,03 181,82 51,64 83,33 109,23 31,29 54 The highest acute exposure to taurine on ED consumers was observed in Belgium (2.612 mg/single session corresponding to 43,61 mg/kg bw/single session). Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 132 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With regards to the acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED, data in mg/single session vary from around 512 mg for total respondents, to around 759 for ED consumers and around 1.934 in high acute consumers (tables 81 and 82). Table 81: Adolescents – Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/single session) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713- ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 512,62 240,00 0 6.000 600 1.440 2.100 744,18 ED consumers 759,24 540,00 0 6.000 1.050 1.800 2.400 795,64 High acute consumers 1.934,11 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 2.044,80 0 6.000 2.982 3.834 4.260 1.319,83 Table 82: Adolescents – Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/kg bw/single session) (Sample size: 31.070 – Total respondents; 20.713- ED consumers; 2.170 – High acute consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 4,00 0 132,67 11,54 24,34 33,96 12,56 12,70 8,96 0 132,67 16,73 29,51 39,71 13,44 30,93 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 28,96 0 132,67 44,84 62,65 73,85 22,80 ED consumers High acute consumers 8,58 For what concerns differences among MS, it can be noted that: with regards to total respondents, acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone ranges from around 306 mg/single session (4,96 mg/kg bw/single session) in Hungary, to around 828 mg/single session (14,28 mg/kg bw/single session) in the case of Austria55 (tables 83 and 84); with regards to ED consumers, the highest value of acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone is registered in Austria, with around 1.105 mg/single session (19 mg/kg bw/single session) (tables 85 and 86); As for differences among age groups of total respondents, the average value of acute exposure to Dglucurono-y-lactone is around 566 mg/single session in adolescents aged 15-18, versus around 375 mg/single session in the age group between 10 and 14 years; Passing to variations between genders, the average acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone results to be around 582 mg/single session for males and 455 mg/single session for females. 55 The highest acute exposure to glucuronolactone on total respondents was observed in Belgium (890 mg/single session and 15,25 mg/kg bw/single session. Nevertheless, due do the small dimension of the sample for Belgium, for which the sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%, it was preferred not to cite this figure. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 133 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 83: Adolescents - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 828,01 600,00 0 6.000 1.200,00 2.202,60 2.700,00 872,91 Belgium 890,91 532,50 0 4.500 1.200,00 1.920,00 2.992,80 962,77 Cyprus 447,53 0 0 5.400 600,00 1.533,60 2.040,00 738,25 Czech Republic 390,66 150,00 0 5.400 540,00 1.200,00 1.704,00 610,37 Finland 412,30 120,00 0 5.850 546,00 1.102,62 1.953,36 720,62 France 517,10 240,00 0 4.800 600,00 1.440,00 2.080,68 726,62 Germany 481,75 120,00 0 5.100 600,00 1.533,60 2.241,90 763,44 Greece 359,52 0 0 4.260 540,00 1.080,00 1.620,00 663,14 Hungary 306,41 60,00 0 5.400 360,00 900,00 1.440,00 558,92 Italy 442,91 127,26 0 6.000 600,00 1.200,00 1.800,00 686,26 Netherlands 569,67 429,38 0 4.800 769,20 1.575,00 2.044,80 711,40 Poland 352,16 135,00 0 6.000 480,00 960,00 1.405,80 565,27 Romania 600,36 480,00 0 5.400 766,80 1.704,00 2.392,80 752,96 Spain 341,22 90,36 0 6.000 525,00 960,00 1.507,50 561,83 Sweden 691,80 450,00 0 6.000 1.080,00 1.800,00 2.556,00 875,85 United Kingdom 488,23 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 207,30 0 6.000 600,00 1.278,00 2.055,00 743,48 Table 84: Adolescents - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) - Total respondents (Sample size: 31.070) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 14,28 10,00 0 92,15 21,82 37,19 46,15 15,18 Belgium 15,25 9,68 0 92,61 21,60 34,51 55,48 17,46 Cyprus 7,67 0,00 0 94,67 10,84 25,04 33,94 12,62 Czech Republic 6,28 2,35 0 85,20 8,71 18,62 26,18 9,95 Finland 6,19 1,91 0 85,20 8,11 16,94 27,83 10,49 France 8,76 4,58 0 85,20 12,00 25,54 35,10 12,21 Germany 8,23 2,03 0 86,51 11,16 25,16 37,02 13,14 Greece 5,67 0,00 0 85,20 8,33 17,53 26,63 10,47 Hungary 4,96 1,15 0 100,00 6,00 14,20 23,41 9,08 Italy 7,28 2,27 0 132,67 10,34 20,69 29,47 11,44 10,58 7,66 0 82,29 15,00 28,15 39,13 13,15 Netherlands Poland 5,66 2,27 0 109,09 7,75 15,27 23,95 9,08 11,18 8,15 0 121,71 15,00 27,69 40,47 14,22 5,92 1,63 0 94,67 8,88 16,83 25,66 9,64 10,38 6,55 0 80,38 15,33 28,44 38,07 12,97 United Kingdom 8,74 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 3,75 0 109,09 11,44 24,89 33,67 13,51 Romania Spain Sweden Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 134 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 85: Adolescents - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 1.104,88 852,00 0 6.000 1.620 2.400,00 2.984,10 843,10 Belgium 1.047,21 840,00 0 4.500 1.444 2.484,00 3.126,00 962,21 Cyprus 848,59 596,40 0 5.400 1.200 1.893,60 2.400,00 832,65 Czech Republic 478,20 240,00 0 5.400 600 1.260,00 1.800,00 643,57 Finland 635,92 390,00 0 5.850 768 1.381,08 2.400,00 811,71 France 784,48 540,00 0 4.800 1.080 1.800,00 2.400,00 769,01 Germany 800,18 540,00 0 5.100 1.170 2.100,00 2.400,00 844,68 Greece 744,36 540,00 0 4.260 900 1.628,28 2.400,00 790,14 Hungary 391,30 180,00 0 5.400 480 1.080,00 1.704,00 604,77 Italy 791,23 600,00 0 6.000 1.059 1.753,50 2.400,00 752,16 Netherlands 854,92 600,00 0 4.800 1.200 1.800,00 2.400,00 718,09 Poland 483,42 300,00 0 6.000 600 1.192,80 1.704,00 612,52 Romania 861,22 600,00 0 5.400 1.200 1.800,00 2.400,00 767,24 Spain 551,49 420,00 0 6.000 639 1.260,00 1.800,00 627,91 1.004,30 600,00 0 6.000 1.350 2.385,60 3.000,00 894,33 United Kingdom 703,25 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 480,00 0 6.000 900 1.704,00 2.400,00 803,22 Sweden Table 86: Adolescents - Acute exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/single session) – ED Consumers (Sample size: 20.713) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 19,05 14,29 0 92,15 26,53 41,67 49,09 14,71 Belgium 17,93 12,74 0 92,61 24,22 40,68 58,44 17,62 Cyprus 14,55 10,19 0 94,67 21,31 33,33 42,60 14,22 7,69 4,00 0 85,20 10,34 20,69 29,95 10,51 Finland 9,54 6,00 0 85,20 11,52 22,04 33,76 11,73 France 13,30 9,38 0 85,20 17,04 31,03 38,57 12,88 Germany 13,66 9,23 0 86,51 18,46 34,29 43,92 14,57 Greece 11,74 8,57 0 85,20 15,00 27,00 35,50 12,48 Czech Republic Hungary 6,33 2,86 0 100,00 7,89 17,14 26,67 9,83 Italy 13,00 9,31 0 132,67 16,67 27,88 37,87 12,63 Netherlands 15,87 11,80 0 82,29 21,05 34,16 44,67 13,24 7,77 5,12 0 109,09 9,82 18,87 26,67 9,84 16,04 12,00 0 121,71 20,00 33,09 46,41 14,57 9,56 6,67 0 94,67 12,12 22,50 31,51 10,74 15,07 10,84 0 80,38 21,05 34,09 43,64 13,18 United Kingdom 12,59 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 9,09 0 109,09 16,09 29,45 37,50 14,65 Poland Romania Spain Sweden Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 135 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.4. Children The sample of “children” featured a marked prevalence of male respondents (4.960 Total respondents). Children living in urban areas accounted for around 53% of the sample; around 99% of respondents attended primary schools, while around 1% attended pre-schools. Children aged 3-5 accounted for around 1% of the sample; children aged 6-10 accounted for the remaining share (around 99%). 3.3.4.1. ED consumption On average, around 18% of children stated to have consumed ED at least once in the last year; the figure presents differences at MS level (from a prevalence of around 6% in Hungary to a prevalence of around 40% in the Czech Republic) (figure 48). Prevalence of ED consumption was around 19% in the age group 6-10 years, and decreased to around 2% in the age group 3-5 age. Prevalence was higher among male: around 22%, versus around 14% among female (figure 49) Figure 48: Children – Prevalence of ED consumption by country (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 136 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 49: Children – Prevalence of ED consumption by age groups and gender (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Among ED consumers (930 ED consumers), around 16% stated to have been drinking ED 3 times a week or more during the last months before the survey (figure 50). As for the consumption location, most children consumed ED at home (35%), during sport and physical exercise (27%) and at parties (26%). Consumption frequency resulted to be one glass per week for around 56% of consumers, and 2 glasses per week for around 24%, with an average ED consumption volume of 0,49 L/week for ED consumers, ranging from 0,25 L/week in Belgium to 0,63 L/week in Germany. Children declared that they drank ED for their taste (around 60% of consumers) or as a source of energy (around 31% of consumers). When asked whether they considered drinking ED the same as drinking colas, around 55% of consumers declared that they were aware of the difference between the two product categories, while around 23% of consumers declared that they simply did not know. Around 19% of consumers considered ED and colas equivalent. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 137 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Figure 50: Children – ED consumption and related features (Sample size: 930 – ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 138 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Also in the case of children, data were elaborated in order to identify “high chronic” consumers (§ 2.3.5 for details on methodology). Among children, high chronic consumers accounted for around 16% of ED consumers (figure 51) and had an average consumption volume of ED of around 0,95 L/week. Figure 51: Children - Prevalence of high chronic ED consumption (Sample size: 930– ED consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 139 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Around 39% of high chronic consumers drank ED about every day (compared to just 6% of total consumers; figure 52). Around 69% of high chronic consumers drank 3 or more glasses of ED per week (compared to just 21% of total consumers). Figure 52: Children – Monthly frequency of ED consumption and weekly consumed volumes: high chronic and total consumers (Sample size: 930 – ED consumers; 154 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 140 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Focusing on situations of ED consumption, there were some differences between high chronic and total consumers (figure 53): consumption at home occurred for around 50% of high chronic consumers, compared to around 35% on the other ones; consumption during parties was instead more common among consumers (around 26%, versus around 14% of high chronic consumers). Figure 53: Children – Situations of ED consumption: high chronic and total consumers (Sample size: 930– ED consumers; 154 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 141 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With regards to the motivations behind consumption, most children declared to consume ED because they like their taste, both in the case of total consumers (60%) and high chronic consumers (54%; figure 54). Figure 54: Children – Motivations for ED consumption: high chronic and total consumers (Sample size: 930– ED consumers; 154 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 142 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 3.3.4.2. ED contribution to total exposure to relevant substances Tables 87 and 88 provide data on chronic exposure to caffeine for the different categories of consumers, calculated on the basis of the methodology (§ 2.3.4.1). In the case of children, chronic caffeine exposure from ED varied from 3,98 mg/day for total respondents to around 43 mg/day for high chronic consumers. Accordingly, total caffeine exposure (from ED