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In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
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In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss

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Class Action (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) vs. President Andrew Johnson, President Rutherfore B. Hayes

Class Action (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) vs. President Andrew Johnson, President Rutherfore B. Hayes

Published in: Education, Lifestyle
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  • 1. In The United States District Court<br />For the Eastern District of Texas<br />Beaumont Division<br />Louis Charles Hamilton II<br />(Negro African American)<br />Plaintiff Civil Action 1:10-CV-00808<br />And All other African (Negroes) <br />Americans in and for<br />The United States of America<br />Plaintiff(s)<br />Vs. <br />United States of America,<br />Defendant<br />And<br />Vs.<br />President Andrew Johnson,<br />Co-Defendant<br />President Rutherford B. Hayes<br />Co-Defendant<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Motion in Opposition<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein files their Motion in opposition of Defendant(s) (The United States of America) Motion to Dismiss cause no. 1:10-CV-00808<br /> By Defendant (The United States of America) Attorney(s) of record, John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas.<br />Pro Se (Negro) Plaintiff herein” Louis Charles Hamilton II”, His Family, and past descendants and all (Negro) Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and there (Negro) descendants <br />Within the Defendant (The United States of America) to include but not limited to all other controlling Interest thereof the Defendant (The United States of America); <br />Being race of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein reply, rejoin, retort and have company before the Honorable Justice, Judge Ron Clark and Honorable U.S. Magistrate Judge Keith F. Giblin as follows:<br />1.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) by and through its attorneys of records at this time John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas moves for dismissal of Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) complaint with prejudice no less,<br />Pursuant to federal rule of civil procedure 12(b) (1) for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and/or 12(b) (6) for failure to state a claim for relief which the Honorable Court may grant on behalf of the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s).<br />2.<br />Pro Se (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein appearing on behalf of himself, family, and All (Negro) Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans within the Defendant (The United States of America) redirects the “Honorable Justices” concentration, awareness and attention <br />3.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) having fully stated with great carful detail numerous “direct cause” of actions and claims for reliefs being care for brought, and sought before this Honorable United States Federal Eastern District Court of Texas<br /> To render the “Honorable Justice” that full civil redress being address, obtain and contemplated before a “Jury Trial” on behalf of not just the Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) and his personal claims raise herein regards to Defendant (The United States of America) <br />4.<br />Direct, abandon, desert, neglect and total carelessness over the (Negro) Plaintiff and (among others) Plaintiff(s) having full civil rights for Life, Peace, Dignity, Equal Justice in the full Protection of the laws of the United States of America within the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah <br />5.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) fully being in protection from prosecution of “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” past, present teaching of the racial “Curse of Cain” doctrine with its “having direct effect” upon the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) and his lost of family as described herein the complaint.<br /> 6.<br />To include but not limited to “The Church of Jesus Christ” of Latter Day Saints continue prosecution of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) by “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” teaching of the racial “Curse of Cain” doctrine and its continue effects being blueprint, and applied all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) are still curse of the skin of darkness and their for fully of the Devil.<br />7.<br />Plaintiff respectfully assert both John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas on behalf of the Defendant (The United States of America) snag, hindrance, fail, fold, found difficulty and gone completely on the “blink” <br />8.<br />In Defendant (The United States of America) legal civil reply herein and addressing even one single of Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) claims of “badly behaved” “numerous problem(s)”, “issues”, and “crisis” in dealing with “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” teaching of the racial “Curse of Cain” doctrine, and Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah having a full private enclave closed society LDS Nation<br /> And it’s continue effects being blueprint, and applied upon all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein 2011 we are still curse of the skin of darkness and there for fully of the Devil.<br />9.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully furtherance assert before the “Honorable Justice” both John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas on behalf of the Defendant (The United States of America) took complete resolution with intention in a “single-mindedness” girls/guys gone completely on the 2011 “blink” legal approach<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein having not suffered at the “direct target hands” of the described Defendant(s) (The United States of America) from kidnapping to “Slave Codes”, Black Codes and latter “Jim Crow” Laws well into the 1960’s time frame<br />As all being intent against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) by device of mutable criminal acts to include but not limited direct acts of “Death” against the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein for profit. <br />10.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) having inserts with “Cruel Killer Punishment No Less” a substandard tactics of racial division, inferior, and segregation blueprint purposed<br /> Against the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) peace, rights, will, and dignity thus fully being imposed by the said Defendant herein (The United States of America) <br />Which Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) shall enforce upon each and described every such claims, damages and suffering raise herein before the Honorable Justice for relief as described in the Complaint. <br />11. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) cause of action(s) <br />Count (1). <br /> Defamation of Character <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) state before the “Honorable Justice” Defamation—also called calumny, vilification, traducement, slander (for transitory statements), and libel (for written, broadcast, or otherwise published words)—is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, product, group, government, or nation a negative image. It is usually a requirement that this claim be false and that the publication is communicated to someone other than the person defamed (the claimant).<br />12. <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) first furtherance’s bestow before the “Honorable Court” the actual Defendant herein (The United States of America)<br />A "Complete" United States History “Time Line”<br />1430Portuguese start voyages down the west coast of Africa1492Columbus arrives in Western Hemisphere1509-1547Henry VIII rules EnglandProtestant reformation begins in England1558-1603Reign of Queen Elizabeth I.  Ireland conquered by England.1607Jamestown founded1612Tobacco made a profitable crop by John Rolfe1619First group of blacks brought to VirginiaFirst legislative assembly meets in Virginia1620First Pilgrims in Plymouth1622Indian attacks in Virginia end hopes of becoming a bi-racial society1629Great Puritan migration to Massachusetts Bay1636Harvard founded1676Bacon's Rebellion1686Creation of Dominion of New England1688Glorious Revolution in England1700250,000 settlers in English colonies1704First colonial newspaper1720sColonial economic life quickens1739-1744Great Awakening1756-1763French and Indian War1763Proclamation Line established1763-1764Pontiac's Rebellion1764-1765Sugar Act and Stamp Act Controversies1766Declaratory Act1767Townshend Act, New York Assembly suspended1770Boston Massacre1772Committees of Correspondence formed1773Boston Tea Party1774Coercive Acts, First Continental Congress convenes1775Revolution begins with fighting at Lexington and Concord1776Declaration of Independence1777British defeated at Saratoga1778French join the war against the British1781Battle of YorktownArticles of Confederation ratified1783Peace signed in Paris1784-1787Northwest Ordinance of 1784, 1785, and 17871786Annapolis Convention1787Shays' RebellionConstitutional Convention1788Federalist Papers writtenConstitution ratified1789George Washington inaugurated as President of the United StatesFrench Revolution begins1790Capital placed on the Potomac River1793Citizen Genet1794Whiskey RebellionIndians defeated at Fallen Timbers1795Jay Treaty, Pinckney Treaty1798Un-declared war with FranceAlien and Sedition ActsKentucky and Virginia Resolutions1800Jefferson elected1803Louisiana Purchase1807-1809Embargo in effect1808Slave trade ended1809Non-intercourse Act1812War with England1814Treaty of Ghent1820Missouri Compromise1820sFirst labor unions formedRomanticism flourished in America1823Monroe Doctrine1828Andrew Jackson elected1830sRailroad era begins1831Nat Turner's rebellionLiberator founded1832Nullification crisis1834Whig party formed1835Texas Revolution, Republic of Texas established1840sManifest DestinyTelegraph and railroads create a communications revolution1846Mexican War begins1848Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo ended Mexican War.  U. S. acquires California and territory of New Mexico which includes present-day Nevada, Utah, Arizona, new Mexico, and part of Colorado.1849Gold discovered in California1850Compromise of 1850California admitted to the unionFugitive Slave Law strengthened1853Gadsden Purchase1854Kansas-Nebraska ActRepublican Party formed1856Violence in KansasSenator Sumner attacked in the Senate1858Lincoln-Douglas Debates1859John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry1860Democratic Party splits apartAbraham Lincoln elected 16th President of the United StatesLower South secedes1861Confederate States of America formedCivil War begins at Fort SumterUpper South secedesNorth is defeated at the first battle of Bull Run1862Battle of AntietamMorill Tariff, Homestead ActEmancipation Proclamation issued (effective January 1, 1863)1864Grant's wilderness campaignSherman takes AtlantaSherman's "March to the Sea"1865Sherman takes South and North CarolinaLee surrenders at Appomattox Court HouseThirteenth Amendment abolishes slaveryLincoln assassinatedAndrew Johnson becomes PresidentKKK formed1867First Reconstruction Act launches Radical ReconstructionAlaska purchased1868Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Civil RightsJohnson impeached1870Fifteenth Amendment forbids denial of vote on racial grounds1870sTerrorism against blacks in South, flourishing of Darwinism and ideas of racial inferiority1876End of ReconstructionBattle of Little Big Horn1877Munn v. Illinois:  Court rules states may regulate warehouse rates1879Stand Oil Trust formed1880sBig Business emerge1883Railroad companies divide nation into four time zonesPendleton Civil Service Act1886Haymarket Riots1887Interstate Commerce CommissionDavies Act1890Sherman Anti-Trust ActMassacre at Wounded KneeSherman Silver Purchase Act1890-1920Fifteen million "new" immigrants1893Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act1895Pollock v FarmersCourt strikes down income tax1898War with SpainHawaii annexed1899Peace with Spain, U. S. receives Philippines, Samoa, Guam, and Puerto Rico1900Gold Standard1901Theodore Roosevelt becomes President1904Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine1904-1914Panama Canal built1906Hepburn Act, Pure Food and Drug ActThe Jungle1912Election of Woodrow Wilson1913Sixteen Amendment authorizing income tax ratifiedSeventeenth Amendment providing for direct elections of Senators ratifiedFederal Reserve System begunWilson broadens segregation in civil service1914World War 1 beginsU. S. troops occupy Vera Cruz1915U. S. troops sent to HaitiLusitania sunk, U. S. intervenedKKK revived1916Germany issues Sussex pledge1917Russian RevolutionU. S. enters WW11918WW1 endsTreaty of Versailles1919Eighteenth Amendment prohibits alcoholic beveragesRed Scare1920Nineteenth Amendment gives women the right to voteFirst radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh1921Washington Naval Conference1924Revenue Act slashes income tax on wealthy and corporations1927Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic1929Stock market crashes1932Franklin Roosevelt elected1933Bank holiday, "Hundred Days"NRA, AAA, FDIC, TVA, FERA, CCCTwentieth Amendment changes inauguration day to JanuaryTwenty-first Amendment repeals prohibitionHitler comes to power in Germany1934Gold standard terminatedSEC1935Social Security Act, WP, NLRACIO formedU. S. Begins neutrality legislation1936FDR re-elected1937FDR attempts to pack Supreme CourtJapan invades China1938United States Housing AuthorityFair labor Standards ActHitler takes Austria, Munich Agreement1939World War 2 begins1940Roosevelt makes destroyers-for-bases deal with the BritishFall of FranceFirst peacetime draft1941Lend-Lease, Battle of Britain, Hitler attacks USSRAtlantic CharterJapan attacks Pearl Harbor1942Allied year of disasterU. S. interns JapaneseU. S. halts Japanese at Coral Sea and Midway1943Tide turns against AxisRussia wins at Stalingrad, unconditional surrender demandedItaly invaded1944France invadedBombing of Japan beginsRussia sweeps through Eastern EuropePhilippines liberated1945YaltaFDR diesGermany surrendersAtom bombsEnd of WW 21976U. S. - USSR relations worsen"Iron Curtain" speech1947Cold War beginsMarshall PlanContainment1948-1949Berlin AirliftTaft-HartleyMilitary integrated1949NATORussia explodes the bombCommunists control China1950Korean WarJoseph McCarthy1951Twenty-second Amendment limits the President to two terms1952Dwight Eisenhower elected President1953Industries agree on guaranteed annual wage1954Brown v. Board of Education, Supreme Court strikes down "separate but equal."Vietnam divided1955Montgomery Bus Boycott, emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr.1957SputnikEisenhower DoctrineLittle rock CrisisCivil Rights Act1958First U. S. satellite and ICBMNASAU. S. occupies Lebanon1960U-2 shot down over RussiaSoviet and Chinese splitJohn F. Kennedy elected Presidentnon-violent protests against segregation1961Freedom ridesTwenty-third Amendment gives District of Columbia the right to vote for PresidentBerlin crisisPeace CorpsBay of Pigs16,000 in Vietnam1962University of Mississippi integratedCuban Missile Crisis1963Civil Rights march on WashingtonJFK assassinatedFeminine Mystique1964Free speech movement at BerkeleyBeatlesTwenty-fourth Amendment outlaws the poll taxWar on povertyGulf of Tonkin1965Great SocietyOperation Rolling Thunder in VietnamMalcolm X assassinated1966Black PowerFrance withdraws from NATON. O. W. formed1967Detroit RiotPeace movement in the U. S.1968Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther Kin murderedTet OffensiveJohnson won't seek re-electionRichard Nixon elected President1969VietnamizationFirst man on the moonNixon proposed New Federalism1970Massacre at Kent StateEPA establishedCambodian invasion creates anti-war turbulenceSALT talks begin1971Nixon opens talks with ChinaWage-price controlsMy Lai massacre revealedPentagon Papers published1972Intensive bombing of North VietnamWatergateNixon re-electedGNP over 1 trillion1973Cease-fire in VietnamU. S. forces withdrawSpiro Agnew resigns1974Watergate tapesNixon resigns, Ford's pardonSerious inflation and recession1975Vietnam falls44% of married women employed1976BicentennialJimmy Carter elected President1977Human rights1978Camp David AccordsPanama Canal treaties ratified1979SALT 2 completedU. S. recognizes chinaAmerican Embassy in Iran occupiedUSSR invaded Afghanistan1980U. S. boycotts Olympics, withdraws from SALT 2Reagan elected President1981American hostages held in Iran freed on Reagan's inauguration day (Plaintiff herein USN Hamilton II chain to Pearl Harbor Hawaii Flag Pole within 24 hrs. later.) (Again)…………….<br />13.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American will assert, show respectfully before the “Honorable Justice”, Slave codes were laws which each state, or colony, of the Defendant (The United States of America) enacted which defined the status of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American slaves and the rights of(White) Defendant (The United States of America) masters.<br />14.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American will assert, show respectfully before the “Honorable Justice”, Such slaves codes by the Defendant (The United States of America) gave Defendant (The United States of America) (White) slave-owners “absolute power” over their (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American “human property”.<br />15.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans will show before the “Honorable Justice”, the Defendant (The United States of America) Provisions<br /> Definition of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American "slaves" by the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Virginia, 1650 <br />“Act XI. All persons except Negroes are to be provided with arms and ammunitions or be fined at the pleasure of the governor and council.” <br />Virginia, 1662 <br />“Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children got by any Englishmen upon a Negro shall be slave or Free, Be it therefore enacted and declared by this present Grand assembly, that all children born in this country shall be held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother." <br />Maryland, 1664 <br />“That whatsoever free-born [English] woman shall intermarry with any slave [...] shall serve the master of such slave during the life of her husband; and that all the issue of such free-born women, so married shall be slaves as their fathers were.” <br />Virginia, 1667 <br />“Act III. Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children that are slaves by birth [...] should by virtue of their baptism be made free, it is enacted that baptism does not alter the condition to the person as to his bondage or freedom; masters freed from this doubt may more carefully propagate Christianity by permitting slaves to be admitted to that sacrament.” <br />Virginia, 1682 <br />“Act I. It is enacted that all servants [...] which shall be imported into this country either by sea or by land, whether Negroes, Moors [Muslim North Africans], mulattoes or Indians who and whose parentage and native countries are not Christian at the time of their first purchase by some Christian [...] and all Indians, which shall be sold by our neighboring Indians, or any other trafficking with us for slaves, are hereby adjudged, deemed and taken to be slaves to all intents and purposes any law, usage, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.” <br />Virginia, 1705<br />"All servants imported and brought into the Country...who were not Christians in their native Country...shall be accounted and be slaves. All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves within this dominion...shall be held to be real estate." <br />South Carolina, 1712 <br />"Be it therefore enacted, by his Excellency, William, Lord Craven, Palatine.... and the rest of the members of the General Assembly, now met at Charles Town, for the South-west part of this Province, and by the authority of the same, That all negroes, mulatoes, mestizoes or Indians, which at any time heretofore have been sold, or now are held or taken to be, or hereafter shall be bought and sold for slaves, are hereby declared slaves; and they, and their children, are hereby made and declared slaves...." <br />Virginia, 1705 – "If any slave resists his master...correcting such a slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction...the master shall be free of all punishment...as if such accident never happened." <br />South Carolina, 1712 - "Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That no master, mistress, overseer, or other person whatsoever, that hath the care and charge of any negro or slave, shall give their negroes and other slaves leave...to go out of their plantations.... Every slave hereafter out of his master's plantation, without a ticket, or leave in writing, from his master...shall be whipped...." <br />Louisiana, 1724 - "The slave who, having struck his master, his mistress, or the husband of his mistress, or their children, shall have produced a bruise, or the shedding of blood in the face, shall suffer capital punishment." <br /> Reading by (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American Black slaves illegal<br />Alabama, 1833, section 31 - "Any person or persons who attempt to teach any free person of color, or slave, to spell, read, or write, shall, upon conviction thereof by indictment, be fined in a sum not less than two hundred and fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars." <br />Alabama, 1833, section 32 - "Any free person of color who shall write for any slave a pass or free paper, on conviction thereof, shall receive for every such offense, thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, and leave the state of Alabama within thirty days thereafter..." <br />Alabama, 1833, section 33 - "Any slave who shall write for any other slave, any pass or free-paper, upon conviction, shall receive, on his or her back, fifty lashes for the first offence, and one hundred lashes for every offence thereafter..." <br />16.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Court” Consequently Defendant (The United States of America) “slave codes” and slave patrols were established to act as a supplementary force to regulate the black population.<br />17.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Court” The Virginia Slave Codes of 1705 of the Defendant (The United States of America) were a series of laws enacted by the Colony of Virginia's House of Burgesses imposed upon<br />Regulating activities related to interactions between (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American “slaves” and Defendant (The United States of America) U.S. (White) citizens in the U.S. state of Virginia. <br />The enactment of the “Slave Codes” is the foundation blueprint of the Defendant (The United states of America) Virginia's slave legislation.<br />18.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully fully acknowledge before the “Honorable Justice” With respect during this precise time frame 1619-1865 <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein were in fact (Slaves) the first 10 Amendments to the Defendant (The United States of America) Constitution. <br />Called the "Bill of Rights", were ratified on December 15, 1791 and fully with all “intent purpose” did not under any circumstances apply to any of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein.<br />19.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert Defendant (The United States of America) Amendments as follows:<br />AmendmentsProposal dateEnactment date1stProtects the freedom of religion, speech, and the press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the governmentSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17912ndProtects the right to keep and bear armsSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17913rdProhibits the forced quartering of soldiers out of war timeSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17914thProhibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable causeSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17915thSets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardySeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17916thProtects the right to have a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counselSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17917thProvides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common lawSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17918thProhibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishmentSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17919thAsserts the existence of unenumerated rights retained by the peopleSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 179110thLimits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the ConstitutionSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 179111thImmunity of states from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders. Lays the foundation for sovereign immunityMarch 4, 1794February 7, 179512thRevises presidential election proceduresDecember 9, 1803June 15, 180413thAbolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crimeJanuary 31, 1865December 6, 186514thDefines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issuesJune 13, 1866July 9, 186815thProhibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitudeFebruary 26, 1869February 3, 187016thAllows the federal government to collect income taxJuly 12, 1909February 3, 191317thRequires senators to be directly electedMay 13, 1912April 8, 191318thEstablishes Prohibition of alcohol (Repealed by Twenty-first Amendment)December 18, 1917January 16, 191919thEstablishes women's suffrageJune 4, 1919August 18, 192020thFixes the dates of term commencements for Congress (January 3) and the President (January 20); known as the "lame duck amendment"March 2, 1932January 23, 193321stRepeals the Eighteenth AmendmentFebruary 20, 1933December 5, 193322ndLimits the president to two terms, or a maximum of 10 years (i.e., if a Vice President serves not more than one half of a President's term, they can be elected to a further two terms)March 24, 1947February 27, 195123rdProvides for representation of Washington, D.C. in the Electoral CollegeJune 16, 1960March 29, 196124thProhibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxesSeptember 14, 1962January 23, 196425thCodifies the Tyler Precedent; defines the process of presidential successionJuly 6, 1965February 10, 196726thEstablishes 18 as the national voting ageMarch 23, 1971July 1, 197127thPrevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until the beginning of the next session of CongressSeptember 25, 1789May 5 or 7, 1992<br />20.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Respectfully, assert before the “Honorable Justice” once again to take “Judicial notice” With respect during this precise time frame 1619- December 9, 1803 The Defendant (The United States of America) instituted the 1st through 12th Amendments to their Constitution as described above in paragraph (19) above with an Enactment date June 15, 1804.<br />21. <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein respectfully fully acknowledge before the “Honorable Justice” during the exact time frame 1619-December 9th, 1803 <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein were in fact (Slaves) to include but limited to the first (12) Amendments to the Defendant (The United States of America) Constitution <br />Fully with all “intent purpose” did not under any circumstances apply to any of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein.<br />22.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein respectfully assert “at this time also” before the “Honorable Justice” Natives Americans (Indians) meaning “all Indians”, which shall be sold by The Defendant (The United States of America) by defendant neighboring Indians, or any other trafficking with Defendant (The United States of America) for slaves, are hereby adjudged, deemed and taken to be (Indians) as slaves to all intents and purposes any law, usage, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.” Virginia, 1682 “Act I.<br />23.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” In 1865, the Defendant (The United States of America) <br /> Louisiana legislature implemented shortly after the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American slaves were emancipated “black codes” into effect. <br />24. <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) assert before the “Honorable Justice” Race was defined by blood; the presence of any amount of black blood made one (Negro) African American black , employment was required of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) freedmen; violators faced vagrancy charges <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) Freedmen could not assemble without the presence of a white person under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes.<br />25.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) Freedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and their duties and hours were tightly regulated under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes.<br />26.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) Freedmen were not to be taught to read or write under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes<br />27.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) having Public facilities being segregated under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes<br />28.<br />Any (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans Violators of this Defendant (The United States of America) enacted by the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) Black Codes laws were subject to being whipped or branded or worst. <br />29.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Mississippi black codes as follows:<br />"Negroes must make annual contracts for their labor in writing; if they should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year. Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work. Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their employers.<br /> Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such Negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were twenty-one, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily, and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating liquors to a Negro. When Negroes could not pay the fines and costs after legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to the lowest bidder...." <br />30. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely South Carolina “Black Codes as follows:<br />"In South Carolina persons of color contracting for service were to be known as "servants and those with whom they contracted, as "masters." On farms the hours of labor would be from sunrise to sunset daily, except on Sunday.<br /> The Negroes Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) were to get out of bed at dawn. Time lost would be deducted from their wages, as would be the cost of food, nursing, etc., during absence from sickness. Absentees on Sunday must return to the plantation by sunset. House servants were to be at call at all hours of the day and night on all days of the week. <br />They must be "especially civil and polite to their masters, their masters' families and guests," and they in return would receive "gentle and kind treatment." Corporal and other punishment was to be administered only upon order of the district judge or other civil magistrate. <br />31.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Following the Death of Joseph Smith, Jr., in the Defendant (The United States of America) city of Carthage, Illinois, in 1844, the more than 11,000<br /> Brigham Young, the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, emerged as the leader Brigham Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers came to the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847.<br />32.<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Disputes between the Mormon inhabitants and the Defendant (The United States of America) US Government intensified due to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' practice of plural marriage, or polygamy, among its members. <br />The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. The Defendant (The United States of America) U.S. Government, which had been reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.<br />33. <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Members of the LDS Church were viewed as un-American by the Defendant (The United States of America) and rebellious when news of their polygamous practices spread. <br />In 1857, particularly heinous accusations of abdication of government <br />And general immorality by former associate justice William W. Drummond, among others, <br />Caused the Defendant (The United States of America) administration of James Buchanan to send a secret military "expedition" to Utah.<br /> When the supposed rebellion should be quelled, Alfred Cumming would take the place of Brigham Young as territorial governor. The resulting conflict is known as the Defendant (The United States of America) Utah War.<br />34.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff furtherance’s respectfully state, assert before the “Honorable Justice” As troops approached Salt Lake City in northern Utah, nervous Mormon settlers attacked and killed 120 immigrants from Arkansas and Missouri in southern Utah. The slaughtered Fancher-Baker party was enroute to California. The attack became known as the Mountain Meadows massacre. <br />35.<br />The massacre became a point of contention between LDS leaders and the federal government for decades. Only one person, John D. Lee, was ever convicted of the murders, and he was executed at the massacre site.<br />36.<br />Before troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston entered the territory, Brigham Young ordered all residents of Salt Lake City to evacuate southward to Utah Valley and sent out a force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the government's advance. <br />Although wagons and supplies were burned, eventually the troops arrived in 1858, and Young surrendered official control to Cumming, although most subsequent commentators claim that Young retained true power in the territory. A steady stream of governors appointed by the president quit the position, often citing the traditions of their supposed territorial government. <br />37.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert By agreement with “Brigham Young”, Johnston established Camp Floyd, 40 miles (60 km) away from Salt Lake City, to the southwest.<br />38.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young and other Church Presidents and Apostles taught from 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine; <br />That Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein "Negroes" are "cursed" and "inferior" and the children of Cain and were "less valiant" in the War in Heaven, <br />And thus all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American blacks were "banned" (called "the priesthood-ban") from the Mormon priesthood and Mormon Temples until June 8th, 1978.<br />39.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young preached that God's Law demanded that all interracial (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American couples should be "killed on the spot"<br /> Along with their (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American children by having their throats cut, and their blood spilling upon the ground. <br />Brigham Young preach this "blood atonement" practice should also be applied to thieves, adulterers, blasphemers (whose who call him or Joseph Smith "false prophets") and "apostates" (ex-Mormons). <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein assert before the Honorable Justice” There is ample evidence that "Blood Atonement" was regularly practiced in Utah from 1852 until 1877; the year Brigham Young died.<br />40.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young and other Church Presidents and Apostles taught from 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine; <br />That Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s)"Negroes" are "cursed" and "inferior" and the children of Cain and were "less valiant" in the War in Heaven, and thus all blacks were "banned" (called "the priesthood-ban") from the Mormon priesthood and Mormon Temples until June 8th, 1978.<br />41.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young, successor to Joseph Smith, legalized Negro and Indian slavery in Defendant (The United States of America) Utah in 1850, and a number of Mormons (including Mormon Apostle Charles C. Rich) owned black slaves. <br />42.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert before the Honorable Justice Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah <br />Had many "anti-Negro" segregationist laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein until the late 1960s in addition to the Curse of Cain Doctrine; teaching by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.<br />43.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert the Defendant (The United States of America) imposed “Jim Crow Laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans Blacks herein Here is a sampling of laws from various Defendant (The United States of America) states:<br />43.<br />Nurses No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. Alabama <br />44.<br />Buses All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races. Alabama <br />45.<br />Railroads The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama <br />46.<br />Restaurants It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama <br />47.<br />Pool and Billiard Rooms It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards. Alabama <br />48.<br />Toilet Facilities, Male Every employer of white or negro males shall provide for such white or negro males reasonably accessible and separate toilet facilities. Alabama <br />49.<br />Intermarriage The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona <br />50.<br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida <br />51.<br />Cohabitation Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida <br />52.<br />Education The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately. Florida <br />53.