Trachea

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  • Cyanosis, bluish skin colour
  • Fistula – openin, opp. of atresia
  • Trachea

    1. 1. ANA 206 SYSTEMIC EMBRYOLOGY
    2. 2. DEVELOPMENTO F THE TRACHEA
    3. 3. Brief insight into the Anatomical & Physiological Characteristics of the Trachea
    4. 4. The trachea is a flexible pipe which travels from the throat down into the thorax. It is supported by rings of a flexible but strong material called cartilage. It prevents the trachea from collapsing as inspired and expired air move through it. The cartilage rings also allow for continue breathing when the neck is bent. The inside of the trachea is covered by millions of microscopic hairs called cilia.
    5. 5. The cilia are covered with a layer of liquid called mucus. Very fine dust particles and microbes get trapped in the mucus and cilia. Although the cilia are attached at one end, each one is able to move (beat). As the cilia beat they tend to push the dust-containing mucus toward the nose and the mouth. In this way the lungs are kept free of most of the dust and microbes inhaled.
    6. 6. Development of the Trachea
    7. 7. The trachea develops caudal to the larynx. The endodermal lining of the laryngotracheal tube differentiates into the epithelium and glands of the trachea and the pulmonary epihelium.
    8. 8. The epithelium develops from the endoderm and the tracheal cartilage and muscles develop from splanchnic mesoderm. Early in development, the trachea bifurcates into the left and right bronchi.
    9. 9. CLINICAL CORRELATES Tracheoesophageal fistula is an abnormal communication between the trachea and esophagus that results from improper division of foregut by the tracheoesophageal septum. It is generally associated polyhydramnios. with esophageal atresia and
    10. 10. Clinical features include excessive accumulation of saliva or mucus in the nose and mouth; episodes of gagging and cyanosis after swallowing milk; abdominal distention after crying; and reflux of gastric contents into lungs, causing pneumonitis. Diagnostic features include inability to pass a catheter into the stomach and radiographs demonstrating air in the infant's stomach. There are five different anatomical types of esophagus and trachea malformations as follows:
    11. 11. Esophageal atresia with a tracheoesophageal fistula at the distal one-third end of the trachea. This is the most common type, occurring in 82% of cases. The anteroposterior (AP) radiograph (the image on the next slide) of this malformation shows an enteric tube (arrow) coiled in the upper esophageal pouch. The air in tracheoesophageal fistula. the bowel indicates a distal
    12. 12. Esophageal atresia with a tracheoesophageal fistula at the distal one-third end of the trachea
    13. 13. Esophageal atresia only. This malformation occurs in 9% of cases.
    14. 14. H-type tracheoesophageal fistula only. This malformation occurs in 6% of cases. The barium swallow radiograph (in the image below) shows a normal esophagus (E), but dye has spilled into the trachea (T) through the fistula and outlines the upper trachea and larynx.
    15. 15. Esophageal atresia with a tracheoesophageal fistula at both proximal and distal ends. This malformation occurs in 2% of cases.
    16. 16. Esophageal atresia with a tracheoesophageal fistula at the proximal end. This malformation occurs in 1% of cases
    17. 17. COMPLIMENT OF THE SEASON & Have a pleasant day Ch33r5!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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