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The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
The re marginalization of men
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The re marginalization of men

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  • 1. The Re-Marginalization of Men Presented at Men of Vision for Empowerment March 3, 2013 Leahcim Semaj, PhD1 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 2. Gleaner Report: Help Men Vent, Says Dr Semaj  more to be done to assist men to vent their problems.  while women also abuse children,  special attention must be placed on fathers as they tend to react violently to stress and problems.2 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 3. Semaj:  "We have to find a way to help our men to talk about their problems because once it gets to that point where the depression,  the hurt and the anger comes out,  it is going to end ugly,  no questions about that,”3 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 4. Semaj:  "There are not enough options for men to talk about their problems and this should be a wake-up call to reach out more to our males.  Women will talk,  mothers always have their girlfriends to vent on  or when they go to the hairdresser.  Men only know the4 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj bartender, “. 3/3/2013
  • 5. Semaj:  "Once men have reached their boiling point,  they see no other way out, than to just end it  unless there is intervention,  so if somebody had perhaps reached out to him (the father in Trelawny)  things probably would have been different.”5 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 6. Dr Barry Davidson, however, believes that the options are available, but men are shy to seek help.6 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 7. Davidson  charged parents to avoid taking out stress on their children.  "Men are afraid to seek help.  I find that for my practice, men like to come at nights so as to make it seem as if everything is alright  but, deep down, they are hurting and we have to find a way to help them get out of that fear because if this continues, even our most vulnerable will be at stake,”7 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 8. Davidson  "Parents need to make themselves available to counselling centres around them and guidance counsellors need to understand that when a child acts up, there is probably some dysfunction in the family and so counsellors should not only assess the child,  but ensure that the family is assessed,  so as to avoid situations like these,”8 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 9. Male Marginalization within the Family The Caribbean family  the subject of continuing scholarly attention since the 1930s,  likely due to the seemingly matrifocal family structure.  On average, the woman- headed family would earn less than a male-headed family.9 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 10. Marietta Morrissey  noted that male migration was often a factor in these women-headed families  and that it was not unusual for men to be absent for years.  These men would send back money whenever possible to support their families.10 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 11. Although men did not always reside with their families,  they did maintain influence, causing Morrissey to comment that,  “male authority embodied in the patriarchal family is often an ideal in so-called matrifocal societies „.  Caribbean societies are not strictly matrifocal because families move in and out of matrifocality.  They try to establish nuclear families, sometimes successfully, but may return to a matrifocal structure if the attempt ends in failure11 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 12. Age can be a factor  in whether or not a nuclear family structure is established older men are often in better positions to support women and children12 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 13. Despite claims of objectivity from anthropologists in the 1950s  early Caribbean anthropology showed marked ethnocentrism in labeling non-nuclear family structures “incomplete”.  It also failed to recognize visiting unions,  regardless of the duration of a couple‟s relationship or the13 presence of children in the union www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 14. The male marginalization theory  Men are peripheral to the family.  The familial roles of men are perceived as being limited to providing economic support and occasional discipline,  yet men are commonly seen to be inadequate even in these limited roles.  Although the stereotype of the breadwinner is particularly prevalent in Caribbean masculinity,  little employment is available to men and they must migrate elsewhere to provide for their families.14 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 15. Christine Barrow  challenges the idea of male marginalization in the family and suggested that Caribbean men show strong bonds to their mothers.  Males commonly lived with, and assumed responsibility for, their mothers well into adulthood,  a task they saw as natural reciprocity.  In addition, they often took responsibility for their siblings, and more rarely for their nieces and nephews.15 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 16. Male Academic Underachievement  At the common entrance examination, the first level of testing, Jamaican females achieve a higher number of places than males.  This includes discriminatory practices employed in some Caribbean territories, which favor male students to redress the balance.  The imbalance in academic performance continues at the University level.  By the end of 1992, 70% of graduates from the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies were female  One study of Jamaican schools revealed that there is16 less than one male teacher for every four female 3/3/2013 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj ones
  • 17. Although the theory of male marginalization, introduced by Miller, is popularly held,  it has been suggested that male “Academic Underperformance”  is rooted in male privileging and gender socialization.  At home boys are “expected to misbehave while girls are expected to conform to a rigid code.  If a boy misbehaves it is essentially expected,17  but if a girl does so it is a serious 3/3/2013 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj
  • 18. Research has also indicated that  male academic under-performance is misleading and that it is actually a matter of differential gender performance.  Within Caribbean academia traditional patterns of study exist.  Boys have identified English and reading as “too girlish” for males, even female teachers perceived English and grammar as being women‟s subjects.  Female dominance can be explained in certificate programs because  “their male counterparts do not need further qualifications to get ahead.”18 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 19. Jamaica‟s recent statistics on education  have indicated that females now outperform males at all levels and in a wide range of disciplines, including some formerly dominated by males  Women have been the majority among Jamaican students since 1974-75 across all three campuses of UWI.  In 1974 women made up nearly 80% of students in the arts and education disciplines but less than 40% of students in law, medicine, and natural sciences.19  This gap is also been overcome. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 20. Male Marginalisation  Errol Miller, Then Professor of Teacher Education at the UWI  Coined the terms  „Male Marginalization‟ and  „Men At Risk‟,  in the late 1980s and early20 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 1990s. 3/3/2013
  • 21. In "Men at Risk" he stated:  "The description of Caribbean societies points to lower-strata men‟s marginal positions in the family,  role reversal in a small but increasing number of households,  boys‟ declining participation and performance in the educational system,  the greater prospect of men inheriting their fathers‟ position in the social structure,  the decline in the proportions of men in the highest-paying and most prestigious occupations and21  the decrease in men‟s earning power relative 3/3/2013 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj to women‟s especially in white collar occupations"
  • 22. How Does One Measure Male Marginalization?  This is the question posed by Dr. Eudine Barriteau in her paper on  "Re-examining Issues of Male Marginalization and Masculinity in the Caribbean: The Need for a New Policy22 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj Approach" 3/3/2013
  • 23. Dr. Barriteau,  Head of the Centre for Gender Studies, UWI, Cave Hill Campus,  argues that answering this question is essential to the proper analysis of the hypothesis that is forwarded by Miller.  She posits that very important to the concept of marginalization is the lack of conditions of justice.  In an unjust gender system there is unequal access to and distribution of material resources and power.  Accordingly, the thesis of male marginalization23 implies that Caribbean gender systems are unjust www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 24. In her examination of the discourse on male marginalization,  Dr. Barriteau Focuses On  2 Dimensions Of The Gender System  1. The material dimension  which exposes how men or women gain access to or are allocated material and non- material resources within a state system or society; and  2. The ideological dimension,  which indicates how Caribbean societies construct and maintain notions of masculinity24 and femininity. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 25. Her analysis of gender indicate  There are no State policies or legislation that currently deny or previously denied men access;  there are no State- sponsored types of discrimination against men  and men, like women,  have equality of access to the educational resources of the25 State. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 26. Barriteau argues  much of the anxiety associated with „men in crisis‟ and „marginalization of the black male‟ emerged due to fear that Caribbean States had gone too far and had surrendered too much to the interests of women at the expense of men.  So strong is the ideology of male dominance and privilege in the Caribbean, Barriteau argues, that Miller‟s own thesis implicitly supports this ideology. He attributes the emergence of the women‟s movement to the process that marginalizes the black male, rather than as a genuine and legitimate response to the adverse26 circumstances of their lives. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 27. She argues that  Miller‟s underlying assumption is that men have an a priori right to the resources of the State above women and,  by necessary implication, any attempt to correct the inequalities that presently deny women access is really designed to punish men.  Miller‟s arguments  have therefore been construed in popular discussion to mean that women are to blame for all the problems that men are facing.27 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 28. For Mark Figueroa,  the problem that men currently face is related to the history of male privilege that fosters gender inequalities  and results in negative outcomes for men and women, boys and girls.28 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 29. Keisha Lindsay,  also argues that by using inadequate and selective data, Miller‟s thesis systematically invalidates women and women‟s experiences.29 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 30. Barry Chevannes,  also rejects the hypothesis of marginalization of the black or any other male and  points to the continued dominance of men in positions of power and authority throughout30 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj most institutions. 3/3/2013
  • 31. Marlene Hamilton concludes  in her study of womens access to the University of the West Indies as academic and administrative staff, that during the academic year 1998/1999, there were no female deans.  She also pointed out that in the 50-year history of the University, of the 68 heads of department, seven are women,  and of the 115 professors, 12 were31 women. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 32. Male underachievement in education,  Chevannes showed that more females than males sat the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) exams  But young men performed slightly or clearly better than young women in 19 out of 35 subjects at the grades 1 and 2 levels.  