<br />Juvenile Delinquents There shall be separate buildings, not nearer than one fourth mile to each other, one for white boys and one for negro boys. White boys and negro boys shall not, in any manner, be associated together or worked together. Florida <br />54.<br />Mental Hospitals The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together. Georgia <br />55.<br />Intermarriage It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. Georgia <br />56.<br />Barbers No colored barber shall serve as a barber [to] white women or girls. Georgia <br />57.<br />Burial The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. Georgia <br />58.<br />Restaurants All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license. Georgia <br />59.<br />Amateur Baseball It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. Georgia <br />60.<br />Parks It shall be unlawful for colored people to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white persons...and unlawful for any white person to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the use and benefit of colored persons. Georgia <br />61.<br />Wine and Beer All persons licensed to conduct the business of selling beer or wine...shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room at any time. Georgia <br />62.<br />Reform Schools The children of white and colored races committed to the houses of reform shall be kept entirely separate from each other. Kentucky <br />63.<br />Circus Tickets All circuses, shows, and tent exhibitions, to which the attendance of...more than one race is invited or expected to attend shall provide for the convenience of its patrons not less than two ticket offices with individual ticket sellers, and not less than two entrances to the said performance, with individual ticket takers and receivers, and in the case of outside or tent performances, the said ticket offices shall not be less than twenty-five (25) feet apart. Louisiana <br />64.<br />Housing Any person...who shall rent any part of any such building to a negro person or a negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a negro person or negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five ($25.00) nor more than one hundred ($100.00) dollars or be imprisoned not less than 10, or more than 60 days, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court. Louisiana <br />65.<br />The Blind The board of trustees shall...maintain a separate building...on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race. Louisiana <br />66.<br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between the negro a nd a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. Maryland <br />67.<br />Railroads All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers. Maryland <br />68.<br />Education Separate schools shall be maintained for the children of the white and colored races. Mississippi <br />69.<br />Promotion of Equality Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine or not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both. Mississippi <br />70.<br />Intermarriage The marriage of a white person with a negro or mulatto or person who shall have one-eighth or more of negro blood, shall be unlawful and void. Mississippi <br />71.<br />Hospital Entrances There shall be maintained by the governing authorities of every hospital maintained by the state for treatment of white and colored patients separate entrances for white and colored patients and visitors, and such entrances shall be used by the race only for which they are prepared. Mississippi <br />72.<br />Prisons The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the negro convicts. Mississippi <br />73.<br />Education Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored school. Missouri <br />74.<br />Intermarriage All marriages between...white persons and negroes or white persons and Mongolians...are prohibited and declared absolutely void...No person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person, nor shall any white person be permitted to marry any negro or person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood. Missouri <br />75.<br />Education Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent. New Mexico <br />76.<br />Textbooks Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. North Carolina <br />77.<br />Libraries The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals. North Carolina <br />78.<br />Militia The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization. No organization of colored troops shall be permitted where white troops are available, and while white permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers. North Carolina <br />79.<br />Transportation The...Utilities Commission...is empowered and directed to require the establishment of separate waiting rooms at all stations for the white and colored races. North Carolina <br />80.<br />Teaching Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not less than ten dollars ($10.00) nor more than fifty dollars ($50.00) for each offense. Oklahoma <br />81.<br />Fishing, Boating, and Bathing The [Conservation] Commission shall have the right to make segregation of the white and colored races as to the exercise of rights of fishing, boating and bathing. Oklahoma <br />82.<br />Mining The baths and lockers for the negroes shall be separate from the white race, but may be in the same building. Oklahoma <br />83.<br />Telephone Booths The Corporation Commission is hereby vested with power and authority to require telephone companies...to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths. That the Corporation Commission shall determine the necessity for said separate booths only upon complaint of the people in the town and vicinity to be served after due hearing as now provided by law in other complaints filed with the Corporation Commission. Oklahoma <br />84.<br />Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter. South Carolina <br />85.<br />Child Custody It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro. South Carolina <br />86.<br />Libraries Any white person of such county may use the county free library under the rules and regulations prescribed by the commissioners court and may be entitled to all the privileges thereof. Said court shall make proper provision for the negroes of said county to be served through a separate branch or branches of the county free library, which shall be administered by [a] custodian of the negro race under the supervision of the county librarian. Texas <br />87.<br />Education [The County Board of Education] shall provide schools of two kinds; those for white children and those for colored children. Texas <br />88.<br />Theaters Every person...operating...any public hall, theatre, opera house, motion picture show or any place of public entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored persons, shall separate the white race and the colored race and shall set apart and designate...certain seats therein to be occupied by white persons and a portion thereof , or certain seats therein, to be occupied by colored persons. Virginia <br />89.<br />Railroads The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race. Virginia <br />90.<br />Intermarriage All marriages of white persons with Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming<br />91.<br />Argument I<br />Petition of 1780 by Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) slaves for the abolition of slavery in Connecticut<br />Unto your Honner the govener and all the wise men of the State of Connecticut which it hath Plesed god to Permit to gather at Hartford unto you we the the Poor and opresed Negro Sarvents of this Town By and with the advice of Each other and By the Desier of all the Negro Sarvents in this State Do in a most humble maner Criy unto you for Liberty alltho we have Desiered this faver from your honners Time after Time yet we are Not Discuriged But Do Still intend to Beag this faver from Time to Time tho you Should not grant us our Desiers this Time - <br />We are all of us the Same mind as we was when we asked this advantige of your honners Last may that our marsters have no more Rite to make us Searve them then we have to make our Marsters Searve us and we have Resen to wonder that our Case has not Ben taken into Consideration So fare as to Grant us our Libertys But we must consider what the Book of Eceleisastes says at 8 Chapter & at the 11 varce Because Sentence aganst an Evel work is not Executed Speedily theirfore the hart of the Sons of men is fully Set in them to do Evel - and for this Reson we Think our Cause is Not Regarded and we Still must Say as Jeremiah Says in his Lamentations at the 5 Chapter & at the 5 varce <br />Our necks are under Persecution we Labour and have no rest - But we are in good hopes that your honners will Take Notis of our Case and Do unto us as you would be Glad that we Should Do unto you if we was in your Condishon and you in ours But it hath Plesed god to Place us in the Sitawaytion we are now in But we Pray to god that he would Send forth his Good Spirit into your harts and Remind you of your Duty and make you the Instermints of Binding up the Brokenharted and of Proclaiming Liberty to the Captives and the opening of the Prison to them that are Bound We ask your good Will to Look upon us and we Criy unto you in the words of Job at the 19 Chapter & at the 21 varce Have Pity upon me have Pity upon me o ye my frindes - But we Still Look unto god Who Pursarves Both the Servent and the marster for we Know that in the 140 Psalm at the 12 varces That we have a Sartin Promos viz. I Know that the Lord will maintain the Cause of the afflicted and the Right of the Poor and we think that it is time for us to Criy aloud for our Liberty for No Son of man will give his Sarvent his Time unless he Thinks that he Dos Roung in Keeping off him and So Considers that their is a wa Ppurnounced aganst those that Take a way their Neighbours Servise with wages and giveth him Not for his work Jeremiah at the 22 Chapter & at the 13 varce wo unto him that Buildeth his house By Unriteousness and without wages and giveth him Not for his work and when their is a man that will give his Searvent his Liberty we must think that he Considers what the word of God Says in the 34 Chapter and the 10 varces of the Book of Jeremiah viz. <br />Now when all the Princes and all the people which had Entered into the Covenent heard that Every one Should Let his maid Searvent and Every one his man Servent go free that None Should Serve themselves of them any more then they obeyed and Let them go and We wish that all our marsters would consider the word of God as Job Did and Consider the Cause of his man Servent and of his maid Servent when we Contend with our marsters But we Cant find Such men as will other give or Sell ous Liberty & we all Both young and old Do ask your Kind and good will toasist us in geting our freedom for we have indured the galling yok of Bondige Ever Sence we have Ben Brought from our own Country and I those of us that Was Born in this Cuntry have Ben under Bondage our hol lives untill now and their is a grat nomber of us which have been Brotup By Such I men as have Not Larnt us to Read the woord of God Neather have have They Lamt us the mening of the word of I God But have Keept us from the Knoledge of that Salvation which we have a Right to By Jesus Christ But we Think that if we have our Liberty we Shall have an opportunity to Larn the word of God and to Recive good to our Sols as well as our Bodyes and if we Could But injoy our Liberty we think that we Should Be in as Fare a way to make our Calling and Electtion Suer and By Gods Goodness have our Sols Saved from Eerlasting Damnation But we are keep from all favers Both Bodys and Sols But we Look unto that god which is as able to Save us as he is to Save our Marsters But we Depend upon the Blesings of god in making the gurenel asimbly the insterments of Seating us at Liberty from these men that I Now hold us as Servents - But if your honners Refuse to asist us in Releving us from our Marsters we Shall I have Reson to say that you [.?.] Do Not your duty as the word of God says in the Book of Isaiah at the 58 Chapter and 6 varse I To undo the hevy Burdens and to Leat the oppressed Go free and that I ye Brak Every yoke - and this is the Duty of all that have an oppertunity to Releve them that are in Disstrass I and if your honners forgit your Duty all men may say that our Roulars Bare the Sword in vain But if we Kant have our Desier dont think hard of us if By our marsters we say as David Did By his enemies Psalms the 109 and the 6 varce <br />Set thou a wicked man over him and I Let Satan Stand at his Right hand the 7 varc when he Shall Be I Judged Let him Be Condemned and Let his Prayer Become Sin I the 8 varce Let his Days Be few and Let another take his offsice I the 9 varce Let his Children Be fatherliss and his wife a widow the 10 varce Let his Children Be Continually vagabonds and Beg Let them Seek their Bread also out of their Desolate Places the 11 varce Let the Extortioner Catch all that he hath and Let the Stranger Spoil all his Labour the 12 varce Let thair Be none to Extend mercy unto him Neither Let their Be any to favour his fatherless Children I the 13 verce Let his Posterity Be Cut off and in the generation I folowing Let their Name Be Blotted out the 14 varce Let The iniquity of his fathers Be Remembered with the Lord and Let Not the Sin of his mother Be Blotted the 15 varce Let them Be Before the Lord Continually that he may Cut off the memory of them from the Earth the 16 varce Because that he Remembered not to Shew marcy But Perscuted the Poor and nedy I man. And Surr we hope that you will Remember the Poor and oppresed negro men in the State which you are Chosen to Do Justice in So we are abliged to Lement Our Case as in Lamentations at the 5 chapter and 5 varce Our Necks are under Persecution we Labour and have no Rest.<br />92.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) having the significant that here Oct 1780." slaves are gaining "legal personality," which is to say that they can represent their interests in terms of law, <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) petition is written in a reasonably good hand by a slave who consulted a King James version of the Bible, and found in Governor Trumbull's papers leads “the Governor” never bothered to forward it to the Assembly on behalf of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />93.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein first show before the “Honorable Justice” The Timetable of World Legal History:<br />2350 BC: Urukagina's Code<br />This code has never been discovered but it is mentioned in other documents as a consolidation of existing "ordinances" or laws laid down by Mesopotamian kings. An administrative reform document was discovered which showed that citizens were allowed to know why certain actions were punished. It was also harsh by modern standards. Thieves and adulteresses were to be stoned to death with stones inscribed with the name of their crime. The code confirmed that the "king was appointed by the gods".<br />2050 BC: Ur-Nammu's Code<br />The earliest known written legal code of which a copy has been found, albeit a copy in such poor shape that only five articles can be deciphered. Archaeological evidence shows that it was supported by an advanced legal system which included specialized judges, the giving of testimony under oath, the proper form of judicial decisions and the ability of the judges to order that damages be paid to a victim by the guilty party. The Code allowed for the dismissal of corrupt men, protection for the poor and a punishment system where the punishment is proportionate to the crime. Although it is called "Ur-Nammu's Code, historians generally agree that it was written by his son Shugli.<br />1850 BC: The Earliest Known Legal Decision<br />A clay tablet reveals the case, in 1850BC, of the murder of a temple employee by three men. The victim's wife knew of the murder but remained silent. Eventually, the crime came to light and the men and woman were charged with murder. Nine witnesses testified against the men and woman and asked for the death penalty for all four. But the wife had two witnesses which told the court that she had been abused by her husband, that she was not part of the murder and that she was even worse off after her husband's death. The men were executed in front of the victim's house but the woman was spared.<br />1700 BC: Hammurabi's Code<br />This Babylonian king came to power in 1750 BC. Under his rule, a code of laws was developed and carved on a huge rock column. The expression "an eye for an eye" has come to symbolize the principle behind Hammurabi's code. It contains 282 clauses regulating a vast array of obligations, professions and rights including commerce, slavery, marriage, theft and debts. The punishments are, by modern standards, barbaric. The punishment for theft was the cutting off of a finger or a hand. A man's lower lip was cut off if he kissed a married woman. Defamation was punished by cutting out the tongue. If a house collapses because the builder did not make it strong enough, killing the owner, the builder was put to death. If the owner's son died, then the builder's son was executed.<br />1300 BC: The Ten Commandments<br />According to the Bible, it was in approximately 1300 BC that Moses received a list of ten laws directly from God. These laws were known as the Ten Commandments and were transcribed as part of the Book of Moses, which later became part of the Bible. Many of the Ten Commandments continue in the form of modern laws such as "thou shalt not kill" (modern society severely punishes the crime of murder), "thou shalt not commit adultery" (modern society allows a divorce on this grounds) and "thou shalt not steal" (modern society punishes theft as a crime). The Bible chapter that contains the Ten Commandments (Exodus) follows the recitation of the Commandments with a complete set of legal rules, which are based on the "eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth" legal philosophy of Hammurabi's Code. Click here to read the actual text of the Ten Commandments in the WWLIA LAW Museum Archives section.<br />1280 BC to 880 BC: The Laws of Manu<br />It has not yet been possible to pinpoint exactly when India's great Laws of Manu were written. The Laws were a written compilation of known legal rules which had been passed on from generation to generation. It formed the basis of the caste system in India, where people were classified by their social standing and regulated almost all facets of India's society from contracts to criminal law. The Laws of Manu used punishment sparingly and only as a last resort and rarely sadistic. Amputation, though, was a possible sentence. The members of the higher castes were punished more severely than those of the lower castes.<br />621 BC: Draco's Law<br />This Greek citizen was chosen to write a code of law for Athens (Greece). The penalty for many offences was death; so severe, that the word "draconian" comes from his name and has come to mean, in the English language, an unreasonably harsh law. His laws were the first written laws of Greece. These laws introduced the state's exclusive role in punishing persons accused of crime, instead of relying on private justice. The citizens adored Draco and upon entering an auditorium one day to attend a reception in his honour, the citizens of Athens showered him with their hats and cloaks as was their customary way to show appreciation. By the time they dug him out from under the clothing, he had been smothered to death.