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17th 18th 19th and 20th century architecture ppt

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  • Le Grand Siecle = the grand century Comme il faut=Being in accord with conventions or accepted standards; proper
  • Multilithic- several purposes in enormous structures. Monolithic one purpose in an enormous structure
  • Just by looking at this what do you see immediately? King of symmetry Villa Almerico-Capra, or Villa Capra Also known as The Rotunda Andrea Palladio, architect Begun 1550 Completed after Palladio's death by Vincenzo Scamozzi Located near Vicenza, Italy Villa Almerico-Capra, or the Rotunda , is one of more than twenty villas that Palladio designed on the Venetian mainland. Palladio's design echoes the Roman Pantheon . Villa Almerico-Capra is symmetrical with a temple porch in front and a domed interior. The name Rotunda refers to the villa's circle within a square design. American statesman and architect Thomas Jefferson drew inspiration from Villa Almerico-Capra when he designed his own home, Monticello .
  • Five orders of columns
  • What do you see? Refined forms drawn from Classical Architecture The opposite of pompous Baroque Palladian country houses set in informal English Gardens Buildings were four square layout based on mathematical ratios and surrounded by gardens Motif of the decorated balls on the balustrade of the main floor Low dome Main floor raised over exposed basement Pediments over windows and doors symmetrical balance of façade and chimneys Semi circular dome windows Obelisklike chimneys Rusticated bottom floor
  • Richly carved and gilded Loosely based on the Roman Basilica Ornate coffered ceiling Carved and pedimented doors and niches. Even the bricks were manufactured the way rome did them Very Palladian in its understated elegance and historical accuracy.
  • Adam synthesized many historic sources into an enchanting individual style. “Dessert on plates” is how a colleague summed up Adam’s circular designs on floor and ceiling. A brilliant decorator he combined contrasting scales and shapes, as in Roman baths, to create lively floor plans. The plaster work os his exuberantly patterned moldings has a jewel like polish. He was first to pay attention to every detail designing everything from carpets to keyholes mixing a basilica style hall with a rotunda
  • Geometric designs Variety of molding Delicate Carved low relief stuccos and painted wall patterns Swags, garlands, design in the ceiling reflects the floor Rosettes on the freize White carvings on a pastel background
  • furbelows- ornamentation
  • What do you see that is John Nash? NeoClassical, irregular crescent shape, statuary, rustication around the columns, Furbelows,
  • Picturesque Architecture peaked in 1800-1830 What styles to you see here? East Indian; Moorish arcade and green domes, minarets and pinnacles
  • What motifs are seen here? Gothic; Chinese; ceiling is a deluxe tent of an Indian mogul
  • Also wrote poetry mirrors in unexpected places to reflect and mystify visitors , hidden light sources
  • What characteristics to you see? Rudimentary forms, multiple levels, top lighting, fragmented and overlapping planes
  • What all goes into an Entablature : architrave, frieze, and cornice.
  • What is neoclassical about this this church? Domes and apses Rigid symmetry; balance; rectangular simplicity. Post and lintel structure; load bearing columns Façades with a deemphasized center; unbroken entablatures; straight colonnades. Rationality combined to produce clean, crisp, flat lines.
