Labille-Guiard was often described as a bitter rival of the best-known woman painter of the time, Elisabeth Louise Vigée-Le Brun, but this rivalry was in fact the invention of male artists and critics threatened by their female competitors. After Labille-Guiard's Salon debut in 1783, a slanderous pamphlet accused her of ethical and sexual improprieties. Despite this adversity, Labille-Guiard was an active promoter of rights for women artists and a successful teacher.
The rich palette and fine detail in the present picture, one of the earliest of her major works in oils, reflect her earlier training. this painting, which was exhibited to an admiring audience at the Salon of 1785, has been interpreted as a propaganda piece, arguing for the place of women in the Academy.The artist's fashionable dress asserts her femininity; the feminist mood is emphasized by the presence of her pupils and the statue of the Vestal Virgin in the background. Work was rumored to have been painted by a man, angered her deeply, witty role of reversal, the only male in this monumental painting is her father in a bust behind her canvas, as her muse usually played by women. Flattering but portrays herself as a force to be reckoned with, she gazes at the viewer uncompromisingly, students art serious and intent on their studiesAfter the revolution she successfully petitioned the Royal Academy of Painting and sculpture to end their restrictions on women paintersThe reform was later reversed by the revolutionary government as it became more authoritarian
A young woman, reclining on a pillow, turns toward a presumed visitor; her wide-eyed gaze, one of delight and anticipation. As she turns, her white gown falls away, revealing her upper torso. A soft light bathes her flushed cheeks and sparkling eyes and also highlights the glossy sheen of her hair cascading down her left shoulder. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard used the delicacy of the pastel medium to capture the sitter's eroticism. Rather than depicting a specific individual, Labille-Guiard created this imaginary portrait to convey a moment of sensual awakening. This type of fanciful portrait became popular in France in the mid-1700s.
had a flair for innovative poses, an unerring instinct for costume, and the ability to capture a likeness with relative ease. The high fees she charged allowed her to retire in 1805, when she remarked that her "...only true happiness has been in painting." Adelaide Labille was her rival.
This youthful self-portrait depicts Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun at the age of about twenty-six, several years after she painted the first of her many portraits of Queen Marie-Antoinette. Here she presents herself no just as an artist, with palette and brushes, but as a charming and attractive lady of society––indistinguishable from her own patrons, including the queen and aristocratic ladies, whom she sometimes painted in similar informal attire. Largely self-taught, Vigée Le Brun was recommended by the queen for membership in the Royal Academy in 1783 and soon acquired considerable fame and renown. When shown at the Salon her paintings were “the most highly praised . . . the topics of conversation at court and in Paris, in suppers, in literary circles.”Her radiant self-portrait highlights Vigée Le Brun’s healthy good looks and creamy complexion, a sparkling light catching her eyes and crystal earrings. Attentive to the latest fashions, she outfitted her sitters in comfortable Grecian gowns and scarves. Here her simple muslin gown and elegant scheme of white, black, and cherry, along with her loose curls of hair, convey an appealingly glamorous persona. forced to flee France for twelve years. She traveled throughout Europe, painting numerous portraits for aristocratic families from Russia to Italy.
The theme of the ‘good mother’ portrays the queen as a kindly, stabilizing mother that was meant to counter public perceptions of as selfish, extravagant, immoral. She maintains a regal pose while her children are depicted more sympathetically, The princess leans affectionately against her mother’s arm, the little dauphin (direct heir to the throne) is standing by an empty cradle of a recently deceased sibling Allegory of abundance and to assure peace and properity for France unter her husband Louise XVI reign 1774-1792 known as the reign of terrorIn 1778 Vigée Le Brun painted a portrait of the queen, Marie-Antoinette, and soon became her close friend and supporter. Through her relationship with the queen, Vigée Le Brun realized her greatest ambition: membership in the prestigious and almost entirely male Académie Royale. Vigée Le Brun
Born into a poor household with not privileges. Many of the best paintings by this reclusive artist were painted in her own garden at Sèvres. Reflects the general limitations of women's artistic training in France throughout most of the nineteenth century.Source: Women Artists in Nineteenth-Century France | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Whose influence is shown here?
