IntroductionIn the competitive rush to upgrade and implement one-to-one access to technology, the preparation and support for the most effective use of personal devices in the classroom has not received due attention. Understandably there is concern that these devices have minimal value adding potential in the role of education. Although researchers, commercial agencies, and educational bodies have provided material to support effective use of these devices in education, teachers are time poor and have not had the time to change practice to any large extent. In Australia there is enough concern regarding the implementation of the new national curriculum, and this is a professional development priority at the moment. Schools have always attempted to help their students grow into good citizens, however the use of one to one devices in the classroom have made digital citizenship issues important.How can schools make the most of these devices in teaching positive digital citizenship?We all need to assess what we know, what we want to know, and how we want to approach digital citizenship in our classrooms as individual professionals and as a part of a team.Asking questions – leadership for change approach. Collaboration not delegation. Collaboration approach to leadership – steps 1-5 from Kotter, J (2012)
What is digital citizenship?There are many definitions for digital citizenship. As we have a priority to implement a new national curriculum as of next year the definition we are beginning with here is for “citizenship” from the Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority’s (ACARA) (2012) Civics and Citizenship paper.This definition has been chosen to make a point that digital citizenship concepts are those we already apply in many current curriculum content (for example those taught in the Geography syllabus), the difference being only the digital medium citizens now commonly use in civil, political and social participation.Greenhow (2010) found that digital citizenship is multifaceted and difficult to define, demonstrate and measure. It encompasses the notion of ethical, safe and responsible behaviour in the use of technology in fulfilling duties as a citizen, including accessing, assessing and publishing information (Greenhow, 2010).This new citizenship is global in nature. (Weigel, James, and Gardner 2009)The ACARA (2012) Civics and Citizenship curriculum also directs that students develop the knowledge and skills in using digital technologies to locate, manage, organise, analyse, represent and present information, to collaborate, share and exchange information, and support thinking and engagement.
Digital citizenship requires ethical safe and responsible behaviour in the following nine elements as found by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)(2007).Digital AccessFull electronic participation in society technology. Not students and teachers have access to all the tools of this new digital society. Digital commerceThe buying and selling of goods online. Teaching students to be informed, careful consumers. Digital communicationThe electronic exchange of information, mobile phones, instant messaging, videoconferencing, and e-mailing, blogging, FaceBook posts. Digital LiteracyThe capability to use digital technology, and knowing when and how to use it technology. Learning with technology does not always include instruction on appropriate and inappropriate use. Digital etiquetteThe standards of conduct expected by other digital technology users. Responsible digital behaviour.Digital LawThe legal rights and restrictions governing technology use when posting or accessing information on the internet. The issues of intellectual property rights and copyright protection are very real, and have very real consequences.Digital rights and responsibilitiesThe privileges and freedoms extended to all digital technology users, and the behavioural expectations that come with them. Users should expect that if they post information to a site (whether it is a poem, a picture, a song, or some other form of original research or creative expression), others should enjoy it without vandalizing it, passing it off as their own, or using it as a pretext to threaten or harass.Digital health and WellnessThe elements of physical and psychological well-being related to digital technology use. Students need to be aware of the physical dangers inherent in using digital technology. (ergonomics - carpel tunnel syndrome and poor posture, mental health and wellbeing).Digital SecurityPrecautions that all technology users must take to guarantee their personal safety and the security of their network as more and more sensitive information is stored electronically (e.g., using virus protection software, erecting firewalls, and making backups).Digital footprint and reputation Being aware that an individual’s contribution and reputation are long lasting and can long term affects on the user and others indirectly. Brazee (2012)
How do we currently use technology?Weigel, James, and Gardner. (2009)Schools are Doing Education 1.0; Talking About Doing Education 2.0; When They Should Be Planning Education 3.0.Jackie Gerstein (2013)The article raises points about the needs of a 21st-century learner.Found that students prefer to take responsibility for their learning.States what is essential for student survival and success in tomorrow’s economy.As the title suggests, found most schools are still living within and functioning through an Education 1.0 model. Although many would deny this, they are focusing on an essentialist-based curriculum with related ways of teaching and testing.Linking teaching approaches to web usage.1.0Centered around a top-down approach to the use of the web and its user interface.Webpage’s information is closed to external editing, ie information is not dynamic, updated only by the webmaster.Technologically, Web 1.0 concentrated on presenting.Information presented in the form of a stand-up routine that may include the use of class notes, handouts, textbooks, videos, and in recent times the World Wide Web.Students generally only passive consumers of education and do not contribute to the information resource.Teachers or administrators decide what is most important for the students to learn.Teachers focus on achievement test scores as a means of evaluating progress.2.0Internet used for blogs, podcasts, chat rooms, Skype, shared wikis, etc.Co-operative learning, global learning projects, but in 2013, this should be the norm not the exception.Interaction between the teacher and student; student to student; and student to content/expert.Opportunity for peer feedback and mentoring.3.0More of a global perspective.Self-directed and interest based.Local, regional, and international collaboration to create repositories of educational content.Free and open source software.Growing interest in alternatives to teacher-centred approaches such as constructivist approach.Teaching is done teacher to student, student to student and student to teacher (co-constructivism).Providing cross institutional and cross cultural educational capacity and opportunity. Keats and Schmidt (2007) further describe the individual components of Education 3.0:Improves learning outcomes and prepares students to become 21st century citizens Demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learningExhibit leadership for digital citizenship“[A] capacity for independent learning,” suggests Brown, “is essential to [students'] future well-being, since they are likely to have multiple careers and will need to continually learn new skills they were not taught in college” (Brown 2006, p. 18).
