Risk management for wastewater use in agriculture – a jordan case study
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Risk management for wastewater use in agriculture – a jordan case study Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Risk Monitoring and Assessment for Wastewater Reuse in Agricultureg By: Rana N. Ardah Royal Scientific Society Jordan
  • 2. Jordan’s Water Situation Jordan is located in an arid to semi arid region, around 90% of the country's land receives an average precipitation of less than 100 mm/ year, Around 85% of rain water evaporates yearly, One of the four poorest countries worldwide in water resources, Annual per capita share is around145 m3, Population growth rate is about 2.9%
  • 3. Jordan’s Water Situation Sudden influx of refugees due to political instability in the region, Increasing demand on the limited fresh water sources, Imbalance between the water demand and the available supply of fresh water, Increasing generation of wastewater quantities.
  • 4. Jordan’s Water Situation As 64% of the total water budget is being allocated for irrigation, the importance of reusing reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation emerged, since such water is considered to be an important, renewable and non-conventional water resource in Jordan, specially that the number of wastewater treatment plants belonging to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) reached around (27) serving most of the villages and cities.
  • 5. Political/ Legal Aspects Therefore and based on the previously mentioned facts, MWI has updated the national water strategy for Jordan to control Strategy and manage the use of all water resources according to environmental and public health regulations with a great emphasis on encouraging the (direct and indirect) use of treated wastewater as one major resource in agriculture.
  • 6. Political/ Legal Aspects Water Strategy 2008-2022: On resource development/ Jordan Water Strategy 12, it is stated Strategy that: “Wastewater shall not be managed as "waste". It shall be collected and treated to standards that allow its reuse in unrestricted agriculture ….”
  • 7. Political/ Legal Aspects Water Strategy 2008-2022: “… Appropriate wastewater treatment technologies shall be Strategy adopted with due considerations to economizing energy consumption, and quality assurance of the effluent to be used in unrestricted agriculture. Consideration shall be given to blending of the treated effluent with fresher water for appropriate reuse”.
  • 8. Political/ Legal Aspects Water Strategy 2008-2022: On health standards/ Jordan Water Strategy 38: Strategy “Concerns for public health and the health of workers shall be a focus in the programs of reuse of treated wastewater.
  • 9. Political/ Legal Aspects Jordanian Standard for Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater Quality No. (893/ 2006): Thi t d d i d ith th lit i t th t Standard This standard is concerned with the quality requirements that must be met in the reclaimed wastewater coming out of treatment plants to be discharged to surface water or reused for irrigation purposes.
  • 10. Adaptation to Water Scarcity in the Jordan Valley: SWWTP AMMAN Irrigated with Freshwater Irrigated with Blended WW Irrigated with Brackish water
  • 11. Adaptation to Water Scarcity in the Jordan Valley: The use of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes in the Jordan Valley is INDIRECT The existing binding regulations y There is no Jordanian standard for irrigation water quality (only JS No. 893/ 2006) FAO and WHO (1989) guidelines for irrigation water quality are currently used
  • 12. Adaptation to Water Scarcity in the Jordan Valley: The need for a Jordanian standard for irrigation water quality arose, Alignment with 2006 WHO To pilot and strengthen adaptation capacity to water scarcity in the Jordan Valley, WHO/ 2006 Guidelines for Wastewater Use in agriculture had to be introduced,
  • 13. Adaptation to Water Scarcity in the Jordan Valley: In this regard, a multidisciplinary working group named the "Steering Committee for the Risk Monitoring and Management Steps to align with 2006 WHO g g g System for the Safe Use of Treated Wastewater"; was formulated, where it relied on the WHO/ 2006 guidelines throughout its work;
  • 14. Adaptation to Water Scarcity in the Jordan Valley: The committee worked in close cooperation with the German International Agency (GIZ) on developing the final proposal of Steps to align with 2006 WHO g y ( ) p g p p the "National Plan for Risk Monitoring and Management System for the Use of Treated Wastewater in Irrigation for the Irrigated Areas Upstream and Downstream of the King Talal Reservoir“; The national plan was issued in November 2011.
