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2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation
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2011 lucy lu_0945994_oral_presentation


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Oral Presentation for MORE 11 Feb 2011

Oral Presentation for MORE 11 Feb 2011

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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  • 1. Oral PresentationMethods of Research and Enquiry
    The Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding:
    Its Association with Intellectual and Motor Development Among New Zealand Primary School Children.
    Lucy Lu
    Liverpool JMU. (2006)
  • 2. “Does exclusive breastfeeding provides intelligence and motor skills development
    advantages to New Zealand primary school children in comparison to children who were
    not exclusively breastfed?”
    • Existing evidences show: there are positive associations between exclusive breastfeeding and a range of health benefits
    • 3. Psychological developments in children are important, since they can predict many important life outcomes (Weiss, 2006).
    • 4. In New Zealand, only 14% infants born in 2007 were exclusively breastfed for six months
    • 5. Lack of study based in New Zealand
    • 6. To give evidence supported information
  • Design
    • Quantitative approach
    • 7. Observational study with natural experimental design
    • 8. Children with any psychological or physical disorders are excluded
    • 9. Forms are giving to parents to sign;
    • 10. 1067 children are selected from children whose parents agreed to participate
    • 11. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding
    • 12. Intelligence
    • 13. Motor skills development
    • 14. Months
    • 15. Intelligence Quotient
    • 16. Gross Motor Quotient
  • Method
    • Duration of exclusive breastfeeding obtained from both maternity records and mothers’ recalls.
    • 17. Mothers do not know the real purpose of the study; this is to avoid bias.
    • 18. Wechsley Intelligence Scale for Children -4th Ed. (Intelligence Quotient) (90min) (Pearson Education, 2011)
    • 19. The Test of Gross Motor Development -2ed Ed. (Motor Development) (20min) (Pearson Education, 2011)
    • 20. A code is allocated to each child for confidentiality.
    • 21. Both WISC-IV and TGMD-2 are carried out by experienced professionals. i.e. psychologists and PE teachers
  • Analysis
    • Inferential statistics allow researchers to know whether or not the pattern obtained from the 1067 children can be applied to all NZ primary school children (Davidson & Tolich, 2003)
    • 22. Bi-variate analysis allow us to examine the relationship between two variables
    duration of exclusive breastfeeding VS IQ
    duration of exclusive breastfeeding VS Gross Motor Score
    • Categorised to <1month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6+ months.
    • 23. Means of IQ and Gross Motor Scores are calculated for each group in order to compare
    • 24. Standard error are calculated base on 95% confidence interval.
    • 25. Graph can be helpful
  • 26. Future Implications
    • WHO advised all mothers to exclusively breastfeed their babies until sixth month as this provide a range of health benefits to babies (World Health Organization, 2003) .
    Babycares-info. (2011, January 01).
    • NZCOM requires all midwives to promote exclusive breastfeeding and provide UP-TO-DATE factual information for women in care (NZCOM, 2010).
    • 27. Therefore, findings from this study can be used to encourage women to exclusively breastfeed their babies as recommended by WHO.
    Babycares-info. (2011, January 01).
  • 28. References
    Babycares-info. (2011, January 01). Cute baby pictures. Retrieved from
    Davidson, C., & Tolich, M. (2003). Charting research design. In C.Davidson, & M. Tolich (Eds.), Social science research in New Zealand (pp. 102-120). New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.
    Happy Breastfed Babies. (2009, March 01). Happy breastfed babies. Retrieved from
    Liverpool JMU. (2006). Liverpool primary schools join in new activity initiative. Retrieved from:
    Pearson Education (2011). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition. Retrieved from:
    Peason Education (2011). Test of Gross Motor Development-second edition. Retrieved from
     Weiss, L.G. (2006). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children four advanced clinical interpretation. United States: Academic Press, Elsevier.
    World Health Organization. (2003). Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Retrieved from:
    NZCOM. (2008). Midwives handbook for practice. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand College of Midwives Inc.