  • What is unique Ledoux? Radical designs Simple; consciously primitive components Originality Ardent experimentalist Transformed Classical vocabulary to express new functions Exploited effects of light and shadow; geometry and texture
  • Mingles square and cylindrical segments in robust columns, Behind the entrance is a grotto with a carved stone
  • Cupola, structure that allows for natural light, architecture a small structure on a roof, sometimes made of glass and providing natural light inside renaissance and Palladian motifs, with a dollop of delicate French rococo Interior design more important than exterior Exterior design most ornate part with door, columns, pediments Named for the Georges who ruled England from 1714-1775
  • Georgian House where Henry Wadsworth Longfellow lived, What is Georgian? Clapboard siding, pediment and pilasters, balustrade on roof with wooden railing,
  • What is Federal about this? Box like structures with brick or clapboard siding Interiors based on Robert Adam of England Elegant molding Charles Bullfinch 1763-1844, first American Architect Born in Boston, educated at Harvard Self taught in architecture Designed the Washington DC Capitol Building
  • Moding,
  • What styles did Jefferson choose? Palladian symmetry and dome, two story façade, flanking a central block, service wings are imperceptible sloping down the back, roof terrace allows unobstructed views from the hilltop. Monticello (little Mountain) Believed every country should review its constitution to make changes that allow for new conditions. His home shows this quest He taught himself Italian so he could read Palladio
  • First fabricated building on a grand scale, huge leap in building size, new technology and media and systematization More of a forerunner of 20 th century than 19 th Simple functional style out of iron and glass Created to exhibit the wonders of Victorian technology was a oversized green house devoid of historical ornament Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband wanted the first world’s fair In six months, identical modular cast iron columns and beams were shipped to Hyde Park and mounted with standardized panes Covered 18 hectare 18000 four foot panes of glass 3300 iron pillars spaced
  • Generic mishmash of neoclassical Explored Greek ruins statues atop the buildings like Robert Adams Rusticated base mannerism
  • First of all, this movement's beginning is recorded as having started in England.  The name most closely associated with this movement is arguably William Morris.  he and several others formed a home furnishings company called Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. Their ideas and conceptions of good taste made the rounds in this world at the end of the 19th century in the form of wallpaper, furniture covers and "useful embroideries. Morris felt embroidery should resemble embroidery and not try to precisely imitate nature.  His work was largely inspired by plants and gardens, herbals that he collected, and Medieval crewelwork embroideries.  His work was definitely two dimensional.  He used natural dyes which produced muted tones and were much easier on the eyes than the gaudier aniline dyes that were currently being used.    Above all, quality was most important.  Nothing slip-shod was acceptable.  Morris' embroidery kits were drawn on linen and worked with silks and wool, frequently with a corner already worked as a guide to the buyer, often by his wife and daughter.  He called it "gardening with silk and gold thread."   His company began selling their wallpapers in 1873 in Boston. Some others who were associated with this movement were John Ruskin, the first professor of art history at Oxford, Thomas Wardle, Morris' chief dyer, C.F.A. Voysey, an architect interested in interior design, Frank Lloyd Wright, William De Morgan, Tiffany, painter Edward Burns-Jones, Philip Webb, and others, more numerous than I can hope to count.  {I've attempted to compile an extensive list of links, for those interested in pursuing this line of history, at the bottom of this page.}  These and many others contributed to the arts and crafts movement with their designs, ideas, and lectures Hand made materials Medieval Gothic as a the pinnacle of British culture, provides an informal rustic alternative to overblown Victorian structures. Gothic considered a principle, ethical society, Pugin and John ruskin Hated neoclassical
  • The magnificent Gothic Revival masterpiece you see today was built between 1840 and 1888, this was the work of Charles Barry who designed the buildings to blend with nearby Westminster Abbey. The two imposing towers, well known landmarks in London, are the clock tower, named after it’s thirteen ton bell called Big Ben , and Victoria tower, on who’s flag pole the Union Jack flies when parliament is sitting. Much of the Victorian detail of the interior was the work of Barry’s assistant Augustus Pugin.   Entrance to Westminster Hall is permitted only as part of a guided tour, otherwise it can be viewed from St. Stephen’s porch above. The hall measuring 240 feet by 60 feet has an impressive hammerbeam roof of oak and is one of the most imposing medieval halls in Europe. In this noble setting coronation banquets were held until 1821. It was used as England’s highest court of law until the nineteenth century and it was here that Guy Fawkes was tried for attempting to blow up the House of Lords on 5th November 1605. The statue of Oliver Cromwell, which stands outside the hall, reminds us it was here in 1653 that he was sworn in as Lord Protector.   The route to the upper and lower houses takes you through the huge wooden doors into St. Stephen’s hall. The vaulted ceiling and murals were designed by Barry to replicate the medieval chapel where the commons met until 1834. From here you are ushered into the well known octagonal Central Lobby, whose tiled walls are inscribed with Latin mottos. This is the central meeting place where constituents can meet or "lobby" their Members of Parliament. It is from here that you will be shown your direction either to the House of Lords or Commons.
