Land Degradation
Desertification
and
Drought issues
Publc Lecture
Windhoek, 25 July 2013

What
lasting
Solutions?
Luc GNAC...
Outline
1). Land as a stategic
commodity in the Nexus of
Poverty-Food-Energy-Water

Land Degradation
Desertification
and
D...
Estimated Cropland
expansion by 2030 for
food, feed and fuel
demand 175 to 220 Mha
Land is a strategic commodity in the ne...
Land:
a scarce resource & a global Common

Water

3%
9%
14%

Mountains,
deserts, ice

75%
Rocky, wet, hot,
infertile areas...
Land Degradation/Desertification:

Earth’s skin disease

Desertification?

Deforestation

Overgrazing

Agriculture

The Ca...
The legacy of DLDD
q 

q 

q 

14%

9%

3%

q 

q 

q 

q 

q 

LD is accelerating: Total land area degraded
15% i...
Africa	
  &	
  DLDD	
  issues	
  
§  Dry	
  lands	
  (including	
  arid,	
  semi-­‐arid	
  
or	
  sub-­‐humid	
  areas)	
...
Desertification Risk &
Vulnerability in Africa
2/3 of Africa’s arable
land under use could
be lost by 2025 if the
trend of...
DLDD & Linkages to other global issues

Extreme
Poverty
Increased
emissions of
GHG

Food insecurity

& Hunger

Increased
t...
DLDD & Gender

Adult	
  female	
  literacy	
  declining	
  with	
  
increasing	
  levels	
  of	
  aridity	
  in	
  West	
 ...
Child mortality increasing
with land degradation
Drylands & Conflicts
Drought Disasters

Map of drought repartition were we can see that Africa, India, United
states, Australia are the most af...
Sahel: Seasonal
Temperature trends
Sahel Hotpots of change
Namibia:
Drought & Food insecurity
Drought potential
worldwide 2000-2098

Source : University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - http://www2.ucar.edu/new...
Rio Summit 1992
Addressing drylands specific challenges:
The UNCCD
"

Environment & Development Convention

"   Entered in...
Challenges

in implementing the UNCCD
q  Low political recognition &
mainstreaming
q  Weak scientific basis
q  Lack of ...
Drylands: Assumptions & Real Value
Assumptions &
Misperceptions
q 

q 
q 
q 

Drylands are waste
lands, marginal lands...
The UNCCD Strategy:
A framework for result-based implementation

UNCCD

To generate Global Benefits

3

2

To improve the ...
UNCCD

Cost of Action Vs Inaction

The Economics of LD
Major policy development
from Rio+20 Summit

The Vision of a
LandDegradation
Neutral World

A holistic
framework for
lasti...
DLDD in “The Future We Want”
Outcomes (para 205-209)
1) 

2) 
3) 

4) 
5) 

DLDD are challenges of a global dimension and
...
Global politics of
responsibility for land stewardship
In the context of the Post-2015 Global Dev. Agenda
l  A SDG on lan...
Poverty eradication
Improving livelihood
through pro-poor policies
on Sustainable Land &
Water Management

Food Security
P...
Holistic
Management
and
Ecological
Restoration

The
Reasons
for Hope
Luc GNACADJA
Executive Secretary
United Nations Conve...
Ecological Restoration
1955

1975

2005
Farmer-managed natural
regeneration in Niger
l 

l 
l 

l 
l 
l 

5,000,000 ha re-greened in
20 years (only labour f...
Ecological Restoration: Loess Plateau, China
Source: World Resources Institute, South Dakota State University, the IUCN
and the Global Partnership on Forest Landscape ...
“We also need to reward
those who make drylands
productive, so they will
prosper and others will seek
to emulate their exa...
A Historical Fact

Mankind is a Desert-making Species

Thank you for taking action
Drought: from crises management to
preparedness & risk management
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What lasting solutions to desertification - land degration issues lecture in windhoek

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What lasting solutions to Desertification Land degradation and Drought issues in the context of "The Future We Want"?
Outline
1). Land as a strategic commodity in the Nexus of Poverty-Food-Energy-Water
2). Understanding Land degradation, Desertification and Drought
3). The UNCCD from Rio Summit (1992) to Rio+20
4). Land-degradation neutral world: a holistic framework for lasting solutions?
5). The reasons for hope