and other products in the diet) varied from 23 mg/day (total respondents) to around 90 mg/day (high chronic consumers). Table 87: Children – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (a) (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 930 – ED consumers: 154 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED: Total respondents 0,00 112,74 0,00 11,27 22,55 11,46 21,97 11,27 11,27 112,74 22,55 45,10 67,64 18,18 High chronic consumers 42,90 Total exposure: 33,82 11,27 112,74 45,10 78,92 112,74 26,98 Total respondents 23,35 16,07 0,00 292,21 31,57 51,06 66,68 24,93 ED consumers 51,38 41,61 11,27 288,09 60,66 98,76 110,39 36,28 High chronic consumers 90,24 75,51 12,97 288,09 109,97 183,88 206,22 56,23 ED consumers 3,98 0,00 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Table 88: Children – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED and from all products (a) (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 930 – ED consumers: 154 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED: Total respondents 0,18 0,00 0,00 5,20 0,00 0,52 1,04 0,53 ED consumers 1,01 0,52 0,52 5,20 1,04 2,08 3,12 0,84 High chronic consumers Total exposure: 1,98 1,56 0,52 5,20 2,08 3,64 5,20 1,24 Total respondents 1,08 0,74 0,00 13,47 1,45 2,35 3,07 1,15 ED consumers 2,37 1,92 0,52 13,28 2,80 4,55 5,09 1,67 High chronic consumers 4,16 3,48 0,60 13,28 5,07 8,47 9,50 2,59 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA (a) Including ED Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 143 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Differences in ED contribution to total caffeine exposure between all consumers and high chronic consumers are reported in figure 55: ED consumption accounted for around 43% of total daily exposure of all consumers, compared to around 48% in the case of high chronic consumers. Differences in the importance of ED’s contribution to caffeine exposure according to gender are relatively limited: ED contributed to 42% of total daily exposure in the case of male consumers, and 44% in the case of female ones. Also differences in the importance of ED’s contribution to caffeine exposure in the two age groups considered were relatively limited: ED contributed to around 43% of total daily exposure in the age group 6-10, and around 46% in the age group 3-5. Figure 55: Children - ED contribution to total daily exposure to caffeine (%): high chronic and total consumers (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 154 – High chronic consumers) Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 144 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Also in the case of children, some differences were observed from one MS to another. In this case the highest values in terms of relative contribution of ED to the chronic exposure to caffeine were registered in Spain (33%) and Netherlands (21%). The highest values in terms of exposure from ED appeared in Czech Republic (7,41 mg/day and 0,34 mg/kg bw/day, tables 89 and 90). Table 89: Children – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 4.960) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom exposure from ED Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev 1,58 0,00 0,00 22,55 0,00 2,25 22,55 5,41 24,84 16,72 0,00 109,39 32,41 69,06 95,42 26,33 exposure from ED 0,94 0,00 0,00 11,27 0,00 7,89 - 3,25 total exposure 9,88 6,99 1,69 24,15 17,45 23,30 - 7,66 2,11 0,00 0,00 56,37 0,00 11,27 22,55 7,13 21,39 13,33 0,00 107,91 28,81 54,86 72,14 21,97 7,41 0,00 0,00 112,74 11,27 22,55 33,82 13,00 39,49 31,73 0,00 292,21 49,12 81,40 109,95 34,35 3,02 0,00 0,00 33,82 0,00 11,27 22,55 7,24 25,97 18,85 0,00 145,33 31,62 56,17 75,07 25,03 3,83 0,00 0,00 67,64 0,00 11,27 22,55 8,87 25,34 19,19 0,00 206,22 38,80 50,05 59,82 23,79 3,76 0,00 0,00 67,64 0,00 11,27 42,84 13,02 22,01 14,90 0,00 100,05 27,57 57,82 78,31 22,27 2,06 0,00 0,00 45,10 0,00 11,27 12,40 7,27 17,41 11,80 0,00 118,77 22,66 38,07 54,71 17,89 1,29 0,00 0,00 45,10 0,00 0,00 11,27 5,93 21,38 18,23 0,00 170,79 25,76 39,20 55,27 20,07 3,33 0,00 0,00 78,92 0,00 11,27 22,55 8,97 22,19 15,17 0,00 187,11 29,42 52,67 68,52 22,19 4,78 0,00 0,00 112,74 0,00 11,27 33,82 14,08 22,91 16,71 0,00 183,02 31,76 48,34 64,19 24,26 3,04 0,00 0,00 112,74 0,00 11,27 29,88 10,84 28,16 19,12 0,00 204,65 37,17 63,47 77,74 28,26 1,76 0,00 0,00 33,82 0,00 11,27 11,27 5,25 20,02 15,69 0,00 101,05 26,46 40,84 49,37 16,42 6,26 0,00 0,00 112,74 11,27 22,55 33,82 14,01 18,79 11,24 0,00 243,55 22,15 43,25 68,01 26,71 2,46 0,00 0,00 45,10 0,00 11,27 11,27 7,13 20,38 13,49 0,00 105,30 27,01 49,29 66,00 20,29 6,20 0,00 0,00 112,74 0,00 22,55 33,82 16,73 27,05 17,49 0,00 288,09 39,62 54,52 70,95 % from ED/Total 31,19 total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure exposure from ED total exposure 6,4% 9,5% 9,9% 18,8% 11,6% 15,1% 17,1% 11,8% 6,0% 15,0% 20,8% 10,8% 8,8% 33,3% 12,1% 22,9% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 145 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 90: Children – Chronic exposure to caffeine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 4.960) Mean Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Romania Spain Sweden United Kingdom Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev exposure from ED 0,07 0,00 0,00 1,04 0,00 0,10 1,04 0,25 total exposure 1,14 0,77 0,00 5,04 1,49 3,18 4,40 1,21 exposure from ED 0,04 0,00 0,00 0,52 0,00 0,36 - 0,15 total exposure 0,46 0,32 0,08 1,11 0,80 1,07 - 0,35 exposure from ED 0,10 0,00 0,00 2,60 0,00 0,52 1,04 0,33 total exposure 0,99 0,61 0,00 4,97 1,33 2,53 3,32 1,01 exposure from ED 0,34 0,00 0,00 5,20 0,52 1,04 1,56 0,60 total exposure 1,82 1,46 0,00 13,47 2,26 3,75 5,07 1,58 exposure from ED 0,14 0,00 0,00 1,56 0,00 0,52 1,04 0,33 total exposure 1,20 0,87 0,00 6,70 1,46 2,59 3,46 1,15 exposure from ED 0,18 0,00 0,00 3,12 0,00 0,52 1,04 0,41 total exposure 1,17 0,88 0,00 9,50 1,79 2,31 2,76 1,10 exposure from ED 0,17 0,00 0,00 3,12 0,00 0,52 1,97 0,60 total exposure 1,01 0,69 0,00 4,61 1,27 2,66 3,61 1,03 exposure from ED 0,09 0,00 0,00 2,08 0,00 0,52 0,57 0,33 total exposure 0,80 0,54 0,00 5,47 1,04 1,75 2,52 0,82 exposure from ED 0,06 0,00 0,00 2,08 0,00 0,00 0,52 0,27 total exposure 0,99 0,84 0,00 7,87 1,19 1,81 2,55 0,92 exposure from ED 0,15 0,00 0,00 3,64 0,00 0,52 1,04 0,41 total exposure 1,02 0,70 0,00 8,62 1,36 2,43 3,16 1,02 exposure from ED 0,22 0,00 0,00 5,20 0,00 0,52 1,56 0,65 total exposure 1,06 0,77 0,00 8,43 1,46 2,23 2,96 1,12 exposure from ED 0,14 0,00 0,00 5,20 0,00 0,52 1,38 0,50 total exposure 1,30 0,88 0,00 9,43 1,71 2,93 3,58 1,30 exposure from ED 0,08 0,00 0,00 1,56 0,00 0,52 0,52 0,24 total exposure 0,92 0,72 0,00 4,66 1,22 1,88 2,28 0,76 exposure from ED 0,29 0,00 0,00 5,20 0,52 1,04 1,56 0,65 total exposure 0,87 0,52 0,00 11,22 1,02 1,99 3,13 1,23 exposure from ED 0,11 0,00 0,00 2,08 0,00 0,52 0,52 0,33 total exposure 0,94 0,62 0,00 4,85 1,24 2,27 3,04 0,93 exposure from ED 0,29 0,00 0,00 5,20 0,00 1,04 1,56 0,77 total exposure 1,25 0,81 0,00 13,28 1,83 2,51 3,27 % from ED/Total 1,44 6,4% 9,5% 9,9% 18,8% 11,6% 15,1% 17,1% 11,8% 6,0% 15,0% 20,8% 10,8% 8,8% 33,3% 12,1% 22,9% Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 146 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks The average exposure to taurine for high chronic consumers varied from 50 mg/day in total respondents, to around 278 mg/day in ED consumers, till around 543 mg/day in high chronic consumers (tables 91 and 92). Table 91: Children – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 930 – ED consumers: 154 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 0,00 1429 0,00 142,86 142,86 1429 285,71 571,43 857,14 230,39 543,57 428,57 142,86 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 1429 571,43 1.000,00 1428,57 341,82 ED consumers 50,39 278,37 0,00 High chronic consumers 142,86 285,71 145,22 Table 92: Children – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 930 – ED consumers: 154 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents ED consumers 2,32 0,00 0,00 65,83 0,00 6,58 13,17 6,69 12,83 6,58 6,58 65,83 13,17 26,33 39,50 10,62 19,75 6,58 65,83 26,33 46,08 65,83 15,75 High chronic consumers 25,05 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Tables 93 and 94 show the differences of chronic exposure to taurine for total respondents among the 16 MS involved in the study. Besides, values of chronic exposure to taurine of male and female consumers were similar. Chronic taurine exposure was higher in the 6-10 age group (around 279 mg/day) than in the 3-5 one (around 220 mg/day. Table 93: Children – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 4.960) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 20,05 0 0 285,71 0,00 28,57 285,71 68,50 Belgium 11,90 0 0 142,86 0,00 100,00 - 41,24 Cyprus 26,73 0 0 714,29 0,00 142,86 285,71 90,33 Czech Republic 93,95 0 0 1.428,57 142,86 285,71 428,57 164,77 Finland 38,31 0 0 428,57 0,00 142,86 285,71 91,74 France 48,53 0 0 857,14 0,00 142,86 285,71 112,45 Germany 47,62 0 0 857,14 0,00 142,86 542,86 164,96 Greece 26,11 0 0 571,43 0,00 142,86 157,14 92,08 Hungary 16,38 0 0 571,43 0,00 0,00 142,86 75,20 Italy 42,23 0 0 1.000,00 0,00 142,86 285,71 113,63 Netherlands 60,52 0 0 1.428,57 0,00 142,86 428,57 178,46 Poland 38,56 0 0 1.428,57 0,00 142,86 378,57 137,31 Romania 22,24 0 0 428,57 0,00 142,86 142,86 66,46 Spain 79,34 0 0 1.428,57 142,86 285,71 428,57 177,53 Sweden 31,12 0 0 571,43 0,00 142,86 142,86 90,36 0 0 1.428,57 0,00 285,71 428,57 212,05 United Kingdom 78,52 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 147 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 94: Children – Chronic exposure to taurine from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 4.960) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 0,92 0 0 13,17 0,00 1,32 13,17 3,16 Belgium 0,55 0 0 6,58 0,00 4,61 - 1,90 Cyprus 1,23 0 0 32,92 0,00 6,58 13,17 4,16 Czech Republic 4,33 0 0 65,83 6,58 13,17 19,75 7,59 Finland 1,77 0 0 19,75 0,00 6,58 13,17 4,23 France 2,24 0 0 39,50 0,00 6,58 13,17 5,18 Germany 2,19 0 0 39,50 0,00 6,58 25,02 7,60 Greece 1,20 0 0 26,33 0,00 6,58 7,24 4,24 Hungary 0,75 0 0 26,33 0,00 0,00 6,58 3,47 Italy 1,95 0 0 46,08 0,00 6,58 13,17 5,24 Netherlands 2,79 0 0 65,83 0,00 6,58 19,75 8,22 Poland 1,78 0 0 65,83 0,00 6,58 17,45 6,33 Romania 1,02 0 0 19,75 0,00 6,58 6,58 3,06 Spain 3,66 0 0 65,83 6,58 13,17 19,75 8,18 Sweden 1,43 0 0 26,33 0,00 6,58 6,58 4,16 0 0 65,83 0,00 13,17 19,75 9,77 United Kingdom 3,62 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 148 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With regards to the average chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone, data varied from around 20 mg/day in total respondents to 111 mg/day in ED consumers and around 217 mg/day in high chronic consumers (tables 95 and 96). Table 95: Children – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/day) (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 930 – ED consumers: 154 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 0,00 571,43 0,00 57,14 114 58,09 57,14 57,14 571,43 114,29 228,57 343 92,15 High chronic consumers 217,43 171,43 57,14 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA 571,43 228,57 400,00 571 136,73 ED consumers 20,15 111,35 0,00 Table 96: Children – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED (values in mg/kg bw/day) (Sample size: 4.960 – Total respondents; 930 – ED consumers: 154 – High chronic consumers) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Total respondents 0,93 0,00 0 26,33 0,00 2,63 5,27 2,68 ED consumers 5,13 2,63 3 26,33 5,27 10,53 15,80 4,25 7,90 3 26,33 10,53 18,43 26,33 6,30 High chronic consumers 10,02 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 149 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks With respect to total respondents, chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone ranged from around 5 mg/day (0,22 mg/kg bw/day) in Belgium to around 38 mg/day (1,73 mg/kg bw/day) in Czech Republic (tables 97 and 98). Similarly to what observed for taurine, chronic exposures to D-glucurono-y-lactone for male and female consumers were similar. Exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone resulted to be higher in the 6-10 age group (around 111 mg/day) than in the 