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  • 1. FACE
  • 2. FACE Introduction • The face is the anterior aspect of the head from the forehead to the chin and from one ear to the other Muscles of facial expression • They are subcutaneous They are grouped under the following six heads 1. Muscles of the scalp  Occipitofrontalis: • is a flat diagastric muscle with two bellies(frontal and occipital bellies) which share a common tendon called the epicranial aponeuroses Muscles of the eyelids  Orbicularis oculi  Corrugator supercilli  Levator palpebrae superioris
  • 3. 3. Muscles of the nose  Procerus  Nasalis muscles • Tranverse part of nasalis muscle/ compressor naris • Alar part of nasalis muscle/ dilator naris  Depressor septi nasi 4. Muscles surrounding the mouth  orbicularis oris  Zygomaticus major  Zygomaticus minor  Levator labii superioris alaeque  Levator labii superioris  Levator anguli oris  Depressor anguli oris  Depressor labii inferioris  Mentalis  Risorius  Buccinator
  • 4. 5. Muscles of the Auricle  Aurcularis anterior  Aurcularis superior  Aurcularis posterior 6. Muscles of the neck  platysma
  • 5. Common facial expression and the muscles producing them • Surprise : frontalis • Smiling and laughing : zygomaticus major • Sadness : levator labii suprioris, levator anguli oris, depressor labii superioris, depressor anguli oris • Frowning: corrugator supercili and procerus • Anger: dilator naris (alar part of nasilis), depressor septi • Doubt: mentalis • Grinning: risorius • Closing of the mouth: orbicularis oris • Whistling: buccinator, and orbicularis oris • Tension and stress: platysma
  • 6. Musclea Occipitofrontalis Origin Insertion Main Action(s) Frontal belly1 Epicranial aponeurosis Skin and subcutaneous tissue of eyebrows and forehead Elevates eyebrows and wrinkles skin of forehead; protracts scalp (indicating surprise or curiosity) Occipital bellya Lateral two thirds of superior nuchal line Epicranial aponeurosis Retracts scalp; increasing effectiveness of frontal belly Orbicularis oculi (orbital sphincter)1,2 Medial orbital margin; medial Skin around margin of orbit; Closes eyelids: palpebral part does palpebral ligament; lacrimal bone superior and inferior tarsal plates so gently; orbital part tightly (winking) Corrugator supercilii1 Medial end of superciliary arch Skin superior to middle of supraorbital margin and superciliary arch Draws eyebrow medially and inferiorly, creating vertical wrinkles above nose (demonstrating concern or worry)
  • 7. Procerus plus transverse part Fascia aponeurosis covering of nasalis3 nasal bone and lateral nasal cartilage Skin of inferior forehead, between eyebrows Depresses medial end of eyebrow; wrinkles skin over dorsum of nose (conveying disdain or dislike) Alar part of nasalis plus levator Frontal process of maxilla labii superioris alaeque nasii3 (inferomedial margin of orbit) Major alar cartilage Depresses ala laterally, dilating anterior nasal aperture (i.e., “flaring nostrils,― as during anger or exertion) Orbicularis oris (oral sphincter)3 Medial maxilla and mandible; deep surface of perioral skin; angle of mouth (modiolus) Mucous membrane of lips Tonus closes rima oris; phasic contraction compresses and protrudes lips (kissing) or resists distension (when blowing) Levator labii superioris3 Infraorbital margin (maxilla) Zygomaticus minor3 Anterior aspect, zygomatic bone Skin of upper lip Buccinator (cheek muscle)3 Mandible, alveolar processes of Angle of mouth (modiolus); maxilla and mandible, orbicularis oris pterygomandibular raphe Part of dilators of mouth; retract (elevate) and/or evert upper lip; deepen nasolabial sulcus (showing sadness) Presses cheek against molar teeth; works with tongue to keep food between occlusal surfaces and out of oral vestibule; resists distension (when blowing)
  • 8. Zygomaticus major3 Lateral aspect of zygomatic bone Levator anguli oris3 Infraorbital maxilla (canine fossa) Risorius3 Parotid fascia and buccal skin (highly variable) Depressor anguli oris4 Anterolateral base of mandible Part of dilators of mouth; depresses labial commissure bilaterally to frown (sadness) Depressor labii inferioris4 Platysma and anterolateral body Skin of lower lip of mandible Part of dilators of mouth; retracts (depresses) and/or everts lower lip (pouting, sadness) Mentalis4 Body of mandible (anterior to roots of inferior incisors) Skin of chin (mentolabial sulcus) Elevates and protrudes lower lip; elevates skin of chin (showing doubt) Platysma5 Subcutaneous tissue of infraclavicular and supraclavicular regions Base of mandible; skin of cheek Depresses mandible (against and lower lip; angle of mouth resistance); tenses skin of (modiolus); orbicularis oris inferior face and neck (conveying tension and stress) Part of dilators of mouth; elevate labial commissure—bilaterally to smile (happiness); unilaterally to sneer (disdain) Angle of mouth (modiolus) Part of dilators of mouth; widens rima oris, as when grinning or grimacing