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En the fundamentals_of_islam En the fundamentals_of_islam Document Transcript

  • (C) TANGGAPAT.IG K@PEMTIBA NG BATHA PARA SA PAMWAGAN AT PAMAT/NTNUBAY 1995 HARINO FAFID TAL/AAi| A|(-ATANG PAMBATISA NG PAGLILIMBAG PHILIPS,BIIJL(ABUAMEENA) ANG TUNAY 1{A RELIHIYOMSINALIMBAG NG rscAc. P.ctn ISBN: 996G798O97l-lslam 2- Anlin sa lsbm AISCAG(|SIMLIMBAG) B pamagat214,27Dv 190215 O€Posltong togal Big: 19en5 lSBt{ : 906G7980}7 COOPEBf,TIVE OFFICE FOBCRLL RND EUIDBNCE IN f,L- BRTHR UNDERTHE SUPERVISION OF MIMSTRYOF ISI..AMIC^FFNIS PROPAGATION CUIDAT{CE ENDOWMENTS, AND PO. BOX:20824RIYADH.I 1465 1- a030il5l 1q3451? 00966-l -i F 4qjl5t7 l- ltrlotlz FAx r- {0593t? Ircnuc hall. Tcl + Fax:00966- l40E34O5 @ el lgtrrs rcsc""cd fr $c Officc th Noorrr of [L bool nry bc ueed prblicrdal-litbut fu *riaa smirnn of rfrcopyriSlu holda rppliqrm rd *hich rhould bc d&cgcd b thr of6e
  • We seekthe help of Allah, and ask Him toblessand praiseour ProphetMuhammad, hishousehold, companions. andQ- What are the Fundamentals that evervMuslim must learn?1: t] Knowledge, rhar is, knowing Allah,His Propher, and the retigionof Islam withits textualproofs.2) Application this knowledge.l ofI at, p l iveryimportanr understand meaning" p tr.c a r i o n " ro rhe of i n t h i s c o n r e x r ,p a r t i c u l a r l yr i i t t rregards knowingAllah. It means, to first, thai Allahaloneis worthy.of being_loved nd worshipped. aS e c o n d ,H e i s t h e o n l y C r e a t o ru p o n W h o m a l lcreatures dependfor their means of subsistence.Third, the Divine Atrributes and beautiful names ofAllah can never be applied to His crearures.Application alsomeans thatAllah,theExalted, far isremovedfrom every imperfection, and thereis none
  • 3) Preachingknowledge4) Enduring with patiencewhateversuchapplication preaching and may entail.2Q-What is the textual proof of the abovefundamentals?A- The wordsof Allah: -I ttJ.tt5rf €ilr 4i-lt lt.rj / Ol-yl Ol .rr.J!, ) G- I ).J..,J| iup G-ttr V$ }LU.VWlike Him. "Applicationof knowingtheMcsscngcr ofAllah means-lbving rcvering and him morc thananyother humanbeing,and observinghis Sunnah, andmaking sure that-it over mcns takes preceiienceopinions all cases. in tM.M.l2-Onemust endurewith patience while everything,observing the actsof worship,refrainfrom all allactsof disobedience, resistwhimsand andpervened Calamities misfortunes desires. and mustilso be facedwith patience [M.M-l
  • (I swear)By the time.l Surely,man is in (astateof) loss,Exceptthosewho believeanddo good deeds,and exhort one anothertoacceptthe truth, and who exhortone anotherto endure (the consequences thereof with)patience.2a- What were Imam ash-Shafieescommentson this surah? I This is an oath madeby Allah stressing only thatthosewho believeand do gooddeedswill prosper. Italso constitutesproof of the four fundamentalsstatedabove: l) His words "those who believe"refer to knowledge; "do good deeds" refers toapplication, and "...exhort one another accept to thet r u t h " r e f e r s t o p r e a c h i n g .A n d " e n d u r e w i t hpatience" refersto consequences preaching of andq r o c l a i m i n t h et r u t h .t M . M . J gz Surah 103. #
  • A- He said:"Werethis to be the only surahAllah had sentdown to His slaves,it wouldhavebeenenoughfor them."3Q-should applicationprecede knowledge,or viceversa?4A- Knowledge must Precede bothapplicationand deeds, signifiedby the aswords Allah: of ( .rUrilb.li,,jJlr €t,:J j)E-,ltalll )! dN .,1..trU )3 Ibn Katheer cited a similar quotation by ash-Shafieein his comment on the above surah. "lfpeopleconsiderthe meaningof this s-urah, would itbe enoughfor them." Ibn Katheerexplained Ash- onShafieeistatementby saying: "because contains itthecentralelements virtue."tM.M.l of4 This means that one must acquire religiousknowledgefirst before making statements, even orbefore ferforming any religious function. Forinstance,one must know how to pray before heprays. So knowledgemust come before deedsandutterances.tM.M.l
  • And know there is no God but Allah, andseekforgiveness your sins,and for the forbelievers.llmam al-Bukharicommented the above onverse, saying:Thus Allah opened the verse with thecommand of acquiring knowledge andfollowed it with the command ofapplication.2 I Surah 47.19 #2 To give an example, on cannot pray beforelearning how to pray. There are many Muslimcountriesin which Allahs laws are not applied.SomeIslamic parties,however,believethat if theexistinggovernment toppledby a coup ddtat, is orthe headof stateis assassinated, laws of Allah thecan be appliedovernight.This is provento be sheerwishful thinking. In order to establish rrue Islamic astate, subjects the respective the of government mustf i r s t b e p r e p a r e dt o a c c e p r t h e I s l a m i c s t a t e ,internally well asexternally. bestexample as The wehaveis the Messenger Allah, peace uponhim. of be
  • Q-What are the three facts that must belearnedand observed?A- Allah hascreated andsupplied with us usour meansof subsistence, He has not andneglected us. He sent us a Messenger.Whoeverobeysthe Messenger, peacebeuponhim, shallbe admitted Jannah, to andwhoever disobeyshim shallenter Hell-Fire.Q- What is the proof of the above?A- Thewordsof Allah:He did not establishthe lslamic polity before hehimself immigratedto Madinah.He first madesurethe grass-roots were saturated with the correctaqeedah.Only then he moved on to Madinah.Thearrival of the Messengerof Allagh to Madinahmarks the birth of the Islamic polity. This fact maybe realizedby observingthat the verses revealedinMakkah deal with the creeds,and tenets tawheed, ofor monotheism, whereas the Madinan versesdealwith acts of worship and transaction, i.e.,application.lM.M.l 6
  • sln .),1-);tyt,Lu-J F.<.ui.ur- ir, #!r-J $) ( y*, ii*t .;.i;b Jr-rtr ir.p;We surelyhavesentyou a Messenger who isa witnessover you as We had sent Firawn(Pharaoh)a Messenger.l But, Firawndisobeyed Messenger, We punished the sohim severely.2Allah does not permit anYone to beworshipped besides Him, neitheran angelnearto Him, nor a commissionedProphet.Q-What is the textualproof of the above?A- The wordsof Allah: (lr--l dJrg p.u )u dJ.r+tJt.ri.r)I M u s aw a st h e M e s s e n g e r o r n A l l a h s e n t t o whFira wn . . M . l tM2 S u ra h 7 4 .1 5 , 1 6 #
  • And the places worship3 of belongto Allah.Thereforeworship nonebesideAllah.4Whoeverobeys the Messenger, peacebeupon Him, and believes the Oneness in ofAllah is not allowedto befriendthosewhooppose Allah and His Messenger,peace beuponhim, evenif theyarethe closest his ofkin.Q- What is the textualproof of the above?A-Thewordsof Allahlils jJrlt .-,bt3r- itybt;r j11g y ayla!-u!{ r I SleJf i* ell fr&rtr;5_;1jJ.G.ttl."J r-r:rJ (.-.gup+L3 "Placcs of worship" in this context, such asmosques, churches, synagogues or appliesto thoseassigned for the people who received Divine Allah knows best.[M.M.]Scriptures.4 Surah# 72.18
  • You shallnot find any peoplewho believeinAllah and the Final Day loving those whoopposeAllah and His Messenger, even ifthey are their fathersof their sonsor theirbrothersor their tribe. Those are the onesinwhoseheartsAllah has installed iman (faith)andwhom He supports with His strength.lQ- What is the Hanifiyyahz of the religionof Ibrahim?A- HaniJiyyahis to devotesincerely acts allof worship Allah alone. to This is whatAllahh a s e n j o i n e do n a l l p e o p l e ,a n d f o r t h i sreason hascreated He them.I Surah 58.22 #2 H a n i f i y y a f t ,l i n g u i s t i c a l l y p e a k i n gi,s i n c li ni n g sfrom any falsereligionto the truereligion,a l - l s l a m ,andremaining firmly therein. IM.M.]