How has her influence changed? Do you agree that she is equal to Berthe Morisot or Mary Cassatt? Marie’s paintings included a great deal of color and women wearing fancy dresses. Marie later joined the artists in the new movement called "impressionism." "On the Terrace at Sevres" is one of her famous pieces.
was a Russian born artist who died at twenty-five. A large number of Bashkirtseff's works were destroyed by the Nazis during World War II.
depicted her activities in her painting In the Studio, exhibited in the Salon of 1881.
The viewer’s eye centers on a young woman in a light blue dress, seated in a sunny studio and painting on a canvas, using a long hand support (in German,"Malstock" or "Ruhestab") and a small brush. Our eye moves to the young model, a boy standing on an elevated platform. He is semi-nude. He is wearing a short, knee-length skirt and is holding a long staff. The model is well formed. He has struck a beautiful pose and is clearly visible to all of the students. Our eye moves to the framed picture on the wall, which could be a winning Salon work by a fellow student. The viewer’s eye continues to move counter-clockwise around the studio in continuous and expanding circles, noticing the 16 students at work. Some are working intently, others are resting or talking. Two students in front seem to be discussing something; one of them is holding on to the chair with the lovely red drape. The fabric is rich, perhaps a deep wine color velvet with beautiful folds, an object that shows off Marie’s talent for rendering fabric. The wood planks on the floor bring the viewer’s eye back to the center of the painting. One of the girls in the front row is smiling at the viewers, welcoming them into the class! Every student occupies an assigned place, but there’s still space for one more student. The women artists are dressed individually and the diversity of the student body is evident. The classroom seems to be well organized, despite its relatively small size. The artists close to the model are seated while the ones further back are standing at their easels. There’s a large hanging lamp for evening work, a wall clock to keep the students aware of the time, and a skeleton to help in the study of human anatomy. The large paintings mounted high on the wall may be samples of exceptional student work or examples to emulate. I wonder if Marie painted herself in the far right corner? If so, she has the best seat and the best view of the entire room. L’atelier Julian is a large oil on canvas (154 x 186 cm), currently in the collection of the Dnepropetrovsk State Art Museum. The work is a good example of Marie’s skillful use of color, her ability to paint realistic likenesses and to complete a large complex work acceptable for exhibition at the Salon. The painting was submitted to the Salon in 1881. The Academie “achieved a reputation for excellence in academic figure studies; this particular distinction attracted art students from all over the world…helping to establish and maintain Paris’s reputation as the center of the art world” (Weisberg, 3-4).
She convinced Manet to attempt, and drew him into the circle of acquaintance of the painters who became known as the impressionists. However, he never considered himself an impressionist or agreed to show with the group. Morisot, along with Camille Pissarro, was one of only two artists whose work exhibited in all of the original impressionist shows. Like Mary Cassatt, during her lifetime, Berthe Morisot was relegated to the category of "feminine" artists because of their usual subject matter — women, children, and domestic scenes. However, as a doctrinaire impressionist, Morisot painted what she saw in her immediate, everyday life. As a woman securely in the "haute bourgeoisie" she saw domestic interiors, holiday spots, other women, and children. Without exception, her subject matter shows the equivalent of that of her impressionist colleagues. Edgar Degas, the dandy male bourgeois, painted rehearsals of the ballet, horse races, and nude women in apartments (rather than studios). Claude Monet painted his garden, his children, and his neighbor's haystacks. Female impressionists painted their social milieu in a way consistent with the impressionist approach to subject matter. Berthe Morisot died in Paris and was interred in the Cimetière de Passy
Familial support and encouragement in the face of social taboos were key prerequisites for women of a certain social standing in their pursuit of a profession in the fine arts.
Undeniably Berthe Morisot's most famous painting, The Cradle was painted in Paris in 1872. It shows one of the artist's sisters, Edma, watching over her sleeping daughter, Blanche. It is the first image of motherhood—later one of her favourite subjects—to appear in Morisot's work.The mother's gaze, her bent left arm, a mirror image of the child's arm, and the baby's closed eyes form a diagonal line which is further accentuated by the movement of the curtain in the background. This diagonal links the mother to her child. Edma's gesture, drawing the net curtain of the cradle between the spectator and the baby, further reinforces the feeling of intimacy and protective love expressed in the painting.Berthe Morisot showed The Cradle at the Impressionist exhibition of 1874—the first woman to exhibit with the group. The painting was scarcely noticed although important critics commented on its grace and elegance. After unsuccessful attempts to sell it, Berthe Morisot withdrew it from display and The Cradle stayed in the model's family until it was bought by the Louvre in 1930.