<br />600 BC: Lycergus' Law<br />This King of Sparta (southern Greece) was a renowned lawgiver. His laws were never written, just transmitted orally and were designed to support the military vocation of Sparta. It held that women had a duty to have children and that children born with deformity were killed. Children became wards of Sparta at the age of seven to prepare them for military duty. The greatest crime of all was retreat in battle. The Laws of Lycergus controlled virtually every aspect of the lives of citizens of Sparta.<br />550 BC: Solon's Laws<br />Solon was an Athenian statesman and lawmaker. He further refined Draco's laws and is credited with "democratizing" justice by making the courts more accessible to citizens.<br />536 BC: The Book of Punishments<br />A legal book printed in China which limited the ways to punish someone where they had been convicted of a serious crime. They included tattooing, cutting off of the nose, castration, feet amputation and death.<br />450 BC: The Twelve Tables<br />Ten Roman men were given wide powers to write the laws that were to govern Romans. They came up with ten laws to which two were later added. These laws are considered to form the foundation of all modern public and private law. They promoted the organization of public prosecution of crimes and instituted a system whereby injured parties could seek compensation from their aggressors. More importantly, they protected the lower class (plebes) from the legal abuses of the ruling class (the patricians) especially in the enforcement of debts. From that point on, a basic principle of Roman law is that the law must be written and justice cannot be left in the hands of judges alone to interpret. It also prohibited inter-class marriages, seriously punished theft and gave fathers rights of life or death over his sons. The Twelve Tables also punished the misuse of magic! Written on wood and bronze tablets, the Twelve Tables survived almost 1000 years until destroyed by invading gauls in 390.<br />350 BC (approximately): The Chinese Code of Li k'vei<br />The first Chinese imperial code of laws dealt with theft, robbery, prison, arrest and general rules. It served as a model for the T'ang Code.<br />399BC: The Trial of Socrates<br />Socrates was an Athenian philosopher. Socrates was not religious and preached logic. When Athens lost the Peloponnesian Wars, conservative Athenians looked for a scapegoat. Three citizens brought an accusation against the 70-year old popular philosopher for allegedly corrupting the youth and for not believing in the gods. He was tried before a jury of 501 citizens that found him guilty on a vote of 281-220. When asked to speak on the proposed sentence, Socrates mocked the jurors and they replied, 361-140, with a sentence of death. Socrates' promoted "conscience" and his death increased interest in his life and teachings.<br />529: Justinian's Code<br />This Emperor of Byzantine is best remembered for his codification of Roman Law in a series of books called Corpus Juris Civilis. His collection served as an important basis for law in contemporary society, and was inspired by logic-based Greek legal principles. Many legal maxims still in use today are derived from Justinian's Code. His work inspired the modern concept and, indeed, the very spelling of "justice". This Roman Code survived as the many parts of Germany until 1900 and important traces of it can be found in the law of Italy, Scotland, South Africa and Quebec. Roman law formed the base of civil law, one of the two main legal systems to govern modern society in the Western civilization (the other being English common law). A quote: "The things which are common to all (and not capable of being owned) are: the air, running water, the sea and the seashores."<br />604: The Seventeen Article Constitution of Japan<br />Written by a Japanese prince regent, the Constitution shaped morality and law in Japan, a country which had just begun to develop and become literate. Some examples of its paternalistic clauses are: "peace and harmony should be respected because they are very important for intergroup relations"; "There are very few evil men. If we teach them (the Buddha beliefs), they may become obedient"; "equality, speediness and integrity should be maintained in court procedures" and "the basic philosophy in all matters should be "against privacy" and "toward public benefit". In it, one can observe that the emphasis of "Oriental law" which seeks to prevent disputes, whereas the "Western law" seeks to resolve disputes.<br />653: T'ang Code<br />The territory which is now China was, since time immemorial, occupied by feuding kingdoms. It was not until 221 BC that the king of "Ch'in" managed to defeat the kings of the other 6 kingdoms and unite China. After 400 years of unification, the Empire developed a Code of Law called the T'sang Code, which listed crimes and their punishment in 501 articles. The Code revised earlier existing Chinese codes and standardized procedures. For examples, there were only two ways to perform capital punishment on a convicted criminal: beheading or hanging.<br />700: Fingerprinting Is Invented<br />Fingerprinting was in use by this time in China as a means of identifying people.<br />1100: First Law School<br />In medieval Italy, students of law would hire a teacher to teach them Roman Law, especially Justinian's Code Corpus Juris. One teacher, known as Irnerius was particularly popular and students began to flock to him from all over Europe. He taught in Bologna and the surge of students meant that he had to hire other teachers to form the world's first law school. By 1150, his law school had over 10,000 students and contributed to the revival of the Corpus Juris and the spread of Roman law throughout Europe!<br />1215: Magna Carta<br />At Runneymede, England, on June 15, 1215, King John of England signed the Magna Carta in which he conceded a number of legal rights to his barons and to the people. In order to finance his foreign wars, King John had taxed abusively. His Barons threatened rebellion and coerced the King into committing to rudimentary judicial guarantees such as the freedom of the church, fair taxation, controls over imprisonment (habeas corpus) and the right to all merchants to come and go, freely, except in time of war. The Magna Carta had 61 clauses the most important of which may have been #39: "No freeman shall be captured or imprisoned ... except by lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land". It was the first time a king allowed that even he could be compelled to observe a law or the barons were allowed to "distrain and distress him in every possible way", just short of a legal right to rebellion. Once sworn to the document, letters were sent to all sheriffs ordering them to read the Charter aloud in public. It has been called the "blueprint of English common law" and was even recently pleaded in a English case. Click here to read the entire text of the Magna Carta in the LAW Museum Archives.<br />1306: The Trial of Scotsman William Wallace<br />Click here to read the full text of "The Trial of Scotsman William Wallace".<br />1535: The Trial of Sir Thomas More<br />Click here to read the full text of "The Trial of Sir Thomas More".<br />1689: The English Bill of Rights<br />This bill was a precursor to the American Bill of Rights, and set out strict limits on the Royal Family's legal prerogatives such as a prohibition against arbitrary suspension of Parliament's laws. More importantly, it limited the right to raise money through taxation to Parliament. Click here to read the article (including the full text) on "The 1689 Bill of Rights".<br />1692: The Salem Witch Trials<br />In 1692, in the town of Salem, Massachusetts, USA, a group of young women accused several other women of practising withcraft or worhip of the Devil. The accusations turned into a judicial frenzy and over 300 people were acused of witchcraft, of which 20 were executed including a priest. The extremity of the penalty turned many against the prosecution of withcraft. There would be no more witchcraft trials in New England.<br />1740: South Carolina Slave Code<br />This infamous legislation regulated the use of slaves and became the model for slavery in other states, until repealed as an effect of the American Civil War. "All Negroes, Indians ... and all their offspring ... shall be and are hereby declared to be and remain forever hereafter slaves; and shall be deemed ... to be chattels personal in the hands of their owners."<br />1765: Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England<br />This British barrister set about writing down the entire English law in a 4-volume set, in easy-to-read English, thus making the law suddenly accessible to the common man. His research also made the book a must-read for lawyers and law students alike. It was re-published many times. Through it, the English law was readily imported to the British colonies and in fact it is said that Blackstone's Commentaries was the law in the American colonies for the first century of American independence. The Commentaries also allows us to witness the exact state of British law at that time on such things as the total legal submission of a wife to her husband, as was then considered natural law.<br />1776: The American Declaration of Independence<br />"We the people," starts the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776. The Declaration was a statement to the effect that "all political connection between (the United Colonies) and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be dissolved" and that a new state, the United States, was started. It remains a remarkable legal document in that it is the first time a government has rebuked the medieval theory that certain people possessed by right the power to rule others. "All men are created equal,"rings the declaration, and have "unalienable rights that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed." (Click here to read the Declaration of Independence.)<br />1787: The Constitution of the United States of America<br />The 7 articles of the American Constitution were signed in Philadelphia in 1787 and formed the basis of the first republican government in the world. The Constitution defined the institutions of government and the powers of each institution, carefully carving out the duties of the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The Constitution also declared that it was paramount to any other law, whether federal or state, and it would override any other inconsistent law. The American Constitution served as a model for the constitutions of many nations upon attaining independence or becoming democracies.<br />1788: Through the Operation of Penal Law, A Country Is Formed<br />Sydney was the site of the first British settlement on Australia, which had been designated as a prime location as a British penal colony. For fifty years, Britain sent its worst men, who were quickly chained into work gangs and put to building roads and bridges. By 1821, there were 30,000 British settlers in the British commonwealth, of which 75% were convicts.<br />1791: The American Bill of Rights<br />With the ink barely dry on the Constitution (signed only four years earlier), American statesmen amended their supreme law by declaring the rights of free speech, freedom of the press and of religion, a right to trial by one's peers (jury), and protection against "cruel and unusual punishment" or unreasonable searches or seizures. The ten amendments of Bill of Rights became known as the First to Tenth Amendment(s) respectively. The Bill of Rights influenced many modern charters or bills of rights around the world.<br />1803: Marbury versus Madison<br />In this case, the Supreme Court upheld the supremacy of the Constitution and stated unequivocally that it had the power to strike down actions taken by American federal or state legislative bodies which, in its opinion, offended the Constitution. This has come to be known as the power of "judicial review". This case is considered by the legal profession to be the most important milestone in the history of American law since the Constitution.<br />1804: Napoleonic Code<br />Under the government of Napoleon, France adopted a comprehensive code of law in 1804 which enshrined many of the victories obtained during the Revolution such as individual liberty, equality before the law and the lay character of the state. The Code also incorporated most parts of Roman law. The Code became a model for civil law systems such as Quebec, California and Louisiana. Perhaps the most important aspect of the Code was the fact that the law was written (as opposed to judge-made) and in a non-technical style and thus more accessible to the public. The Code regulated much of private law matters such as property, wills, contracts, liability and obligations. Many of its parts are traceable to Roman law. The French Code inspired similar civil codes in the Canadian Province of Quebec (1865), Germany (1900) and Switzerland (1907)<br />1864: The Geneva Convention<br />This agreement was designed to provide for minimal human rights in time of war such as the protection of military medical personnel and for the humane treatment of the wounded. It was later supplemented by a Prisoner of War Convention. Although frequently ignored in military operations, this documents remains an important legal document which, for the first time ever, sets out rudimentary standards of human decency during war.<br />1865: The Thirteenth Amendment<br />By this change to the American Constitution, slavery was abolished in the USA.<br />1945-46: The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial<br />A special panel of eight judges convened in this German town to try Nazi officers for crimes against peace, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed during World War II. The judges came from the USA, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Twenty-four Nazis were tried and twelve received death penalties (although one defendant, Hermann Göring, committed suicide hours before his execution). This trial was important as it showed that even in times of war, basic moral standards apply in spite of military law principles which oblige a subordinate officer to obey orders. "The true test," wrote the Tribunal, "is not the existence of the (superior) order but whether moral choice (in executing it) was in fact possible". The crimes included torture, deportation, persecution and mass extermination.<br />1948: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)<br />The GATT was developed by the United Nations and has served as a catalyst for the lifting of legal barriers against the free movement of goods, services and people. Now under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, the implementation of GATT by almost all countries is causing commercial law interplay between differing legal systems and, in most cases, providing impetus for those legal systems to move towards similarity and compatibility. The GATT also shows a new emphasis of the development of law in the world: from military and basic rights to trade and economic matters.<br />94.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) "We the people," starts the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776.<br />95. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans respectfully assert furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant(s) (The United States of America) Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) on December 6, 1865 which “slavery” was placed in to action by said Defendant back during the year 1619<br />(246) Years the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans held against their peace, dignity and will for Slavery by the Defendant (The United States of America) herein under conformity of all “slave codes” as described in paragraph (15) above which time thereafter said defendant (The United States of America)Established instead of freedom for (Negros) in 1865 <br />Moreover said defendant establish “Black Codes” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) as described in paragraph (23) – (30) above while all of the comforts of the Defendant Constitution provisions being amendments 1-13 still do not pertain to the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) under new established “Black code” restriction as described by the Black Codes them self.<br />96. <br />Defendant(s) herein (The United States of America) already having secure sinfully in institute of their “iron brand” on (White supremacy) being well established for (246) years to date from 1619-1865<br />Include but not limited placement of crimes for (among other things) (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein obtain learning to write and having reading skills in the (246) past years.<br />97.<br />Now said Defendant (The United States of America) having once again secure sinfully in the instituted “Black Codes” to insure said Defendant (White Supremacy) in the time frame of 1865 by Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson)<br />To aid in said Defendant (The United States of America) civil/criminal conspiracy by further “hinder and regulate” Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) ability to (In among other things) obtain possession of “simple” learning to write and reading skills for (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein self preserve and equal advancement within the Defendant (The United States of America) in 1865.<br />98.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” intention, goal, aim, objective, meaning at the time of draft and blueprint against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein was fully design in “language and content” for the full “defamation purpose” intent to produce the effected concentration on inferior, lesser value, low-grade, substandard second –rate, shoddy, imperfect quality of all of the human (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Blacks African Americans living within the Defendant (The United States of America) during the precise time frame in 1865.<br />99.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein assert and strongly state upright, admirable, and honorable before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America)who did in all facts, status, state of affairs, position, circumstances and conditions after defendant imposed “Slave codes” capitol criminal institution situation and the release into freedom of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein;<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein assert and strongly state upright, admirable, and honorable before the “Honorable Justice” Said described defendant herein (The United States of America) <br />And Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson blueprint, design and executed continue a well self preserved (White Supremacy) destructed (RICO) pattern and practices to destroy all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein “civil reputation” by the creation of an “defamation environment” all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans having to “now endure” at the hand of the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Dishonorable as before “only under the new disguise malice” of limited freedom such as “Black Codes” being legal declare, provide regulations, and upon enforce punishment for violations<br /> Notwithstanding all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans facing wrongful death execution for exercising an attempt at voting rights in the year of 1865 within the Defendant (The United State of America).