  • Q- What is the proofof theabove?A- Thewords Allah: of ( ir+-J )l ;)9 ;4t c-lu t 1)I havecreated jinn and the men only that thethey shouldworshipMe.3Q - W h a t i s t h e m e a n i n go f " t o w o r s h i pMett?A- To professAllahs Oneness, believingthat Allah is the One Who commands andWho imposes prohibitions.Q- What is the greatest hing Allah hasenjoined?A- At-Tawheed. monotheism. i.e.Q- What is Monotheisrn?A- Monotheism declaring is Allah to be theonly god who deserves be worshipped to in3 Surah 51.56 # l0
  • truth, and confirming the attributes withwhich He has qualified Himself and thoseattributed Him by His Messenger, to peacebe upon him. Tawheedis also believingthatAllah is far removed from everyimperfection and from hudoot h,l or Hisresembling creatures.Q- What is the greatest thing Allah hasforbidden?A- The greatestthing Allah has forbiddenisShirkor polytheism.Q- What is polytheism?A- Worshippingother gods besideAllah,and setting up rivals to Allah who hascreatedyou.I Hudooth. is of two kinds, one relatedto time,which signifiesthat a thingswas preceded non- byexistence or was broughtinto existence afterit wasn o t h i n g ,a n d e s s e n t i ah u d o o t h w h i c h i s a t h i n g s ldependence upon another its existence. for Neitherof ihe two kindsapplyto Allah,the Exalted. tM.M.l l1
  • Q- What is the proof of the above?A- The wordsof Allah: (r+., lff $dJrbr.b)And worship Allah and associate none withHim."2 And (Lr.ul.!bt/yl) ,Sodo not setequals to Allah while you know (there isnoneequalto Him)."1Q- What are the three fundamentalsthatman must know?A- The first is that one must know onesRubb, ones religion and ones Prophet,Muhammad, peace uponhim. beQ- Who is your Rubb?A- My Rubb is Allah, who has nourishedand fosteredme and the restof men andjinnwith His bounties.He is the God Whom Iworship and other than Whom I have no god.2 Surah 4.36 #I Surah 2.22 # t2
  • Q- What is the proof of that?A-Al lahswords: ( &luJl ; dJ.r-lt) " A II praise -,.is due to the Rubbof the worlds."Everything otherthanAllah is a world,and Ibelongto one of His worlds.Q- How did you knorvyour Rubb?A- I haveknown Him throughHis signsandcreatures: the night, the day, the sun, themoon, the sevel"l heavens, and the sevenearths2 all that is between and them.Q- What is the proof of all that?A-His words:)1 .J-j! 5.r+J ) ,.-iJ5.rgU.rl-rJb J-Urct+i,,..r) ( ,,ll :.d.t+la:S Jl ;-f-ib g jJrr-lJ 9.r4-t1 .--ill2 Lest one be confusedwith regardto the numberofcarths, the reference to them is made in thefollowing verse:"Allah is He Who created sevenheavens, of the andearththe like thereof."6512 [MM.] l3
  • And among His signs are rhe night and theday, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate notyourselves the sun nor to the moon,but to toAllah alonewho hascreated rhem,if it is HeWhom you really worship.lAnd His words:6Pt i ftJ crrr--lr.il; gi.trr-Ura<--,d,g) "- +;r)t,?le;Jb tl, +Jb-t+ cJ,lq F Jk:rrJJ.r+ ;.Jt &e (go-lr .tr-,.,-ttr drqr-lb &!$t d firrU. g4rlSurcly, your Rubb is Allah Who has createdthe heavensand the earth in six days; thenHe settled Himself on the throne. He makesthe night cover the day, which follows itswiftly, and the sun and the moon and thestarsHe made subservient His command. byVerily (the act o0 creation is restrictedtoHim, and so is the disposal of all affairs.Blessed Allah, the Rubbof the worlds.2 isI Surah#41.372 Surah 7.54 # t4
  • Q-Who is the Rubb?A- The Rubb is the Master,the Proprietor,the One who brings into existence thingsfrom nothing. He is the only God whodeserves be worshipped, toQ- What is the proof of this fact?A- The wordsof Allah:f5li ;r itjJlr # ,5iJr -3-_2 t1.r_rr r_tq ) ,,LJr Jyl2t4.L-J5u-H ;r!r F.(.lJ-* riJt..ir4, r_fJ^Jd, lr-L^ :u ..<-JL;r.r!r*Jr ,t - .t-Jt./ 61L.L.,r (. ir, u;Lirr"ulO men,worshipyour Rubb who-has ire-atedyou and thosewho werebeforeyou, so thatyou nlay guard yourselves (against Allahschastisement). who madethe eartha bed Hefor you, and the heavena roof, and sentdown water from the heaven, and therewithbroughtforth fruits for your sustenanc€i sodo not setup equals Allah while you know to(thetruth).1lSurah 2.21,22 # 15
  • The OneWho hascreated these thingsis theOneWho deserves be worshiPPed. toQ- What is worship?A-Worship is absolute devotion andobedience humility andsubmissiveness, withto Allah andabsolute love andadoration ofthe One to whom this is owed. In otherwords, worship is a conclusive definitioncomprising deeds wordsthatAllah loves andand approves, whether manifested orhidden.2Q- How many forms of worshiphas Allahenjoined?A- Allah, the Exalted, enjoinedhas manyforms of worship.Of them are the fivepillarsof Islam,the articles iman (faith), ofw a t c h f u l n e s sa n d a d h e r e n c et o H i scommands, supplication, of Allah,hope fearin His mercy,committing affairsto Allah,fear with reverence, seekingHis aid and2 "Manifest"refersto physicalactionswhereas"hidden" refers tenets creeds.tM.M.] to and 16
  • protection relief,sacrificing and and aninrals,vows and otheractsof worshipwhich Allahhas comnranded enjoined, of which and allmustbe dedicated Him alone. toQ- What is the proof of the above?A- The wordsof Allah: {ta-i "tlr Vr;)u .JJ.qtJr e ;!)And the places worshipbelongto Allah. ofTherefore, worshipnonebeside Allah.And He said: (.Llrlbrd)i 4)sj;r>And your Lord hasdecreed thatyou worshipnonebut Him. IQ-What is the ruling concerning one lvhodevotes any act of worship to other thanAllah?A- Whoeverdedicates act of worshipto anyo t h e r t h a n A l l a h i s a p o l y t h e i s ta n d a nunbeliever,even if he performs prayer,I Su ra h 1 7 . 2 3 # t]
  • observesfasting,performs to hajj, or allegesbe a Muslim.2Q- What is the proof of the above?A- Thewordsof Allah:e$ cte2b qL. Ul,q d !Lr.;1);iU1 Og g+;r, ) (ireritSltAnd he whocallson another alongwith godAllah, for which he has no proof, shall beheldaccountable thisby Allah,for surely forthedisbelieversneverprosper.3a- What is the proof of the fact thatsupplication an act of worship? isA- Allahs words:rirl-, V ;,tyS-+ir.iJl i{ fJ .-r.-l is*ttFr.lUr ) la.-.ttcr+ oru+-2There are deviantsectswho claim to be Muslims possessyet they believethat their imamsor leadersdivine power to influencethecourse thingsin this ofworld or the world to come.tM.M.l3 Surah# 23.117 t8
  • Call on MeAnd your Lord said, and I willr e s p o n dt o y o u . V e r i l y , t h o s e w h o a r earrogantin rejectingworship of Me shallenterHell-Fire despised.4And the saying of the Prophet,peacebeu p o n h i m , : " S u p p l i c a t i oin t h e e s s e n c e f s oworship."And in another narration: "Supplication isworship.lQ- What is the proof of the fact that fearof Allah is an act of worship?A- The wordsof Allah: I uuy;s,.r!.ryL-.e Ul 9^.1,l X )An d d o n o t f e a r t h e rn ,b u t fe a r Me , i f yo u ar e( t r u e )b e l i e v e r s . 2 4 Surah 40.60 # I At-Tirmidthi, Majah,& Ahmad. Ibn 2 Surah 3.175 # t9
  • a- What is the proof of the fact thathopingfor the mercyof Allah is an act ofworship?A-Thewords Allah: of( i.r-l r,; i.ra :|"| f1Uf- i-r rL+ 1.r .tiJ f. t ;rS g )So let him who hopesto meet his Lord dog o o d d e e d s ,a n d l e t h i m w o r s h i p n o n ebesides Allah.3a- What is the proof of the fact thattrustingAllah is an act of worship?A- The wordsof Allah: (;*yds il lrsp dJ,r)A n d d e p e n do n A l l a h i f y o u a r e ( t r u e )believers.4 ( t-- lJl .1+i * ,fn,l:)3 Surah 18.110 #4 Surah 5.23 # 20
  • And Allah is sufficient whoever for dependson Him.5Q- What is the proof for the fact thatdesiring the ntercy of Allah, and fear ofHis punishrnent, and humbleness acts areof worship?A- The wordsof Allah:{;o;U U lir5rl+r,l+JYf +t.r!il ,t;tfr41;S,..t)T he y u s e d t o v i e w ith o n e a n o th e ri n g o oddeeds,and they called or-r with desirearrd Usf ear a n d t h e y h u m b l e dth e mse l ve s r U s.r foa- What is the proof of the fact thatven e ra t i o n ( o r f e a r u ,i th re ve re n ce ) i s anact of worship?A - T h e w o r d so f A l l a h : ( i*rt, >r., ) "-.J5 Surah 65.3 #I Surah 21.90 # 21
  • So do not fear them,but fear Me.2Q- What is the proof for the fact thatrepentanceis an act of worship?A- His words: (.J bLlrF-r.llbjl, )And repentto your Lord and submitto Him.3Q - What is the proof of the fact thatseekingsupport from AIIah is an act ofworship?A- Allahswords: { ;e,*;:JLlrer-Jr:l)You alone do we worship,and from Youalonedo we seekhelp.a2 Surah #5.33 Surah 39.54 #4 Surah 1.4 # 22