  • Pioneering skyscraper design, three parts: a two story base to provide a solid foundation A tall central portion with alternating strips of projecting and flat windows and continuous vertical piers to express the steel frame and emphasize height, and a top treated as a separate unit with prominent cornice Classical column: base, fluted shaft, capital
  • Designed modern architecture as an organic whole Form follows function was his motto Influenced a generation of architects Three major visible sections: strong base with broad windows for shops, a middle section for offices with vertical elements to dramatize height and a capping cornice housing mechanical equipment The tripartite division corresponds to practical requirements He doubled the number of vertical piers, every other pier is not load bearing to express not just function bas as a design element forcing the eye to read the middle ten floors as one continuous soaring unit
  • detail
  • Antoni Gaudí, was a gourmand who loved to dress and eat well, later in life he became deeply religious and was chosen to build the Barcelon’s Church of la Sagrada Familia took natural look to the extreme, his chimney pots are shaped like mushrooms; gables are drip stalactites, roof lines flow like a petrified wave , barnacle of rough stone on the columns Gaudi insisted there are no straight line in nature so his architecture is all curves, lines cavort, leap, and writhe embedded with brightly colored shards of ceramic to create texture Forms are set in motion Casa mila, irregular walls known as la Pedrera, tha quarry, resemble weathered sea cliffs, wrought iron balconies are a jomble of tangled lines like kelp;
  • Casa mila chimneys
  • Pompidou
  • Wright’s prarie home
  • Color slides copyright Jeffery Howe. Click on thumbnail image or highlighted text for a larger picture. One of the most famous houses of the modern movement in architecture, the Villa Savoye is a masterpiece of LeCorbusier's purist design. It is perhaps the best example of LeCorbusier's goal to create a house which would be a "machine a habiter," a machine for living (in). Located in a suburb near Paris, the house is as beautiful and functional as a machine. The Villa Savoye was the culmination of many years of design, and the basis for much of LeCorbusier's later architure. Although it looks severe in photographs, it is a complex and visually stimulating structure. As with his church of Notre Dame du Haute, Ronchamp, the building looks different from every angle. After falling into disrepair after the war, the house has been restored and is open to the public. The design features of the Villa Savoye include: modulor design -- the result of Corbu's researches into mathematics, architecture (the golden section), and human proportion "pilotis" -- the house is raised on stilts to separate it from the earth, and to use the land efficiently. These also suggest a modernized classicism. no historical ornament abstract sculptural design pure color -- white on the outside, a color with associations of newness, purity, simplicity, and health (LeCorbusier earlier wrote a book entitled, When the Cathedrals were White), and planes of subtle color in the interior living areas a very open interior plan dynamic , non-traditional transitions between floors -- spiral staircases and ramps built-in furniture ribbon windows (echoing industrial architecture, but also providing openness and light) roof garden, with both plantings and architectural (sculptural) shapes integral garage (the curve of the ground floor of the house is based on the turning radius of the 1927 Citroen) Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, 1929-30
  • Stair case detail
  • Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon r. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-1959 Guggenheim Museum Commentary "...[Wright's] great swansong, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of New York, is a gift of pure architecture—or rather of sculpture. It is a continuous spatial helix, a circular ramp that expands as it coils vertiginously around an unobstructed well of space capped by a flat-ribbed glass dome. A seamless construct, the building evoked for Wright 'the quiet unbroken wave.'..." — Spiro Kostof. A History of Architecture, Settings and Rituals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. p740. The Creator's Words "Entering into the spirit of this interior, you will discover the best possible atmosphere in which to show fine paintings or listen to music. It is this atmosphere that seems to me most lacking in our art galleries, museums, music halls and theaters."
  • Gehry’s Guggenheim first Computer Aided Designed building Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Commentary The new Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry was probably the most often mentioned new building of 1998 and 1999 in architecture circles. The composition continues a curvaceous, free-form sculptural style that has become a Gehry signature. The abstract, free-form components of this style were present in the early Gehry House , and a similarly sleek curvaceous cladding was displayed in the sculptural fish of the Fishdance Restaurant.
  • cesar pelli's petronas towers At 1483 feet (452m) tall, the tallest building in the world at the date of its completion, measured to the highest point. However, the Sears Tower in Chicago still has the highest occupied building floor, more than 200 feet higher than the highest occupied floor of the Petronas Towers. Details The towers have 32,000 windows. — Judith Dupre, Skyscrapers. Each of the twin Petronas Towers is 88 stories plus an additional architectural point (at 1242 feet), plus a tall spire to 1483 feet. Compare to the Sears Tower in Chicago which is 110 stories, and the twin World Trade Center towers in New York, which were each 110 stories. Although these other skyscrapers were created with higher occupied floors, they are not considered as tall under the arcane rules used for rating the world's tallest, according to which architectural spires count towards building height, but antennas atop a building do not.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 17 th 18 th 19 th 20th Century Architecture George Bernard Shaw, “You use a glass mirror to see your face; you use works of art to see your soul.”
    • 2. 17 th Century Architecture: Le Grand Siècle Baroque Italy: ornate, and fraught with emotional appeal. French and British: spectacular size and effect; arrogance and might; reinforced an absolutist political agenda; two dimensional not sculptural; government formulated conventions, comme il faut , “which could be used by all operators” this led to an official style that conveyed permanence and incited envy.