<br />100.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the first “comprehended defamatory and injurious statements” made in a public manner against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein was in fact published by said Defendant (The United States of America) <br />And Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) “Black Codes” declared that an action could be brought up against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein under this defamatory rule for continue control over all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein and assert fully Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy”.<br />101.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) and the Co-defendant (President Andrew Johnson) at the expensive of the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) life, peace, will, and dignity under blue printed defamatory “Black Codes” Defendant herein assurance continue supply of inexpensive (Negro) Plaintiff(s) and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein as agricultural labor, and maintain Defendant herein (The United States of America) (White) dominated hierarchy.<br />102.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” in addition said Defendant (The United States of America) and the Co-defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein, being actual (Founder of Ku Klux Klan) a paramilitary organization with a well-established records within the Defendant (The United States of America) of engaging in complete terrorism against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein,<br />103.<br /> The Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” such paramilitary organization as the (KKK) under the “direction” of the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) at the peace, will, dignity and expensive of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein already damaged reputation by the infamous “Black Codes” <br />Published defamatory among other things (Life Threaten election poster, pamphlets within the Defendant (The United States of America) especially dealing with terrorizing (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans votes<br />Being fullydesigned to be in full view throughout public to the effect that the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) is of immoral, wicked, morally wrong outlandish and terrifying human life creature being,<br /> Furtherance such defamatory practices and pattern by all said described Defendant(s) above is moral sanction and justify in the massive hanging and lynching of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />104.<br /> Argument II<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant institution of “Jim Crow Laws” as described in paragraph (43) above <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein state exactly between the precise time frame of 1870 and 1884, eleven of the Defendant (The United States of America) southern states legally banned miscegenation, or interracial marriages.<br />105.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein state exactly the Defendant (The United States of America) legal imposed bans were the "ultimate segregation laws" in that they clearly spelled out the idea that (whites) were superior to all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans herein<br /> And that any mixing of the two threatened Defendant (The United States of America) “White Status” and the “purity” of the “White Race” within the defendant (The United States of America). <br />106.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully with simplicity and ease assert before the “Honorable Justice” numerous (RICO) defamatory pattern and practices were instituted by the said described defendant herein;<br />In that among other things the Defendant (The United States of America) Schools by “blue print and devise” executed under “Jim Crow” segregation laws of the defendant herein appeared on the books in nearly every defendant (The United States of America) southern state prior to 1888, beginning with namely Tennessee and Arkansas in 1866. <br />Virginia erected in 1869 a constitutional ban against blacks and whites attending the same schools, followed by Tennessee in 1870, Alabama and North Carolina in 1875, Texas in 1876, Georgia in 1877, and Florida in 1885. Arkansas and Mississippi passed school segregation statutes in 1873 and 1878.<br />107.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Jim Crow Laws” wrongfully libel and label (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans conduct before public as being “ban- mannered”, “discourteous”,” impolite”, “vulgar”, “disrespectful” and straightforwardness to the exact point and effect all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) are very “foul creatures”;<br />108.<br /> Thus required the said Defendant herein (The United States of America) to supply such a defamatory (RICO) “pattern and practices” in the implementation in all of the “Jim Crow Laws” as some being described in paragraph (45) above to be fully direct, executed against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein from a precise time frame 1866 herein well into and beyond the time frame of 1965 over 100 years defendant (The United States of America) <br />III “Jim Crow defamatory civil and criminal Law phase” being organization, established, introduce, set up, emplaced, instituted and foundation against the peace, will, and dignity of all of the described (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />109.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) usage of “defamation device” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein <br />Through said defendant (The United States of America) “infusion combination cocktail blend” to incite pure “ignorance”,” “racism”, and “violence” among the (White Supremacy) race against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein<br /> Devised for the Defendant (The United States of America) prolong self-interest to be sustain and spread racial divisions through defamatory pattern and practices through “Jim Crow Laws” of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />110.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” By 1900, Defendant herein (The United States of America new “Jim Crow laws” and Defendant (The United States of America) old (Slavery) customs in the North and the South states of the Defendant,<br /> (The United States of America) had created a complete “segregated hostile society” that used “defamatory tactic” to fully condemn the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein (Negro) race to “second-class citizenship”.<br />111.<br />Argument III<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant fight over (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Blacks Africans Americans civil rights issue. <br />112.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) race for governor of Ohio in 1867. Allen Granbery Thurman’s campaign included the promise of barring all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American Black citizens from voting. He narrowly lost to future Co-Defendant President Rutherford B. Hayes.<br />113.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) Denying (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black men the right to vote through legal defamatory maneuvering and violence was a first step in taking away the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans civil rights. <br />114.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein respectfully assert further before the “Honorable Justice” Beginning in the 1890s, Defendant (The United States of America)southern states enacted literacy tests, poll taxes, elaborate registration systems, and eventually whites-only Democratic Party primaries to exclude (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans voters. <br />115.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein respectfully assert further the Defendant (The United States of America) defamatory vote laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) proved very effective.<br /> In Defendant Mississippi, fewer than 9,000 of the 147,000 voting-age (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans were registered after 1890. <br />In Louisiana, where more than 130,000 (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans voters had been registered in 1896, the number had plummeted to 1,342 by 1904. <br />116.<br />Argument IV<br />(Negro)Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant (The United States of America) states Both Indiana (1816) and Illinois (1818) abolished slavery by their constitutions. <br />However both followed the state of Ohio policy of trying to prevent (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans immigration by passing laws of the Defendant (The United States of America) requiring (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans <br />Who moved into the said state above of the Defendant (The United States of America) to produce legal documents verifying that (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans were free and further posting bond to guarantee the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans were of “good behavior”.<br />117.<br />Argument V<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the Honorable Justice” (In the early to mid-1800's) "The overwhelming majority of white northerners within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Care little about the welfare of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American slaves, and treated (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) blacks African Americans who lived among (White Citizens) with extreme contempt, ridicule, discrimination and sometimes violence.<br />118.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) under the imposed “Black Codes” in 1865 hold that all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans reputation, standing, and character in the Defendant (The United States of America) public <br />Being fully contempt, at a complete state of ridicule by impeaching the “actual Honesty of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein ability from testifying “Honesty” against a “Whiteman” in a Court of Law.<br />119.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff African American herein (Hamilton II) his entire (Negro) family and all of the (Negro) Plaintiff(s)African Americans herein embrace, become accustomed to, quite familiarize, and accommodate to the Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Codes” sound underlayment foundation <br />In providing the actual defamatory start of defendant (The United States of America) pattern and practices against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race since 1619 well into the year of our lord 2011.<br />120.<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully complimentary assert on behalf of Defendant herein (The United States of America) being fully in this time frame, 2011 safe and sound, <br />Secure, protected, assured, and quite stable in its own self preserved “blueprint establishment” of “Absolute White Supremacy” and “Absolute Immunity” for “White Supremacy” on behalf of the said described defendant herein (The United State of America) (White) race “over all other” living human (race) as rule by the Defendant (The United States of America) “Supreme Court” of the (Americans) land “as simply Refer to”<br /> Dred Scott (No.s 251-256), Pace vs Alabama (No.s 254-256), The Civil Rights Cases (No.s 257-258), Plessy vs Furgusson (No.s 259-303) and Cummings vs Richmond (No.s 304-305)Ozawa v. United States (1922), United States v. Thind (1923), Lum v. Rice (1927), Hirabayashi v. United States (1943), Korematsu v. United States (1944).<br />121.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” being at state of continue standing left very legally vulnerable, at the hands of Defendant (The United States of America) by all of the past insulting, libelous, (RICO) defamatory pattern and practices of single out the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American race herein (among others).<br />122.<br />From the past date of 1619 for (1), “slavery for 100% profit” of the described defendant, (2) abuse by install some sort of freedom imposed under a derogatory legal defamatory second class citizenship installments through a (RICO) device of civil/criminal “Black Codes 1865-66 and “Jim Crow Laws” into 1960s to secure non other further 100% profit” by Defendant (The United States of America)<br />123.<br />Enforcement of “cheap labor” upon, and at the expensive of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans as described herein on behalf of Defendant (The United States of America) exercise, execute of an offensive manipulation, exploitation, cruelty, maltreatment, neglect<br /> And violence associated with said defamatory abuse of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein through the casting of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans <br />As “human trash” belittle, sneer at, mock, ridicule, disrespect and scorn before the public of the Defendant (United States of America) and all of its neighbors (Countries) by said defamatory abuse and continue manipulation for the main objective 100% greed in Defendant (The United States of America) pursuit for profit and (White Supremacy). <br />124.<br />Argument VI<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert all out and very straight forward before the “Honorable Justice” <br />Defendant (The United States of America) entire “slave codes” in its entirety was quite hostile, defamatory practices and actions developed, directed, against the peace, will, dignity over all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race being (Negro) herein<br /> For said described defendant (The United States of America) selfish profit and greed and to secure a “White Superior Race” standing over all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race herein<br /> (Among) secure standing for said described defendant (The United States of America) over any others (race) other the “White” within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />125.<br /> Argument VII<br />(Negro)Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) <br />“Complete Hostile “Defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah “direct and blueprinted” against the peace, will, and dignity of all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans described here.<br />126.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, factual in <br />that before the “Honorable Justice” in that “Brigham Young” the President of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, and the first band of “Mormon” pioneers came to the Defendant (The United States of America) State namely Utah, city of Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. <br />Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers crossed the plains and settled in Utah.[12]<br />For the first few years Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive. <br />The barren desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place they could practice their religion without interference.<br />127.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert furtherance’s in that before the “Honorable Justice” “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, seek hidden, concealed, secreted out of sight practices of their religion which involved practice of plural marriage, or polygamy, among its members.<br /> However they may veiled in such out of sight marriages.<br />128.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully furtherance’s assert and state strong before the “Honorable Justice” The Latter Day Saint movement has had a range of “policies and doctrines” relating to race in regard to (Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein- with all descended people of (Negro) race.<br />Many References to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans people, and social condition <br />Many References to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans herein people spiritual standing place in Western Christianity<br /> Many Mormon scriptures complicated, with varying “degrees and forms” of defamatory and discrimination against black people as described in support in paragraph (130) and 131) below.<br />129.<br />"You see some classes of the human family that are black, uncouth, uncomely, disagreeable and low in their habits, wild, and seemingly deprived of nearly all the blessings of the intelligence that is generally bestowed upon mankind.<br />The first man that committed the odious crime of killing one of his brethren will be cursed the longest of any one of the children of Adam. Cain slew his brother. Cain might have been killed, and that would have put a termination to that line of human beings.<br />This was not to be, and the Lord put a mark upon him, which is the flat nose and black skin. Trace mankind down to after the flood, and then another curse is pronounced upon the same race--that they should be the "servant of servants;" and they will be, until that curse is removed."<br />Brigham Young-President and second 'Prophet' of the Mormon Church, 1844-1877- Extract from Journal of Discourses.<br />130.<br />The Book of Mormon.<br /> 1: 2 Nephi 5: 21- 'And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, that they had become like unto a flint; wherefore, as they were white, and exceedingly fair and delightsome, that they might not be enticing unto my people, the Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them.'<br />Alma 3: 6"And the skins of the Lamanites were dark, according to the mark which was set upon their fathers, which was a curse upon them because of their transgression and their rebellion against their brethren, who consisted of Nephi, Jacob, and Joseph, and Sam, who were just and holy men."<br />3 Nephi 2:14-15" And it came to pass that those Lamanites who had united with the Nephites were numbered among the Nephites; And their curse was taken from them, and their skin became white like unto the Nephites."<br />Moses 7:22" And Enoch also beheld the residue of the people which were the sons of Adam; and they were a mixture of all the seed of Adam save it was the seed of Cain, for the seed of Cain were black, and had not place among them."<br />Abraham 1:21-24,27"Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land."<br />"The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in the land."<br />"Now, Pharaoh being of that lineage by which he could not have the right of Priesthood, notwithstanding the Pharaohs would fain claim it from Noah, through Ham, therefore my father was led away by their idolatry"<br />131.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert furtherance’s in that before the “Honorable Justice” “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, Brigham Young and other Church Presidents and Apostles taught from 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine; <br />That "Negroes" Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein are "cursed" and "inferior" and the children of Cain and were "less valiant" in the War in Heaven, <br />And thus all "Negroes" Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) blacks were "banned" (called "the priesthood-ban") from the Mormon priesthood and Mormon Temples until June 8th, 1978.