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What lasting solutions to desertification - land degration issues lecture in windhoek

  1. 1. Land Degradation Desertification and Drought issues Publc Lecture Windhoek, 25 July 2013 What lasting Solutions? Luc GNACADJA Executive Secretary Luc GNACADJA Executive Secretary United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  2. 2. Outline 1). Land as a stategic commodity in the Nexus of Poverty-Food-Energy-Water Land Degradation Desertification and Drought issues 2). Understanding Land degradation, Desertification and Drought 3). The UNCCD from Rio Summit (1992) to Rio+20 4). Land-degradation neutral world: a holistic framework for lasting solutions? 5). The reasons for hope Luc GNACADJA Executive Secretary United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  3. 3. Estimated Cropland expansion by 2030 for food, feed and fuel demand 175 to 220 Mha Land is a strategic commodity in the nexus issuesMha/year Urbanization: 3 of: Sustainable Poverty - Food & Water security - Energy access Land & Sustainability ? 70% rural Development Poverty Food security 80% hunger rural +50% in 2030 + 120 million ha in 2030 +45% Energy Water Land/Soil Water in Agric 70% in 2030 +30% Deforestation: 70 to 80 % of expansion of cropland expansion
  4. 4. Land: a scarce resource & a global Common Water 3% 9% 14% Mountains, deserts, ice 75% Rocky, wet, hot, infertile areas, roads or cities Arable land
  5. 5. Land Degradation/Desertification: Earth’s skin disease Desertification? Deforestation Overgrazing Agriculture The Causes of Land Degradation/Desertification BioIndustries
  6. 6. The legacy of DLDD q  q  q  14% 9% 3% q  q  q  q  q  LD is accelerating: Total land area degraded 15% in 1991 to 25% in 2011 More than 50% of agricultural moderately to severely degraded LD directly affects 1,5 billion people globally (2008) 24 billionWater of fertile soil lost/year due to tons cropland erosion 12 million ha/Year lost due to drought and Mountains, desertification ice deserts, 75% Six million km2 of drylands bear a legacy of Rocky, desertification wet, hot, infertile Biodiversity: 27,000 species lost each year due areas, roads to Land Degradation (LD) or cities 70 to 80 % of expansion of cropland leads to deforestation
  7. 7. Africa  &  DLDD  issues   §  Dry  lands  (including  arid,  semi-­‐arid   or  sub-­‐humid  areas)  account  for:   §  43%  of  land  area   §  50%  of  popula@on     §  75%    of  agriculture  land   §  About  75%  of  Africa’s  poor  (living   on  less  than  $1.25/day)  are  in   countries  with  dry  land  populaEon   >  25%  of  total  populaEon   Africa’s  Land:     §  Highest  producEvity  Gap  &     §  Highest  Poverty  rate     Source:  (CGIAR)  -­‐  Zomer  et  al.  (2007)  and  Zomer  et  al.  (2008)  based  on  WorldClim  
  8. 8. Desertification Risk & Vulnerability in Africa 2/3 of Africa’s arable land under use could be lost by 2025 if the trend of Desertification and Land Degradation continues (FAO  2009)   Desertification Vulnerability in Africa  Published  in:  P.F.  Reich,  S.T.  Numbem,  R.A.  Almaraz  and  H.  Eswaran  ,  2001 Risk of human-induced desertification
  9. 9. DLDD & Linkages to other global issues Extreme Poverty Increased emissions of GHG Food insecurity & Hunger Increased to Drought & Water stress Biodiversity Loss Environ. induced Instability & Deforestation Crises Migrations DLDD has far-reaching impacts/conseguences
  10. 10. DLDD & Gender Adult  female  literacy  declining  with   increasing  levels  of  aridity  in  West  Africa  
  11. 11. Child mortality increasing with land degradation
  12. 12. Drylands & Conflicts
  13. 13. Drought Disasters Map of drought repartition were we can see that Africa, India, United states, Australia are the most affected by drought. For example Africa was exposed in some parts to up to nine droughts in the time span
  14. 14. Sahel: Seasonal Temperature trends
  15. 15. Sahel Hotpots of change
  16. 16. Namibia: Drought & Food insecurity
  17. 17. Drought potential worldwide 2000-2098 Source : University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - http://www2.ucar.edu/news/2904/climate-change-drought-may-threaten-much-globe-within-decades
  18. 18. Rio Summit 1992 Addressing drylands specific challenges: The UNCCD " Environment & Development Convention "   Entered into force on 26 December 1996 "   Ratified by 195 Parties "   5 geographical Annexes (RAPs and SRAPs) "   113 National Action Programmes (NAPs) "   168 Affected Parties (from 110)