    • 3. Versailles Palace, Andre Le Notre, Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Charles Le Brun, Robert de Cotte, Ange-Janques Bagriel, 1661 to 1774 , France "When you arrive at Versailles, from the courtyard side you see a wretched, top-heavy building, with a facade seven windows long, surrounded with everything which the imgination could conceive in the way of bad taste. When you see it from the garden side, you see an immense palace whose defects are more than compensated by beauties." — Voltaire http://youtu.be/852eroBwDrA
    • 4. The Louvre: East Façade designed by Claude Perrault, and Louis Le Vau, 1667-1670 Formality and dignity Façade is monotonous Majestic dimensions Regular rhythm, Rarity of ornament Designed by a committee Expressive of authoritarian power
    • 5.
      • 18 th and 19 th Century Context:
      • Architects were slight of soul
      • 300 years of homogeneous architecture
      • During the 17 th Century buildings were monolithic
      • 18 th and 19 th Centuries building were multilithic
      • The age of Revolutions: American, French, and Industrial
      • Social Order shifted to urban society
      • Mass Production
      • Age of Revision for Architecture
      • No unifying authority or standards
      • Revival modes, only signature style - pastiche of the past
      • Recycled a bewildering variety of styles
      • Chaotic, besot with traditions
      • Science and Social innovations flourished
    • 6. 18 th Century a New Pluralism
      • Mishmash of reason and romance
      • Pre Industrial life ruled by church as monarchy disintegrated
      • Architects snatched Greek, Gothic, Chinese, Moorish, and Hindu styles
      • English were the first to leave Baroque, Catholic, and overblown architecture
      • English style modeled 18 th Century reverence for reason (austere style during the Victorian Age.
      • Late Century encouraged a revival of Medieval style
      • Landscapes were designed to offer pensive and inspiring thought and replaced geometric gardens
      • No coherent style
    • 7. Andrea Palladio (1508-1580). 16th-century Italian architect Inspired by ancient Rome and ancient Greek. British designers used his style Plain exteriors based on rules of proportion. Interiors were richly decorated. Became fashionable from about 1715 to 1760 Highly symmetrical. Symmetry and balance implemented by Greco-Roman Pediments over doors, windows, mirrors, fireplaces Palladian objects follow architectural elements Scallop shells are a typical motif in Greek and Roman art. The shell is a symbol of the Roman goddess Venus, who was born of the sea, from a shell.
    • 8. Andrea Palladio, Villa Almerico-Capra, or Villa Capra, The Rotunda , Begun 1550 Completed after Palladio's death by Vincenzo Scamozzi
    • 9.
      • England’s Battle of the Styles
      • Neo Palladianism:
      • First English addition of Palladio’s book, 1715
      • Took over England from 1720-1760
      • “ Five orders of columns”
      Tuscan Doric Ionic Corinthian Composite
    • 10. Richard Boyle and William Kent, Chiswick House , 1725
    • 11. Kent and Burlington, Holkum Concert Hall, Norfolk, United Kingdom,, 1734
    • 12. Robert Adam (1728-1792) Scottish designer Increased the true knowledge of Roman Architecture. He refused to be a slave to the dictates of stylebooks. “A Latitude in this respect is often productive of great novelty, variety, and beauty.”
    • 13. Robert Adam, remodel, Syon Park, Middlesex, UK, 1762-1769
    • 14. Robert Adam, interior design of Syon House, 1762-1769
    • 15. Picturesque Architecture: John Nash ( 1752-1835) Designed buildings in every possible style Thatched cottages; Gothic castles; Neoclassical; Italian villas; East Indian pavilions; Chinese Pagodas Theatrical; irregular plans; eye- catching; with historic allusions. Took Picturesque from country estates into urban terms Used stucco; cast iron Sculpted buildings more than constructed them Created lively urban scenery with furbelows and statuary
    • 16. John Nash, Ionic Park Crescent, Regents Park, London, 1806, 1819–21
    • 17. John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, Sussex, England, 1815-1821
    • 18. Banqueting Room, The Royal Pavilion, Brighton
    • 19. Sir John Soane: Reduced Classical structure and ornament to rudimentary forms Combined multiple levels, top lighting, mirrors to blur divisions between areas, fragmenting and overlapping planes Domed Canopy ceilings Top-lit ceiling and balanced over simple corner supports Work is an eclectic synthesis of historical styles Picturesque departure into personal optical agenda.