<br />132.<br />To include but not limited to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, President Brigham Young preached that God's Law demanded that interracial couples should be "killed on the spot" along with their children by having their “throats cut”, and their “blood spilling upon the ground”.<br />133.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert quite “dreadful and ghastly” in that before the “Honorable Justice”: the Defendant (The United States of America) is the “legal holding direct responsible party” of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, appalling, evil, debauched, unscrupulous, ruthless, unruly, grave disposition, nature, character and outlook upon all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans herein by first and foremost Defendant (The United States of America)<br /> Introduction of *See (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans paragraph (15 ) above: in the “Warp Defamatory practices” by said defendant (The United States of America) refinement of “Slavery” with all of its, misshapenness, trimmings, deformity , distortion, abnormality in that this is not nice either…..duh….<br />134.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” give direct, complete, upfront, and blunt factual guide in that The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. <br />The Defendant (The United States of America) U.S. Government, which had been reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the Defendant (The United States of America) union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.<br />Members of the LDS Church were viewed as un-American and rebellious when news of their polygamous practices spread. In 1857, <br />Particularly heinous accusations of abdication, resignation, abandonment of the Defendant (The United States of America) federal government.<br />135.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully state before the “Honorable Justice” A steady stream of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Governors appointed by the “President James Buchanan” administration quit the position, often citing the traditions of their supposed territorial (Utah) government. <br />By “full agreement” between “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, President Brigham Young, and the Defendant (The United States of America) and its federal troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston<br />Albert Sidney Johnston established Camp Floyd, 40 miles (60 km) away from the Defendant (The United States of America) city of “Salt Lake City”, to the southwest and absolutely, from top to bottom, from tip to toe, wholly and completely provided the “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, their President Brigham Young, and all<br />Mormons their closed society, enclave, commune, community to practice their “Mormon” religion as described therein without any , intrusion, meddling, hindrance interference or intervention by the Defendant (The United States of America) .<br />136. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully state before the “Honorable Justice” Because of the American Civil War, federal troops were pulled out of Utah Territory in 1861.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) territory of (Utah) was then left furtherance’s without prying, interfering, meddling and in complete control of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, its President Brigham Young, LDS Mormons hands until Patrick E. Connor arrived with a regiment of California volunteers in 1862. <br />Connor established Fort Douglas just 3 miles (5 km) east of Salt Lake City and encouraged his people to discover mineral deposits to bring more non-Mormons into the territory with no intervention, snoop, be inquisitive, interfere in “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, <br /> And their President Brigham Young, closed society, enclave, commune, community to be further allow to practice their “Mormon” religion as described therein without any interference from the Defendant (The United States of America) time frame of 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine;, <br />To include but not limited to secret "Endowment Ceremony" in Mormon Temples The original Endowment portrayed a Christian minister as a hirling of Lucifer, the Devil as a black man, Mormons were washed nude in tubs, and swore blood oaths not to reveal Endowment secrets (oaths removed in 1990).<br />137. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United State of America) fail completely in full disclosure to all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein the “confidentiality agreement” made between the “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, their past President Brigham Young, and any and all future Church President acting on the behalf of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, and all<br />LDS Mormons having been provided their full sought closed society, enclave, commune, community to fully continues practice their “Mormon” religion as described therein without any, intrusion, meddling, hindrance interference or intervention by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />138.<br />While namely The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, ongoing full “religion practices and rituals” being fully<br />In direct “hostile”, defamatory”, conflict” with all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans described herein own religious faith, will, dignity ,and pursuit of liberty & happiness free from religious prosecution within Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah, <br />Furtherance’s All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein having assurance by said Defendant (The United States of America) full security in normalize, peace, and dignity as provided for the said described defendant (White) race.<br />139.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein own up, admit, divulge factual documentation in that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first declare The registration of the copyright of the “Book of Mormon” in Great Britain came to be in 1841 when Parley P. Pratt, Brigham Young and Heber C Kimball took five copies of the 1830-version of the “Book of Mormon” into Stationer's Hall in London.<br />140.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein own up, admit, divulge furtherance’s factual documentation in that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first American edition of the “Book of Mormon” was published in 1830, followed by another edition published in Kirtland, Ohio in 1837.<br /> In which said Defendant (The United States of America) having full knowledge of the content, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first American edition of the Book of Mormon important significance, meaning, connotation and consequence in its “ hostile direct action(s)” in the full rituals defamatory religious practices at the expensive, peace, will, and dignity of the all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />141.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s factual substance in that the Defendant (The United States of America) comply in “full knowledge” of the content, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first American edition of the “Book of Mormon” it’s important defamatory significance, meaning, connotation and consequence <br />Defendant herein (The United States of America) publish, aid, manufacturing , distribution, mail circulation and made transmission of the “Book of Mormon” full rituals defamatory religious practices at the defamatory expensive, peace, will, and dignity against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein within the Defendant (The United States of America) custody, possession and control.<br />142.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s factual substance in that the Defendant (The United States of America) break down, crash, neglect and continue to fail fully to provide all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black herein significant “Public caution”, counsel, notification, alert, cautionary, forewarning, word of warning <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and (Negro) descendants thereof being subject in serious, jeopardy, peril, danger, harm, risk at being fully subject to the religious prosecution, prejudgment, defamatory prejudice practices, ridicule, mockery, scoff at, bigotry, hate, violence associated with Discrimination by the religious teaching of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints” and “a very “large percentage” of its “Mormon commune” in long-standing, deep-rooted, from way back full support of old “Mormon traditions”.<br />143.<br />Argument VIII<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully apply for the “Honorable Justice” application viewing in the Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices from the past as described herein thus continue being present today in manuscript, books, films, movies, pictures, radio broadcast,<br /> Televise, program, recording, relay, leaflets, promotional vote material, flyers ,school academic, screen and cinema fully having produce and depict the Defendant herein (The United States of America) exhibit, demonstration, flaunt, parade, pose, make an exhibition of display before Defendant (The United States of America) “National Public”<br />144.<br /> And all of its Neighbors countries a defamatory insulting predicament plight against the will, peace and dignity of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans described herein by said Defendant (The United States of America) force imposed conquer in providing defamatory slavery suffrage, defamatory “black codes coerce full manipulation” and defamatory Jim Crow” push continue compel constrain on segregation.<br />145.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” historically the Defendant (The United State of America) “Black Codes and “Jim Crow laws” were in many ways a model adoption for the Nuremberg Laws, German legislation against Jews, which the Congress of the Nazi Party met to pass in 1935.<br />146.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s the Defendant (The United State of America) 1865 “Black Codes and later “Jim Crow laws” instituted against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein was used as a main drafting outline for <br />These Nuremberg Laws, German legislation policies of 1933-1940 “targeted peoples”, in particular Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals and handicapped people, who were labeled as "inferior" in a racial hierarchy that placed the Herrenvolk (or "master race") of the Volksgemeinschaft (or "national community") at the top, and ranked Slavs, Romani, persons of color and Jews at the bottom.<br />147.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein furtherance’s assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United State of America) 1865 “Infamous black codes” forced inherited laws and 1867 “Jim Crow” continue defamatory laws era of said described defendant being<br />Instituted against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein existed well into 1964 during the passage of the Defendant (The United States of America) Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964)<br />*See Plaintiff exhibit (A) Birth Certificate of the (Negro) Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) Navy Veteran born November 8th 1961 in Los Angeles CA<br />*See Plaintiff exhibit (B) the (Negro) Plaintiff(s) (Barack Hussein Obama II) the 44th President of the Defendant (The United States of America) whom was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu Oahu.<br />148.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” in history as times gone by the Defendant (The United State of America) “ <br />Having premeditated a future positioned, emplaced, very factual herein 2011 a true defamatory state, unnerve, ongoing, placement of an “outstanding”, “unresolved”, “open-end”, arguable “second class citizenship” remain still upon all of the “Jim Crow Born Babies” born under 1964 as described herein by the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans exhibit(s) (A) and (B)<br />149.<br />To include but not limited to the “religious curse of Cain prosecution doctrine” and all of its ill trimmings and teachings by the Defendant (The United States of America) state primarily “Utah” and the “Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” well and beyond 1978<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans Being actively religious sought out separate and prosecuted against, <br />While legally (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans held racial substandard humans also in suit in common civil law and criminal law<br /> Being wrongfully civil/criminal/religious directed against the entire (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein this undersigned date within the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah as described in paragraph (32) throughout paragraph (42) above <br />And as furtherance’s described in paragraph (126) throughout paragraph (144).<br />150.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” Injury to Personal Reputation, Impeaching Honesty, Imputation of Crime, Disease and Sexual Misconduct<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein a outstanding cause for actions against the Defendant (The United States of America) in regards to all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American reputed Injuries sustained to “Personal Reputation attacks, Impeaching Honesty in court of laws, Imputation of Crime, Disease and Sexual Misconduct is to a certain extent extreme <br />“Defamatory pattern and practices” by the Defendant (The United States of America) in their “Malicious Intermarriage Laws as some described below:<br />151.<br />Intermarriage The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona <br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida <br />Intermarriage It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. Georgia <br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between the negro and a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. Maryland <br />Intermarriage The marriage of a white person with a negro or mulatto or person who shall have one-eighth or more of negro blood, shall be unlawful and void. Mississippi <br />Intermarriage All marriages between...white persons and negroes or white persons and Mongolians...are prohibited and declared absolutely void...No person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person, nor shall any white person be permitted to marry any negro or person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood. Missouri <br />Intermarriage All marriages of white persons with Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming <br />Cohabitation Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida <br />152.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) Anti-miscegenation laws, that enforced racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships between all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and all (White) "races". <br />153.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) Anti-miscegenation laws,<br /> Four miscegenation laws were passed in Utah between 1888 and 1953, prohibiting intermarriage between whites and those of African or Asian descent. School segregation was barred in 1895. <br /> The “Utah” state's miscegenation law was repealed in 1963. <br /> 154.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “absolutely assert” before the “Honorable Justice” all legal charge of “pattern and practices” in defamatory accusation, insinuation, and legal law citation of imputation of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American reputation(s)<br /> Being involving in such Crime, disease and sexual misconduct is fully and foremost evident in the passage of the Anti-miscegenation laws, by the Defendant (The United State of America) there after the “Black Codes” law were removed to include but limited to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Blacks African Americans herein affirm before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) state<br /> Namely Ohio had enacted Black Laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein in 1804 and 1807 that compelled (Negro) blacks entering the Defendant (The United States of America) state of Ohio to post bond of $500 guaranteeing “good behavior” and to produce a court paper as proof that they were free.<br />155.<br />Prompting (all) Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein from the passage of slavery time to this very undersign date well place “high admiration” and having a “loving high regard” for Canada <br />With the “appreciate” true Canadian unselfish offer of a “safe home” from the “Governor” for all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />And a “firm message” "Tell the “Republicans” on your side of the line that we “Royalists” do not know men by their color. <br />Should you come to us you will be entitled to all the privileges of the rest of His Majesty's subjects." <br /> 156.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein “affirm and establish” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) Anti-miscegenation laws, 1865 “Black Codes and later “Jim Crow laws” <br />Fully instituted against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein was used also as a main drafting profile outline for These Nuremberg Laws, German legislation policies of 1933-1940<br /> To single out one race being described as inferior for all aspect in discrimination advantages to be effective it was essential to have a clear definition of who was or was not a Jew. <br />This was one important function of the “Nuremberg laws” and the numerous supplementary decrees that were proclaimed to further them.<br /> 157.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans state for the “Honorable Justice clear facts The Reich Citizenship Law had little practical effect as it deprived German Jews only of the right to “vote and hold office” <br /> Same as the Defendant (The United States of America) “Black codes” mandate and made exclusive against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein in regards to also “vote and hold office” to secure Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” <br /> To include but not limited to the Defendant (The United States of America) acknowledge to established all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein as inferior human subjects, very substandard and complete low-grade in familiarity relationships of intimacy between (Negro) and superior (White).<br />158.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully honestly state before the “Honorable Justice” reincorporate and reinforce fully all as described in the Complaint(s) to include all as being detail fully herein from paragraph (1) throughout paragraph (159) above<br /> Said described Defendant herein (The United States of America) being fully committed to Defamation, Slander, and Libel of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in a Timeline of 1619-2011<br />(A).1619-1865-(Slavery) against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />(B). July 24th 1847-(open) “Religious Prosecution” by the “Utah” and “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />(C). 