  • And the Prophetic tradition: "And if youseekhelp,seekhelp from Allah."sQ - What is the proof of the fact thatseekingthe protectionof Allah is an act ofrvorship?A- The wordsof Allah: (.rrur^u-.!r,ur -r.rtrrll lSay, seekrefugein the Lord of mankind,the King of mankirrd.rQ - What is the proof of the fact thataskingfor the aid of Allah is an act ofworship?A- The wordsof Allah:( Ajt,.ifrtr .;r -iJL t- ii rg .rl+g-U f; .i;;:; ;1)5 This Prophetic statementis part of a long hadeerhin whichthe Prophet, peace be upon him, insfucted Abdullah binAbbas, may Allah be pleasedwith him, saying: "Young lad!ObserveAllah, now He preserves you. ObserveAllah, for youwill lind him aheadof you. If you ask, ask Allah, and if youseekhelp, seekAllahs help..." At Tirmidthi. [M.M.]1 Surah 114.1.2 # 23
  • And when you soughtthe aid of Allah, He "lresponded you, (saying), Am aidingyou tow i t h a t h o u s a n da n g e l s f o l l o w i n g o n eanother."2Q - What is the proof of the fact thatsacrificinganimalsis an act of worship?A- His words:€.!+r.J.:l.j ) .alUlv.r d it, ,5t-e..if;lpx.. f i! .tr ) (;1.i-tr{i u!.r7i MySay, prayerand my sacrifice, and mylife and deathare all for Allah, the Lord ofthe worlds. He has no partner.This I amcommanded, I am the first of thosewho andsubmit.rAnd the proof from the Sunnah, the saying isof the Prophet, peacebe upon him: "Allah 2 Surah 9.9 * 3 Surah 6.162 # 24
  • cursesthe person who sacrificesfor otherthanAllah."Q-What is the proof of the fact thatvowing is an act of worship?A- The wordsof Allah: ( .t"t r.-.; i,ttL, oyB_e Jla) ;jJ!They fulfill their vows, and they fear a Dayof widespread woe.rQ- What is the second fundamental?A- Knowing the religion of Islam and itstextualproofs.Q- What is Islam?A- Islam is submission Allah, believingin toHis Oneness, complyingobedientlywith Hiscommands, and denouncingpolytheismandits adherents.1 Surah#76.7 Thc Day rcferecdto in this vcrseis theDay of Resurrection. tM.M.l 25
  • Q- What are the levelsof Islam? Islam, Iman andIhsan Eachof theselevelshasits own pillars.Q- What are the pillars of Islam?A- The pillarsof Islamare Five:. The Testimonyof Faith(dJt J.rr.r..: U.Jt)) d;rthere is no god, in truth, but Allah, andMuhammad the Messenger Allah. is of. Performing prayer. Giving out Zakat. Observing fast in Ramadhan the. Performing lgrimage piQ-What is the Quranic proof of theTestimony Faith? ofA-The wordsof Allah. the Exalted: y,| )l .J! u rLUurr^lr L igr! 9 )tdt) cl dJr# ) t (.<rt;;lr 26
  • Allah bearswitnessthat there is no god butHe-(and so do) the angels, and thcsepossessed knowledge,standingfirm for ofjustice.There is no god but He, the Mightythe Wise.rQ- What is the meaningof ( dJr)!41 )"There is no god but Allah?"A- There is no god who truly desenves be toworshipped Allah alone. butWhat is the meaningof ( dlv ) "There isno God?"2It means denying all deities worshippedbesideAllah.I Surah 3.182 This question thequestion and whichfollowsit aredesignedto give full meaning the tesilmony faith,whichcanbe to ofdivldedinto two segments: first segment the for stands denialof all deitiesttat are worshipped otherthanor besideAllah, theancl sccond segment sundsfor firmly dcdicating actsof allworship Allahalone. to [M.M.j 2,1
  • Q- What is the meaning of (oryt ) "butAllah?"A- It is confirming that worship must bedevoted to Allah alone with no partnersworshipped besideHim, as He hasno one toshareHis domain.Q-What verse clarifies the abovestatement?A- The words of Allah:dl. J li {.LJl)l irrrd tr nn i!-y.r .r! erJJu i1, ) 1;tr."rrU * rt VL: t+L+r.ir.*4- i.JSAnd when Ibrahim said to his fatherand hispeople: "I renouncewhat you worship. [lworshiplonly Him Who created me, He willguide me. And he madeit a wordr to remain3 It is saidthatthe"word"referred in theverse to isthe tcstimony faith, ( of ), whichis rheword ofIslam. (lbn Kathir). tM.M.J 28
  • amonghis posterityso that they might retumlto Allahl.rAnd His words:$ dlr)! r+ !l f+, t- .!r- ;Js .tl lrJw .,l5Jt.tttt, "lllttljtVt; J|r.lllrrre;r.!Url fi* r-:i.. iA+ !5 t-:rr:y.lF ( . .ir.t-..u! b.^r:tSay,"O peopleof the Book, cometo a wordequal betweenus and you that we worshipnone but Allah, and that we ascribe nopartnersto Him, and that none of us takeothersfor lords besidesAllah." But, if they Bear witnessthat weturn away, then say,havesubmitted Allah.z toa- What is the Quranic Proof of thetestimony: "Muhammad is the Messengerof Allah?"A- The wordsof Allah:I Surah #2 Surah 3.64 # 29
  • iPllt $.b *.r r:rt,+, :r" Jj;l UJr-.,t,b.r!) (.p=-.rjtrVerily, a Messenger from amongyourselvescame to you; he grieves over yourdifficulties, and he is ardently desirousofyour welfare, and to the believershe iscompassionate, merciful.l andAnd Allahswords: {. e.l*.Lr22li(lt.1 .tr:l u 3atJtjrJJtJj,,ue)Muhammadis the Messenger Allah, and ofthosewho are with him are hard against thedisbelievers mercifulto eachother.a andQ- What is the meaningof the testimony( tdJl,)e-rs-1tr tMuhammad ) is theMessenger Allah?" of3 Surah 9.128 #4 Surah 48.29 # 30
  • A- To obey the Prophet Muhammadscommands,refrain from his prohibitions,believein his sayings, and worshipAllah byperforming only acts of worship hedesignated.Q- What is the proof that Prayer andZakat are obligatory, and what is themeaningof nronotheisnr?A- The words of Allah:Dt..Jr!r.jr3.[i-;,.rJrJ jFJi. Ul!r ,,{ ll lrr-l t-J ) ( i;lrrzr {lJi1-,5}tVhtAnd they were commanded only to worshipAllah and be sincereto Him in obedience 31
  • (i.e. to be) hunafa,r and to observeprayerand pay zakat.This is the religionof truth.zQ-What is the proof that fasting (duringRamadhan)is obligatory?A- Allahswords:Flj y ",:iJl J, :5 tf ft=rJrfJ-te yj;,.ilrhtq ) y< (.prgJO you who believe,fastingis prescribed toyou, as it was prescribed thosebeforeyou toso that you may guardyourselves.ra- What is the proof that hajj(pilgrimage)is one of the pillars of Islarn?A- The wordsof Allah: .tJl.)!,y.r.r *- rJt./ Ll,L:-tgr c-Jr gr.rLJr,,te .lL ) ( ...r:ltJrirI Hunafu,plural <lf hanif,one who rejectsfalse religion andinclines towards the [rue religion ol Islam, believing in theOneness Allah.IM.M.] of2 Surah# 96.53 Surah# 2.219 32
  • And pilgrimage is a duty which men oweAllah, but if any disbelieve Allah, thenHe insurelydoesnot needHis creatures.rQ- What is the Secondlevel of Islarn?A- Iman.a- How many branchesdoes i m a ncomprise?A-lman hasmore than seventy branches, theuppennostof which is the declarationof theOneness Allah .lJl)!.J!I and the leastof ofwhich is the removalof hamrful objectsfromthe road.Modestyis alsoa branchof iman..a- How many articles does imaninclude?A- Iman includes articles, six namely, beliefin Allah, His Angels, His Books, HisI Surah 3.97 # 33
  • Messengers, the Last Day, the belief in andpredestination and its good or evilconsequences.Q- What is the proof of the above?A- The words of Allah:dtr,;ri.r it ;F:vyU.t/tr # *9 rlrJ; i,lr.rJ ) { &#Jtr Vl.dJb:eU!, ;1r ;eart.rIt is not righteousness you face the East thator the West (in your prayer), but, truly therighteous is he who believes in Allah, thelast Day, and the angels,and the Scriptures,and the Prophets.za- What is the Quranic proof ofpredestination?A- Allahswords: ( ;.r.i.Lib .,f # ul)2 Surah 2.177 # 34
  • Verily, We have created everything a bydecree.rQ-What is the third levelof Islam?A- Al-lhsnn whichhasonepillar.What is Ihsan ?Ihsan is to worshipAllah asthough you seeHim, although you do not seeHim, for Heseesyou.2Q- What is the proof of the above?A- Thewordsof theExalted: (;+- lrildrr.iJt Orirg) c. Ori,rr g. Verily, Allah is with thosewho are righteous and thosewho are sincere.r And His words: 4r+ul i .,.r.,f* i-- :J!..;itre_)t t yt *,JS*)r;J (;.ltc-trt1 Surah 54.49 #2 Al-Buttrari Muslim and3 Surah 16.127 # 35
  • And depend on the Mighty, the Merciful,Who seesyou when you standup in prayer.And He seesyou praying with others.He issurelythe All-Hearing,the All-Knowing.aAnd His Words: 0rl,-i Ir i,! U s .Pt 1lb ri irt* tr)fJt ti llJi., d,r I .+;tt-:+i! lrr+iAnd wheneveryou are engagedin any occupation,whetheror not at the sametime you are recitingpartof the Quran,that is , wheneveryou do any work,We arc witnesses over you while you areengaged init.sQ- What is the proof from the Sunnah,ofthe above- mentionedlevelsof Islam?A- The renowned hadith, or Prophetictraditionwhich is narrated Umar bin Al- byKhattabwho said:4 SurahI26.2195 Surah 10.61 # 36
  • While we weresitting with the Messenger ofAllah, peacebe upon him, a man cameto uswith very white clothesand very black hair.No sign of travelingappeared him, nor onwas he recognizedby any of us. He sat infront of the Prophet,peacebe upon him, withhis kneesrestingagainstthe Prophets knees.He put his handson his thighsand said: "OMuhammad! tell me about Islam." He ( theProphet,peacebe upon him) said: "Islam isto bearwitnessthat thereis no god but Allah,and Muhammadis the Messenger Allah, ofto observeprayer,pay zakat,observethe fastof Ramadhan, visit the House(The Holy andMosque) for hajj if you can afford thejourney." The man affirmed,"You have toldthe truth." Umar went on to say, "Wew o n d e r e d a b o u t t h i s m a n , b e c a u s eh equeriedthe Prophet, peacebe uponhim, andapproved his answer." The man furtherasked,"Tell me aboutiman." The Prophet,peacebe upon him, said,"it is to believein 5t
