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  1. 1. 1. - COUNTABLE NOUNS Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns: dog, cat, animal, man, person bottle, box, liter coin, note, dollar cup, plate, fork table, chair, suitcase, bag Countable nouns can be singular or plural: My dog is playing. My dogs are hungry. We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns: A dog is an animal. When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it: I want an orange. (Not I want orange.) Where is my bottle? (Not Where is bottle?) When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone: I like oranges. Bottles can break. We can use some and any with countable nouns: Ive got some dollars. Have you got any pens? We can use a few and many with countable nouns: Ive got a few dollars. I havent got many pens.
  2. 2. 2. –UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc. that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "liters of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns: music, art, love, happiness advice, information, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water electricity, gas, power money, currency We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example: This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy. We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "information" or "music". But we can say a something of: a piece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice We can use some and any with uncountable nouns: Ive got some money. Have you got any rice? We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns: Ive got a little money. I havent got much rice.
  3. 3. 3. –partitivesDefinition:A word or phrase (such as some of or any of) that indicates a part or quantity ofsomething as distinct from a whole.Etymology:From the Latin, "relating to a part"Examples and Observations:"You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all of the time, butyou cannot fool all the people all the time."(Abraham Lincoln)"A lot of movies are about life; mine are like a slice of cake."(Alfred Hitchcock)"Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a wonderful stroke of luck."(Dalai Lama)"You know, I dont know whether I ought to or not, but I feel awfully happy--in a sortof sad way."(Valerie in The World of Orient, 1964)"The poverty of being unwanted, unloved and uncared for is the greatest poverty. Wemust start in our own homes to remedy this kind of poverty."(Mother Teresa)"One handful of peace and quiet is better than two handfuls of hard work and of trying tocatch the wind."(Ecclesiastes)"Partitives expressions collocate strongly with particular non-count nouns:A loaf of breadTwo slices of bread/cake/cheese/chicken breastA bar of chocolate/soapA bit of funA piece of furnitureA stroke of luckA spell of bad weather. . . Partitives expressions commonly refer to the shape, size, movement or the amountof something:Theres a whole stream of people queuing outside the post office.He gave us a torrent of abuse.
  4. 4. . . . Some partitive expressions with -full refer to containers or spaces which commonlyhold the item referred to. These include bowlful of, cupful of, fistful of, handful of,mouthful of, spoonful of:He gave me a fistful of cash. I dont know how much it was all together.I always add a spoonful of salt to the pasta water. 4. –cuantificadores / how muchA quantifier, as its name suggests, is a word that indicates quantity, be it large or small.can· Be decisive, adverbs or pronouns· Use only accounting countless only or both types of names. Which is the same assaying that some names are singular, others plural names and other names in thesingular or plural.Los contables son las cosas que se pueden contar.HotelBicycle (bicycle) (bicicleta).Los incontables son los que no se pueden contar.Beer (cerveza).Milk (milk) (leche).Wáter(agua).Mole (mole) (mole).Coffee (café).Tea (te).Chocolate (chocolate).Salt (sal).Money (moni) (dinero).Rain (lluvia).Etc. . .Los contables se usan en singular y plural.Los incontables se usan solo en singular, para modo de que se puedan contar, tenemosque especificar el número de recipientes o medidas de peso de cada cosa.Ex:A glass of water (un vaso de agua).Give 2 glasses of water.A cup of tea (una copa de te).A can of seafood (una lata de mariscos).A jar of beer(un tarro de cerveza).A pack of cigarettes (un paquete de cigarros).A box of (una caja de).A bunch of (un grupo, manojo, racimo o bonche de).
  5. 5. 5. - howmanyEn ingles cuando queremos preguntar acerca de la cantidad de un sustantivoincontable, usamosla structure:“How much + substantive + is there?Ejemplo: How much milk is there? = ¿cuánta leche hay?En las respuestas se puede usar un partitivo no específico como; a Lot (un montón),Alittle(unpoco), nothing(nada), some(algo).Ejemplo: How much milk is there? = Thereis a little.¿Cuánta leche hay? hay un poco 6. – someSome y Any son usados generalmente como cuantificadores. Para determinar laexistencia o ausencia de algo. SOME is used in affirmative statements with countable nounsThey have some apples in the freezer. SOME is used in affirmative statements with uncountable nouns.I want some pop corns.
