ABOUT THE AUTHORErnest Miller Hemingway was born in Oak Park, United States, on July 21, 1899. Taking aturbulent life, Hemingway was married four times.* Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went towork for The Kansas city star, as a cub reporter.* In the summer of 1933, Hemingway traveledto Africa for a three-month safari.*In 1940 Hemingway purchased a home outsideHavana, Cuba. He would live there for the nexttwenty years, fishing and writing.* He Won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.*On the morning of July 2, 1961, inKetchum, Idaho, took the hunting rifle andshot himself.
PLOTSantiago was a poor old fisherman, who after eighty-four days without catching afish, suffered jokes from colleagues. He had a faithful friend,Manolin – his disciple,loyal to the old man- which was forbidden by his father to accompany him infisheries because of the bad luck of Santiago. Alone,Santiago decided to retrievethe success and embarked to the high seas in his small boat with a little water,only two baits given by the boy and feeding on fish, under the bliding sun. Lonely,he had conversations with himself.He feels a strong pull on his line, suggesting that is a great fish, a marlin. Themarlin hauls the skiff through the Gulf waters while Santiago lets out the linewhen necessary, then holds fast to it, sometimes wrapping it around his shoulders.Santiago’s left hand was cramping up, but he was determined to stay with the fishuntil catch it. It lasted through an entire day and night.When he finally catches the fish, he had to fight against several sharks attracted bythe blood trail of the marlin…another battle.At the end of his journey, he arrives at the beach, exhausted, bruised and withonly the skeleton of the fish, but even so he received the admiration and respectof people, colleagues and tourists who have seen the arrival of the old man.
CHARACTERS CHARACTERS*Santiago – “ The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles inthe back of his neck. The brown blotches of the benevolent skincancer the sun brings from its reflection on the tropic sea were onhis cheeks. The blotches ran well down the sides of his face and hishands had the deepcreased scars from handling heavy fish on thecords. But none of these scars were fresh. They were as old aserosions in a fishless desert.Everthing about him was old except hiseyes and they were the same colour as the sea and were cheerfuland undefeated.” He saw the world through the eyes of a boy.* Manolin – a young boy who becomes the only friend of the old man, but his parents forbade him to fish with the old Santiago, because he was out of luck. *The sea
“ He always thought of the sea as la mar which iswhat people call her in Spain when they love her.Sometimes those who love her say bad things of herbut they are always said as though she were awoman. Some of the younger fisherman, those whoused buoys as floats [...]spoke of her as el mar whichis masculine. They spoke of her as a contestant or aplace or even an enemy. But the old man alwaysthought of her as a feminine and as something thatgave or withheld great favours, and if she did wild orwicked things it was because she could not helpthem. The moon affects her as it does a woman, hethought.”
SETTING* On land - a small fishermen village on thenorthern coast of Cuba, below the Tropic ofCancer and not far from the capital city ofHavana.•At sea, - boat of Santiago, in north of Cuba in theGulf Stream.• The time is September in the late 1940s.Hemingway lived near Havana from 1940 until1959.
CULTURAL IMPERIALISM*Imperialism is the policy of expansion and territorial cultural andeconomical domination of one nation over others.The United States also influenced a lot in the islands politics, alwayssupporting the pro-American presidents. From an economicstandpoint, capitalism Cuba followed with great dependence on theUnited States.“American cultural imperialism has been one of the most pervasive formsof this phenomenon, as we see AmericanFashion, movies, music, sports, fast food etc.” – Loys Tyson – Critical TheoryToday The devotion of Santiago to New York Yankees is an example of how mass culture has been used by the United States to win hearts and minds of Latin American in the postwar period. The culture functions as an instrument of social control in the fight against socialism. 75% of films watched by Cubans in 1948 were Hollywood productions. - Jeremy Tunstall - The Media Were American
IDENTITY•Hybrid Culture•Hybrid Identity•Masculine Universe•The elderly are not respected
"All that is solid melts into air" isconcerned with modernization - changes in society, which saw the growth ofthe modern capitalist world - as well as modernism in other aspects such asliterature, art and architecture.Marshall Berman brings three concepts:•Modernization - the social changes that constantly occur around us• Modernity - the way in which these changes are immediately lived andexperienced•Modernism – reflection of the intellectual and artistic, literary , material,political representation of these changes.•Straight/ Direct Writing•Most frequent themes in modernist works are loneliness and isolation (evenin cities full of people).
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