  • Allah, His Angels, His Scriptures, is HM e s s e n g e s , t h e L a st D a Y , a n d rpredestination, including its good or evilconsequences." said, "Tell me about Heihsan." He said,"lt is to worshipAllah asthough you see Him. Although you do notsee Him, He seesyou." He said,"Tell meaboutthe Final Hour." The Prophet, peace beuponhim, said,"The one who is being askedis not more knowledgeable aboutit than theone who is asking."He said,"Tell me aboutits signs."The Prophet, peacebe upon him,said, [The.se are] "when the bondswomangivesbirth to her own master,l and whenyousee the bare-footed, the naked, and theI This refers to the femate slave whose master engagesinsexualrclationswith her, as a result of which, she conceivesand gives birth to a baby who in turn becomcsher master,when he ultimately inheritshis fatherspropcrtyof which themotheris part. Hcncc,thc child becomes master his own thc ofmother. M.M.l t 38
  • shepherds2 contending with one anotherinerecting high buildings." Umar said:"Shortly after the man left, the Prophet,peacebe upon him, asked,"Umar! Do youknow who the questioner was?"I responded,"Allah and His Messenger know best."Hesaid "That wasJibreel.He cameto teachyou( M u s l i m s ) t h e f u n d a m e n t a l so f y o u rreligion."3Q- What is the third fundamental?A- Knowing our Prophet Muhammad, peacebe upon him, who is the son of Abdullah,son of Abdul- Muttalib,son of Hashim,whois of the Quraish, Arab tribe,andknowing anthat the Arabsare of the childrenof Ismail,son of Ibrahim ctl-Khalil, may peaceandblessings on him andon our Prophet. be2 t t t i s , a c c o r c l i n go a n - N u w a w i , c f e r st o t h c p o o r B c d o u i n s t rw h o , a l l o f a s u d d c n e c o m e c a l t h ya n d c o m p e t c n e r a : t i n g b w ih i g hb u i l d i n g s . l M . M . lt lmam Muslirn 39
  • Q- How long did the Prophet, peacebeupon him, live?A- He lived for sixty-threeyears;forty ofwhich were before the beginning ofProphethood, and twenty-three years afterthat. He was appointed a Prophetwhen asSurat Iqra, #96, was revealedto him, andwas appointedas a Messenger when Suratal-Muddaththir, #J4, was revealed him. toHis hometownwas Makkah.Q- What was the Message that Allah sentto him?A- Allah senthim to preach monotheism andto wam against polytheism.Q- What is the proof of the above?A- The word.s the Allah the Exalted: ofY1 ...rrLi 7.)te .r$ -LUr .+n.:lrrr .rJb f, .;Jf lUt tr) tult .jSLi {t-V Ji"O you who is wrapped.Arise and warn.And magnify your Lord. And purify yourheart.And shunthe idols. And neverdo a 40
  • favor seekingto get more in return. And forthe sakeof your Lord endurepatiently."Q-What is the meaning of (ptip) "Ariseand warn?tA- Warn against polytheism and preachmonotheism.Q- What is the meaning of "and glorifyyour Lord and purify your heart?"A- Glorify your Lord by declaring HisOneness,and purify your actions frompolytheism.Q- What is the meaningof (*ru.rlb)fAndshun the idols?"A- Avoid the idols by shunning anddenouncing them and their worshippers.Q- How long did the Prophet, peacebeupon him, keep preaching the abovecommandrnents?A- The Prophet,peacebe upon him, keptpreachingthe abovecommandtnents tenforyears,after that, he was taken to heaven 4l
  • where the daily prayerswere enjoined onhim. Lateron, he was commanded migrate toto Madinah.a- What is emigration[in terms ofreligionl ?A- Emigrationis moving from the land ofpolytheismto the land of Islam,and from theland of biduh (innovated religiousmatters)to the land of Sunnah.Q- What is the ruling on emigration?A- It is an obligatory duty enjoined onMuslims who happento be in the land ofpolytheism to immigrate into the land ofIslam, and from the land of innovationintothe land of Sunnah.It is effectiveuntil thesun risesfrom the West,i.e.,until the end oftime.Q- What is the proof of the above?A- Ihe wordsof Allah: r-5llu i5 e llu .pl JtJi i.*)tlrfru; irr-iJtir!) c$rb t<+trr+trr:.-!, dJl ;r ll tlu rrtrl ;ii,.r-, A .t-,:Jb0r.rJrl5 Jbrl;r;trr-JlI! . !....1.Lr,.1e p..!L 42
  • e .*,rOl .lr.r- . J.Llrb i# if.r:c !r i+" 0r+lu-?) {U*W.l,rorirVerily, when the angels take the souls ofpersonswhile they are wrongingthemselvesIi.e. sinning],t (the angels)say to them,"Why did you stay where you were?"Theysay, "We were weak and oppressedin theland." They (the angels)say to them, "Wasnot Allahs earth vast enough for you toemigrateinto it. " Thesepersons will dwellin Hell, and an evil destination is, except itsuch weak men, women, and children whoare helplessand can find no way out. Forsuch there is hope that Allah will pardonthem,for Allah is pardoning, Forgiving.t OftAnd His words: ( jr.r*UgLlri.-b a,rrt g:rir.pitr.rrl* i4 L)I This, according to lbn Abbas, relers 1o those who disobeyedthe Mcssengerof Allah, peace be upon hirn by refusingtoernigrate Madinahanclstayedin Makkah. toI Surah# 4.91,98.99 43
  • O My slaves whohavebelieved! Verily,va.stis My earth, worship alone.2 so MeQ- What lvasthe reasonfor revealing thetwo aboveverses?A- Thereweresomepeoplein Makkahwhoembraced Islam,but did not emigrate toMadinah with the Messenger Allah, peace ofbe upon him. Someof them were tried intheirfaith andjoined the pagans against theMuslimsin the battleof Badr.Allah did notaccepttheir excuseand made Hell theirrequital.The secondverse was revealedbecause someMuslimswerein MakkahtoWhom Allah imputediman and enticedthemto emigrate Madinah. toQ- What is the proof of the continuityofemigration deduced as from the Prophetictraditions?A- TheProphet,peace upon be him,said:2 Surah #29.5(t 44
  • Emigration shall not ceaseto be effectiveuntil repentance becomesineffective,andrepentance shall not ceaseto be effectiveuntil the sun risesfrom the West.tQ- What rvas the Messenger of Allahpeacebe upon him, enjoined to prescribeafter he had settledin Madinah?A- After he had settled in Madinah, theMessenger Allah, peace uponhim, was of beenjoined to prescribe the rest of theordinances Islam, suclt as zakat,fasting, ofHajj, fighting for the causeof Allah, and theotheractsof worshiP.Q- How long did he live after that?A- The Prophet,peacebe upon him, died tenyears after settling in Madinah. But hisMessage everlasting. did not leavea is Hegoodthing withoutguidinghis ummaft to it,nor did he leave an evil thing withoutwaming his ummalr against it.I Imam Ahmad and Imam Abu Dawood 45
  • Q- What are the good things to which theMessengerof Allah, peacebe upon him,guided his ummah, and what are the evilthings against which he warned hisummah ?A- The good things are the creed ofmonotheism and everythingthat Allah lovesand approves.The evil thingsarepolytheismand everything that Allah loathes anddisapproves.Q- Did Allah send Muhammad, peacebeupon him, to one particular tribe or tomankind at large?A- Allah .sentMuhantnrad, peacebe uponhim, to mankindat large,and madeobeyinghim a duty on bothjinn andmen.Q- What is the proof of the above?A- The wordsof Allah: (*. 6,trlllJr.r y! ,.rLJrkl L,j) 46
  • Say,O men I am the Messenger Allah toofyou all.tAnd His words:rr:;l 5fu.rp Vi..ii;Jr.rr.-:- ;it Ui+ +f Uf i!) (aori.Jl wewAnd when We sentto you a group of jinn tolistento the (recitation) the Quran,when ofthey heard ir they said to one another,"Listen." And when it endedthey retumedtotheirpeoplewarningthem.za - D i d A l l a h c o m p l e t et h e r e l i g i o n o fIslam during the lifetirneof Muhammad,peacebe upon him, or after his death?A- Surely,Allah completed religionof theIslamduringthe lifetimeof His Messenger,peacebe upon him, and nothingnew needsto be added the religionthereafter. toQ- What is the proof of the above? I Surah 7.158 # 2 Surah# 46,29 47
  • A- The wordsof Allah: ^. ; itt ,F ;5 pJt)f>t-)r f<J #g -3:3r f.(J.:fti (ti,T o d a y I h a v e c o m p l e t e df o r y o u y o u rreligion and perfectedMy favor upon youandaccepted Islamto be your religion.lQ- What is the proof of the death of theMessenger Allah? ofA-Allahswords: (Oa.-i;6& i,l.:tt?r*ll J.176!r c-=..!q)Y o u ( O , M u h a m m a d s u r e l yw i l l d i e , a n d )they (too) will die, and then on the Day ofR e s u r r e c t i o n o u w i l l d i s p u t ew i t h o n e yanother beforeyour Lord.aQ- Will the people be resurrectedafterdeath?A- They surely will, for Allah says: (.rtlirU €nr+-.r f.r.- f<+1 g,; nSr;if-3 Surah*5.34 Surah #39.30.31 48