3-5 one (around 88 mg/day) . Table 97: Children – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/day) – Total respondents (Sample size: 4.960) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 8,02 0 0 114,29 0,00 11,43 114,29 27,40 Belgium 4,76 0 0 57,14 0,00 40,00 - 16,50 Cyprus 10,69 0 0 285,71 0,00 57,14 114,29 36,13 Czech Republic 37,58 0 0 571,43 57,14 114,29 171,43 65,91 Finland 15,33 0 0 171,43 0,00 57,14 114,29 36,70 France 19,41 0 0 342,86 0,00 57,14 114,29 44,98 Germany 19,05 0 0 342,86 0,00 57,14 217,14 65,98 Greece 10,44 0 0 228,57 0,00 57,14 62,86 36,83 Hungary 6,55 0 0 228,57 0,00 0,00 57,14 30,08 Italy 16,89 0 0 400,00 0,00 57,14 114,29 45,45 Netherlands 24,21 0 0 571,43 0,00 57,14 171,43 71,38 Poland 15,43 0 0 571,43 0,00 57,14 151,43 54,92 Romania 8,90 0 0 171,43 0,00 57,14 57,14 26,58 Spain 31,73 0 0 571,43 57,14 114,29 171,43 71,01 Sweden 12,45 0 0 228,57 0,00 57,14 57,14 36,14 0 0 571,43 0,00 114,29 171,43 84,82 United Kingdom 31,41 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 150 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Table 98: Children – Chronic exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED in the 16 MS covered by the survey (values in mg/kg bw/day) - Total respondents (Sample size: 4.960) Mean Median Min Max 75th perc. 90th perc. 95th perc. StdDev Austria 0,37 0 0 5,27 0,00 0,53 Belgium 0,22 0 0 2,63 0,00 1,84 Cyprus 0,49 0 0 13,17 0,00 2,63 5,27 1,67 Czech Republic 1,73 0 0 26,33 2,63 5,27 7,90 3,04 Finland 0,71 0 0 7,90 0,00 2,63 5,27 1,69 France 0,89 0 0 15,80 0,00 2,63 5,27 2,07 Germany 0,88 0 0 15,80 0,00 2,63 10,01 3,04 Greece 0,48 0 0 10,53 0,00 2,63 2,90 1,70 Hungary 0,30 0 0 10,53 0,00 0,00 2,63 1,39 Italy 0,78 0 0 18,43 0,00 2,63 5,27 2,09 Netherlands 1,12 0 0 26,33 0,00 2,63 7,90 3,29 Poland 0,71 0 0 26,33 0,00 2,63 6,98 2,53 Romania 0,41 0 0 7,90 0,00 2,63 2,63 1,23 Spain 1,46 0 0 26,33 2,63 5,27 7,90 3,27 Sweden 0,57 0 0 10,53 0,00 2,63 2,63 1,67 0 0 26,33 0,00 5,27 7,90 3,91 United Kingdom 1,45 Source: Survey Nomisma-Areté for EFSA Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 5,27 - 1,26 0,76 151 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 4. 4.1. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Literature review Results emerging from the literature review highlighted a limited availability of recent and comprehensive studies or surveys at EU level, providing reliable data on ED consumption and exposure to specific ingredients. Such limitation did not allow an analysis of the evolution of ED consumption over time. Results emerging from the literature review evidenced an increasing attention – by both the scientific community and mass media - for ED consumption and human exposure to active ingredients (caffeine in particular). The availability of recent and comprehensive studies or surveys at European level providing reliable data on ED consumption and exposure to active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, and D-glucurono-ylactone), is however very limited. Such lack of data did not allow an exhaustive analysis of the evolution of ED consumption over time, nor any full and reliable comparison with results from the survey performed in the context of this study. Focusing on studies and surveys performed during the last three years in specific MS, the Austrian survey only provided an exhaustive analysis of ED consumption in the context of human exposure assessment to caffeine (König, 2011).Significant differences between the scopes of the two studies, their coverage, and the methodologies adopted for both survey and data processing, make difficult to perform trustworthy comparisons among data. Other less recent studies were also collected and analysed, mostly covering the issues of exposure to active ingredients (caffeine, taurine and Dglucurono-y-lactone) and, in a few cases, providing some specific data on ED consumption (EFSA, 2009; Andersson et al., 2004; Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002). Considering the prevalence of ED consumption (percentage of people declaring to have consumed ED at least once over a defined period), the comparison with data provided by the study performed in Ireland (Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002)56 would suggest – in spite of some differences in the methodology - that the prevalence of ED consumption among adolescents and young adults might have increased over the last ten years. For exposure to caffeine, results from the present study and the study by König appear to be substantially comparable for caffeine exposure from ED57, whilst data regarding total exposure to caffeine present some differences, justified by differences in the number and typologies of caffeine sources covered by the two surveys. Finally, concerning exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone, the availability of data from scientific literature on human exposure is very limited, not covering ED as source of these substances, nor for specific groups of population (i.e. children). The possible comparison, in this respect, is with 56 In the study covering Northern Ireland, a consumption prevalence of around 51% was reported for age group 11-35 years. Data from the present study shown a prevalence of around 69% for adolescents (11-17) in the UK and of 53% for adults between 18 and 29 years on average. 57 In Austria, age group 18-29 years, caffeine exposure from ED: 45,2 mg/day (present study) versus 47,1 mg/day (König’s study). However, it is worth underlying that König considered 700 subjects aged 14-39 years and that caffeine exposure and contribution of specific foods to total caffeine exposure have been assessed quantifying caffeine in foods and beverages samples by HPLC method. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 152 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks the average exposure to these ingredients for a non-ED consumer adult. On the basis of this comparison, the exposure to taurine and D-glucurono-y-lactone in ED consumers results to be higher of – respectively - one and two orders of magnitude in ED consumers than non-ED consumers. 4.2. Results emerging from the survey 4.2.1. Adults Around 30% of adults interviewed declared to have consumed ED at least once during the last year, with prevalence varying among MS from 14% in Cyprus to 50% in Austria, and mainly (53%) observed in “young adults” (18-29 years). The most common (71%) consumed size of ED resulted to be 250 ml can. Among ED consumers, the average volume consumed by adults was approximately 2 L/month, ranging from 1,3 L/month in Italy to 2,9 L/month in Romania. Approximately 12% of adult consumers were identified as “high chronic” consumers i.e. consuming ED 4-5 times/week or more, with an average volume consumed of 4,5 L/month. The prevalence of high chronic consumers was 13,3% in “young adult” consumers. Data for MS showed the highest prevalence for high chronic consumers in UK (21%). Analysis of consumption data per single session allowed to identify the group of “high acute” consumers (consuming at least 1 L/single session), resulted on average 11% of ED consumers. The prevalence was 19% in Germany, and 13,4% on average with specific reference to the group of “young adults”. The co-consumption of ED and alcohol was evidenced for around 56% of consumers, ranging from 24% in Cyprus to 67% in Germany, and mainly (71%) observed in the age group of “young adults”. Among “co-consumers”, 38% declared to habitually consume ED and alcohol more than once/week, and 57% more than two cocktails of ED and alcohol/single session. Concerning ED consumption in relation with physical exercise, around 52% of consumers (and 75,4% of adult ED consumers practising sport) declared to consume ED during sport activities, ranging from 26% in Cyprus to 62% in Spain. Within the consumer group declaring to consume ED and practicing physical exercise, around 37% declared to drink ED during sport “often” (23%) or “every time” (14%), and around 27% of them declared to drink 3 or more cans of ED/single sport session. The highest prevalence (55%), in this context, was evidenced for the group of “old adults” (50-65 years). The average exposure to caffeine from ED was 22,4 mg/day (0,32 mg/kg b.w.58/day) for consumers, and the contribution of ED to the total caffeine exposure was 8%. Caffeine exposure from ED increased to 48,3 mg/day (0,7 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, with a relative contribution of ED of approximately 13%. Caffeine exposure from ED ranged from 15,7 mg/day (0,22 mg/kg b.w./day) in Italy to 31,7 mg/day (0,44 mg/kg b.w./day) in Romania. Relative contributions from ED to the total caffeine exposure in adult ED consumers ranged from 5% in Sweden to 11,3% in Austria. Average exposure to taurine from ED was 271,9 mg/day (3,82 mg/kg b.w./day) in consumers, rising to 585,79 mg/day (8,49 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, and varying between 181,7 mg/day (2,56 mg/kg b.w./day) in Italy and 393,1 mg/day (5,41 mg/kg b.w./day) in Romania. Relative 58 Data on the exposure for kg of body weight were calculated for each consumer on the basis of data on body weight (b.w.) collected through the survey. In case of missing data, data on body weight from EFSA scientific opinion “Guidance on selected default values to be used by the EFSA Scientific Committee, Scientific Panels and Units in the absence of actual measured data” (EFSA, 2012) were adopted. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 153 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks contributions from ED to the total exposure to taurine59 in adult ED consumers was 82,4% (91% in high chronic consumers), ranging from 75,8% in Italy to 87,1% in Romania. Finally, exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED was 125,95 mg/day (1,78 mg/kg b.w./day) on average for ED consumers, raising to 268,84 mg/day (3,91 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, and ranging from 52,8 mg/day (0,7 mg/kg b.w./day) in Finland to 218,29 mg/day (3 mg/kg b.w./day) in Romania. Relative ED contributions to the total exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone60 in adult ED consumers was 98,8% (99,4% in high chronic consumers), varying from 97,2% in Finland to 99,3% in Romania. 4.2.2. Adolescents Prevalence of ED consumption was 68%, varying from 48% in Greece to 82% in Czech Republic61, and mainly (73%) observed in the 15-18 years age subgroup. Also in this case, the most common (60%) consumed size of ED resulted to be 250 ml can. As for volumes, adolescent consumers declared to drink on average around 2,1 L/month, varying from 1,3 L/month in Italy to 3,1 L/month in the UK. Around 32% of consumers declared to drink 2-4 cans/ month, while 19% consume 5-10 cans/month, and around 19% declared to usually consume more than 10 cans/month. Around 12% of adolescent consumers were identified as “high chronic” consumers, i.e. consuming ED 4-5 times per week or more, with an average ED volume of around 7 L/month. The highest prevalence of high chronic consumers was 27% in Netherlands. No relevant differences were registered among different age subgroups. Around 12% of adolescent ED consumers resulted to be “high acute” consumers consuming at least 1,065 L of ED per single session. The highest prevalence of high acute consumers was 17% in Germany and Sweden62. Concerning co-consumption of ED and alcohol, prevalence was around 53% for adolescents, ranging from 29% in Netherlands to 71% in Austria63. The highest prevalence of co-consumption (59%) characterised the age group 15-18 years old. Among “co-consumers”, around 45% declared to habitually consume ED and alcohol more than once a week, and 39% to consume 3 or more cocktails of ED and alcohol in a single consumption session. Results on ED consumption in relation with physical exercise evidenced that around 41% of adolescent (and 75% of ED consumers practising sport) consume ED during sport activities, ranging from 14% in Sweden to 65% in UK. Around 27% of ED consumers drinking ED during sport activities declared to consume 3 or more cans of ED in a single sport session (prevalence of such consumption habit rises to 48% in the 10-14 years subgroup). The average exposure to caffeine from ED was 23,5 mg/day (0,38 mg/kg b.w./day) for adolescent ED consumers, with an average contribution of ED to the total caffeine exposure of 13%. The caffeine exposure from ED increased to 75,08 mg/day (1,18 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, contributing to 16% of total caffeine exposure. Among MS, caffeine exposure from ED varied 59 Taurine occurrence data in other sources than ED (58 mg as mean daily exposure from omnivore diet) was extrapolated from literature (EFSA, 2009) for adults only. 60 D-glucurono-y-lactone occurrence data in other sources than ED (1,2 mg as mean daily exposure from omnivore diet) was extrapolated from literature (EFSA, 2009) for adults only. 61 The highest prevalence of ED consumption among total respondents was observed in Belgium (85%) but not reported due to the small dimension of the sample for this MS (sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%). 