Panama & Los Angeles-The Waterworks That Made the American West -Sophia Mick (71154)
Panama Canal 400 year old project. “A man, a plan, a canal, panama!” 9’ north of equator. Ships have to line up for their turns Upto 6 electric locomotives guide ships through locks Ships are raised by locks. These locks are like giant elevators for the ships, lifting them a total of 85 feet (7 story building) Among the most massive structures ever built Much is hiden below water
Panama Canal The Pioneers Count Ferdinand Delesepse Builder of the suas canal Known as le gromme francais. The great frenchman Built a unobstructed 105 mile passage dug through sand at sea level. Married twice, with which he had 12 children Saves 8thousand miles Follows panama railroad 50 mile route
Panama Canal Panama is poisoned with disease. Dangerous as Beautiful Began by cutting a path several hundred feet wide through the jungle terrain by hand! Then they began digging Every month more workers came to help, and every month many died. Smallpox, molaria, yellow fever, and food poisoning “Am I a canal digger? Or a grave digger?
Panama Canal Fatality rate- 3 out of 4. Mosquito carried yellow fever. Mudslides now taking over. More digging, more work French engineers had been trained to compute, not improvise. You never achieve anything you do not earn in successs
Los Angeles Aqueduct William Mulholland head of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, in Los Angeles. He was responsible for building the water aqueducts and dams that allowed the city to grow into one of the largest in the world. His methods of obtaining water for the city led to disputes collectively known as the California Water Wars. In 1928, his career ended in ignominy when the St. Francis Dam failed just hours after he had given it a personal safety inspection.
Los Angeles Aqueduct In 1880 Mulholland oversaw the laying of the first iron water pipeline in Los Angeles. Mulholland left the employment of the LAWC briefly in 1884 but returned in mid-December of that same year. He left again in 1885 and worked for the Sespe Land and Water Company. As part of his compensation he was granted twenty acres on Sespe Creek. In 1886 he returned to the LAWC and, in October of that year, became a naturalized American citizen. At the end of that year he was made the superintendent of the LAWC. In 1898, the Los Angeles city government decided not to renew the contract with the LAWC. Four years later the Los Angeles Department of Water was established with Mulholland as its head.
Los Angeles Aqueduct The Los Angeles Aqueduct was 233 mi (375 km) long and completed in November 1913, taking water from the Owens Valley in the Eastern Sierra, in a project requiring over 5,000 workers and 164 tunnels. Water reached a reservoir in the San Fernando Valley on November 5. The aqueduct uses gravity alone to move water and also uses the water to generate electricity, so it is cost-efficient to operate.The catastrophic failure of the St. Francis Dam in 1928, flooded the Santa Clarita Valley and parts of Ventura County (resulting in public disgrace for the city of Los Angeles and the end of Mulhollands career) Excluding incidents of sabotage by Owens Valley residents in the early years, the aqueduct system has been operated safely throughout its history
Los Angeles Aqueduct The construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct effectively eliminated the Owens Valley as a viable farming community, and devastated the Owens Lake ecosystem Mulholland and his associates (known as the "San Fernando Syndicate"),including Los Angeles Time publisher Harrison Gray Otis have been criticized for using deceptive tactics to obtain Bureau of Reclamation rights to theOwens Rivers flow. Mullholland, his associates, and the City of Los Angeles forced farmers off of the land, using violent tactics to intimidate any farmers who refused to sell land to them. In response to these violent tactics, numerous Owens Valley residents sabotaged and destroyed portions of the aqueduct The aqueducts water provided developers with the resources to quickly develop the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles through World War II. Mulhollands role in the vision and completion of the aqueduct and the growth of Los Angeles into a large metropolis is recognized and well-documented. The William Mulholland Memorial Fountain, built in 1940 and located at Riverside Drive and Los Feliz Blvd. in Los Feliz is dedicated to his memory and contributions.Mulholland Drive is named for him as well.