  • From it (the earth)haveWe created you, andinto it shatlWe retunt you, and from it shallWe bring you forth again.tAnd He says: { . t*!it *.ttW d+. pug;r!r;r.<;i .u9)And Allah hascaused you to grow as a goodgrowth frorn the earth.Then will He tum youback into it and make you to issue forthIagain].2Q - W i l l t h e p e o p l eb e h e l d a c c o u n t a b l ea n d r e q u i t e d f o r t h e i r d e e d sa f t e r t h eResurrectionor not?A- They positively will be held accountablefor their deeds. fact which is confirmecl A bythe wordsof Atlah:Indeed,, Allah belongsall that is in the toheavens and on earth,and He requites thosewho do evil in accordance with what theyI Surah 2050 #2 S u r a h 71 . 1 , 1 # 7 8 49
  • did, and rewardthosewho do good with thebest.3Q- What is the judgment regardingone whodeniesResurrection?A- He is judged to be a disbeliever, Allah forsays: U-rr:t-, b d tH p ,.h V:,,r9 alg;s;ri-rt frj ) J (*rOr;eUi1Those who disbelieve assertthat they will Say, "Surely,by my Lordnot be resurrected.you will be resurrected, thenyou will be andinformed of what you did." And that is easyfor Allah.ta- What was the Messagewith whichAllah sent His Messengers?A-To cause those who believe in HisOnene.ss rejoice in the annunciation to ofJannah, and to warn those who ascribe 3 Surah 53.31 # I Surah 64.7 # 50
  • partnersto Allah that Fire will be theirpunishment.Q- What is the proof of the above?A- Thewordsof Allah:irSJFll r^t:+- att u,l{, ir1d)L:, stt4 U.*l-r> J, ( t"+!..;.lJl(We sent) Messengers bearersof glad astiding and as warners that men may havenoplea againstAllah after the coming of theMessengers. Allah is Mighty,Wise.2 AndQ- Who was the first Messenger?A- Noah,peace on him. beQ- What is the proof of the above?A- The wordsof Allah: ( ..r^r.rJ=+tl, Cl.ll t-. rl ts s4Jt q ) firr!We have revealed you as We revealed to toNoah and the Prophets afterhim.r 2 Surah 4.165 # 3 Surah 4.163 # 51
  • Q-Was there any nation or people leftwithout a Messenger sent to them toenjoinon them worshipof Allah aloneandthe rejectionof tahgoot?rA- Therewasno nationleft withouthavingaMessenger sent to it, a fact which issubstantiated thewords Allah: by of (.a;iLtr !r+:"!, g"rrrOlil-, :,1.1l; l-r .rilr) .JJl rrAnd We did send to every nation a Worship Allah andMessenger preaching:shun the taghoot.zQ- What is taghoot?A- Taghoot is whatever man worshipsinstead or to the exclusion Allah. It is of, ofI Taghoot, is whatever is worshippedinsteador tothe exclusionof Allah. [M.M.]2 Surah 16.36 # 52
  • also any human whom man worships, orobeysbeyond normallimits.Q- How many types of taghoot are there?A- There are many types of taghoat ; buttheir principalonesare five: Iblis, the oneaccursed Allah; one who approvesof bybeing worshipped; one who calls peopletoworshiphin-r; one who claimsthe knowledgeof the unseen;and one who rules by lawsotherthanthosesentdown by Allah. [We arecommanded disbelieve and shunthem to inall andto subrnit the will of Allah.l toQ- What is the proof of the above?A- The wordsof Allah:Uit €*U .&;f d, ir, -.: n!# j JrrJtrr.H f ) (rJ, .lJl, U lr .;:ty ji;jt12lJlu-JL--trii .lJtl Cf 53
  • Thereshouldbe no compulsion religion. inSurely,right guidance becomedistinct hasfrom deviation. whoeverdisbelieves So intaghoot and believesin Allah has surelygrasped strongunbreakable the handle.And All-Knowing.rAllah is All-Hearing,And His words: (.2itlrlr !1=?!, b+rrll i-.r:,1 # trt-, rlr) drlWe did send a Messenger every nation, to(preaching), Worship Allah and avoidtaghoot.zAnd His words:)J djr )! Jd )l pS:-.; .!r- Ltj J !y|.; .-,€tr r,y) r+ ltVfr tttF ;ttrdtt 0p.r.u.urlt il t :i* l-+ yr u+ l :JF (. o;t-.u154:rI Surah 2.256 #2 Surah 16.36 # 54
  • Say,"O peopleof theBook!,Come a wordtoequalbetween and you that we worship usnone but Allah, and that we associate nopartners with Him, and that noneof us takeothersfor lordsbesides Allah." But if theyturn away,thensay, "Bear witness that weareMuslimsandhavesubmitted Allah."t toThis is the meaning ( .tJrfl{f ) ,There ofis no godbut Allah.The Messenger Allah, peace uponhim of besaid: "The principalpart of Islam and itssupporting pillar is prayer,and its highestpointis jihad,(fighting thewayof Allah).a inAnd Allah knowsbest. The End3 Surah 3.6+ *a er-tirmidrhi 55
  • ;-i)tjJlJ-*YI iJ#Yliilj! *i;ru g-: ltl ,it=L lri .r.re f)t-:l !J rlJl r->.r i,--) tll >2.n
  • flHrEC@NWCltlt@NS OF AS.MI.AT AS.SA.TT[ @RflHttsP[@USPRtsDtsCtsSS@RS BY THE TRADITIONIST ASH.SHAIKH MUHAMMAD AT-TAYYIB B. ISHAQ AL-ANSARI AL MADANI I believe ttrat Allah is One God, other than Whom there is no god, the Sole One, As_ Samadh,l Who neither begetsnor was begotten.No one other than lfe deserves robe worshipped.Whoeverdedicates any actof worship to otherthanAllah is a mushiik, adisbeliever.Ibadah" or worship by definition combineseverythingthat Allah lovesand approves, ofutterances and deedssuch as the five pillars lAs-samadh is one of Allahs beaurifulnames. isItmentioncdin Surah# llZ,It signifies thc t ord toWhom recourseis had, or to f,horn obidience isrendered, without Whom no affaii can beaccomplished;or the One to Whom Lordshipultimatelypertains,or the Creatorof eve.y tfring,o?ffi9r. nothing is indepcndent, and on Wf,orn thing depends-for mcansof subsistencd, its "r"ry:f,".t-*ano whoscOneness everythingtestifies. tM.M.l 59
  • of Islam, supplication, expectation, fear,trust, seekinghllp and relief, sacrifice,vowsand every other-form of worship. Ibadahincludes icceptance of the truth that AllahWho is far removed from every imperfection, is qualified - with all the wherewith He has qualified "ttiibutet and is named by the names with Himself, which He has named Himself, and His Messenger Mohammad,peace upon him be has nanrld Him, all the beautiful namesand the superlativequalities with which He is qualifild in truth and not metaphorically Such attributes include settling Himself above His Throne or mounting it without specification, resemblance, or eiemplification, as Allah- -says: -( ) "Tt; Most Merciful has settled Himself above the Throne."l Such attributesinclude His infinite speech, utteredin occasions is It reportedthatthe pious predecessors asserted that He is still qualified by the attribute of speech and forev-er will speakif He.wills Of fiit speech is the Quran which is the inimitible words that were sent down to t Suratrzo.s * 60
  • Muhammad for worship, and which Jibril, peacebe on him, heard from Allah directly without mediator and brought down to Muhammad,p€lc€ be upon hiri, in the exactform and meaning as he heard it from hisLord. The wording of the euran is Allahsnot Jibrils or Muhammad,s. consists the It ofwords of Allatr Who utlered it in letter ands,ouqd, He spoke to Musa (Moses),when asthe latter cameto the trce:Vjrity,I A. your Rubb. So take off yourshoes;-foryou are in the SacredValley ofTuwa.lE1rytly so He will call His slaveson the Dayof Resunection, with a voice which will beh.".t-d-by,the distantand the near,saying: "fAm the King. I Am the Reckoner." This isexactly how He speaksto His Messengersand angels,and to whomeverHe wishei.ofHis slaves,to who He has sent down thewords of His non-etemal2 but uncreated I Suratr ZO.IZ *l Stl* Allah spcal$ wheneverHe wishes,as Imam Ahmad,the Imam of Ahl-As-sunnah suted, rhcreforc,His specchisnonaaul.[M.M.] 61
  • speech His Scriptures. in Like the restof Hisuit ibut r, His speech uncreated3 isIt is established that Allatr, glory be to Him,is qualified with the attributes of love,4pleasure,5loathing,6descending,T givingiife, deattrand dispFasure; that He is greatlydelightedwith ttre repentance His slave;l of3 Ailahs speech one of His attributesthat in His essence is asun"tota.fnis meansthat His speech not bom and created isin-iir*lit" the speechof liis creatures,becauseit isestabtished He doesnot change, thatHis essence not that and issusceptibte events. to [M.MJa nr"t" are versesin the Glorious Qurm that signify cleady Allahsartribute love;e.g,2.190,195 2222tll[Ml of5 Thereareabout 12 verses which "the pleasure" Allah is in of mentioned; among themS 3.15, 9.211829 5.2, 6 The attribute"loathing"or "hating" is mentioned surah in 9.46 and17.38 7 Abu Hurtaitah reponed that the Messenger Allah said: of "Our l-ord, the Blesired, the Supreme, descends the lowest to Whocalls fteau"n Autingthe last third of everynightsaying: ff" tot *.ntito call Mel so that I may fulfill-his need? Who askslMe so that I may give unto him? Who seeksMy fo.gi*n"tt so Orat may-forgiue I Him?"(Al-Bukhari) MM1 I AMullah b. Masoodnarrated the Messenger Allah that of oeacebe upon him, said: "Allah is more delightedwith r"p"nrrn"" of His slavethanttremanwho losthis beast bard of io-aOeO his provision *itt while traveling thedesert, in thereby r"Ou"l".i"g nisiife. He tookhis restandslept, thenawoke and ioiind$.irtir beasthadstrayed. The heatbecame sever, and so washis thirst,or whatever Allah willed.(Havinglookedfor I it in vain), he then helplessly decided: will retum to my 62