We need to acknowledge the pitfalls of one to one use of technology in the classroom but then we need to move on and work with it as technology usage in the collection, organisation, analysis, storage and retrieval, processing, transmitting and receiving and contribution of information is unavoidable. Teachers see their students as digital natives who already know everything there is to know about technology and do not feel competent as digital users. The truth is, not all students are as technologically savvy as teachers might assume and may not be using it appropriately, and not all teachers are as incompetent as they fear. Technology will cause students to be distracted but with the right management strategies this can be avoidedStudents will engage in dangerous activities.There will probably be other pitfalls you may think of.Brazee (2012), Neilsen (2011), and Weigel and Gardner (2009)
So far the definition for digital citizenship and the situations in which it is required make the job of teaching seem it too big and complicated. However we have some direction given to us. We can start by looking at the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) General Capabilities in the Australian Curriculum (unavoidable in the future of education in Australia) and how this links with digital citizenship. In the Australian Curriculum, general capabilities are addressed through the learning areas (subjects)The capabilities are an organisation of 5 interrelated elements – we focus on Communicating with ICT.
This statement is directly from ACARA’s (2012) ICT Capability Learning Continuum. It outlines and gives examples for the use of digital devices in education. By the use of the term “safely” it implies students communicate in a fashion that does not harm others. As we are concerned with communicating with ICT in this capability the term “safely” as used here could be referring to anti-bullying, or making sure confidential personal information was secure, depending on the nature of the project the students have been set.Rheingold(2010) focuses on 21st century social media literacies – attention, participation, collaboration, network awareness, critical consumption.
Stripling (2010) states that school librarians should assert their instructional leadership to guide the administrators, teachers, and students in their schools to 21st – century learning in the digital environment.We can help by leading the way. For example by creating professional development opportunity, investigating apps, helping to research information, setting an example for studentsCollaborating with all other members of the school community.Collaboration approach to leadership – steps 1-4 from Kotter (2012). ISTE (2009) list the essential conditions necessary when using technology for learning. One of them is to empower stakeholders at all levels to be leaders in effective change. This presentation aims to encourage all staff to position themselves as leaders so that we can work collaboratively as a team to implement change.