  6. 6. 7. – anyAny is used in questionsIs there any milk?Do you have any tomatoes?Any is used in negative statements with plural countable nounsThey don´t have any pears.There aren´t any orangesy is used in negative statements with uncountable nounsThere isn´t any chicken in the freezer.She doesn´t have any money. 8. – fewFew Show Spelled adjective, -err, -est., noun, pronoun.Adjective1. not many but more than one: Few artists live luxuriously.Noun2 (used with a plural verb) a small number or amount: Send me a few.3. The few, a special, limited number; the minority: That music appeals to the few.Pronoun4. (used with a plural verb) a small number of persons or things: A dozen peoplevolunteered, but few have shown up.Idioms5. Few and far between, at widely separated intervals; infrequent: In Nevada the townsare few and far between.6. Quite a few, a fairly large number; many: There were quite a few interesting things todo.
  7. 7. 9. – littleadj. lit·tler or less also lesser, littlest or least1. Small in size: a little dining room. See Synonyms at small.2. Short in extent or duration; brief: There is little time left.3. Small in quantity or degree: little money.4. Unimportant; trivial: a little matter.5. Narrow; petty: mean little comments; a little mind consumed with trivia.6. Without much power or influence; of minor status.7.a. Being at an early stage of growth; young: a little child.b. Younger or youngest. Used especially of a sibling: My little brother is leaving forcollege next week.adv. less or lesser, least1. Not much; scarcely: works long hours, sleeping little.2. Not in the least; not at all: They little expected such a generous gift.n.1. A small quantity or amount: Give me a little.2. Something much less than all: I know little of their history.3. A short distance or time: a little down the road; waited a little. 10. – there is/there areWe use There is / There are to say that something exists (or does not exist). The realsubject usually comes after There is / There are.1)Use "There is" for singular nouns and things you cannot count.Examples: There is a river in my town There is a ghost in this room There is an apple on the deskThere is ice on the lake.There is oil on the pavement.Use "There are" for plural nouns; that is to say, we use there are with a plural subject.Examples:There are two parks in my neighborhood. There are 600 students in this school.There are four windows in my roomTo say the opposite, (the negative form of this structure), use isnt (is + not) orarent (are + not)Examples:There isnt a telephone in the kitchen.There isnt a balcony.
  8. 8. There isnt an orange on the tableThere isnt ice on the lake.There arent two pictures on the wall. Just one.There arent chairs in my room.To make questions, (to ask whether something exists or it doesnt) just change the orderof there is and there are......Examples: Is there a balcony in the flat? Is there a Post Office near hear? Yes, there isNo, there isntAre there two telephone lines?Yes, there areNo, there arentTo express the idea of quantity, we usually have to use "some" and any" with there isand there are. This happens when we have to mention an unspecified amount ofsomething, for example, when we are using uncountable nouns.We generally use some for positive statements, and any for negative and interrogativeones.Examples: (positive statements)There is some water in the bottleThere are some cupboards under the sink(negative statements)There isnt any bread in the basket.There arent any oranges. Wow! The fridge is empty(interrogative statements) Is there any sugar in the sugar pot? Are there any glasses in the cupboard?O por el contrario podemos usar partitivos específicos de unidad o medida o peso paraespecificar las cantidades;Ejemplo: How much milk is there? = There is a liter; there is a bottle, etc...¿Cuánta leche hay? Hay un litro, una botella, etc.Si queremos preguntar acerca de la cantidad de un sustantivo contable, usamos laestructura:“How many + substantive + are there?Ejemplo: How many oranges are there? = ¿Cuantas naranjas hay?
  9. 9. En las respuestas se usa: a lot (un montón), a few (unas pocas), toomany,(demasiadas), onone(ninguna), some(algunas), si queremos especificar cantidades entonces usamospartitivos contables del tipo; un kilo, un litro, un paquete, una bolsa, one, two, etc.Howmuch y howmany se usan para preguntas en general acerca de cosas, cuandoqueremos que se nos indique las cantidades que hay, entonces how much y how manyvan acompañados de is there o are there.Ejemplo: How much water is there? = There is 1 liter.How many students are there? = There are eleven students in class.