  • and that Allah, far is He rcmovedfrom everyimperfection,will be seenby the believerson the Day of Judgment with their own eyes,as signified in the Quran and authenticahadeeth (traditions).Theseattributesandthe like of them are not figurative,but actualand real, as confirmed by the Book and theSunnah. Allah the Exaltedsays:Say, "He is Allah, the One. Allah is As-Samad2 He does not beget nor is Hebegotten. And thereis nonelike unto Him.This is our conviction which we uphold inobedienceto Allah, respectingHis namesand attributes, without specifyingthem, orascribing human characteristics them,todepicting,[reducingthem ro limited forms],nor do we denyany of them.Allah says:place in which I took my rest frst. So he returnedand slept fora while. When he awoke, he raised his head only to see hisbeast sunding by his side.(Al-Bukhari) The version of theabove uadition compiled by Imam Muslim relates to theProphet.peae be upon him, rhe following slatemenu "Havingfound his beast,the man exclaimed out of extreme excitement:O Allah, you are my slave, and I am your lord. He made thisslip of the tongueour of his extremeexcitement" [M.M.]z See footnorc # I on page 25. 63
  • "There is nothing like unto Allah. And He isthe All-Hearing, the All- Seeing."2We bear witness that Mohammad,peacebeupon him, is the slave of Allah, and HisMessenger both jinn and men, and that he todid convey the Message, accomplished theduty committed to his trust, guided hisummah(nation)sincerely, and kept strivingin the cause of Allah until Allah hascompleted religionby him. Allah says: theToday I have comPletedfor You Yourreligion, and perfectedMy favor upon yourand accepted Islamfor you as your religion.3Then Allah took him to Himself, and madehim join the highest companyin the Jannah (on the Day of Resurrection). The Messenger Allah, peace uponhim, of be departed this world, and its people.No one will ever be a true believeruntil and unless his desires according the Message are to with which Muhammadwas sent with, and until Muhammad,peacebe upon him, becomes dearerto him thanhis own self,his children, and all mankind.2surah t t +z:3 Surah5:3 64
  • Loving the Messenger, peacebe upon him, entails obeyinghis commands, attestingto the truthfulness of his statements,and avoiding his prohibitions. This in turn, means that Allah must be worshipped by dedicatingto Him only thoseactsof *orship that His Messengerhas assignedto the Muslims.The Messenger Allah, peacebe upon him, of shouldnot be extolled,.overly adulated, orelevatedabovethe level on which Allah hasplaced him. Nor should the Messenger ofAllah be sought for help, or relief. TheProphet, peace uponhim, said: "The due beris worship."4And he said:"[ndeed. am not Ithe one upon whom you shouldcall for help.Allah, the Exalted, is the One upon Whomyou should call for help. Calling upon theMessenger, peacebe upon him, for help istantarnount shirk, or polytheism.And so is toattachingthe heartto creatures veneration inand expectationof benefit from them, orbelievingthat they can ward off evil, andother things that only Allah is capable of.[Attachingthe heartto piouspeople,or jinn4 Abu Dawood. & at-Tirmidthi. 65
  • by committing ones affairs to them, turningto them for help, and sacrificing animals tothem, in order to have ones needs fulfilled,or to obtain relief constitute ascribingpartners to Allah, whether by utteringmysterious combinations of words, orlitanies. Allah has given no evidence thatsuch practicesare efficacious or permitted.Allah sent His Messenger,peace be uponhim, to uproot such practices,and to cleansethe heartsfrom infidelity. There is no neitherstrength nor power except by means ofAllah, the Exalted, the Great.We believe that the angels, and theScriptures of Allah are truthful, and so arethe Prophets, peace be upon them, theresurrection after death, Jannah, and Hell-Fire. We also believe that the scale5 is true,as well as the Howdh 6 of the Prophet,peacebe upon him. Whoever drinks from it shallnever feel thirsty. Apostate, and people of5 The scale is rhe means by which the bad and good de.eds ofman are weighcd on the Day of Resurrection.6 The pool of the Messenger,peace bc upon him, from whichthe believers shall be given to drink on the Day ofResurrection.It is also called"al-Kawther" 66
  • bidah, or innovationsin religions mattersshallbe debarred from it.We believe in predestination; its good orevil consequences.We believe thatintercessionof our Prophet Muhammad,peacebe upon him, and of all the Prophets istrue, but it takes place only with prior leavefrom Allah to the intercessor,and onconditionthat Allah is pleased with the oneon whosebehalf intercession shall be made.Allah the Exlatedsays:"Who is he that willint e r c e d e w i t h H i m e xce p t b y H ispermission?"7And:They intercede behalf of only thosewith onwhom Allah is pleased.8And we believeour Prophet, peace upon behim, will be the first intercessor, the first andfrom whom intercession shall be accepted,and that thereare privilegesof intercessionwith which the Prophet alone isdistinguished. first of these thehighest The isstationof honor at the Final Day, which isreferredto in the Quranas "al-Maqam al-t e.z.zss8 e. 2l:28 61
  • Mahmoud,9 and which all the Prophets andMessengers shall revere. Such privilegesshall include also intercedingto deliver fromthe Fire thosewho havealreadyenteredit,l0and admitting them into Jannahafter theyhavebeenpurified. We believe that the best of all generationsare the companions the Prophet,peacebe ofupon him, who believed in him, then thepeople of the second generation thatsucceeded them with piety. The Prophet,9 Al-Moqa al-Mahmoud, is menlioned in the Quran [7:78],and refers to the rank to which the hophet, peace be upon him,shall be entitled, and for which he shall be praised by allcreatures on the Day of resunection, because of his beingquickly reckoned with by mankind who will be relieved fromtheir long sranding,by virtue of his interceding with Allah ontheir behatf. [M.M.]l0 His eminenceShaikh AMul-Aziz Bin Baz, the Chairmanof Dar al-Ifta, Saudi Arabia, may Allah forgive his sins andassist him in every good cause, commented on the abovestatement,saying: "The privilege of interceding with Allah todeliver from Hell-Fire those Muslims who have entered it onaccount of their sins, is not restricted [o the ProphetMuhammad, peace be upon him, rather, such a privilege isshared by others, as signified in many traditions. Besides hisgreater intercession, the hophet Muhammad, peace be uponhim, is also privileged to intercedefor the people of Jannahtointer it as indicated in the authentic raditions. He shall also beable to intercede with Allah to reduce lhe punishment of hisuncle, Abu Talib. 68
  • peace be upon him, said: "The best ofgenerations is mine, then the two generationsthat succeeded them."We also believe that the best of speechis thespeechof Allah, and the best of guidance isthe guidance of Mohammad, peace be uponhim. And we believe that the greatestevil ofall is the bidah, or innovations in religiousmatters, for every bidah is a form ofmisguidance.Had it not been for fear of prolixity, wewould have supplied a textual proof for eachissue discussed above from the Book ofAllah, and the Sunnah of His Messenger,peacebe upon him, and the unanimity of theas-Salafas-Salih,or the PiousPredecessors.We ask Allah, the Exalted, to guide us to Hisstraight path, accept our deeds, and ourstatements,protect us from misguidingafflictions. the hidden and manifest thereof,and make steadfast in our faith so that wemay die as Muslims.O Allah, exalt the renown of Muhammad,and his household,and grant them peaceandblessings.This is the Salafi conviction written byShaikh Muhammad at-Tayyib bin Ishaq al- 69
  • Ansari, in Madinatr,in 1358A.H., who diedon the seventhof Jamadaath-Thani, 1363A.H. He wrote this as an exhortation forhimself, and his Muslim brethren.May Allahgranthim mercy. The Four Rules I ask Allah the Gracious, the Lord of theGreat Throne to look after you in this worldand in the Hereafter, and bless you whereveryou may be. I also ask Him to make us ofthose who whenever they are given aregrateful, and whenever they are afflicted;they endure patiently, and whenever theycommit a sin they beg for forgiveness.Theseare, truly, the main characteristics bliss. of Be aware, may Allah accommodateyou tohis obedience,of the fact that hanifiyyeh,thereligion of lbrahim, is to worship Allah aloneand to be sincereto Allah in religion. Allahsays: (;1rt*5ll;)lr ir+tgir; Ur) 70