In an 1876 review, a sarcastic critic referred to participants in the second impressionist exhibition as "five or six lunatics -- among them a woman -- a group of unfortunate creatures." Berthe Morisot is the woman to whom he alluded. Morisot, an original member of the group, showed in seven of its eight exhibitions and contributed financially to sustain the impressionist movement. The Mother and Sister of the Artist, one of Morisot's largest works, was exhibited at the Salon of 1870 and perhaps again in 1874 at the first impressionist exhibition.The painting, a family portrait and an intimate domestic genre scene, was begun when Morisot's sister EdmaPontillon stayed with her family in the winter of 1869-1870 to await the birth of her first child, a pregnancy discreetly disguised by Edma's loose white morning robe. Anxious about sending the painting to the Salon, Morisot solicited Manet's advice, and on the last day for submissions he visited the Morisot home. Morisot's correspondence reveals that, rather than offer verbal suggestions, Manet extensively repainted the figure of the artist's mother. Manet's suave shorthand, seen in the mother's features and black dress, differs obviously from the nervous refinement of Morisot's touch in her sister's features, the floral upholstery, and the reflections in the mirror over Edma's head.
This brilliant, free evocation of a young, unknown woman in a ball gown is the complete opposite of the society or official portrait produced by the regular painters at the Salon. In this work, Impressionism meets the art of Manet, Berthe Morisot's brother in law. However, in spite of the modernity of her style, the critics had always supported Morisot. So when she presented about fifteen paintings at the fifth Impressionist Exhibition in 1880, including this one, Charles Ephrussi, in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, wrote a poetic description and a sensitive analysis of the paintings: "Berthe Morisot is very French in her distinction, elegance, gaiety and nonchalance. She loves painting that is joyous and lively; she grinds flower petals onto her palette, in order to spread them later on her canvas with airy, witty touches, thrown down a little haphazardly. These harmonise, blend, and finish by producing something vital, fine, and charming". These observations, although general, apply perfectly to this painting in which a model sits amidst flowers and greenery that find an echo, as much in the forms as in the treatment, with the trimmings on her dress.Berthe Morisot also enjoyed the recognition of artists, and she immediately sold her Young Girl in a Ball Dress to Giuseppe de Nittis (1846-1884), an Italian painter who took part in the first Impressionist Exhibition. The painting then passed into the collection of the art critic ThéodoreDuret (1838-1927) who, through the entreaties of the poet StéphaneMallarmé (1842-1898), agreed, in 1894, to sell it to the State.
More important for Rosa’s work was Raymond’s respect for the writings of Georges Sand and Felicité Robert de Lamennais, who believed that every living creature had a soul, creating a sense of respect within Rosa for the animals of the natural world. She would later own many animals, including horses, lions, and even an otter. Her love of animals translated into amazingly precise and interpretive depictions of their very nature and physiognomy. such as the traditional École des Beaux-Arts (women were not allowed at this time), but progressed under the artistic tutelage of her father. She began her training with the standard procedures of copying engravings and plaster casts, drawing still-lifes, and later copying paintings of the masters in the Louvre. This was typical training for art students but certainly atypical for a female. Though several of these copies were quickly sold, Raymond considered this insufficient training and encouraged his children to sketch directly from nature. In 1842, the family moved to the Rue Rumford, a section of Parisclose to fields, farms, and animals, where Rosa and her siblings could develop their immense talent through realistic drawing and painting. She was said to also frequent “masculine” areas such as horse fairosa found her fame rather distressing. In 1859, she retreated from Paris and established permanent residence at By, near the Forest of Fontainebleau. While working near the Barbizon painters, she did not associate with them. During her stay at By she greeted many people of great prestige, such as the Empress Eugènie, and also opened her home to others during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. With her ardently political nature, Rosa was ready to fight for the cause of her country but with considerable persuasion she did not engage in actual combat. Rosa continued to work fervently on sketches, paintings, and commissions for the next forty years until her death on May 25th, 1899. She was seventy-eight years old. After Rosa’s death, Anna Klumpke went through her studio and found 892 paintings and several boxes of drawings, all sorted and dated. The items were sold shortly after her death, grossing over 2 million francs, an immense sum at the time.