  19. 19. Challenges in implementing the UNCCD q  Low political recognition & mainstreaming q  Weak scientific basis q  Lack of understanding of the impacts of Desertification/Land Degradation q  Inadequate financing
  20. 20. Drylands: Assumptions & Real Value Assumptions & Misperceptions q  q  q  q  Drylands are waste lands, marginal lands with low productivity & low adaptive capacity Where poverty is inevitable Little contribution to national prosperity Cannot yield good return to investments The real value of Drylands " +1/3 of the world land mass and population " 44% of the World’s food production system " 50% of the World’s livestock " Dry forest made 42% of the earth's tropical and subtropical open or closed forests " Home to the world’s largest diversity of mammals
  21. 21. The UNCCD Strategy: A framework for result-based implementation UNCCD To generate Global Benefits 3 2 To improve the Conditions of affected Ecosystems 1 To improve the Livelihood of Affected Populations To mobilize resources through building effective partnerships among all stakeholders *SLM = Sustainable Land Management
  22. 22. UNCCD Cost of Action Vs Inaction The Economics of LD
  23. 23. Major policy development from Rio+20 Summit The Vision of a LandDegradation Neutral World A holistic framework for lasting solutions to DLDD issues United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  24. 24. DLDD in “The Future We Want” Outcomes (para 205-209) 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  DLDD are challenges of a global dimension and continue to pose serious challenges to the sustainable development of all countries Strive to achieve a land-degradation neutral world Monitor land degradation globally and restore restore degraded (in drylands) in order to contribute to sustainable development and poverty eradication To improve science and science-policy interface to addresss DLDD Improve cooperation for information sharing and early warning systems
  25. 25. Global politics of responsibility for land stewardship In the context of the Post-2015 Global Dev. Agenda l  A SDG on land q  ZNLD by 2030 q  ZNFD by 2030 q  NDMP by 2020 l  Enhancing Human security: invest to improve the underperforming assets of the poor q  Eradicating Poverty q  Ensuring Food-Water-Energy security
  26. 26. Poverty eradication Improving livelihood through pro-poor policies on Sustainable Land & Water Management Food Security Preserving the resource base for food security – Land productivity/Soil fertility improvement at the core of all long term strategies Drought & Water stress Improving water availability & quality through sustainable land & water management Biodiversity Climate change The Vision of a LDNW Biodiversity conservation Land is a win-win context An integrated framework through improvement of for adaptation, mitigation land ecosystems’ for Landscape approach & resilience building conditions Avoided Deforestation SLM & Restoration of degraded Lands as an alternative to Deforestation Bio Energies Opportunities for Bio energies through biomass production Avoiding environ. Forced Migrations Changing the “DegradeAbandon-Migrate” or DAM Paradigm
  27. 27. Holistic Management and Ecological Restoration The Reasons for Hope Luc GNACADJA Executive Secretary United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  28. 28. Ecological Restoration
  29. 29. 1955 1975 2005
  30. 30. Farmer-managed natural regeneration in Niger l  l  l  l  l  l  5,000,000 ha re-greened in 20 years (only labour for protection, investment in extension, no recurrent costs to governments) 200 million new trees additional cereal production/year: 500,000 ton 2.5 million people fed 1.25 million rural households involved & Resilient to climatic shocks Challenges for scaling up and dissemination l  Secure Land tenure and Land use rights l  Public investments on infrastructures l  Legislation
  31. 31. Ecological Restoration: Loess Plateau, China
  32. 32. Source: World Resources Institute, South Dakota State University, the IUCN and the Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration - http:// www.wri.org/map/global-map-forest-landscape-restoration-opportunities
  33. 33. “We also need to reward those who make drylands productive, so they will prosper and others will seek to emulate their example” Ban Ki-moon, on 17 June 2011
  34. 34. A Historical Fact Mankind is a Desert-making Species Thank you for taking action
  35. 35. Drought: from crises management to preparedness & risk management
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