  • "I have not createdthe jinn and the men butto worshipMe."ll And sinceyou know that Allah hascreatedyou to worship Him, then you should realizethat worship doesnot bcome genuineunlessit is combinedwith the belief in the Onenessof Allah. Just as prayeris not valid withoutablutionl2. Once shirk or a polytheisticpractice blemishes an act of worship, itnullifies it, just as impurity nullifies ablution.Once you know that if slrirt pollutes acts ofworship, it rendersthem void, and that apersonwho does so becomesone of thosewho shall go to Hell, you realize thatknowing this fact is one of your mostimportant duties. May Allah saveyou froml1 Surah #51,56 lbn Kathir interpreted this verse in hisexegesesas: "l have created rhem only to command them toworship Me, not becauseI need them."(I say: There is no dout* that man has been createdin a soundstate of affairs to make him fit for doing acts of worship, andprcpared for it. Since Allah has installed in them reason, andfumished $rem with spnses,apParcnt and hidden with the uhermeansof preparedness. [ M. D] )12 loriust as vinegar spoils honey when it is mixed with it, orwhen poison enters the body, against which we seek Allahsprotection.) [M.D.] 11
  • this predicamentof associating partnerstoHim. Allah says: (.t :r g Uti ir.pV lss5q Jri Olr4 ) dj 0t) "Allah does not forgive (the sin of)associatingpartnerswith Him, but forgiveswhat is (short o0 that to whomsoever Hepleases."l3 Deliverancefrom Hell-Fire may be ensuredby being aware of the four rules that Allahhasmentionedin His Book. The First Rule To know that the disbelieverswhom theMessenger Allah , fought,acknowledged ofthat Allah is the Creator,the Providerandthe One in Whosehandis the disposal all ofaffairs. Yet, they were not consideredasMuslims. [That is to say, sheeracknowledgment the Lordshipof Allah ofwas not enough to qualify them to bel3 Surah t t6 *a. tz
  • Muslims. They shouldhave dedicated allacts of worship to Allah alone.l. This isprovenby Allahs words: d u:.,L.,!bCJtrlL, il ,rltV.lJt;r &U u Jllit.tt, Otirrrli 7!t :* Vt tlt V.-tt g#r cJt U tl (;t*"Say,i/ho providessustenance you from forthe heavenand the earth?Or, Who is it thathas power over the hearingand the seeing?Who brings forth the living from the dead,and brings the dead out of the living? Whogovernsall affairs?Theywill say,Allah.Thensay,Will you not thenfear (Him)."14 The SecondRule The polytheistsassert:"We did not call onthem [the idols.. We approachthem only toseek nearnessof Allah and intercessionthrough them. [The proof of the fact thatworshipping idols is polytheismlris given inthefollowing verse:14Suratr 10.3 # I IJ
  • dJl ,e|;d,lJ UJ,JIJfr.r;ut .t-blelr;t gif r;"itg) OJ )J {tis-,!tJ j U Lt+l.Ur;g;;L: . f..t Ctr & "And those who take idols for deitiesbesideHim say,We worshipthemonly thatthey may bring us nearerto Allah. Surely,Allah will judge betweenthem on that inwhich they differ. Allah doesnot guidehimwho is a disbelieving liar."l5 And the proof of intercession, [that is,worshipping idols, besee-ching them forrelief and fulfilling needs,and taking themfor intercessors with Allah is sftirt,l . isprovided in the following verse:"And they worshipbesideAllah that whichneither harms them nor benefitsthem; andthey say, Theseare our intercessors withAllah. Say, Do you inform Allah ofsomething knowsnot in theheavens in He orthe earth.How far is Allah from that which (astheyascribe partners) Him."l6 to15Surah 39.3 *l6 Surah #10.18 74
  • lntercessionis of two kinds; annulledandconfirmed.The annulled intercessionis thatwhich is sought from other than Allah forneedsttrat only Allah can fulfill. The proofof this is in the words of Allah:"O you who believe! Spendout of what Wehave supplied you before a day comes inwhich there shall be no tendering norfriendship nor intercession; and thedisbelievers the wrongdoers. are 17 17Sursh*2.2S5 [On his comrnentary rhis verse,Ibn Kathir onsafol:"Alleh commands slaveso spendout of what He has Hisptwidcd thcm in His way, in charity,that theymayaccurnulat€their rcwad with their Lord andProprielor.It is for this reasonthey should hasaen do so in this world, beforca day comes !o-thc Day of Rcsurrection- which nei0er bargainingnor infricndship nor intcrcessionstull bc acceprcd. one can bail Nohimsclf out nq can hc ransomhimslef evenif he spentfor thatpurpoocan earth load of gold. Nor can avail him friendshiportinship, for Allah says:"And when the rumpct is blown, thcre will bc no tics ofrclatbnship bctwcenthem 0ut day, nc will theyask after oneanothcr."(#23.101)Nor the intercession thosewho are ofcntitlcd o intcrccde.And: ( ) "....andthedisbclicvcrsare thc wr,ongdoers" grammatically is, speaking, asubjcct of a nominal clause which incorporaredin theprcdic8tcof thc sameclauselo meanthcrc is no one who ismorc unjustor worsc wrongdocrthan he who will come !oAlhh m tlut day asa disbeliever.Aa b. Dinar wasreported assaying:?raise be to Allah Who says:The disbelievers rhe are 15
  • And the confirmed intercession is thatwhich is soughtfrom Allah. The intercessorof whom Allah approves is the one who is ofhonouredby the priviledge of interceding.While the one who is intercededfor is hewhoseutterances and actionsare pleasingtoAllah. Intercession such one is granted foronly with the leaveof Allah. [Intercession issought from Allah alone, becauseit isrestrictedto Him; whoever seeksit fromother than Allah commits shirk, and hedefeats own purpose, renders his and himselfbereft. Allah accepts only the pure belief inHis Oneness, and permitsintercession only the wrongdoers are thewrongdoers and did not say,disbelievers@. Allah knows best, I.e., no one would dare tointercede with Allah without His leave becauseof Allahsgreatness, magnificance and haughriness,as signified in thehadith of Intercession,in which the Messengerof Allah said:"I procede (on the Day of Judgment) and prostrate myselfunderneaththe Throne. Allah keeps me on this posture as longas He wills, Then it will be said,Raise your headand say; youwill bc listened to, intercede and your intercession will be Then I willacccpted.The Messengerof Allah funher said,be allowed to intercede for a cerlain number of people, and loadmit them to Jannah.l. Allah knows best.@ The reason for Atab. Dinars statment is the fact that everydisbeliever is wrongdoer, but not every wrongdoer is adisbeliever. Some believers may wrong themselves bycommitting the minor sins, but they would still be believersand iman stays with them. Allah knows best. lM.M.l 76
  • for those who uphold monotheismas theircreed. says: He {cig l..rrCiltgjlt ti !r) "Who is he that will intercedewith HimexceptbyHis permission."18 And: (..i;rrJ{or.ii!) "And they intercedenot exceptfor him Heapproveg."l9 And: 1i^rrirri:frUy) "Say, A l 1 i n te rce ssi o n re sts w i thAllah..."20 The Third Rule The Prophet appeared amongpeoplewhowere divided in their religion. Someof themworshipped prophetsand pious people,andsome worshipped trees and stones,whileothers worshippedthe sun and the moon.It Suntr* z.Xs19Suratrll Zt.Z820Suratr* l9.a+ 71
  • The Messengerof Allah fought them allwithout making distinction between one This was in applicationofgroupand another.Allahs words: (dJ.l5 jrJt **r e:i i,15i; .;r c.r*ur) I "And fight them untill there is noinfidelity, and religion is professedforAllah."2l And about the sun and the moon [i.e. theproof of the fact that worshipping the sunand the moon and the rest of the stars andplanets, and believing that they influenceeventsof this world is slrirl<1.is shown inAllahs words:J-ill t !-:,lJ !r.l,hi).-.ttr ,J-:Jb.rtd!.,;Ur *j A) (;r+;.Lt rS i,tJ{ib ,SjJrrlJ rr.r+-rr "And among His signs are the night and theday and the sun and the moon. Prostrate notyourselves before the sun nor before themoon, but prostrateyourselvesbefore Allah,2l Suratr #2.193 78
  • Who createdthem, if it is He Whom you(rcally) wonhiP."22 And about the angels,[i.e. the proof of thefact that worshipping angels is sftir& isproducedin the following verse: {qU i"iJl, i*yl,r lrlg oirsrl l.r} "And He doesnot cornmandyou to takeangelsand Prophets lords."23 for22 Su.atr l+1t.3?23 Surah # 3.80 Ibn Kathir elaborated in his exegeseson thisverse: "Allah does not enjoin on you to worship other thanAllah, be he a commissionedProphet or an angel who is close!o Allah. Would Allah enlrin disbclief on you when you havesubmitted to Him? <That is to say), no one does this excepthim who promotes wonhipping other than Allah; and he whodoes so promotes disbelief. In ilte case of the hophet, theypreached the belief in the Oneness of Allah Who has nopartners; as Allah says: ( ) "We sent no Messengerbeforc you but revealed o him there is no god but I, so worshipMe. The wordlordsin the verse means gods beside Allah.Allah knows best. Imam al-Bukhari reported that AMullahcornmented on the above verse saying: "Those were a group ofjinn who had been worshipped, and Oen became Muslims."AMullah b. Masood elaborated: "This vene refers io a Sroupof Arabs who used to worship jinn, but the latter embracedIslam while the former were not aware of thaL Allah knowsbestl. 79