It was for such work that Bonheur obtained written permission from the French government to wear men's slacks. Her working attire also consisted of a loose smock and heavy boots that protected her feet from the dangerous environment in which she painted. The style of dress that the artist adopted for work and home may well have been influenced by her father's attire, which was based on St. Simeonian clothing experiments. Bonheur also cropped her hair, perhaps to facilitate her work. She did, however, always wear dresses for social occasions because she knew that appropriate dress would further her career. Great sadness enveloped Bonheur's life when Nathalie died during the same year. Her partner's ashes were buried along with those of her mother in the tomb Bonheur had purchased on the death of Mme Micas in 1875. Bonheur's grief overtook her to such a degree that it was very difficult for her to work or see friends. When the young artist Anna Klumpke first met her in 1895, Bonheur was not able to visit with her.
The pinnacle of Rosa’s artistic career was Le Marché aux Chevaux (The Horse Fair), also begun in 1851 and submitted to the 1853 Salon after 18 months of preparatory work. In her book entitled Rosa Bonheur: With a Checklist of Works in American Collections, Rosalia Shriver describes the monumental nature of this submission:When it was finally finished and exhibited at the Salon of 1853, its creator was only 31 years old. Yet no other woman had ever achieved a work of such force and brilliance; and no other animal painter had produced a work of such size. After the Salon of 1853, Rosa was declared “hors de concours”, exempting her from the necessity of submitting further Salon entries for acceptance. She did exhibit Fenaisond’Auvergne (Haymaking in the Auvergne) at the Salon of 1855 for which she was awarded another gold medal. This was her last entry until the Exposition Universelle of 1867.
The theatre auditorium, and in particular the box, a popular place for society exchanges, was a subject frequently chosen by the Impressionists. The most famous of these works is, without doubt, The Theatre Box (London, Courtauld Institute Galleries) which Renoir submitted in the first Impressionist Exhibition in 1874. This painting by Eva Gonzalès was produced at the same time and, in its first version, may have been refused initially at the 1874 Salon, before being exhibited, after some changes, at the 1879 Salon, where it was given a rapturous reception.The young painter claimed that she had been taught by Manet, who advised her as a friend. This relationship can be clearly seen, as much in the choice of a "modern" subject as in the sharp contrasts where pale skin and light-coloured fabrics are set against a dark background. The bouquet placed on the edge of the box is almost directly quoted from the master, and recalls the bouquet offered to Olympia. One even wonders if Manet had not had a direct involvement in the painting's design, as there is a pastel version by him, which remained a sketch. The strange detachment of the figures – Henri Guérard, the husband of the artist, and her sister, Jeanne Gonzalès – also recalls Manet's decision never to give the spectator an explicit interpretation of the subject, thus avoiding the pitfalls of anecdote and facile sentimentality
She did have her own distinct style and created wonderfully feminine pieces, such as “Le Chignon,” (1865) or, “The Bun.” Featuring only the back of a woman’s bare neck, her golden brown hair is twisted up in a tight bun that follows the fluid contours of her neck, spine, and bare shoulders.
Women Artists of the 18thand 19th Centuries
Adélaïde Labille-Guiard: 1749-1803 Neoclassical Guiardwas first apprenticed to a miniaturist 1769 studied the art of pastel with de La Tour. In 1783, she was admitted to the French Academy. Only four women artists were eligible. Labille-Guiardachieved a certain success at court of Louis XVI, known as Peintre des Mesdames. Sympathized with the Revolution. Remained in France throughout her life. Established her own studio in the early 1780s Commissions were royal and aristocratic patrons 1783 taught nine women students. Exhibited portraits at the Salon until 1800. Source: Adélaïde Labille-Guiard. Self-Portrait with Two Pupils, Mademoiselle Marie Gabrielle Capet (1761–1818) and Mademoiselle Carreaux de Rosemond (died 1788) (53.225.5) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Self Portrait with Two Pupils, 1785 . Oil on canvas, 6’11”X 4’11’
Adélaïde Labille-Guiard , French, 1779 Pastel on paper, 21 1/2 x 17 1/2 in.