These were primarily science and technology type subjects.32 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 33. The Chevannes study shows that  deeply rooted gender biases observed in subject selection at the secondary level continue at the tertiary level,  where males pursue the more technologically and vocationally based subjects,  while women pursue those in liberal arts and the humanities.33 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 34. Barriteau therefore warns that  we should be careful about moving from particular disadvantages and prejudices that may exist,  to a generalized position that boys and men are doomed to conditions of marginality and irrelevance in Caribbean societies.34 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 35. The Reality?  There are no State policies that deny men access to resources or opportunities for economic and social advancement.  There are proportionately more unemployed young women than there are unemployed young men.  Unemployed young women however, do not hang out on the block or town squares, neither do young men spend free time working in their yards or around the homes in which they live.  Males receive many conflicting messages in constructing masculinity and gender identity.  While many public commentators bemoan the fact that girls are taking over academic performance, none35 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj young men that they need to put in of them say to 3/3/2013 100% effort in school.“
  • 36. The Reality?  Because the prevailing gender ideologies define femininity as less valuable than masculinity, then the popular perception is that women have everything to gain by acquiring characteristics associated with the masculine, while men have everything to lose.  These beliefs are significant because there are material outcomes which cumulatively either impede or facilitate societal change.  After centuries of denial and exclusion, Caribbean women are gaining entry into the public sphere and are acquiring skills that were once legally or culturally out of bounds.  As a group, women already have the skills to perform36 effectively in the domestic sphere. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013  Boys and men must now learn to value those skills
  • 37. Who Marginalised Men?  Carolyn Cooper concludes:  The men themselves.  Women, newly emancipated from domestic service, stepped into place.  The low pay was better than no pay at all.  Teaching gave women relative economic independence as we were able to make a half-decent living for ourselves.  This was, and still is, especially important for black women who are37 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013 not often the first choice of partner
  • 38. Cooper also shares what a male student who first pointed out to her several years ago  Theres a slightly higher percentage of men in the part-time programmes at UWI than in the full time.  Money-o! Men often cannot afford the luxury of full-time study.  They have to work.  Another starting point?38 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 39. Another observation:  Engineering, for example, continues to be a male- dominated faculty at the St. Augustine campus in Trinidad.  And at Mona, there is almost gender equity in the undergraduates programme in the pure and applied sciences.  Why is this so?  Should the University of the West Indies be investing in programmes that appeal to men as a form of affirmative action?  Maybe this is another starting point39 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 40. Cooper States:  These days both law and medicine are now feminised and men have again marginalised themselves in better-paid careers - some of them decidedly illegal.  And even though more and more women are getting certificates in this and that, all of these diplomas do not necessarily translate into greater job security.  At the top end of the market, women have to be overqualified to get the jobs men take for granted.  At the bottom end, young men who go on the job market immediately after high school are often way ahead of women who invest three years in a first degree and another two in a postgraduate programme.  Many of these men are actually helping women through university.  They know that when money done, love done, as proverbial wisdom warns. www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj40 3/3/2013
  • 41. Cooper Quotes Macka Diamond  Macka Diamonds entertaining novel Bun Him! brilliantly illustrates the above point.  The two main female characters are students at a teachers college in Kingston.  One is married to a man who could be her father.  His sexual skills are quite poor but he has the money to compensate for his deficiencies.  But only for so long.  You know im going to get bun.  The other young woman deh with a taxi driver who does not have the money to keep her in the style to which she aspires.  You know im going to get bun.41 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013  Maybe we should start
  • 42. Let’s start with how some men handle The Ending of Relationships: MURDER? SUICIDE?42 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 43. Men was seen as not due to the actions of the State nor of Women The Re-Marginalization is now said to be due to THE ACTIONS OF MEN43 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 44. The Re-Marginalization of Men This will happen if men do not accept the responsibility to redefine and reposition themselves Start where you are Home, work, church, street Use the tool you have44 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 45. We did it before  The Night Doctor  Man Talk Why? The Opposition The Impact The Degeneration Why no public outcry?45 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 46. Introducing “50 Ways to Leave your Lover … Without Killing Them or Yourself”46 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 47. Constructive Disengagement  Come leave your pain & emerge with new insights and strength  Come celebrate the end of the old and the new start “This too shall pass”  7 to 10 pm  At a Church Hall or Dancehall Near You47 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 48. Constructive Disengagement  Who should be there:  Anyone who has ever  left someone, been left, thinking of leaving someone,  feel that you may have to leave someone in the future  Music by jUdgeMENt Sound:  Raggae, Dancehall, Ska, Soca, R&B, Hip Hop, Pop, Rock, Jazz, Alternative, Country, Blues, Electronic, Gospel  Heartical Reasoning with48  Leahcim Semaj, PhD www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013
  • 49. Men: Step up and Save Yourself “50 Ways to Leave your Lover … Without Killing Them or Yourself”49 www.SlideShare.net/LSemaj 3/3/2013

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