  • 15. Adaptation to Water Scarcity in the Jordan Valley: The committee recommended to have a Jordanian standard for irrigation water quality, Steps to align with 2006 WHO g q y Accordingly, a Jordanian standard for irrigation water quality was drafted by the committee and proposed to the Jordan Standards and Metrology Organization (JSMO) so as to be reviewed and issued properly
  • 16. WHO/ 2006 Guidelines The new guidelines present a flexible approach of risk assessment and risk management that can be applied under Brief Description of 2006 WHO g pp local socio-economic conditions accompanied with strict monitoring programs in order to protect public health and environment.
  • 17. WHO/ 2006 Guidelines WHO/ 2006 guidelines require 6 to 7 log-unit-reduction on fecal coliforms counts (E. coli is an indicator) from the source of The corner stone of 2006 WHO ( ) wastewater and right prior to crop consumption.
  • 18. Comparison between the old and new WHO Guidelines WHO Guidelines (2006)WHO Guidelines (1989) E. coli threshold varies from 1000 to 100,000 MPN/100 ml depending on the set health-based target E. coli I 1000 MPN/ 100ml Depend on a multiple-barriers approach (Different Control Measures) Depend on a single-barrier approach (Only Wastewater Treatment Plant) Provide an integrated approach that combines risk assessment and risk management to control water-related diseases (Stockholm Framework) Do not provide feasible risk-management solutions or guidance Can be adopted according to the local socio- economic conditions Unachievable under local circumstances
  • 19. The available health protection measures in Jordan Notes Pathogen reduction (log-unit) Control measure The required pathogen removal to be achieved by wastewater treatment depends on the combination of health-protection control 1J6Wastewater treatment measures selected Root crops and crops such as lettuce that grow just above, but partially in contact with, the soil. 2 Drip irrigation (low-growing crops) Crops, such as tomatoes, the harvested parts of which are not in contact with the soil. 4 Drip irrigation (high-growing crops) Use of micro-sprinklers, anemometer-controlled direction-switching sprinklers, inward-throwing sprinklers, etc. 1 Spray/ sprinkler drift control
  • 20. The available health protection measures in Jordan Notes Pathogen reduction (log-unit) Control measure Die-off on crop surfaces that occurs between last irrigation and consumption. The log-unit- reduction achieved depends on climate 0.5J2 per day Pathogen die-off (temperature, sunlight intensity), crop type, etc. Washing salad crops, vegetables and fruits with clean water. 1 Produce washing with water Washing salad crops, vegetables and fruits with a weak disinfectant solution and rinsing with clean water. 2Produce disinfection Fruit, root crops.2Produce peeling Immersion in boiling or close-to-boiling water until the food is cooked ensures pathogen destruction. 5J6Produce cooking
  • 21. Mixing Ratio Study Based on the foregoing, the Jordan Valley Authority (JVA) has contracted the Royal Scientific Society (RSS) to conduct a study in order to examine the possibility of mixing the treated wastewater Case Study coming out of Irbid Wastewater Treatment Plant (Eff.) with the freshwater coming out of Wadi Al-Arab Dam (W.A.) and using the mixed water for irrigation purposes to suit the agricultural patterns (restricted & unrestricted) in the irrigated region. Such a study was conducted in September 2009.
  • 22. Mixing Ratio Study The study consisted of two parts; the first included the evaluation of the analyses results of the blended water samples depending on the FAO and WHO/ 1989 Case Study guidelines, While the second part depended on the concept of the safe use of treated wastewater from the perspective of the WHO/ 2006 guidelines.
  • 23. Mixing Ratio Study Results: The mixing ratio of (Eff.: W.A. = 4:1) was recommended, where Case Study this figure would mean the use of relatively large amount of treated wastewater compared to the quantity of fresh water of the dam, and thus conserve fresh water and strengthen adaptation capacity to water scarcity.
  • 24. Mixing Ratio Study Recommendations: Subjecting Irbid WWTP effluent for further processing (to Case Study minimize numbers of E. coli bacteria) prior to mixing it with Wadi Al-Arab dam water and using the blended water for irrigation purposes,
  • 25. Mixing Ratio Study Recommendations: Or, developing a risk assessment and management system Case Study for the safe use of treated wastewater in agriculture, in order to protect health and environment, following the steps outlined in the study and with reference to the WHO/ 2006 guidelines, which are less stringent than the previous guidelines (WHO/ 1989).
  • 26. Th k YThank You