62 The highest prevalence of high acute ED consumption was observed in Belgium (26%) but not reported due to the small dimension of the sample for this MS (sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%). 63 The highest prevalence of co-consumption of ED and alcohol was observed in Belgium (81%) but not reported due to the small dimension of the sample for this MS (sampling error of estimates exceeds 5%). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 154 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks between 16 mg/day (0,26 mg/kg b.w./day) in Italy and 32 mg/day (0,57 mg/kg b.w./day) in UK, while the relative contribution of ED to the total caffeine exposure ranged from 9% in Italy to 17% in UK. The average exposure to taurine from ED was 283,9 mg/day (4,6 mg/kg b.w./day) in adolescent ED consumers, rising to 924,3 mg/day (14,5 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, and varying between 180,4 mg/day (2,89 mg/kg b.w./day) in Italy and 409,73 mg/day (7,25 mg/kg b.w./day) in the UK. Average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED was 100,14 mg/day (1,65 mg/kg b.w./day), rising to 311,6 mg/day (4,9 mg/kg b.w./day) in high chronic consumers, and varying between 51,09 mg/day (0,81 mg/kg b.w./day) in Czech Republic and 149,83 mg/day (2,74 mg/kg b.w./day) in Romania. 4.2.3. Children Prevalence of ED consumption in children was 18%, varying from a 6% in Hungary to 40% in the Czech Republic, with the highest prevalence in the 6-10 year age group (19%). Approximately 44% of children consumers declared to drink 2 or more glasses of ED per week, and 16% to consume ED 3 times a week or more. On average, consumption volume of ED was 0,49 L/week among children consumers, and varied from 0,25 L/week in Belgium to 0,63 L/week in Germany. Among the children consumers, 16% resulted to be “high chronic” consumers (around 0,95 L of ED consumed per week). Average caffeine exposure from ED was 21,97 mg/day (1 mg/kg b.w./day), with a relative contribution of ED to total caffeine exposure of 43%. Caffeine exposure from ED in high chronic consumers was 42,9 mg/day (1,98 mg/kg b.w./day), with ED contributing for 48% to total caffeine exposure. Average exposure to taurine from ED was 278,37 mg/day (12,83 mg/kg b.w./day) in ED consumers, increasing to 543,57 mg/day (25,05 mg/kg b.w./day) in the high chronic consumers. Finally, average exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone from ED was 111,35 mg/day (5,13 mg/kg b.w./day) in ED consumers, increasing to 217,43 mg/day (10 mg/kg b.w./day) for high chronic consumers. 4.2.4. Final overview A summary of results from the survey is reported: 1. ED consumption: higher prevalence among the total respondents was observed for adolescents (68%), and in particular for the 15-18 age sub-group (73%). In adults prevalence for consumption was 30% (up to 53% for “young adults”), and 18% in children, mainly in the 6-10 years subgroup (19%). 2. High chronic consumers: no relevant differences were observed for prevalence in the 3 target groups of ED consumers, ranging from 12% in adults (mainly in the 30-49 years subgroup) and adolescents to 16% in children. 3. High acute consumers: among ED consumers, similar prevalence was evidenced for adults (11%, mainly in the 30-49 years subgroup) and adolescents (12%, mainly in the 15-18 years subgroup). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 155 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 4. Co-consumption of ED and alcohol: among ED consumers, similar prevalence was observed for adults (56%, mainly in “young adults”) and adolescents (53%, mainly in the 15-18 years subgroup). 5. ED consumption associated to sport activities: higher prevalence among ED consumers was observed for adults (52%), mainly in the 50-65 years subgroup. In adolescents ED consumers the prevalence was 41%, mainly in the 10-14 years subgroup. 6. ED contribution to the total exposure to caffeine: the calculated contribution from chronic ED consumption was 43% for children, 13% for adolescents, and 8% for adults. Result obtained in children was mainly due to higher levels of caffeine exposure from ED in this consumer group (1,01 mg/kg b.w./day) than in the adolescents and adults (0,38 and 0,32 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). The contribution rates increased for the high chronic consumers to 48% in children, 16% in adolescents, and 12% in adults, due to increase in the caffeine exposure from ED (1,98, 1,18, and 0,70 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). Levels of exposure to caffeine from ED were significantly increased for the high acute consumers to 7,21 and 5,14 mg/kg b.w./single session in adolescents and adults, respectively. 7. Exposure to taurine: higher average levels of exposure were evidenced in children (12,83 mg/kg b.w./day), in comparison to adolescents (4,6 mg/kg b.w./day) and adults (3,82 mg/kg b.w./day), increasing for high chronic consumers (25,05, 14,5 and 8,49 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). 8. Exposure to D-glucurono-y-lactone: higher levels of exposure were evidenced in children (5,13 mg/kg b.w./day), in comparison to adolescents (1,65 mg/kg b.w./day) and adults (1,78 mg/kg b.w./day), increasing for high chronic consumers (10, 4,9 and 3,9 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 156 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks 4.3. Recommendations This project represented the first effort at European level of data collection on ED consumption and contribution to some active ingredients (caffeine, taurine, and D-glucurono-y-lactone) exposure, in specific consumer groups (considering also consumption habits) and in different MS. Results emerging from the study - in terms of prevalence of ED consumption, prevalence of patterns of consumption (chronic and acute), as well as levels of exposure to the active ingredients- are comprehensive and could be used for a full risk assessment, in the light of the available information on potential risks associated to ED consumption and exposure to specific active ingredients. Moreover, due to the exponential growth rate which characterised the ED market over the last years, the study team suggests to monitor possible further increases in ED consumption and eventually consider the possibility to update the present study, considering specific analysis of “caffeine consumption models” (i.e., energy shots). Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 157 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks REFERENCES Alard J, Marìn C, Cubillo JM, 2010, Effects of sales promotion in the long term in National Brand and Private Label in the energy drink category, International Journal of Communication research-AD Research ESIC, 1, 115-130 Alford C, König J, Aufricht C, Verster JC, 2011, Proceedings of the 2010 Energy Drinks Symposium. The Open Neuro-psychopharmacology Journal, 4, 1-4 Andersson, H. C., Hallström, H. and Kihlman, B.A, 2004, Intake of caffeine and other methylxanthines during pregnancy and risk for adverse effects in pregnant women and their foetuses, Norden, TemaNord 2004:565. Arria AM, Caldeira MK, Kasperski SJ, Vincent KB, Griffiths RR, O’Grady KE, 2011, Energy Drink Consumption and Increased Risk for Alcohol Dependence, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 2, 365-375 Attila S and Cakir B, 2011, Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors, Nutrition, 27, 316-322 BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 2009, Health risks of excessive energy shot intake. BfR Opinion, No. 1, 2 December 2009 BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 2008, New Human Data on the Assessment of Energy Drinks. BfR Information, No. 16, 13 March 2008 Bigard AX, 2010, Risks of energy drinks in youths, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescents, 17, 16251631 Brache K and Stockwell T, 2011, Drinking patterns and risk behaviors associated with combined alcohol and energy drink consumption in college drinkers, Addictive Behaviors, 36, 12, 1133-1140 Calle Aznar S, 2011, Determinación analìtica de la cafeìna in diferentes productos comerciales. Final project for graduation in Ingeniería Técnica Industrial, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona CRIOC – Centre de Recherche et d’Information des Organisations de Consommateurs, 2010, Boissons Energisantes. Fondation de utilité publique, Bruxelles Edmunds LD. Ziebland S, 2002, Validation of a fruit and vegetable questionnaire for 7–9 year olds, Health Education Research, 17: 211-20 EFSA - European Food Safety Authority, 2009, The use of taurine and D-glucuronolactone as constituants of the so-called energy drinks, The EFSA Journal, 935, 1-31. Available from: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/cs/BlobServer/Scientific_Opinion/ans_ej935_Taurine%20and%20Dglucuronolactone_op_en,1.pdf?ssbinary=true EUCAM - European Center for monitoring Alcohol Marketing, 2009, Dutch Minister doesn’t follow advise on labelling alcoholic energy drinks, Utrecht, October 8th 2009 EUCAM - European Center for monitoring Alcohol Marketing, 2009, The raise of alcoholic energy drinks in Europe - A first exploration of the availability of these drinks in Europe. Available from: http://www.eucam.info/eucam/home/marketing-products-and-reports.html EUCAM – European Center for monitoring Alcohol Marketing, 2008, Drinks with a Boost: Alcoholic energy drinks trends in alcohol marketing -EUCAM Report 2008. Available from: www.eucam.info Ferreira SE, de Mello MT, Pompeia S, de Souza-Formigoni ML, 2006, Effects of energy drink ingestion on alcohol intoxication, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30, 4, 598–605 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 158 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002, A review of the health effects of stimulant drinks – Final Report, Safe Food, Cork, Ireland Gambon DL, Brand HS, Boutkabout C, Levie D, Veerman EC, 2011, Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands, International Dental Journal, 61, 5, 247-251 Gros L, Healey K, 2009, Chemistry changes everything - Do energy drinks really give you wings?. Final publication of the EC COMENIUS project CITIES (Chemistry and Industry for Teachers in European Schools), Socrates Comenius Project Heckman MA, Weil J, Gonzalez de Mejia E, 2010, Caffeine in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters, Journal of Food Science, 75, R77- 87 Heckman MA, Sherry K, DeMejia EG, 2010, Energy drinks: An assessment of their market size, consumer demographics, ingredient profile, functionality, and regulations in the United States. Comprehensive reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9, 303-317 Higgins JP, Phil M, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL, 2010, Energy Beverages: Content and Safety, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85, 11, 1033-1104 Høstmark AT, 2010, The Oslo health study: soft drink intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35, 5, 635-42 James JE, Kristjánsson AL, Sigfúsdóttir ID, 2011, Adolescent substance use, sleep, and academic achievement: evidence of harm due to caffeine, Journal of Adolescence, 34, 4, 665-673 Kaminer Y, 2010, Problematic use of energy drinks by adolescents, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19, 3, 643-650 König J, xxx, Final report: Assessment of caffeine intake in a representative sample of the Austrian population (age 14-39 years), (forthcoming) Leclercq C, Arcella D, Piccinelli R, Sette S, Le Donne C, Turrini A; INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 Study Group, 2009, The Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06: main results in terms of food consumption, Public Health Nutrition, 12, 12, 2504-2532 Marin Institute, 2007, Alcohol, Energy Drinks, and Youth: A Dangerous Mix, San Rafael, CA, US Meltzer HM, Nordisk Ministerråd N, Råd Nordisk, 2008, Risk assessment of caffeine among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, TemaNord, Nordic council of Ministers, Copenhagen Miller KE, 2008, Energy Drinks, race, and problem behaviors among college students, Journal of Adolescent Health, 43, 5, 490–497 Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, 2009, New information on ingredients in so-called ”energy drinks”. Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids, Materials in Contact with Food and Cosmetics of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, 11 May 2009 NZFSA - New Zealand Food Safety Authority, 2010, Risk profile: caffeine in energy drinks and energy shots. Report prepared by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR). Available from: http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/science/risk-profiles/fw10002-caffeine-inbeverages-risk-profile.pdf O’Brien MC, McCoy TP, MS, Rhodes SD, Wagoner A, Wolfson M, 2008, Caffeinated cocktails: Energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and slcohol-related consequences among college students, Academic Emergency Medicine, 15, 5, 453-460 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 159 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Oteri A, Salvo F, Caputi AP, Calapai G, 2007, Intake of energy drinks in association with alcoholic beverages in a cohort of students of the School of Medicine of the University of Messina, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 10, 1677-1680 Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR, 2009, Caffeinated energy drinks – A growing problem, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99, 1-3, 1-10 Seifert SM, Schaechter JL, Hershorin ER, Lipshultz SE, 2011, Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults, Pedriatics, 127, 511-528 SHC-Superior Health Council, 2009, Energy Drinks, Publication of the Superior Health Council, No 8622. Available from: www.health.fgov.be/CSS_HGR SHC-Superior Health Council, 2012, The use of caffeine in foodstuffs. Advisory report of the Superior Health Council, No 8689. Available from: www.csh-hgr.be Thompson FE, Subar AF, 2008, Dietary Assessment Methodology”, chapter in Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease, (edited by Coulston AM, Boushey CJ, Ferruzzi M), second edition, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Velazquez CE, Poulos NS, Latimer LA, Pasch KE, 2012, Associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use behaviors among college students. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1, 123, 1-3, 167-172 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 160 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks LIST OF APPENDICES A. STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: COMPLETE LIST OF CONTACTS B. STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: LIST OF QUESTIONS C. STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR THE INTERVIEW D. STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: MAIN FINDINGS E. CONTENT OF RELEVANT SUBSTANCES IN DIFFERENT ED BRANDS INDICATED AS "OTHER" BY RESPONDENTS IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE F. DETAILS ON CAFFEINE CONTENT FOR THE CATEGORIES OF FOOD SELECTED FOR THE CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 161 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks GATHERING CONSUMPTION DATA ON SPECIFIC CONSUMER GROUPS OF ENERGY DRINKS EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT APPENDIX A STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: COMPLETE LIST OF CONTACTS Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 162 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks - EU Organizations European Consumers´ Organisation (BEUC) European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing (EUCAM) Energy Drinks Europe (EDE) Union of European Soft Drinks Associations (UNESDA) - National Industry Organizations Institution/Organisation Verband der Hersteller Alkoholfreier Erfrischungsgetränke (V.D.H.A.E.) Fédération des Industries des Eaux et des Boissons Rafraîchissantes (F.I.E.B. /V.I.W.F.) Member State Austria Belgium Union of Beverage Producers (S.V.N.N.) Czech Republic Syndicat National des Boissons Rafraîchissantes (S.N.B.R.) France Wirtschaftsvereinigung Alkoholfreie Getränke e.V. (WAFG) Germany Association of Greek Soft Drinks Industries (SEVA) Greece Magyarországi Üdítital, Gyümölcslé- és Ásványvízgyártok Szövetsége Hungary Nederlands Vereniging Frisdranken, Waters, Sappen (FWS) The Netherlands National Chamber of Business Beverage Industry (KIGPR) Poland Romanian Soft Drinks Association (ANBR) Romania Asociacion Nacional de Fabricantes de Bebidas Refrescantes Analcoholicas (ANFABRA) Spain Sveriges Bryggerier / Brewers of Sweden Sweden British Soft Drinks Assocation Ltd. (B.S.D.A.) United Kingdom PANIMOLIITTO (Finnish Federation of the Brewing and Soft Drinks Industry) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Finland 163 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks - National Health Organizations Institution/Organisation Member State University of Vienna - Department of Nutritional Sciences Austria - Scientific Institute of Public Health - Superior Health Council National Center of Public Health and Analyses - Foods and Nutrition Department - Cyprus University of Technology – Cyprus International Institute for Bulgaria Ministry of Health - State General Laboratory - Belgium Cyprus Environmental and Public Health Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic - Food Production and Legislation Department Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira - Risk Assessment Research Unit French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) Unit Nutritional Risks, Allergies and Novel Foods - Food Safety Department - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) Hellenic Food Authority (EFET) - Nutrition Policy & Research Directorate Ministry of National Resources - Department for Health Policy - Unit for Public Health, Infectious Diseases, Health Administration and Defense Czech Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority (MAST) Iceland Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (IUNA) Ireland Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione (INRAN) Italy Assessment and Registration Agency of Food and Veterinary Service of Latvia Latvia National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute - Nutrition Unit Lithuania Slovak Public Health Authority Slovak Republic National Institute of Public Health Slovenia Spanish Food Safety and Nutrition Agency (AESAN) Spain Sweeden National Food Agency - Food Data Unit Sweden Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) Office for Risk Assessment and Research (BuRo) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 The Netherlands 164 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on energy drinks GATHERING CONSUMPTION DATA ON SPECIFIC CONSUMER GROUPS OF ENERGY DRINKS EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT APPENDIX B STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: LIST OF QUESTIONS Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 165 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on energy drinks STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: LIST OF QUESTIONS 1 Identification of relevant literature IMPORTANT: the interviewee is provided in advance with a list of the relevant literature collected by the study team a. After looking at the list of relevant bibliographic references for the study, do you think that some recent (i.e. published in the last 3 years) important references are missing? If yes, could you please indicate which ones? 2 Identification of available data sources IMPORTANT: the interviewee is provided in advance with a list of the relevant information sources identified by the study team a. After looking at the list of relevant information sources for the study, do you think that some authoritative sources are missing? If yes, could you please indicate which ones? 3 Identification of the main energy drinks IMPORTANT: the interviewee is provided in advance with a list of the main energy drinks marketed in the European Union, compiled by the study team on the basis of the information retrieved. Such list might be incomplete: in such case, the interviewee will be asked to add the missing brands he/she knows. a. After looking at the list of the most important brands of energy drinks marketed in the European Union, do you think that some brands (including brands with national diffusion) are missing? If yes, could you please indicate which ones? b. Could you please provide information on the market shares/marketed volumes of the main energy drinks in the European Union and in individual Member States, if available? 4 Identification of main food products in the diet (other than energy drinks) with significant content in caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, theophylline and theobromine IMPORTANT: the interviewee is provided in advance with a list of the food products in the diet (other than energy drinks) with significant content in caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, theophylline and theobromine, compiled by the study team on the basis of the information retrieved. Such list might be incomplete: in such case, the interviewee will be asked to add the missing food products he/she knows. a. After looking at the list of the most important food products in the diet (other than energy drinks) with significant content in caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, theophylline and theobromine, do you think that some products are missing? If yes, could you please indicate which ones? Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 166 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks GATHERING CONSUMPTION DATA ON SPECIFIC CONSUMER GROUPS OF ENERGY DRINKS EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT APPENDIX C STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR THE INTERVIEW Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 167 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR THE INTERVIEW 1 List of the relevant literature Alard J, Marìn C, Cubillo JM, 2010, Effects of sales promotion in the long term in National Brand and Private Label in the energy drink category, International Journal of Communication research-AD Research ESIC, 1, 115-130 Alford C, König J, Aufricht C, Verster JC, 2011, Proceedings of the 2010 Energy Drinks Symposium, The Open Neuropsychopharmacology Journal, 4, 1-4 BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 2009, Health risks of excessive energy shot intake. BfR Opinion, No. 1, 2 December 2009 BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 2008, New Human Data on the Assessment of Energy Drinks. BfR Information, No. 16, 13 March 2008 Calle Aznar S, 2011, Determinación analìtica de la cafeìna in diferentes productos comerciales, Final project for graduation in Ingeniería Técnica Industrial, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona CRIOC – Centre de Recherche et d’Information des Organisations de Consommateurs, 2010, Boissons Energisantes. Fondation de utilité publique, Bruxelles EFSA - European Food Safety Authority, 2009, The use of taurine and D-glucuronolactone as constituants of the so-called energy drinks, The EFSA Journal, 935, 1-31. Available from: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/cs/BlobServer/Scientific_Opinion/ans_ej935_Taurine%20and%20Dglucuronolactone_op_en,1.pdf?ssbinary=true EUCAM - European Center for monitoring Alcohol Marketing, 2009, The raise of alcoholic energy drinks in Europe - A first exploration of the availability of these drinks in Europe. Available from: http://www.eucam.info/eucam/home/marketing-products-and-reports.html EUCAM – European Center for monitoring Alcohol Marketing, 2008, Drinks with a Boost: Alcoholic energy drinks trends in alcohol marketing -EUCAM Report 2008. Available from: www.eucam.info Food Safety Promotion Board, 2002, A review of the health effects of stimulant drinks – Final Report, Safe Food, Cork, Ireland Gros L and Healey K, 2009, Chemistry changes everything - Do energy drinks really give you wings?. Final publication of the EC COMENIUS project CITIES (Chemistry and Industry for Teachers in European Schools). Socrates Comenius Project James JE, Kristjánsson AL, Sigfúsdóttir ID, 2011, Adolescent substance use, sleep, and academic achievement: evidence of harm due to caffeine, Journal of Adolescence, 34, 4, 665-73 König J, xxxx, Final report: Assessment of caffeine intake in a representative sample of the Austrian population (age 14-39 years), (forthcoming) NZFSA - New Zealand Food Safety Authority, 2010, Risk profile : caffeine in energy drinks and energy shots. Report prepared by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR). Available at: http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/science/risk-profiles/fw10002-caffeine-in-beverages-riskprofile.pdf Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR, 2009, Caffeinated energy drinks – A growing problem, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99, 1-3, 1-10 SHC-Superior Health Council, 2009, Energy Drinks, Publication of the Superior Health Council, No. 8622. Available from: www.health.fgov.be/CSS_HGR Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 168 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks SHC-Superior Health Council, 2012, The use of caffeine in foodstuffs, Advisory report of the Superior Health Council, N°8689. Available from: www.csh-hgr.be. 2 List of the relevant information sources British Soft Drinks Association, 2007, The 2007 Soft Drinks Report - UK Market Review. British Soft Drinks Association, London British Soft Drinks Association, 2008, The 2008 Soft Drinks Report - UK Market Review. British Soft Drinks Association, London British Soft Drinks Association, 2009, The 2009 Soft Drinks Report - UK Market Review. British Soft Drinks Association, London British Soft Drinks Association, 2010, The 2010 Soft Drinks Report - UK Market Review. British Soft Drinks Association, London British Soft Drinks Association, 2011, The 2011 Soft Drinks Report - UK Market Review. British Soft Drinks Association, London Britvic Soft Drinks, 2010, Britvic Soft Drinks Report 2010, available from: www.softdrinksreport.com Britvic Soft Drinks, 2011, Britvic Soft Drinks Report 2011, available from: www.softdrinksreport.com Datamonitor Report, 2004, Red Bull Gmbh, October 2004 GDO Week, issue: April 2008 Hansen Natural Corporation, http://monsterbevcorp.com/index.php 2010, Annual Report 2010. Available from: Hansen Natural corporation, http://monsterbevcorp.com/index.php 2009, Annual Report 2009. Available from: HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence), Study Coordinator Prof. Moreno Aznar LA, Universidad de Zaragoza. Available from: http://www.helenastudy.com IDEFICS project (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants). Available from: http://www.idefics.eu/Idefics/ INRA – Dietary behaviours and practices: determinants, actions, outputs, 2010. Available from: http://www.international.inra.fr/search?select=&go=1&access=p&client=instit_en&filter=0&getfields =*&ie=latin1&oe=latin1&output=xml_no_dtd&proxystylesheet=instit_en&site=INRAINSTITUTION AL&sort=date%3AD%3AL%3Ad1&q=energy+drink INRAN SCAI 2005-06 survey. Italian food consumption survey. Detailed data on: http://www.inran.it/710/I_consumi_alimentari__INRAN-SCAI_2005-06.html LDV Capital management, 2010, Energy drink due diligence report: Hansen Natural Corporation. Florida, USA. Available from: http://www.ldvcapitalmanagement.com/ Mark Up, issues: July/August 2008; April 2009; April 2010 Red Bull, North America Inc., 2009, Red Bull Media Kit. California, USA Soft Drinks International – The Global Beverage Industry Monthly, issues from June 2009 to February 2011 Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 169 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks UK Essays, 2011, Red Bull. Downloaded from: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/marketing/redbull.php?utm_source=socialmedia&utm_medium=downloadpdf&utm_term=pdf&utm_content=essay &utm_campaign=marketing-rb&utm_nooveride=1 Zenith International – Functional Drinks News, newsletter 2008 - 2009, issues: 181, 185, 191, 203, 204, 205 Websites: www.ages.at www.anfabra.es www.anses.fr www.assobibe.it www.atomicdrinks.com www.batterydrink.com www.beuc.org www.beverfood.com www.bfr.bund.de www.boissonsrafraichissantes.com www.brava-italia.com www.burn.si www.cesualus.lv/en/produkti/sporta www.csh-hgr.be www.datamonitor.com www.dumpsoda.org www.dynamit.lv/pillowing www.energyfiend.com http://energy-drinks.cz/ (news from Czech energy drink market) www.energydrink.lv www.eucam.info www.foedevarestyrelsen.dk www.food.gov.uk www.fsai.ie www.hansens.com www.hc-sc.gc.ca www.inran.it www.international.inra.fr www.invs.sante.fr (French Institute for public health surveillance - InVS) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 170 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks www.monsterbevcorp.com/index.php www.nutritiondusport.fr/sfns/ (French society of nutrition and sport - SFNS) www.monsterenergy.com www.pinelli.cz www.reddevildrinks.com www.redbull.com www.redbull.it www.sante.gouv.fr/les-boissons-energisantes.html (Ministry of Health, France) www.sharkenergy.com www.shockenergy.cz www.slv.se www.unesda.org www.wikipedia.org 3 List of the main energy drinks marketed in the European Union and in some Member States suggested by the stakeholders during the interviews AUSTRIA: Alpenjodlenergy, Bad Dog, Blue Bear, Bomba, Booster energy drink, Burn, Clever energy drink, Dark Dog, Flying Power, Full Speed, Mixxedup energy, Monster, Oxxnkracherl, Pure cafaine, Power Horse, Race energy, Red Bull, Red Eye, Rockstar, S-Budget energy, Shark BELGIUM: Atomic, Boosted, Burn, Energy, Hell, Monster, Nalu, Red Bull, Rockstar, Rodeo, Shark, Taurine Force, Virus CYPRUS: Big Energy Shock, Blu, Bullet, Burn, Chillo, Life is Drive, M-150, Mixxed up, Monster, Premium XO, Red Bull, Rienergy Refresher, Shark CZECH REPUBLIC: Big Shock, Burn, Crazy Horse, Crazy Wolf (Kaufland), Erectus, Kamikaze, Monster, Red Bull, Rockstar, Semtex, Shark, V 12 Energy Power drink FINLAND: Battery, Mad Croc, Monster, Red Bull, Rockstar, Shark FRANCE: Atomic, Burn, Coca Blāk, Dark Dog, Energy Drink Taurine Force (Carrefour), Fireball, Hype, Long Horn, Monster, Red Bull, Rockstar, Shark; X-tense (Leclerc) GERMANY: Effect, Fireball, Flying Horse, Hell, Monster, Red Bull, Rhino’s, Rockstar, Shark GREECE: Fireball, Monster Energy, Monster Ripper, Monster Khaos, Monster Lo Carb, Red Bull, Red Bull Sugar Free, Rockstar Energy, Rockstar Recovery, Shark, 28 Black Acai, Chillo, Lucozade Alert HUNGARY: Adrenalin, BIG, B!Bomb, Booster, Burn, Cocaine, Hell, Big Energy, Blue bear, Booster, Fit Energy, Fütyülős, Kalaschnikow, Kerozin, Kobra, Light Kick, Max, Playboy, Power, Red Bull, Reload, Shark, Tiger, UP, Watt, XL ITALY: Atomic, Brava Italia, Burn, Effect, Monster, Red Bull, Sexy Italia, Shark, Tonino Lamborghini NETHERLANDS: Atomic, Monster, Red Bull, Red Devil, Rockstar, Rodeo, Shark, V Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 171 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks POLAND: Burn, Control, GreenGo, Monster, Pitbull, Red Bull, Rockstar, Tiger, Vpower ROMANIA: Burn, Power Horse, Red Bull, Rienergy Refresher Energy Drink SPAIN: Burn, Long Horn, Monster, Real Power Atomic, Red Bull, Rockstar, Shark, V SWEDEN: Battery; Burn, FullStrike, Magic, Monster, Red Bull, Rockstar, Shark, White Tiger UNITED KINGDOM: Atomic, Battery, Blue Bolt (Sainsbury’s), Blue Charge (Asda), Boost, Burn, Fireball, Full Throttle, Kx (Tesco), Monster , Red Bull, Red Rooster, Relentless, Rockstar, Shark, V 4 List of the main food products in the diet (other than energy drinks) with significant content in caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, theophylline and theobromine a. Espresso coffee b. Coffee (instant, ground, ice-coffee, frappè coffee, Turkish or Greek coffee, canned coffee, 3in1 and 2in 1 coffees, etc.) c. Cappuccino d. Tea (instant, tea bag, ice-tea, etc.) e. Hot chocolate f. Chocolate bars (dark chocolate, milk chocolate, white chocolate, energy chocolate bars, etc.) g. Other bars (i.e. soya bars) h. Colas and other soft drinks (i.e. lemonade; Fanta Verdia ; IRN-BRU , etc.) i. Meal substitutes and sport nutrition (i.e. protein shakes) j. Capsule, pills, gels (i.e. energy pills available in pubs, night clubs, etc., labelled as food supplement) k. All foods and beverages with coffee and chocolate as ingredient (e.g. yogurt with coffee or chocolate, biscuits with chocolate wafers filled and/or coated with/by chocolate cream, breakfast cereals with cacao, Puddings with cocoa, Ice creams with cocoa or chocolate, cottage cheese desserts with chocolate, Pastry with cocoa or chocolate, etc.). l. Supplement and medicine m. Caffeinated chewing gums (i.e. Black Rhino…) n. Syrups Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 172 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks GATHERING CONSUMPTION DATA ON SPECIFIC CONSUMER GROUPS OF ENERGY DRINKS EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT APPENDIX D STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: MAIN FINDINGS Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 173 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks A. STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTATION: MAIN FINDINGS Country Stakeholder EU EUCAM – European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing Additional literature (in Dutch) Belgium FIEB/VIWF - Fédération des Industries des Eaux et des Boissons Rafraîchissantes Remarks on references of American studies Cyprus Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Cyprus University of Tachnology Comprehensive EDE – Energy Drinks Europe The literature from EUCAM and Marin Institute not helpful; BfR opinions do not deal with ED intake but only with their safety; no reference should be made to US literature List of brands comprehensive; reasonable to focus on the main 4-5 brands in each specific national situation; energy shots belong to another product category Coffee-containing products, such as yoghurt, desserts, pralines/toffees (e.g “Pocket coffee”), etc. Focus on a comprehensive and country-specific list of such products NVWA - Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority In 2009 NVWA studied the combined intake of alcohol and energy drinks. The advice (in Dutch) can be found at: http://www.vwa.nl/actueel/bestanden/bestand/42525 http://www.vwa.nl/actueel/bestanden/bestand/42527 Additional ED brands: Rodeo; there are also brands of ED pre-mixed with alcohol No further information EU Netherlands Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Literature Review Energy Drinks Market No consumption/sales data. List of brands complete; increasing popularity of energy drinks with retailers’ brands (private labels); presence of pre-mixed alcoholic ED in some MS No consumption data. On the basis of her personal knowledge, the interviewee indicated RED BULL, MONSTER, BURN and NALU as the most common ED brands in Belgian market. No market data, but Anses is conducting a study with Nielsen and from the preliminary results on sales: Red Bull 41.8%, private labels 25.4% , Monster 13.8%, Burn 6.5% and Dark Dog 3.4%; other brands represent 9.1% of the sales. ED brands and market shares: Cypriot market divided into SHARK (55%), RED BULL (30%), MONSTER (12%) and XL (3%). Food products with Active Ingredients Lack of expertise to add any information No additional food products Frappé coffee, a Greek foam-covered iced coffee drink very popular in Greece and Cyprus 174 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Country France Austria Greece Czech Republic Stakeholder ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety University of Vienna Department of Nutritional Sciences EFET - Hellenic Food Authority, Nutrition