  • And the proof of the Prophets [i.e.worshipping them and calling unto them isshirkl. is suppliedin the following verse:dr. lrfl O,lt g5tlt u.UJ r$ Jl *t A. d ! drt JU !!r)rii cU .=t i,!,t^, .JtJJ t, Jr;l gl 4 d,4 [. .tlLi- JU djt i,J, (-.r+lt pXrc.;l ag ..t :: ii t gIJ lr a.. rl l, Fl;.:"tt "And when Allah (will say to-lssa(Jesus),O Jesus, son of Mary! did You say topeople,Takeme and my mother two gods Farbeside Allah? He (will) answer,removedare You (from what they ascribetoyou), I could never say that to which I hadno right. If I had said it, You would havesurelyknown it. You know my insight,andIknow not Your insight,Verily; You are theKnower of the hidden things."24 And theproof of the pious people[i.e. worshippingthem and calling them for help and relief is shirk. Allah is far abovewhat they ascribetohim,l. is foundin thefollowingverse:*1 isj->.r25 r-l d-ytr-r_r J OJ.+i5-e4;;-iJr cUrl) vll (!rir irlt l.tJ .-,tjc 0! .{Li, i,Jjt il2t Suratr 5.116 # 80
  • "Thosewhom they call on themselves seeknearness their Lord. Which of them is tonearer; and they hope for His mercy, andfear His punishment. Surely,the tormentofyour l-ord is a thing to be feare d."25 And ttre proof of the treesand stones[i.e.seeking blessings through such objects asgravesof pious people,sacrificinganimalsfor fulfilling needsand relief by touchingcloth-coverings of the graves or itsstructures, all condemned s}lir&,]. os are asprovenby Allahswords: (.5;!r tlUtr1u..1 .gl!.rlJr rr$) " Have you considered al-Lat and al-Uzza.And Manat, the third, too. (the idols)12625 Suratr*tZ.SZ26 Surah #53.19,20 [Allah the Exalted chides the pagans forworshipping idols and other objects of worship, and erectingtemples for <them resembling> with it Kabah which was builtby Khalil ar-Rahtran or the friend of Allah, Ibrahim, peee beon him. Al-[,at was a whire rock with designs on it. It wasenclosed in a currained house around which there was a courtyard revered by the people of Taif, the tribe of Thaqeef and itsallies, and they used to boast themselvesin it against the otherArab tribes <short of> Quraish. While al-Uzza was a treeenclosed in a curtained structured, in a place called Nakhleh, 81
  • A proof of the aboveis also given in thefollowing tradition:"Abu Waqid al-Laithireported: " We went along with thebetween Makkah and Taif, upon which was a curtainedstructure with servan6 assigned to it. It was also revered byQuraish, Wherefore, Abu Sufyan, who We apagan then, said wasto the Muslims in the battle of Uhud; have al-Uzza, butyou have no Uzza. The Messenger of Allah instructed his Say, Allah iscompanions, our Supponer, and you have nosupporter. Manat was found in a place called Mushallel byQadid between Makkah and Madinah. It was revered by thetribes of Khuzaah, al-Aws and al-Khazrej in al-Jahiliyyeh otthe pre-Islamic eia, and used to begin their hajj rituals bycoming to it first. Then rhe Prophet sent some of hiscompanions to demolish them. He sent Khalid b. al-Walid, thedrawn sword of Allah against the pagans,to demolish al-Uzza.He did so and said: "Uzza I disbelieve in you. No praise isowed o yort. I have witnessedhow Allah has disgmced you."The Messengerof Allah also sent al-Mughirah b. ShubahandAbu Sufyan to demolish al-Lat- They did so and built a mosquein its place, in Taif. And ro Manat, the Messenger of Allahsent Abu Sufyan who demolished it. It is also said that it wasAli who demolished it. The Prophet came with the religion oftruth, and sinceredevotion to Allah, singling Allah out to bethe sole worshipped God in truth, abolishing all the badcustoms and every polytheistic practice which may mat thepure tenet of tawhid or monotheism. His great companionsfollowed suit. and so did their followers till tiat time whichwas marked with chaos and confusion when the Satanand thedeviant gained mastery over the minds of many Muslims, thenidolatry wa.srevived, particularly in our contem;xrraryage, theage of compound ignorance and the decorative images. Thepredicamentprevailed while the scholarskeep silent, exceptthose of them whom Allah wishes them to speak up. To Allahwe all belongand to Him we shall retum.l .tM.D.l 82
  • Messenger of Allah for the Battle ofHunain, when we had but recently come outof our state of infidelity into Islam. Thepagans had then a lote tree called DthatAnwat which they used to worship and tietheir weaponsonto it. When we passedby it, Messenger Allah! makewe said: of dthatanwat for us like as they have. The AllahuMessengerof Allah , said, akbar,these are as-sunnaun. You, by the one inWhose hand is my life, have just said what Makethe Children of Israel said to Musa:for us a god just as they have gods.He said,Surely; you are an ignorant people. TheProphet went on to say, You shall followthe ways of those who were before you, thatis the Jews and the Christi ans]27 The Fourth Rule27 N-Tirmid$ri. [The companionswho made the requestto theProphet had embracedIslam just recently.They thought thatassigning a tree on which they could hang their weapons is athing which might be pleasingto Allah. They only intendedtoseek Allahs pleasureby doing so. They were too loyal andnobel to intend rebelling against the hophet , as the Childrenof Israel rebelledagainstMusa, peacebe on him. The rest ofthe tradiuon is cited in along with the commentary in the Bookof Tawheedwhich is a duty the slavesowe Allah. Refer to it,you will find in it what pleasesyou. And Allah knows best.l . 83
  • The pagansof today are worse than thepagans the early stageof Islam; for those ofusedto attributepartnersto Allah at times ofease, usedto be sincere Allah at times but toof difficulty. But, the pagans of roday,attribute partnersto Allah in both times ofease and difficulty. Allah refers ro thissaying:28C, titylJt etqJ lrUrurird ia:rlt Orlpr.:lLitt,.fUf, Up) 1;tf* "And when they board a ship, they call onAllah, with sincere and exclusive faith inHim, but when He brings them back safe toland, behold! they associate partners toHim."29 Therefore, we see many of those whoworship pious people and graves of theshaikhs and masters are sincere in callingthem beside Allah and seeking help fromthem during both times of ease and2829Surah*29.65 84
  • hardships.Some of them become moresincere in their polytheism when theyexperienceharder times. Contrary to theearly paganswho used to attribute partnersto Allatr only at the times of ease,and usedto address themselves with earnestsupplication to Allah alone at times ofdistress.Today, pagans persistant their are inpolytheistic ways, begging and beseechingthe dead pious people. Alas! There is nostrengthnor power (to changethe prevailingsituation) but by the accommodation ofAUahthe High the Great.30 Allah speaksthe truth, and He is the OneWho guides to the right direction. Allah,glory be to Him, says:.rtiltJ V J, *,It yrlrl i,! dJr,rrr;r lrrs t- aal;l ,tr),f** <.llt*r-r Ir>2;t!5-t V Jta>t.itbl j,f (i1s3t "Say, What do you think if AUah wills todo me an injury, will those whom you callupon beside Allah be able to remove the30 This invocation is called lwwqaleh, it is utrered <at times"of weaknessand inability o changea bad situation. And Allahknows besl tM. M.l 85
  • injury inflicted by Him? Or, if He wills mercy for me, canthey withhold His mercy? Say, Allah is enoughfor Me. In Him trust thosewho would trust."3l andHe says:r{. ;r!t .tjlr #L4.J -Jr !i:dJ.ur ri! lrilr., rd f) (;.rrri;u iu .ttr- "Or, Who answersthe distressedwhen he calls upon Him, and removesthe evil, and makesyou successors the earth?Is therea in god beside Allah? Little is that you reflect."32 And He says: .4.5 a J$.-Wdp;tirlru;4!9)i,r.irr F !"r.- t*#; 3r*r " ;.;.f#"And those whom you call upon besideAllah own not even an integument of a date-stone. If you call on them, they will not hearyour call, and even if they heard it, theycould not answer you. And on the Day of3t Suratr* lg.:g32SuratrZZ.OZ 86
  • Resurrection,they will deny your havingassociatedthem with Allah. And none caninform you like the One Who is All-Aware."33 And He says:grrirt=.tr3lJrrJ..os-11 Ultitt, V P*t ,Pl Vi blr . i,/itrrr.r pl5i .l.rrl f, litJ s$t .! t4Vt V (o*s "And who is more astray than those who,instead of Allah, pray unto such as will notanswer them till the Day of Resurrection,and they arc unconciousof their prayer?Andwhen mankind are assembled,they willbecomeenemiesto them, and will deny theirworshiP."34 And Allah is the One Who guides to thestraight Poth, and there is no power norability but throughAUah.l 33Surrtrl 35.13,14 34 gltd|f46.S,e 87
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