Reinforcers● A reinforcer is any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again.
The Positive Reinforcer● A positive reinforcer is a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response.● For example, If a child does well during a soccer game, and the parents reward him or her with praise.
The Negative Reinforcer● A negative reinforcer is an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.● For example, if you put your iPod in your ears, and it happens to be really loud, you are likely to turn in down.
Punishment● Punishment is a stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again.
The Pros of Punishment● Punishment for a young child can be a good thing. Suppose you are walking your child to school, and in a hurry they step out on the road where there are cars. You would hurriedly pull your child back on the sidewalk and yell. This would cause the child to never do such a thing ever again.● Another example is yelling at a teenager for stealing something, this would cause the teen not to do it again because he/she would know the outcome of what they did.
The cons of Punishment● Some parents take punishment to a whole new level called abuse. This could cause the child to develop psychological issues where they take it upon their selves.● Another con is when a child/teen is being punished, they could then take that anger out on someone else in a bad way.
Sources● Sources used is the PsychSmart book.● Pictures come from google.