Policy & Research Directorate Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Literature Review Additional literature: Attila S, Cakir B, 2011, Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors. Nutrition, 27, 316-322; Heckman MA, Weil J, Gonzalez de Mejia, E, 2010, Caffeine in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters, J Food Sci, 75, R77- 87; Bigard, AX, 2010, Risks of energy drinks in youths, Arch Pediatr, 17, 1625-1631 Comprehensive Energy Drinks Market Main ED brands: BURN, HYPE, COCA BLACK, PEPSI X. Consumption of ED with retailers’ brands (private labels) is also significant in France, as such products are usually cheaper than the leading ED. The interviewee indicated Carrefour Energy Drink Taurine force and Leclerc Xtense as examples of this category of products. Additional ED brands: Red Bull Energy Drink, Red Bull Sugarfree, Burn, Flying Power, Flying Power sugarfree, Full Speed, Blue Bear, Blue Bear sugarfree, SBudget energy, S-Budget energy sugarfree, Race energy, Race energy sugarfree, Bomba, Booster energy drink, Mixxedup energy, Mixxedup energy light, Race Mango fruit energy, Alpenjodlenergy, Pure cafaine, Power Horse, Clever energy drink, Oxxnkracherl Comprehensive ED brands on the Greek market: Fireball, Monster Energy, Monster Ripper, Monster Khaos, Monster Lo Carb, Red Bull, Red Bull Sugar Free, Rockstar Energy, Rockstar Recovery, as well as Shark, 28 Black Acai, Chillo, Lucozade Alert. Comprehensive Czech market characterised by a wide range of local ED brands; importance of ED with retailers’ brands. Additional ED brands: Burn, Semtex, Erectus, Big Shock, Crazy Wolf (Kaufland), V 12 Energy Power drink, Kamikaze Food products with Active Ingredients The interviewee concluded that the food products listed had been mostly identified in relation to their caffeine and theobromine content. So she suggested to add some food products which are high in glucuronolactone, such as wine and stabilizing ingredients used in industrial products and meat in small quantities; and also some food products high in taurine, such as seafood, meat and dairy products. Coffee flavour in food products assortments should also be considered. It could be necessary to include coffee yoghurt in the study, as it is very popular in Austria. Important to specify how coffee and coffee beverages are made to evaluate caffeine concentration in these products. The interviewee proposed to include drugs in the list. May be important also to investigate in which way and how “strong” the coffee was prepared (i.e. for a hot cup of Nescafé whether one or two spoons of the instant coffee powder were added in hot water). Concerning Taurine, the respondent considered diet supplements (in general available in gyms and sport centres or through internet) as one of the main sources potentially available on the market. Additional food products such as food supplements, especially in capsules and tablets. Additional categories of food products that should be considered in the study: other bars (i.e. soya bars); capsule, pills, gels, sports drinks (even concentrated). 175 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Country Italy Stakeholder INRAN – Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Literature Review Additional literature: Gambon DL, Brand HS, Boutkabout C, Levie D, Veerman EC, 2011, Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands. Int Dent J.; 61, 5, 247-51; Oteri A, Salvo F, Caputi AP, Calapai G, 2007, Intake of energy drinks in association with alcoholic beverages in a cohort of students of the School of Medicine of the University of Messina. Alcohol Clin Exp Res.;31, 10, 1677-80. Kaminer Y, 2010, Problematic use of energy drinks by adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am., 19, 3, 643-50. James JE, Kristjánsson AL, Sigfúsdóttir ID, 2011, Adolescent substance use, sleep, and academic achievement: evidence of harm due to caffeine. J Adolesc.;34, 4, 665-73. Høstmark AT, 2010, The Oslo health study: soft drink intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35, 5, 635-42. Leclercq C, Arcella D, Piccinelli R, Sette S, Le Donne C, Turrini A; INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 Study Group, 2009, The Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06: main results in terms of food consumption, Public Health Nutr;12, 12, 2504-32. Energy Drinks Market List of brands complete. No data on ED market. Food products with Active Ingredients Additional food products: all foods and beverages with coffee and chocolate as ingredient (e.g. yogurt with coffee or chocolate, biscuits with chocolate, etc.); meal substitutes and sport nutrition; supplements and medicines 176 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Country Germany Cyprus Belgium Stakeholder WAFG Wirtschaftsvereinigung Alkoholfreie Getränke e.V. Literature Review BfR documents listed in the literature for the study can create some misunderstandings. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Germany is in charge of assessing food safety risks (from a scientific point of view), but has no legal authority to judge whether food products can be marketed or not. This is an important issue that must be addressed, in particular referring to the BfR publication on energy shots’ safety. Ministry of Health - State General Laboratory Comprehensive. SHC - Superior Health Council Additional literature: Superior Health Council, 2012, The use of caffeine in foodstuffs. Advisory report of the Superior Health Council, N°8689; Meltzer HM, Nordisk Ministerråd N, Råd Nordisk, 2008, Risk assessment of caffeine among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries. Nordic council of Ministers, Copenhagen. TemaNord; NZFSA - New Zealand Food Safety Authority, 2010, Risk profile : caffeine in energy drinks and energy shots. Report prepared by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Energy Drinks Market No data about ED market (difficult to obtain). A general overview of household consumption of ED in Germany was provided. These data do not take into account products sold in petrol stations or exported. Significant increase in marketed volumes of ED, but despite this fact it is obvious that ED, with only 0,4 % of overall beverage consumption, still have a very low market share or impact. BURN is not anymore present in the German market, while EFFECT should be added to the list of ED brands marketed in Germany. There are a lot of local brands in each different region of the country. Additional ED brands marketed in Cyprus: Red Bull, Shark, Big Energy Shock, Bullet, Blu, Chillo, Life is Drive, M-150, Mixxed up, Monster, Premium XO, Rienergy Refresher. Red Bull has the biggest market share followed by Shark (information provided from the Public Health Services of Cyprus) Additional ED brands marketed in Belgium: Rodeo, Virus, Boosted, Hell, Taurine Force, Energy. Provided some info about energy shots. Food products with Active Ingredients Emerging energy products: energy chocolate bars and sweets. Additional food products: canned coffee to the category of “coffee”; a category called “other soft drinks” where including soft drinks other than colas containing caffeine (i.e. Fanta Verdia and Irn-Bru, popular brands in Cyprus and Greece). Other potential sources of caffeine available in Belgium: “Lemonades”, very often presented as 25 or 33 cl cans; Chewing gums “Black Rhino”, 3 tablets of which are believed to amount to 80 mg of caffeine; “Energy” pills available in pubs, night clubs, labelled as food supplements. Effervescent tablets - intended to be dissolved in water - should provide not more than 320 mg of caffeine per litre (see lemonades); Syrups should also provide no more than 320 mg/l caffeine after having been diluted with water. 177 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Country Stakeholder Latvia Agency of Food and Veterinary Service of Latvia Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Literature Review Arria AM, et al., 2010, Energy drink consumption and increased risk of alcohol dependence, Alcohol Clin Exp Res.; Velazquez CE, Poulos NS, Latimer LA, Pasch KE, 2012, Associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use behaviors among college students. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1, 123, 1-3, 167-172 O'Brien MC, McCoy TP, Rhodes SD, Wagoner A, Wolfson, M, 2008, Caffeinated cocktails: energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcoholrelated consequences among college students, Acad.Emerg.Med, 15, 5, 453-460; Brache K, Stockwell T, 2011, Drinking patterns and risk behaviors associated with combined alcohol and energy drink consumption in college drinkers, Addictive Behaviors, 36, 12, 1133-1140 Energy Drinks Market Popular ED brands in the Latvian market: Dynamit, Arkta energy, Starter Food products with Active Ingredients Additional food products: food supplements, sports drinks, caffeinated chewing gums 178 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Country Stakeholder Hungary State Secretariat for Health, Ministry of National Resources Iceland MAST – Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Literature Review Additional literature: Higgins JP, Phil M, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL, 2010. Energy Beverages: Content and Safety. Mayo Clin Proc, 85, 11, 1033-104; Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety: New information on ingredients in so-called ”energy drinks”. Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids, Materials in Contact with Food and Cosmetics of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, 11 May 2009; Committee on Nutrition and the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate? Pediatrics 2011 Jun,12, 6, 1182-9. Seifert SM, Schaechter JL, Hershorin, ER, Lipshultz SE, 2011, Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatrics 127, 3, 511-28. Kaminer Y, 2010, Problematic use of energy drinks by adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 19, 3, 643-50. Bigard AX, 2010, Risks of energy drinks in youths, Arch Pediatr 17, 11, 1625-31. Additional papers: Eucam, 2009, Dutch Minister doesn’t follow advise on labeling alcoholic energy drinks, Utrecht; O’Brien MC, McCoy TP, Rhodes SD, Wagoner A,Wolfson M, 2008,Caffeinated Cocktails: Energy DrinkConsumption, High-risk Drinking, and Alcohol-related Consequences among College Students, Academic Emergency Medicine, 15: 1–-8; Arria AM, Caldeira MK, Kasperski SJ, Vincent KB,Griffiths RR, O’Grady KE, 2011, Energy Drink Consumption and Increased Risk for Alcohol Dependence”, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 35, No. 2. Energy Drinks Market Food products with Active Ingredients Integration of the list of ED brands with: Adrenalin, BIG, B!Bomb, Booster, Burn, Cocaine, Big Energy, Blue bear, Booster, Fit Energy, Fütyülős, Kalaschnikow, Kerozin, Kobra, Light Kick, Max, Playboy, Power, Reload, Tiger, UP, Watt, XL. The respondent mentioned Red Bull and Hell as the most popular energy drink brands in Hungary, but she underlined that she had no consumption/sales data to support her opinion. Addition of the following food products: 3in1 and 2in1 coffees; biscuits, wafers (filled and/or coated with/by chocolate cream); breakfast cereals with cocoa; puddings with cocoa; cottage cheese desserts with chocolate; ice creams with cocoa or chocolate; pastry with cocoa or chocolate. Might be more appropriate to use the wording “food supplements” instead of “capsules, pills, gels”, and “foods for special dietary purposes” instead of “sport drinks” in the original list. List of brands quite complete. No data on ED consumption. No additional food products. 179 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Country Stakeholder Germany BfR - Federal Institute for Risk Assessment Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 Literature Review Additional literature: Heckman MA, Weil J, Gonzalez de Mejia E., 2010, Caffeine in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. J Food Sci, 75, R77- 87; Heckman MA, Sherry K, DeMejia EG, 2010, Energy drinks: An assessment of their market size, consumer demographics, ingredient profile, functionality, and regulations in the United States. Comprehensive reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9, 303-317. Energy Drinks Market http://energydrinkblog.de/von-a-z/ Food products with Active Ingredients No further information available. 