The vietnam war


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The vietnam war

  1. 1. The Vietnam War. By Louise Young.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Vietnam was taken over by the French in the 1800’s with Cambodia and Laos. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese invaded during WW2 and the Vietminh resisted them lead by Ho Chi Minh. He hoped that the US would support them but Truman sent the French back in. </li></ul><ul><li>The war of independence began in 1946 and the Vietminh were lead by Giap. Eisenhower supported the French. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1954 when the French were defeated, the French made the Geneva Accords in which Vietnam was divided into 2. </li></ul><ul><li>North- Capital: Hanoi. Leader: Ho Chi Minh.(NVA) </li></ul><ul><li>South-Capital: Saigon. Leader: Ngo Dinh Diem. (Vietcong) </li></ul>Background
  3. 3. <ul><li>Eisenhower backed Diems government even though it was unpopular and paid billions of dollars into it. JFK continued this support but by ’63 he realised that Diem was a problem because he evicted peasants from their homes and favoured the Catholic minority in South Vietnam. In November the US overthrew him and killed him. Soon after Kennedy was assassinated and Johnson took his place. He got America more involved in Vietnam because he feared the Democratic Party would lose the election if he pulled out. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Gulf of Tonkin <ul><li>In 1964 the communists controlled about half of South Vietnam and they asked the Americans for more help. The Republicans accused Johnson of being soft on Vietnam so he was forced to bomb the North , but he needed an excuse to get the Congress to back him. </li></ul><ul><li>They claim that in August North Vietnamese gunboats made unprovoked attacks on American ships at the Gulf of Tonkin. This allowed the Americans to take “necessary steps” however nobody knows if this was ever a genuine incident or fabricated by the Americans. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The fighting <ul><li>The Vietcong used Guerrilla tactics. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Search and Destroy Missions” – the soldiers went out to kill the Vietcong , but because they all looked similar many innocent civilians were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster bombs and Napalm were dropped on cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides were sprayed over 6 million acres of land by the air force to make it easier to see enemies, but many people died from this and it lead to many birth defects. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Americans fall <ul><li>Many soldiers in the war were conscripts (they had to fight) but they didn’t if they went to university. As a result most soldiers were from poor families. </li></ul><ul><li>Many behaved cruelly towards the Vietnamese .The worst was the My Lai Massacre in ’68 where they killed 347 people in one village. This changed the public opinion in America of the war. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Opposing the War <ul><li>From the mid 60’s there were marches protesting against the Americans involvement in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of “doves” (peacekeepers) in the Democratic party grew. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King and Muhammad Ali said that black men were fighting a white mans war. </li></ul>
  8. 8. America pulls out <ul><li>In the next election Johnson stepped down and Nixon became president. </li></ul><ul><li>In 3 years from ‘69 nearly 400,000 soldiers were taken out of Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973 they agreed a ceasefire and to release all American prisoners if the Americans left within 60 days. </li></ul><ul><li>The war continued between North and South Vietnam and Saigon fell in 1975 and was renamed Ho Chi Minh City. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>58000 US soldiers died </li></ul><ul><li>It cost the Americans $110billion </li></ul><ul><li>In ’75 Vietnam was reunited as a communist country </li></ul>Results Lyndon B. Johnson, 1964 “ This is not a jungle war, but a struggle for freedom on every front of human activity.”
  10. 10. The stickers on this soldiers helmet reads: `` Bomb Saigon Now&quot; &quot;Bomb Hanoi Now&quot; &quot;Bomb Disneyland Now&quot; &quot;Bomb Everything``