Using one to one devices for digital citizenship ETL523 task1 LN
Lourdes NdairaStudent No: 115062413720TL. Master of Education(Teacher Librarianship)Charles Sturt University, Wagga WaggaCampusETL523Digital Citizenship in SchoolsAssignment 1
Now that we have a one device per student situationin our classrooms we need to look at:• What digital citizenship is,• Where we sit in regard to how effectively wefoster digital citizenship in the use of one to onedevices,• How WE should proceed to ensure positive digitalcitizenship in our students.NOTEThis slide is available on the school network
Citizenship can be defined as• the legal relationship between anindividual and a state.• the condition of belonging to social,religious, political or community groups,locally, nationally and globally.• being part of a group and having a senseof belonging or identity which includesrights and responsibilities, duties andprivileges.• guided by the agreed values and mutualobligations required for activeparticipation in the group. ACARA(2012)
Digital Citizenship“We must help our students understandthat digital technology makes them, in avery real sense, citizens of the world”.Weigel. M., James. C., and Gardner. H. (2009)access commerce communication literacy etiquettelawrights andresponsibilitieshealth andwellnesssecurityThe Nine Elements of Digital CitizenshipInternational Society for Technology in Education. Digital Citizenship in Schools (2007)
DigitalCitizenshipDigital citizenship necessity increaseswith activity and contributionPositive digital citizenship most imperativeDigital usageandparticipationdisplayingsearchingplaying gamesdownloadingParticipating in online communities.Collaborating and communicating viaemail, chat, or blogs.DesigningStudentneedsone curriculum fits allDifferentiation for individual interests, specialneeds, academic levelsTeachingmethodologyStudents are passive learnersStudent canteredIndependent learningStudent assumes a formative roleLearning from informal activitiesBloomsDigitalTaxonomyRemembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating CreatingInformationsourceOne educator possess all the knowledeMany educators.Contribution to information depositories on aglobal scale
DistractionPrivacyInvasion of privacyTechnologicalunreliability
Typically by the end of Year 10, students:Select and use a range of ICT tools efficientlyand safely to share and exchangeinformation, and to collaboratively andpurposefully construct KnowledgeExampleUsing online applications and managementtools for collaborative projects such as onlineportals, wikis; using common socialnetworking tools for strategic purposesACARA (2012)
Find more information (see reading list on the slide at theend of this presentation to start with)Collaborate and plan for professional developmentHave a think about:• How do we better achieve promoting digitalcitizenship within our classrooms and with the use ofone to one devices?• What can be your role/specialty as a leader inachieving this collective goal?• What kind of support is required to make this goalachievable?
We all need professional developmentwhen it comes to using technology. Asteachers we have always accepted ourresponsibility to encourage students tobe good citizens. Now that our mostpopular medium for citizenship is digitalit has become our duty to promotepositive digital literacy. With directionand collaboration can all be leaders inachieving this goal.
Resource Annotation and linkKatieskrops.(website)A great example of excellent website design,community involvement in both the digital and physicalworld and how they can merge, ethical and responsibleuse of social media and much more. Inspirational forboth teachers and students.http://katieskrops.com/home.htmlCommonsense Media(website)The idea that students need a digital citizenshippassport is very interesting. Great ideas for teachingbasic digital citizenship conceptshttp://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/blog/have-your-students-earned-their-digital-passportThe smart wayto use iPads inthe classroom.(online article)Innovative ways digital devices can be used in theclassroom.http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2013/04/ipads_in_the_classroom_the_right_way_to_use_them_demonstrated_by_a_swiss.html
Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority. (2012). The Shape of theAustralian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship. Retrieved April 10, 2013 fromhttp://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Shape_of_the_Australian_Curriculum__Civics_and_Citizenship_251012.pdfBrazee, E. (2012). Everyone Says That Being a Good Digital Citizen IsImportant... But Do We Believe It? Five Lessons Learned On DigitalCitizenship. National Association of Secondary School Principals.org –Leading Schools. Retrieved April 24, 2013, fromhttp://www.nassp.org/tabid/3788/default.aspx?topic=Everyone_Says_That_Being_a_Good_Digital_Citizen_Is_Important_But_Do_We_Believe_It_Five_Lessons_Learned_On_Digital_CitizenshipGerstein, J. (2013). Schools are Doing Education 1.0; Talking About DoingEducation 2.0; When They Should Be Planning Education 3.0. 21st CenturyFluency Project. Retrieved April 19, 2013, fromhttp://fluency21.com/blog/2013/04/10/schools-are-doing-education-1-0-talking-about-doing-education-2-0-when-they-should-be-planning-education-3-0/
Greenhow, C. (2010). New Concept of Citizenship for the Digital Age. Learning &Leading with Technology, 37(6), 24-25.International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). The Nine Elements ofDigital Citizenship. Digital Citizenship in Schools. ( Ch 2, pp. 13-37).Keats, D., & Schmidt, J. P. (2007). The genesis and emergence of Education 3.0 inhigher education and its potential for Africa. First Monday,12(3), 3-5. RetrievedApril 24, 2013 fromhttp://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1625/1540Kotter, J. (2012). The 8-Step Process for Leading Change . Kotter International -Innovative Strategy Implementation Professionals. Retrieved 5 March, 2013,from http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/changesteps/changestepsRheingold, H. (2010). Attention, and other 21st – Century Social Media Literacies.Educausereview. September/October (pp. 14-24)Weigel, M., James, C., and Howard Gardner, H. (2009). Learning: PeeringBackward and Looking Forward in the Digital Era. International Journal ofLearning and Media. 1(1), 1-18 retrieved April 10, 2013 fromhttp://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/full/10.1162/ijlm.2009.0005#