Fauces- Latin for jaws, in a Roman house the narrow foyer leading to the atrium. First style simulates the architecture of the wall itself, Imitates costly marble panels using painted stucco relief An example of Hellenization of the Republican architecture and modern day façades of rock, or brick, or wood panels. The context of the house is necessary in order to determine the style of its wall paintings
Second Style; Antithesis of the new style, They did not aim to create the illusion of a great marble wall, however the back panels are marble revetment They wanted to create the illusion of three dimensionality to widen the already small rooms The painter paints an illusion of the shallow ledge on which the human and divine actors move around the room, like a stage Buon Fresco, wet with wax melted in to make it shine It also made it more durable, and with the volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius (79CE) kept them safe for 2000 years The term "mysteries" refers to secret initiation rites of the Classical world. The Greek word for "rite" means "to grow up.” Initiation rites were originally ceremonies to help individuals achieve adulthood. The rites promoted psychological advancement through the stages of life. Often a drama was enacted in which the initiates performed a role. The drama may include a simulated death and rebirth; i.e., the dying of the old self and the birth of the new self. The mystery is augmented by the inconsistent light source and the lack of consistent shadows At the end of the ceremony the initiate was welcomed into the group. Above the panels are mosaic abstracts, using the First Style to imitate marble and a meandering of geometric patterns
The Villa of Mysteries Chamber was used to celebrate, in private, the rites of Bacchus Bacchus, as we saw in The Four Seasons sarcophagus with maenads (frenzied women) was the focus of mystery religion which was popular among women in Italy at that time He is slouched on his mother’s lap as she sits on the throne, one foot is bare and the other has a sandal, flip flops Since the true context is unknown the initiate wall chambers remain a true mystery The back drop is painted panels imitating marble revetment, like the first. Some of the figures interact across the corners of the room The satyr looks at the woman across the wall as she gazes at him who is the initiate and looks at him with fear, The one young satyr holds a mask, while the other looks into a silver bowl and is shocked at what he sees, possibly the Mask reflected behind him or his the death of his youth. This is strictly Roman narrative in Fresco, mystery rituals occurred in Greece but they were never recorded either in frescoes or literature.
Again the figures are interacting across the corners of the room The semi nude winged woman lashes out with her whip across the space of the room at a kneeling woman with a bare back, probably the initiate To the right of the kneeling woman a woman holds a thyrsos in front of her is a dancing maenad The artist has command over three dimensional spaces, and figures in organic human form, which demonstrates his knowledge of Hellenistic art Above these panels are meandering geometric formation
The Dancing Satyr reinforces that this narrative is a ritual Celebrating that the initiation is coming to an end and pointing to the next panel.
Illusion confined to the painted platform that projects into the room, this is a replica in the Metropolitan Museum in New York In late second style Romans created a three dimensional setting that extends beyond the wall, The is a cubiculum, a small room or bedroom that opens onto the atrium All over the room the painter invites you to visit small Roman towns with painted doors and gates, marble temples, colonnades in court yards, Romans had previous knowledge of single point linear perspective, where all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer, the horizontal line of the picture, and associated objects are smaller. This perspective is often said to be from the Italian Renaissance but is a favored technique of second style painters who tried to transform the windowless walls as vistas that expanded the space of the room. Also the Greeks used linear perspective during the fifth century BCE for the design of Athenian stage sets Greek skenographia “scene paintings”
All the receding lines in a composition converge on a single point along the apinting’s central axis to show depth and distance
The tholos is entered through a small gate surrounded by a mix of Ionic columns. The empty pediment frames the tholos and the peristyle colonnade runs parallel behind the sculpture, giving depth and perspective to the work. First Style is used at the bottom of the tholos to imitate brick walls To the side of the shrine are views of the entrance to a fantastic country estate. The entrance portal is an elaborate double door and the architecture beyond is vast and complex pastiche (art, that imitates and often satirizes another work or style) of balconies, towers and buildings. Satirizing the opulence of Roman Construction. All the receding lines in a composition converge on a single point along the a painting’s central axis to show depth and distance Linear perspective is seen with low gate to a peristyle framing the tholos. Romans had previous knowledge of single point linear perspective, where all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer, the horizontal line of the picture, and associated objects are smaller. This perspective is often said to be from the Italian Renaissance but is a favored technique of second style painters who tried to transform the windowless walls as vistas that expanded the space of the room. Also the Greeks used linear perspective during the fifth century BCE for the design of Athenian stage sets Greek skenographia “scene paintings”
Odysseus Being Attacked by the Laestrygonians (cannibalistic giants), from the Esquiline Hill, Rome, c. 50-40 BCE This is from book X of the Odyssey Large scale Landscapes Perspective is atmospheric not linear The landscape becomes muffled and difficult to distinguish giving the illusion of depth Hellenistic feature: naturalism, goat drinking water, shadows, and background haze, But humans in landscape paintings are unique to Roman landscapes
Third Style Romans Decorated walls with delicate linear fantasies sketched on monochromatic backgrounds in the cubiculum Landscapes and mythological scenes appear in frames hung on walls, these framed panels could never be mistaken for windows opening to an outside world. Nowhere did the artist use illusionistic painting. Insubstantial and impossibly thin colonnettes supporting feather weight canopies barely reminiscent of pediments, A tiny floating landscape on a black ground is the central motif ( in architecture a repeated design, shape or pattern.) of columns, pediments, people in the painting. Third Style reinforces rather than denies the heavy presence of confining walls. Artists no longer attempted to replace the walls with three dimensional worlds, or imitate marble with revetment. The miniature painting depicts, trees, people, architecture, columns, pediments
Third Style, Greek myth of Juno, Jupiter’s wife who’s jealous of the mortal who gave birth to Hercules while having an affair with Jupiter. Juno tries to kill Hercules by sending two serpents, which he easily fights off, even a toddler. The husband of the mortal, who thinks he is Hercules’ father watches in amazement. The wife is scared and seems to be running out of the picture, while she glances back at Hercules in fear and amazement. . The person on the left reacts as if he just appeared on the scene, just like the viewer. Shading along the torso of Hercules and his father enhances the organic structure of their bodies. Three dimensional linear space, the Ionic columns behind the mother recede and the horizontal floor line holds the altar, that is shaded on one side to create a mathematical three dimensional illusion. Roman iconography is present in this Greek myth. The father is a ruler by the laurel wreath, he is enthroned and holding a scepter. There is an eagle on the altar, which symbolizes Jupiter and the Roman Army, although Mars was the Roman god of war. What sculpture does this remind you of that relates to the fall of Troy?