1865-1866-(Black Codes) Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and “KKK” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />(D). 1866-1964-(Jim Crow Laws) and “KKK” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />159. <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “discharged clear” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Black Codes were written Laws”, in clear cut American English hand written language describing a full comprehensible plain being unmistakable defamatory libel<br /> That all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein placement in 1865 there after alleged Freemen within the Defendant (The United States of America) status being “Second Class Citizens” as described above in paragraph (29) and (30).<br />160.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “discharged clear” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Jim Crow Laws” were written Laws”, in clear cut American English hand written language describing a full comprehensible plain being unmistakable defamatory libel<br /> that all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein placement there after alleged Freemen within the Defendant (The United States of America) status being “Second Class Citizens” as described above in paragraph (43) and (90).<br />161.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “discharged clear” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” and “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” “Book of Mormon” is actual written “Religious Church Doctrines”, in clear cut “American English” hand written language describing a full comprehensible plain being unmistakable defamatory libel<br />Describing that all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein having “defamatory libel spiritual placement” (among other placement) there upon arrival after “Death”<br />162.<br />To include but not limited to Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” incorporated their own version of “Black Codes and “Jim Crow Laws” of their own in the (Utah) “Mormon LDS Nation” within the Defendant (The United States of America) all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein status to being “Second Class Citizens” and beyond.<br />163.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) cause of action(s) <br />Count (2). <br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument I<br />All Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully unmistakable assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) has committed massive “Wrongful Death” against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) descendants as described:<br /> (A).1619-1865-Insitution and maintain “Chattel Slavery” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for a scheme of things for exploitation of 100% profit.<br />(B). 1865-1866-(Enforcement of Black Codes) by Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and “KKK” conspire to maintain the same against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for a scheme of things for exploitation of 100% profit. <br />(C). 1866-1964-(Jim Crow Laws) and “KKK” conspire to maintain the same against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for a scheme of things for exploitation of 100% profit. <br />164.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” extreme “wrongful death” occurred against the all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) first and foremost on the “List of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans “slave ships”<br />Adelaide, French slave ship, sank 1714 near Cuba. <br />Aurore, along with the Duc du Maine, the first French slave ships that brought the first slaves to Louisiana. <br />La Amistad, cargo ship which sometimes carried slaves. <br />Braunfisch, a Brandenburgian slave ship lost in 1688 in a revolt. <br />Brookes, sailing in the 1780s.<br />Clotilde, burned and sunk at Mobile, in autumn 1859. <br />Cora, captured by the USS Constellation in 1860. <br />The Creole case was the result of a slave rebellion in 1841 on board the Creole, a ship involved in the United States coastwise slave trade. <br />Desire, first American slave ship. <br />This ship sailed from La Rochelle in 1784, picked up about 500 Africans from north of the Congo River, and sold its slaves in Saint Domingue.<br />La Rochelle slave ship Le Saphir ex-voto, 1741<br />Elisabeth, sailing from Jamaica for West Africa. <br />Duc du Maine, along with the Aurore, the first French slave ships that brought the first slaves to Louisiana. <br />Fredensborg, Danish slave ship, sank in 1768 off Tromøy in Norway, after a journey in the triangular trade. Leif Svalesen has written a book about the journey. <br />Hannibal. An English slaver of the Atlantic slave trade. <br />Henrietta Marie. Sank 1700 near Marquesas Keys, Florida, excavated in 1980s. <br />Hope, American brig which brought slaves to Rhode Island <br />Jesus of Lübeck 700-ton ship used on the second voyage of John Hawkins to transport 400 captured Africans in 1564. Queen Elizabeth I was his partner and rented him the vessel. <br />Kron-Printzen, Danish slave ship, sank in 1706 with 820 slaves on board. <br />Le Concord. Slave ship turned pirate ship aka Queen Anne's Revenge. Sank 1717. <br />Lord Ligonier. <br />Don Francisco. Slave ship captured in 1837. Sold as a colonial trader renamed James Matthews. Excavated by Western Australian Museum in 1974 <br />Madre de Deus (Mother of God), 1567. John Hawkins captured this ship and transported 400 Africans. <br />Manuela, built as clipper ship Sunny South, captured by HMS Brisk in Mozambique Channel with over 800 slaves aboard. <br />Margaret Scott confiscated and sunk as part of the Stone fleet in 1862 <br />Nightingale, clipper ship captured by Saratoga near Cabinda, Angola in 1861 with 961 slaves aboard. <br />Pons, American built barque captured by the USS Yorktown 1 December 1845 with 850-900 slaves.<br />Salamander, Brandenburgian slave ship. <br />Sally, of Newport, Rhode Island - reviewed in the Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. <br />Tecora, Portuguese slave ship that transported the slaves who would later revolt aboard La Amistad. <br />Triton captured by the USS Constellation 1861. <br />Trouvadore, wrecked in Turks and Caicos 1841. 193 slaves survived. Project commenced in 2004 to locate the ship. <br />Wanderer, formerly last slave ship to the U.S. (Nov. 1858) until Clotilde reported. <br />Wildfire, a barque, arrested off the Florida coast by the US Navy in 1860; carrying 450 slaves.<br />Whydah Gally, slave ship turned into pirate ship-sank 1717. <br />Zong, a British slave ship infamous for the massacre which occurred on board in 1781. <br />165.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) cause of action(s) <br />Count (2). <br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument II<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” extreme “wrongful death” occurred against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein during:<br />*Defendant (The United States of America) enforcement of Slave codes (Wrongful death occurred) 1619-1865<br />*Defendant (The United States of America) Black codes enforcement (Wrongful death occurred) 1865-1866<br />*Defendant (The United States of America) Jim Crow Laws enforcement (Wrongful death occurred) 1866-1964<br />166. <br /> “Wrongful Death”<br />Argument III<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein assert, declare and make clear before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United State of America) cause “Wrongful Death” for education reasoning as follows by defendant (The United States of America) State (among others) namely as described below: <br />North Carolina<br />“Any free person, who shall teach, or attempt to teach, any slave to or write, the use of figures excepted, or shall give or sell to such slave any book or pamphlet, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, if a white man or women, shall be fine not less than one hundred nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned, and if a free person of colour, shall be fined, imprisoned, or whipped not exceeding thirty-nine nor less than twenty lashes.<br />167.<br />"If any person shall willfully bring into the State, with an intent to circulate, or shall aid or abet the bringing into, or the circulation or publication, the State, any written or printed in or out of the State, <br />The evident tendency whereof is to cause slaves to become discontented with the bondage in which they are held by their masters and the laws regulating the same, and free negroes to be dissatisfied with their social condition and the denial to them of political privileges, <br />And thereby to excite among the said slaves and free negroes a disposition to make conspiracies, insurrections, or resistance against the peace and quiet of the public, such person so offending shall be deemed guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof shall, for the first offence, be imprisoned not less than one year, <br />And be put in the pillory and whipped, at the discretion of the court, and for the second offence shall suffer death.<br />168.<br />Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff assert honestly before the “Honorable Justice” millions of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) were captured over a “three to four” hundred year period” by the Defendant (The United States of America) and then transported under the most horrible conditions, so many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American as much as a third died in transit. <br /> Then tortured and beaten for the smallest reasons, many died when they got here just from such “Killer Abuse”.<br />169.<br /> The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American slave’s descendants were considered property by the Defendant (The United States of America) like cattle,<br />Many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) were worked to death. <br /> Lived under very poor conditions and many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants were beaten to death by the Defendant (The United States of America) for trying to escape. <br />170.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” to take “Judicial Notice” all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans descendants were also considered 3/5 of a human being, <br />So it is hard to count how many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans there were doing this time frame of 1619-1865 being captured and “just simply” Killed off as described throughout “Slavery of the (Negro) race.<br />And I Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) don't think you the “Honorable Justice” can put a number on exact how many wrongful death occurred during this time frame.<br />171.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein assert that the Defendant (The United States of America) and their paramilitary organization Ku Klux Klan <br />Reconstruction 1st Klan (1865-1877) <br />Nathan Bedford Forrest, leader of the first Klan committed this atrocity Fort Pillow Massacre 1864 277 blacks,<br />1500 estimated by the Tuskegee Institute 1200 blacks 300 whites 100-200 killed in South Carolina 150 Florida The rest mostly killed during (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American black voting in Louisiana in the 1868 the Defendant (The United States of America) US Presidential Election by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and the Ku Klux Klan The Klan was also partially involved in the Colfax Massacre (1873) Colfax riot occurred, more than 100 African American men killed;<br />172.<br />Nadir 2nd Klan ( 1915 - 1944) 416 Klan was frequently involved in lynching’s, killed mostly blacks in this era Murdered Blacks returning from WW1 Killed Leo Frank (Jewish White) Killed 6 blacks attempting to vote in Orange County Florida <br />173.<br />Civil Rights 3rd Klan (1954-1968) <br />In states such of the Defendant (The United States of America) as Alabama and Mississippi, Klan members forged alliances with governors' administrations.<br />In Birmingham and elsewhere, the KKK groups bombed the houses of (Negro) civil rights activists. <br />In some cases they used physical violence, intimidation and assassination directly against (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black Africans Americans individuals.<br /> Many murders against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein went unreported and were not prosecuted by the Defendant (The United States of America) local and state “White” authorities.<br />These murders are well known and include, but are not limited to 1963 murder Medgar Evers 1963 16th street Baptist church bombing 1964 Mississippi Burning 1965 Viola Luizo Shooting 1966 Vernon Dahmer Killing <br />174.<br />David Duke 4th Klan 1979 Greensboro Massacre 5 killed <br />175.5th Klan 1981 Lynching Michael Donald <br />176.<br />6th Klan (2010)<br /> Dec 15, 2010 ... 26 year old African American “Frederick Jermaine Carter was found hanging in the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Mississippi tree in a white suburb on Friday, December 3, 2010 <br />(Rule suicide) <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein, “NAACP” and especially Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) “fully do not agree at all”.<br />177.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein, assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the following figures in a direction to allow estimation before the Honorable Justice in gage of the possible numerous (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants “Wrongful Death Toll”<br />178.<br />African American Slavery<br />In American Holocaust (1992), David Stannard estimates that some 30 to 60 million Africans died being enslaved. He claims a 50% mortality rate among new slaves while being gathered and stored in Africa, a10% mortality among the survivors while crossing the ocean, and another 50% mortality rate in the first "seasoning" phase of slave labor. Overall, he estimates a 75-80% mortality rate in transit.<br />179.<br />In Slavery A World History, Milton Meltzer estimates that 10 million slaves arrived in the Americas. This would be the residue after 12.5% of those shipped out from Africa died on the ocean, 4-5% died while waiting in harbor, and 33% died during the first year of seasoning.<br />180.<br />In "The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Holocaust" (Is the Holocaust Unique, A. Greebaum, ed., 1996), Seymour Drescher estimates that 21M were enslaved, 1700-1850, of which 7M remained in slavery inside Africa. 4M died "as a direct result of enslavement". Of the 12M shipped to America, 15%, or 2M more, died in the Middle Passage and seasoning year.<br />181.<br />Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1994): "[A]s many as eight million Africans may have died in order to bring four million slaves to the Caribbean islands."<br />182.<br />In The Slave Trade, Hugh Thomas estimates that 13M left African ports, and 11,328,000 arrived. Here are a few other numbers from Thomas:<br />No year-by-year stats, but by piecing together scattered decade stats, I figure that 5M slaves were shipped in the 18th Century. <br />Shipboard mortality among slaves: <br />Mercado in 1569 estimated an average shipboard mortality of 20% <br />Brazilian historians: 15-20% in 16th C; 10% in 19th C. <br />English trade: <br />1680s: 24% <br />early 18th C: 10% <br />1780s: 5.65%<br />Hugh Thomas: 9% reasonable est. for 18th C. <br />19th C <br />Cliffe: 35% <br />House of Commons: 9.1% <br />Thomson: 9% <br />Hotham: 5%<br />183.<br />In the chapter on African population in the Atlas of World Population History (1978), Colin McEvedy estimates that 9.5 million African slaves were imported into the Americas between 1500 and 1880. He also suggests a 15% mortality rate on the ocean.<br />Rummel estimates a total death toll of 17,267,000 African slaves (1451-1870)*****<br />Among slaves going to Orient: 2,400,000 dead <br />Among slaves staying in Africa: 1,200,000 dead <br />Among slaves going to New World: 13,667,000 dead<br />Fredric Wertham claims that 150,000,000 Africans died of the slave trade.<br />184.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” Looking at all the scholarship on the subject, it looks like, at the very least, 35% of those enslaved in Africa died before they were ever put to work in America. <br />On the other hand, at least 20% of them survived. Between these extreme possibilities (35-80%), the most likely mortality rate is 62%.<br />185.<br />In terms of absolute numbers, the lowest possible (and only barely possible at that) death toll we can put on the trans-Atlantic slave trade is 6 million. If the Honorable Justice assume the absolute worst, a death toll as high as 60 million is at the very edge of possibility;<br />186.<br /> However, the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” likeliest number of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants deaths toll would fall somewhere from 15 to 20 million.<br />Death RatesLowLikelyHighSeasoning15%33%50%Arrived9.5M11M15MOcean Crossing10%15%18%Africa20%33%50%Died6M17.8M58M<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans state before the “Honorable Justice” If 5 million (Negro) slaves were shipped in the 18th Century to the Defendant (The United States of America) (the busiest century, see Hugh Thomas, above), <br />Then the 18th Century death toll of the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants could be around 8.1 million. (=5/11*17.8)<br />187.<br />“Keeping in mind before the “Honorable Justice” that these numbers only count the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein descendants “dead” among the first generation of (Negro) slaves brought from Africa to the Defendant (The United States of America).<br /> Subsequent generations of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants would contribute additional “premature or unnatural” deaths by the direct cause by the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />188.<br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument IV<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “emit” for the “Honorable Justice” numerous unrecorded “premature or unnatural” death occurred <br /> Against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants associated with all cause of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein actions for control: <br />In conspirer usage by group force in (among other things) “hanging”, “fire squads”, “bombing”, “Drowning”, Mutilation” <br />By the “intimidation”, “terrorizing”, “harassment” (scheme of things) by the (KKK) in clear “association”, relationship”, involvement”, alliance”, society”<br /> By Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants. <br />189.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “emit” respectful furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) (KKK) being fully funded by said described defendants (USA) <br />In a long (RICO) history involving “Mail and Wire fraud”, “Money Laundry” “Poll taxes” “Theft of direct Taxes”, “Federal Financial Institution Fraud” scheme of things (among other clever scams) all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein diverted “taxes” “property” and other “monetary value” to be put in “full funding support usage” by the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) “Killing Spree” <br />190.