Anti BActerial Study


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Anti BActerial Study

  1. 1. Anti – Bacterial Activity of OnionBulb Extract (Allium cepa L.)against Helicobacter pylori Kenneth John Pet Sashney Darren Collado Researchers
  2. 2. This research study will be conducted in order tohelp people suffering from diseases caused byHelicobacter pylori.Helicobacter pylori causes ulcer which is a commonsickness among the children, teenagers and evenadults.We wanted to provide them with an alternativemedicine made from Onion Bulb that is cheaper andhealthier compared to the commercially availableone.
  3. 3. Background of the Study Onions do not only provide flavor, theyalso provide important nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals. It is high invitamin C. Onion is a good source of dietaryfiber, and folic acid. Onions contain quercetin,a flavonoid.
  4. 4. Studies have indicated that quercetinhelps to eliminate free radicals in the body, toinhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation (animportant reaction in the atherosclerosis andcoronary heart disease), to protect andregenerate vitamin E and to inactivate theharmful effects of chelate metal ions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), previouslynamed Campylobacter pyloridis, is a Gram-negative, microaerophilicbacterium commonlyfound in the stomach.
  5. 5. Theoretical Framework Major dietary sources of quercetininclude apple, tea, and onion. Recent studiesat Wageningen Agricultural University, theNetherlands, showed that the absorption ofquercetin from onions is twice that from teaand more than three times that from apples.
  6. 6. Based on studies conducted at TheQueen’s University at Belfast, Ireland andWageningen Agricultural University, thecontent of quercetin in onions is estimated tobe between 22.40 mg and 51.82 mg permedium-sized onion (100 gram). Other studies have shown thatconsumption of onions may be beneficial forreduced risk of certain diseases. Consumptionof onions may prevent gastric ulcers byscavenging free radicals and by preventinggrowth of the ulcer-forming microorganism.
  7. 7. Paradigm of the Study Independent Variable Dependent Variable• Onion Bulb Extract Zone of Inhibition of• Commercial Antibiotic Helicobacter pylori
  8. 8. General Objective This experimental research study aims to determine the effect of onion bulb extract against the Helicobacter pylori.
  9. 9. Specific Objectives Specifically it sought to answer the followingquestions:1. What is the mean zone of inhibition of the Helicobacter pylori when applied with Onion Bulb extract?2. What is the mean zone of inhibition of the Helicobacter pylori when applied with commercial Antibiotic?3. Is there a significant difference between the mean zone of inhibition of Helicobacter pylori when applied with Onion Bulb extract and commercial Antibiotic?
  10. 10. Significance of the Study This research study is conducted in order todetermine the effect of Onion Bulb extract againstHelicobacter pylori. The results obtained from thisinvestigation are envisioned to benefit the following: People of the Community. This study could givemore information to the people on the community onhow they can treat diseases caused by Helicobacterpylori using onion bulb that is widely available in thelocality. Chemists, Pharmacists, and Doctors. Theywould enable to formulate a better and cheaperalternative medicine against Helicobacter pylori thatwill be a good substitute to commercial drugs.
  11. 11. Department of Health. This study could help DOHin making necessary actions to combat diseases causedby Helicobacter pylori. This will help them to considerother alternative medicines that is capable of killingHelicobacter pylori but is cheaper and healthy. Future Researchers. This would provide them withbackground information, philosophy, as well asexplanation on how to treat diseases caused byHelicobacter pylori. It will provide them with informationthat will help them in pursuing similar studies in thefuture. Finally, this paper would provide pertinent data forother investigators who would like to undertake furtherresearch. Also this study would serve as an example andmotivation for other researchers to conduct similarstudies within or outside the school.
  12. 12. Review of the Related LiteratureHelicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shapedbacterium that infects well over 30% of the world’spopulation. This is, therefore, one of the mostcommon bacterial infections known to mankind.Between 1979-82, Australian pathologist, RobinWarren and Australian gastroenterologist, BarryMarshall, identified H. pylori and suggested a link tothe development of stomach ulcers. Since thisdiscovery, the World Health Organization hasdeclared the bacteria to be a Class 1 carcinogen(bacterium produces cancer).
  13. 13. It invades the mucosal lining of the stomachand is the cause of up to 95% of duodenal andup to 75% gastric ulcers and has also beenassociated with gastric cancer and lymphoma. About 15% of people with H. pyloriinfection get ulcers either in the stomach(gastric ulcer) or in the duodenum (duodenalulcer). Although it tend to cause indigestion,occasionally they become much more seriousas they can bleed or even burst (perforate)which happens if the ulcer burrows deepenough actually to make a hole. People withulcers should therefore be treated with the aimof getting rid of H. pylori.
  14. 14. Review of the Related LiteratureOnion (Allium cepa L.) Onions (Allium cepa L.) belong to the lilyfamily, the same family as garlic, leeks, chives,scallions and shallots.There are over 600 speciesof Allium, distributed all over Europe, NorthAmerica, Northern Africa and Asia. The plantscan be used as ornamentals, vegetables, spices,or as medicine. There are over 120 differentdocumented uses of the Alliums.
  15. 15. Onion and other Allium vegetables arecharacterized by their rich content ofthiosulfinates, sulfides, sulfoxides, and otherodoriferous sulfur compounds. The cysteinesulfoxides are primarily responsible for the onionflavor and produce the eye-irritating compoundsthat induce lacrimation. The thiosulfinates exhibitantimicrobial properties. Onion is effectiveagainst many bacteria including Bacillus subtilis,Salmonella, and E. coli. Onion is not as potent asgarlic since the sulfur compounds in onion areonly about one-quarter the level found in garlic(Winston Craig, 2003 – 2012).