180 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks GATHERING CONSUMPTION DATA ON SPECIFIC CONSUMER GROUPS OF ENERGY DRINKS EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT APPENDIX E CONTENT OF RELEVANT INGREDIENTS IN ED BRANDS INDICATED AS “OTHER” Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 181 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks CONTENT OF RELEVANT SUBSTANCES IN DIFFERENT ED BRANDS INDICATED AS “OTHER” BY RESPONDENTS IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE Caffeine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Taurine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Glucuronolactone (mg/L)as declared on the label 666™ 1666 Not present Not present 9mm™ 320 4000 Not present Action™ 315 3800 2400 (**) Adrenalin™ 320 4000 Not present Afri power™ 320 Not present Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) AMP-Mountain Dew™ 300 4000 (**) Not present Appie™ (private label) 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) BePOwer- Biedronka™ 320 4000 Not present Bigpump: Taurine™ 240 4000 Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Black cat™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Black energy™ 320 3000 Not present Black Horse™ 480 4000 2400 Black Panter™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) 300 4000 2400 Brand name Albert Hejin™ (private label) Biturbo™ Blitz™ Blow™ 240 2000 Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present 320 4000 2400 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Boost™ 300 4000 Not present Buffalo™ 320 Not present Not present Bullit™ (private label Penny) 300 4000 Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) 320 4000 2400 Blue Bear™ Blue bear™ (private label Spar UK) Boom Boom™ c1000™ (private label) Cannabis™ Celcius™ Club-Mate™ Cobra™ Cocaine™ Crazy wolf™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) 200 Not present Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) 640 4000 Not present 250 4000 (**) 2400 (**) 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Demon™ 320 4000 Not present Denner Energy™ 300 3800 2400 C-Strong energy™ Devil™ 350 4000 (**) Not present 300 (*) Not present Not present Dr Pepper Energy™- Venom 320 4000 2400 Dragster™ 320 4000 Not present Dynamite ™ 260 3100 Not present Doc Weingart™ Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 182 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Caffeine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Taurine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Glucuronolactone (mg/L)as declared on the label E2™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Ed™ 320 4000 Not present Emerge™ 300 4000 Not present Energgy2000™ 320 4000 Not present Energia Lecha™ 320 4000 Not present Energy™ (private label Euroshopper) 320 4000 2400 (**) Energy slammers™ 320 Not present 2400 (**) Enerji™ 133 Not present Not present Fenix™ 300 (*) 4000 Not present Flying Power™ (private label Hofer) 320 4000 Not present Frank’s™ 320 4000 Not present Full size™ 320 3800 3000 Full Speed™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Full Strike™ 320 4000 1200 Gasoline for humans™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Glontz™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Golden eagle™ 320 4000 2400 Golden Power™ 320 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Gordon’s space™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Grasshopper™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Green up™ 320 Not present Not present Guru™ 500 Not present Not present Hacendado™ (private label Mercadona) 150 4000 2400 (**) Herbapol - Green Up™ 320 Not present Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Hools™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Hot Blood™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Hunter™ 300 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Hustler™ 200 3000 Not present Hype™ 320 4000 2400 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Imola™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Inferno™ 320 4000 Not present Jaguar™ 320 4000 2400 Jolt™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Jump in! ™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Kalashnikov™ 315 4000 Not present Kamikaze™ 610 Not present 2400 (**) 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Brand name Hijinks energy™ Ica energidryck™ (private label) Kaufland™ (private label) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 183 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Caffeine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Taurine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Glucuronolactone (mg/L)as declared on the label Kick™ 300 4000 2400 Killerfish™ 320 3000 Not present Kite™ 300 Not present Not present Koks™ 320 400 2500 300 (*) Not present Not present 320 4000 2400 Brand name Kombucha™ Kratin daeng™ Las Vegas™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Leszarom™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Lift Off™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Lipovitan™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Liquid Lightnin™ 400 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Locura™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Lucozade original™ 120 Not present Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present M-150™ 330 Not present Not present Magic Man™ 320 3000 Not present Mask™ 320 4000 2400 (**) Matrix™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Max Force™ 320 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Maxx™ 320 4000 Not present Megaforce™ 320 4000 1200 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Nae danger energy drink™ 320 4000 (**) Not present N-gine (private label Tesco)™ 320 4000 Not present No Fear™ 300 4000 2400 NY Razor™ 320 4000 (**) Not present M power™ Motion™ Olimp™ 560 4000 2400 (**) 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Oxxenkracherl™ 320 3000 2400 (**) Ozone Energy Drink™ 320 4000 Not present Party Power™ 320 4000 Not present Pink Fish™ 300 4000 2400 Pitbull™ 320 4000 Not present Planet Energy™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Plus™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) pokka™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Power King™ 320 4000 2400 Power UP™ 480 Not present Not present Powerade™ 320 Not present Not present Powerking™ 320 4000 2400 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Onyx Energy Drink™ Private label Casino™ Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 184 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Caffeine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Taurine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Glucuronolactone (mg/L)as declared on the label Puma™ 300 3800 2400 R20™ 300 4000 2400 Race™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Race™ 300 4000 2400 (**) Rasta Sta™r 320 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Red dragon™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Red force™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Red hell™ 320 Not present 2400 (**) Red rooster™ 320 4000 Not present Red thunder™ 315 4000 (**) Not present Riders™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Ronin™ 320 4000 Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Sainsbury's Blue Bolt™ 300 4000 2400 (**) Sbudget - Privale Label Spar™ 320 4000 (**) Not present Schartner clue™ 315 4000 (**) 1000 Scheckter's Organic™ 340 Not present Not present Schwarze dose™ 320 Not present Not present Brand name Rox™ Sexergy™ 320 3000 Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Slammers™ 320 Not present 2400 (**) Spam™ 300 4000 2400 Speed™ 310 300 Not present Speedstar™ 320 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Spike Shotgun™ 700 Not present Not present Spoko energy drnik™ 1066 Not present Not present T400™ 300 4000 100 Tabu™ 320 4000 Not present 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) TDI™ 300 4000 Not present Teho™ 320 4000 Not present Thunder energy™ 320 4000 Not present Titanium - private label Eroski™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Trigger™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Tunnel™ 230 2900 Not present Ursus energy drink™ 320 4000 Not present Verve™ 320 4000 Not present Vibe™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) 2400 (**) Vipera™ 320 4000 Not present Vitamin™ 315 Not present Not present V-MAX™ 320 4000 Not present She™ Take off™ Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 185 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks Caffeine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Taurine (mg/L) - as declared on the label Glucuronolactone (mg/L)as declared on the label Volcaz™ 300 4000 (**) Not present Vulcano™ 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Wake up™ Brand name 300 (*) 4000 (**) Not present Watt™ 300 4000 Not present Wild Dragon™ 300 3900 2400 X act™ 320 4000 2400 (**) XL™ 320 4000 Not present X-Ray™ 240 Not present Not present Xtreme™ 320 4000 2400 XXL™ 320 4000 Not present Note: values highlighted by the light grey background were assumed, as no information on actual content could be retrieved; further investigations are being carried out to achieve a final validation of the assumptions made. * assumed as equal to the value in König, 2011. ** assumed as equal to the modal value. Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 186 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks GATHERING CONSUMPTION DATA ON SPECIFIC CONSUMER GROUPS OF ENERGY DRINKS EXTERNAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT APPENDIX F DETAILS ON CAFFEINE CONTENT FOR THE CATEGORIES OF FOOD SELECTED FOR THE CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 187 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks DETAILS ON CAFFEINE CONTENT FOR THE CATEGORIES OF FOOD SELECTED FOR THE CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE References for products with caffeine (segue) WITH CAFFEINE (mg/L o mg/kg) Espresso Coffee Coffee (instant, ground, ice-coffe..) Cappuccino 1916 400 250 Tea (instant, tea bag, ice-tea …) 100 Hot chocolate Range caffeine content mg/kg (min-max) http://faculty.washi Konig Mayo clinic ngton.edu/chudler/ (forthcoming) caff.html ‐ 1320-2475 402-1005 ‐ 368 494 113,4-840 194 310 315 150 Chocolate bars Dark chocolate Milk chocolate White chocolate Chocolate snacks (e.g. Mars, Kit kat..) Dark chocolate Milk chocolate White chocolate Colas (e.g. Coca-cola, Pepsi) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 180 340 183 0 50-150 Heckman et al. (2010) 1008-3024 113,4-840 McCuscker et Safe Food (2002)- NZFSA (2010) Anderson et al. Chou (1992) al.(2003) Ireland New Zealand (2004)-Norden 58,8-256,2 268-536 (no ice tea) 105-504 (no ice tea) 105-340 250-2140 90-1180 286-770 355-690 95-430 (no ice tea) 310-544,5 50-390 134-234,5 25,5-405 6,7-53,6 165-211 21-150 5,36-71 330-1250 210 130-400 50-540 (220-300) 60-1260 340 183 0 140 108-250 264 142 0 79,2 41-132 75,6-131,6 64,4-179,2 93-127 97,2-123,1 188 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks References for products without caffeine DECAFFEINATED (mg/L o mg/kg) Range caffeine content mg/kg (min-max) Mayo clinic Espresso Coffee Coffee (instant, ground, ice-coffe..) Cappuccino 250 10,7 50 8,4-50,4 Tea (instant, tea bag, ice-tea …) 25 0-50,4 Hot chocolate http://faculty.was Heckman et al. Safe Food (2002)hington.edu/chud Chou (1992) (2010) Ireland ler/caff.html NO 13,4-33,5 12,6-50,4 3,3-13,3 13,2-17,6 Chocolate bars Dark chocolate Milk chocolate White chocolate Chocolate snacks (e.g. Mars, Kit kat..) Dark chocolate Milk chocolate White chocolate Colas (e.g. Coca-cola, Pepsi) Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 189 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
  • Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS CATI: Computer Assisted Telephone Interview CAWI: Computer Assisted Web Interview ED: Energy Drinks EU: European Union MS: Member States UK: United Kingdom US: United States Supporting Publications 2013:EN-394 190 The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.