Adélaïde Labille-GuiardA Fashionable Noblewoman Wearing a Plumed Hat, c. 1789
Marie-Louise-ÉlisabethVigée-Lebrun, 1755-1842 Neoclassical. Accepted to the Royal Academy with Labelle-Guiard. Queen Marie Antoinette's favorite portrait painter. Fled to Rome on the eve of the 1789Revolution. Successfully worked in Italy, Austria, Russia and England Resettled in Paris in 1805 Became popular with Parisian artists Painted over 800 portraits without changing her style Father was a portrait painter, Taught herself to paint by copying masters Adopted Peter Paul Rubens’ technique of painting layers of brilliant color on wood panels to achieve animated, polished, and supremely attractive portraits of European royalty and aristocracy. Recognized as one of Europe's foremost portrait painters. Retired in comfort in France
Marie-Louise-ÉlisabethVigée-Lebrun , French (1755–1842)Self-Portrait
Marie-Louise-ÉlisabethVigée-Lebrun, Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children, 1787, Oil on canvas, 9’1/2” X 7’ 5/8”
Marie Bracquemond, 1840 - 1916 Born in Brittany, Began painting, when her family moved to Paris. Earlier work shows influence of Ingres, her teacher. 1870s, she was an active proponent of Impressionism. Impressionist exhibitions of 1879, 1880, and 1886. Her overbearing artist-husband Felix Bracquemond stopped her from painting around 1890.
Marie Bracquemond, Portrait of Mademoiselle Charlotte du val d’ Ognes, 1801 "The severity of Monsieur Ingres frightened me . . because he doubted the courage and perseverance of a woman in the field of painting. He would assign to them only the painting of flowers, of fruits, of still lifes, portraits and genre scenes."
Marie Bracquemond, On the Terrace at Sevres,1880
Marie KonstantinovnaBashkirtsevaBorn on November 11, 1858 in the Ukraine. Daughter of Russian nobility. Childhood spent with her mother in Germany until they settled in Paris. Began a singing career, studied art, and is best known for her Journal of Marie Bashkirtseff (1887). Died in 1884 of tuberculosis just before her 24th birthday.
Berthe Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) French Impressionist painter. Born in Bourges Her bourgeois family encouraged her art Demonstrated avant-garde art movements Pursued art with family support. By age 20, befriended Camille Corot of the Barbizon school. He introduced her to other artists and teachers. She took up plein air techniques. 1864 accepted in the Salon de Paris with two landscape paintings Shecontinued to show regularly. 1874 she married Eugene Manet, EdouardManet’s younger brother.
In a letter to the mother of Edma and Berthe Morisot, their private art instructor expressed the implications of the two girls' burgeoning talents: “Considering the characters of your daughters, my teaching will not endow them with minor drawing room accomplishments, they will become painters. Do you realize what this means? In the upper-class milieu to which you belong, this will be revolutionary, I might say almost catastrophic.” Madame Morisot responded to her daughters' potential by sending them to further their studies under the tutelage of Joseph-BenoîtGuichard, a pupil of Ingres and Delacroix.
EdouardManetBerthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets, 1872.
BertheMorisot, The Cradle, 1872, Oil on canvas
Berthe MorisotThe Mother and Sister of the Artist, 1869/1870
BertheMorisot,Young Girl in a Ball Gown,1879,Oil on canvas
ROSA BONHEUR (1822 - 1899) Established herself as the foremost animal painter. Realist landscape painter. Work was well known throughout Europe and America. She was one of four children, each trained as an artist., Oscar-Raymond Bonheur, a trained artist and socialist. Rosa’s liberalism defiant personality lead to her dressing as a male, cutting her hair short, and smoking cigarettes and cigars. “To [my father’s] doctrines I owe my great and glorious ambition for the sex to which I proudly belong and whose independence I shall defend until my dying day.” Trained with her father at thirteen. Never attended formal art classes.
Eva Gonzalès 1849-1883 Impressionist Began in Chaplin's studio. Became Manet's student, model, and friend 1869. Strong contrasts between light and dark tones. Thick patches of broadly applied pigments Contemporary subject matter. Paintingsdepict young women relaxing in gardens andfashionable theatergoers. Produced many feminized paintings, giving historians a different perspective of everyday life in Paris in the mid-to-late eighteen hundreds.
Eva Gonzalès, A Loge at the Théâtre des Italians,1874