Here the painting is in situ, its natural or original place The framed painting are surrounded in with straight lines and the bottom part of the wall is First Style marble revetment, The opposite painting is another Greek myth of Pentheus, the ruler of Thebes who is being torn apart by the maenads. Even though the paintings are three dimensional, they do not cover the entire wall into a fictive distances
Third style portrait although not as typical of that monochromatic style painting in cubiculum 15 Tondo or roundel Round frame captures her hair and head She is pensive and appears to be educated since she has a pen and book This hair style was popular during Nero and Vespasian She wears a hairnet that calms the massive curls Where else have we seen this hair style? Portrait of a Young Flavian lady
Third Style Nature and Architecture have become more interesting than people the buildings are sloping or joining something at an angle that is not a right angle Creates an atmospheric perspective (or aerial perspective) creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminishing of color intensity, the shift in color toward an almost neutral blue and the blurring of contours and the trees behind the village increases the distance between eye and object.
Fourth Style- combines elements from all three styles Objects on the table are in a diagonal recession as the table tilts to the left Silver bowls have shaded openings as do the spoons Highlights (area of high value color) and light that bounces off a shiny surface create an illusion of three dimensionality which is characteristic of Fourth Style The painting is in the tomb of a 22 year old public official, Vestorius Priscus Silver shows his high rank. Three years later Vesuvius erupted.
Fourth Style portraits- framed Roman custom of keeping imagines (imago, singular idealized mental picture of an ancestor)of illustrious ancestors in atriums The portrait of a husband and wife was originally in the exedra, or recessed area open to the atrium. The man holds a scroll and the woman a stylus and a wax writing tables, standard attributes in Roman marriage portraits. They suggest the fine education of those depicted, Their heads are not standard types but sensitive studies of the couple’s individual faces. Realistic portraiture, The woman is lighter skinned than the man, their eyes are larger than their mouths The woman’s right arm has no wrist
First Style Roman paintings
Republic 753-27 BCE
Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 BCE
Etruscan Kings ruled in the 6th Century
Rome conquered its neighbors and Greece
Romans pioneered the use of concrete
First Style of mural painting derived from
Republican portraits were veristic and
celebrated Roman values
First Style wall painting
in the fauces of the
late second century BCE
View of the frescoes at the Villa of the Mysteries
near Pompeii, Second Style, c. 65-50 BCE
the Villa of
Early Empire, 27 BCE-96 CE, Second Style Painting
Augustus, (r. 27 BCE to 14 CE), became the first Roman
emperor after defeating Marc Antony and Cleopatra at
Atrium in 31 BCE
Classical style was revived with references to Periclean
Augustus ambitious buildings used lavish marble and
his portraits depicted him and his wife as idealized youth.
Under the Julio-Claudians (r. 14-68 CE) concrete’s full
potential was evident
The Flavian emperors (r. 69-96 CE) erected the
Colosseum, monuments, and arches celebrating their
victory in Judaea
Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried in 79 CE during
the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Second Style, Bedroom in the villa of Publius Fannius Synistor,
from Boscoreale, outside Pompeii, c. 50-40 BCE
Tholos and entrance to a fine country estate.
Behind the Tholos
Odysseus Being Attacked by the Laestrygonians,
from the Esquiline Hill, Rome, c. 50-40 BCE
During the last 25 years before Vesuvius erupted the
Third and Fourth Styles were introduced
Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under
Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) Apollodorus’ forum and markets
transformed the civic center of Rome
Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE) built the Pantheon, a triumph
of concrete technology.
Under the Antonines (r. 138-192) Classical art began
to erode, new compositions schemes in relief sculpture
and psychological elements in portraiture.
Third Style Painting, High Empire, 96-192 CE
Third Style wall painting, from
cubiculum 15 of The Villa of
Boscotrecase, Italy, c. 10 BCE
View of Hercules Strangling the Serpents in situ,
House of Vettii, Pompeii,
with a Stylus,
1st Century CE
Landscape with Boats,
from Pompeii, Third Style,
1st Century CE
Fourth Style Roman Paintings, Late Empire, 193-337
Severans (r. 193-235) the Late Antique style took root.
Artists presented the emperor as a central frontal
figure disengaged from the action around him,
During the chaotic Soldier Emperors (r. 235-284)
artists revealed the anxiety and insecurity of the
emperors, Marcus Aurelius on a Horse
Diocletian (r. 284-305) established the tetrarchy, The
four rulers are depicted as identical equal rulers, not as
Constantine (r. 306-307) restored the one man rule,
ended persecution of Christians, transferred the
capital to Constantinople in 330, paved the way for
iconic art of the Middle Ages.
Still Life of Silver Objects, from the tomb of
Vestorius Priscus, Pompeii, 75-76 CE
Portrait of a
c. 70-79 CE