    • 20. Sir John Soane’s Museum, London, 1808-1812
    • 21. Sketch of a room in Soane’s museum. Where are his unique features?
    • 22. Late 18 th Century France : Done with the frivolous Rococo Enlightenment stress on clarity and reason Embraced Neoclassic purity “ Neoclassicism…makes plagiarists of its architects” John Ruskin Domes and apses Rigid symmetry; balance; rectangular simplicity. Post and lintel structure; load bearing columns Façades with a deemphasized center; unbroken entablatures; straight colonnades. Rationality combined to produce clean, crisp, flat lines.
    • 23. Jacques, Germain Soufflot, Pantheon, Ste. Genevieve, Paris, 1757-1790
    • 24. Claude Nicolas Ledoux, 1736-1806 Self proclaimed “Prophet of revolutionary architecture” Radical designs Simple; consciously primitive components Originality Proposed an entire ideal city that was never built Ardent experimentalist Transformed Classical vocabulary to express new functions Exploited effects of light and shadow; geometry and texture
    • 25. Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, Director’s House, La Saline, Arc-et-Senans, 1779
    • 26. Column detail
    • 27.
      • Colonial Architecture
      • Benjamin Franklin, “It appears that our people are not deficient in genius.”
      • Two styles prevailed:
      • Georgian 1700-1776:
      • Simple, two story boxes,
      • Symmetrical doors and windows,
      • Pediment over the door,
      • Cupola
      • Balustrade on roof with wooden railing to form a terrace or “Captain’s Walk”
      • Federal 1776-1830
      • Box like structures with brick or clapboard siding
      • Interiors based on Robert Adam of England
      • Elegant molding
    • 28. Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1759
    • 29. Charles Bullfinch, Harrison Gray Otis House, Boston, Massachusetts, 1795-1796
    • 30. Interior
    • 31. Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, west façade ,
    • 32. 19 th Century: Europe and America replayed Classical architecture in churches, universities, and civic buildings. Copy cat era, no originality. Despite scientific triumphs, industrial revolution, transportation, communication, building technology, cast and wrought iron, plate glass, rivets, steel, reinforced concrete. London grew from 1 million in 1800 to 3 million in 1900 New York from 63,800 to 2.8 million New functions required new building designs for factories, railroad stations, department stores, office buildings. Economies boomed Progress surged
    • 33. Sir Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, 1850-1851 John Ruskin-”a cucumber frame.” A.W.N. Pugin “a crystal humbug” and “a glass monster”
    • 34. Exhibit Hall
    • 35. 19 th Century Architecture “ Is this epoch, so fertile in discoveries, so abounding in vital force, to transmit to posterity nothing better in art than imitations?” “ Although it is difficult for man to learn, it is much more difficult for him to forget.” Architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Only in Chicago, where there were not links to the past did architects produce innovative structures
    • 36. Cockerell, Taylorian Institute, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1839-1845
    • 37. Bexley Heath, Red House, Kent, UK, 1859-1860 William Morris-Arts and Craft period
    • 38.  
    • 39. http://www.chicline.com/Paris-Opera-Garnier-photos-slideshow.php.
    • 40. Daniel Burnham and John Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, Illinois, 1890-1895
    • 41. Louise Sullivan: Father of Modern Architecture, Guaranty Building, Buffalo, New York, 1895-1895 “ Whatever is beautiful rests on the foundation of the necessary.”
    • 42.  
    • 43.  
    • 44. 20 th Century: From 1900-1960 the idea of the NEW; parse and square Complete break from past styles Industrial aesthetic triumphed History and ornament were gone After 1960 a return to the past Quest for novelty Global, multicultural society New styles: High-Tech; Deconstructivism, Neo-Modernism, Art Deco; Art Nouveau
    • 45. Antoni Gaudí, Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-1910 “ Everything comes out of nature. Anything created by human beings is already there.”
    • 46.  
    • 47. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CVKU3ErrGM Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater House, Bear Run, Pennsylvania, 1937-1939
    • 48. German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, in collaboration with the American Philip Johnson 1954-1958. Located at Park Avenue between 52nd and 53rd Sts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CXv-DK1Bj_M&NR=1
    • 49. Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, 1908-1909
    • 50. Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France,1929-30.
    • 51.  
    • 52. Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon r. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-1959
    • 53. Staircase detail
    • 54. Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, 1997
    • 55. Cesar Pelli, Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1998