<br />Said (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff Black African Americans herein “monetary value” aid in paying for the complete ”Atrocity”, acts of all ”Murder(S)”, “Act of violence”, ”crime” and cruelty by the Defendant (The United States of America) in association with the (KKK) against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein since:<br />(a). <br />First institution of “poll taxes” by Defendant (The United States of America) against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American in the time frame of 1867-1966 <br />With (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants “Illegal Poll Taxes” Being still taken in the usage by the described Defendant (The United States of America) payment to (KKK) during the “Jim Crow Laws” time frame in Defendant (The United States of America) states namely “Alabama”, “Mississippi”, “Texas”, and “Virginia” throughout 1966.<br />(b). <br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) engage in the direct acts in “history” involving “Mail and Wire fraud”, “Money Laundry” <br /> “Theft of Taxes”, “Financial Institution Fraud” and “theft of any monetary value” for a “White Supremacy” (scheme of things) with the Defendant (The United States of America) officially up to the time frame of The Enforcement Act (17 Stat. 13),<br /> Commonly known as the Ku Klux Klan Act or the Civil Rights Act of 1871, at which time payment to the Defendant (The United States of America) themselves was declare illegal to continue said described Defendant (The United States of America) “Atrocity”, and acts of all”Murder(s)”, “Act of violence”,”crime” and cruelty directed at the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein peace, will and dignity<br />192.<br />Section 1 of the act (now codified at 42 U.S.C. § 1983, and called in this entry "section 1983"), provided that any person deprived of rights conferred by the Constitution by someone acting "under color" of law (i.e., a state or local official acting with legally granted authority, or, through purporting to act within such limits, an official may be misusing authority) or custom could bring suit in federal court and recover damages or equitable relief.<br />193.<br /> Section 2 (now codified at 42 U.S.C. § 1985, and called in this entry "section 1985") of the act provided criminal sanctions and a civil damages action for conspiracy to commit a range of offenses. These offenses included attempting to overthrow the government, intimidating witnesses or parties to legal action, using threat or force to influence jurors,<br /> Or going on the highway in disguise to deprive others of the exercise of constitutional rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.<br />194.<br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument V<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” in the mode, behavior, and manner involving of<br /> “Vote disfranchisement” for control by Defendant (The United States of America) and secure “White Supremacy” executed and directed against the peace, will, and dignity of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />195.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” <br />Election of 1876 ranks higher than other disputed elections within the Defendant (The United States of America) because it is set against the backdrop of Reconstruction efforts for the behalf of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants.<br />196.<br /> Samuel Tilden led in popular and electoral votes but was one shy of the necessary votes to win. The existence of disputed electoral votes led to the Compromise of 1877. <br />A commission was formed and voted along party lines, awarding Co-Defendant Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) the “presidency” of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />197.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) 1866-Ku Klux Klan (KKK) being fully funded by said described defendant herein and “established as a “Social Club” <br />For “former confederates soldiers and groups such as “The Knight(s) of the white camellia, the white caps, and other violently upheld the tenets of “White Supremacy” of the Defendant (The United States of America) to redeem the control after defeat during “Civil War”<br />198.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful before the “Honorable Justice” <br />“Moreover” the Defendant (The United States of America) sponsor “Kill Groups” were responsible for the increasing number of anti-negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “Riots” and “Wrongful Death” being caused associated “Lynching’s” or “Negro Vote that convulsed the Defendant (The United States of America) south beginning 1870.<br />199.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Co-defendant President Rutherford B. Hayes agreed to end Reconstruction and recall all Defendant (The United States of America) troops from the South protecting the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein<br />200.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful furtherance’s being all criminal in actions and done by Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) in collusion with Defendant (The United States of America) <br />And their willingness to continue imposed a institution in “White Supremacy” for the continue exploitation in “greed and profit” at the expense of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein exchange for the presidency. <br />201.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful furtherance’s with Significance the election of Co-defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) <br />Meant the end of Defendant (The United States of America) said described “Reconstruction Acts” and official assignments for the (KKK) “Death Warrant” in the numerous of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American receiving premature “Wrongful Deaths” during this time frame being well into 1968 at the hand of “lynching tactics” of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br /> 202.<br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument VI<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the Co-Defendant Herein (President Andrew Johnson) in his “Establishment prime military force in the Institution and actual finding founder of The Infamous “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK). <br />And their “quite” very extreme criminal destructive (RICO) “patter and practices” in leaving and bring about a whole lot of “Wrongful Premeditated Premature Death Toll”, <br />Massive “Theft of property and goods” (among other cruel) acts and actions against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants in collusion with the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Argument VII<br />203.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare furtherance’s “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the Co-Defendant Herein (President Andrew Johnson) in his “Establishment” of “Black Codes” for Profit and establishment of Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” <br />204.<br />Against the peace, rights, will and dignity of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein bring about additional direct cause for action in said “Wrongful Premeditated Premature Death Toll” <br />Being with intent and done against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein in full collusion with the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Argument VIII<br />205.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the Co-Defendant Herein (President Andrew Johnson) in his “Establishment” of “Black codes” direct as follows:<br />206.<br />In terms of real employment, by force labor & prison camps, force under wage employment in full criminal (RICO) pattern and practice of “price fixing with intent for in keeping with already previous establish slave free chattel profits wages<br />For the full benefit of Defendant (The United States of America) and their continue collusion establishment of “White Supremacy” for greedy 100% labor profits & continue labor control “against and direct over” all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein civil rights, peace, will, and dignity causing “Wrongful Death”. <br />Argument IX<br />207.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the imposed “Jim Crow Laws” by the Defendant (The United States of America) for “Labor Control and “continue establishment of “White Supremacy during the time frame shortly their after said described Defendant herein already having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />208.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) continue on this (RICO) criminal pattern and practices of causing “Wrongful Deaths” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans in the full application in maintaining the crude “Jim Crow Laws”, into 1968 <br />To included but not limited to the “illegal storage” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) “Black African Americans being as “Cheap source of Labor” in Defendant (The United States of America) southern states “Prison and Labor” encampment(s) under the directives provisions of “Jim Crow Laws” resulting in more of the “Wrongful Deaths” rate toll account being levy upon and against the civil rights, peace, will and dignity of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />Argument X<br />209.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein making (12) % of the population within the Defendant (The United States of America) but (Negro) race account for 35% of the Abortions within the Defendant (The United States of America) at approximately (1400) (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black “Children” aborted everyday from the Defendant (The United States of America) population <br />210.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans here furtherance’s state before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) history of “Targeting pitiable, poverty-stricken, impoverished, penniless, meager, deprived, scanty, deficient, feeble, inadequate, inferior poor economic playing “Major Factor” in continue “Wrongful Loss of Life .<br />Argument XI<br />211.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “High Incarceration of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) at such “Huge numbers” of any other race other than (Negro) in the last (100) years resulting in the “chief factor” of “Wrongful Death” being committed and a direct cause of action against the Defendant herein (The United States of America.<br />Argument XII<br />212.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein assert, state, declare, “Very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused “Wrongful Death” of the Plaintiff entire Family “Wife” (Rachel Ann Hamilton) and (actual) own “Two Daughters” Chandra and Natasha Hamilton as described in the Complaint and all records attached herein by the Defendant “State of Utah” <br />And its “religious prosecution practices” against (Negro) Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) and against his entire family “civil rights, peace, will, and dignity(s) in complicity, collusion, conspiracy with “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints” <br />213.<br />To include but not limited to the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” being full in intent, complicity, collusion, and direct involvement under (RICO) criminal pattern and practice in the “Full Civil prosecution” of the Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) <br />Directly under four “Jim Crow Miscegenation Laws” passed by the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” between 1888 -1963 “fully prohibiting” the “Intermarriage and ongoing cohabitation” relationship<br /> Between the Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II and his “Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton all being done in the year of (1985) no less within the 3rd District Court for the State of Utah of the Defendant (The United States of America) “Court Docket No. 85-4904223<br />214.<br />With the Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) furtherance’s being “religious prosecution and “chastised” before the Defendant (The United States of America) “Religious Mormon Court of Law” on open said “court transcripts records” 85-4904223 <br />Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein (Negro) descendant furtherance’s being declared “Evil” within the direct teaching of the “Book of Mormon” in connection, complicity, collusion, conspiracy with “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints” “Curse of Cain doctrines”<br /> And the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) “Wife” Mormon Family of (Lowell and Helen Walker) of “Salt Lake City” Utah (RICO) criminal scheme of things to destroy and prosecute the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) and his family (rights) in the (among other things) by the abduction of the two step daughters (Shanna and Billie Jean Benn’s) as described in the complaint.<br />215<br />To include but not limited to the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” being intent, complicity, collusion, and direct involvement under (RICO) criminal pattern and practice in the cover up’ and concealment in the “Wrongful Death” of the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein <br />‘Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton actual cause of death and the bogus concealment in her legal name for “Mormon religion bury practices”, as described in the complaint fully of the Plaintiff (Hamilton II)<br />With the “Wrongful Death toll” of the (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II being his “wife” (Rachel Ann Hamilton), Plaintiff (Hamilton II) one “unborn child” kill off as described in the complaint<br /> And Plaintiff (Hamilton II) “Wrongful Death” of his very own two natural Daughters “Chandra and Natasha Hamilton”.<br />216.<br /> Genocide <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” herein real causes of action for “Genocide” being fully levy against the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: <br />217.<br />Killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. <br />Genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, attempt to commit genocide, complicity in genocide. <br /> “Persons committing whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals”. <br />218.<br />“The Eight Stages of Genocide”. <br />Identified classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination and denial as the eight key stages to historic genocidal events.<br />Classification includes creating categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality<br /> 219.<br />Symbolization includes giving names or using symbols in support of those classifications. Stanton does offer the caveat that classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization.<br /> <br />Dehumanization occurs when one group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.<br />  220.<br />Organization of genocidal actions, usually by the state, use groups such as militias, mobs or terrorist to provide deniability of state responsibility.  In some cases, special army units or militias are often trained and armed to carry out the genocidal killings.<br /> <br />Polarization occurs when extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center.<br /> <br />Preparations commence when victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. <br />221.<br />Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.<br /> <br />Extermination begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing.<br /> 221.<br />Denial is the eighth stage that always follows genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. <br />The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims.<br />223.<br />Argument I<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare before the “Honorable Justice” herein the Defendant (The United State of America) as fully illustrate and described in the Complaint of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein<br />Said Defendant (The United States of America) imposed criminal (RICO) act(s) and action(s) of “Slavery” “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws” severely directed upon and express against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s)Black African-American herein and their descendants<br /> Being all against their will, peace, civil rights and dignity, “triumph over”, “get the better”, “absolute defeat”, “overpower”,<br /> “Overthrow”, “dominate” and “conquer” in purposed intent “manipulation”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “mistreatment”, and “exploitation” of a (Negro) race namely (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein being “capture” and “occupy” completely for massive profit(s) in “monopoly” “Wealth”, “Assets”, “Investments”, “Resources” and “Capital”.<br />224.<br />Argument II<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) well blueprint movement in conspire “Genocide in whole” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants progression started clear back in the time frame during the era of 1619-1865 well on track<br />225.<br />Argument III<br />To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants well documented blueprinted 1865-1867 under “Black Codes” by the conspire Defendant (The United States of America) and the described Co-Defendant herein (President Andrew Johnson).<br />226.<br />Argument IV<br />To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their past descendants well documented blueprinted 1867-1968 under conspire “Jim Crow Laws” by the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />227.<br />Argument V<br />To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein from 1968 till present date 2011 well documented blueprinted <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein making (12) % of the population within the Defendant (The United States of America) but (Negro) race account for 35% of the Abortions within the Defendant (The United States of America) at approximately (1400) (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black “Children” aborted everyday from the Defendant (The United States of America) population. <br />228.<br />Argument VI<br /> To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein from 1968 till present date 2011 well “documented” and “blueprinted” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein being fully in a state of complete “High prison Incarceration rate” of the<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “only” at such “Huge numbers” of any other race other than (Negro) Black African American within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />229.<br />Argument VII <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare being fully committed before the “Honorable Justice”<br />Defendant herein (The United States of America) in collusion, conspiracy and connection with stated “Slave codes”<br />Defendant “Simply” without question blueprint and supply a complete “Classification” upon the human races within the Defendant (the United States of America) between “White Supremacy” races living with peace, dignity, privileged, fortunate, total advantages and trimmings.<br />230.<br />Without furtherance’s question, undisputed facts and circumstances said described Defendant (The United States of America) depicted, “liable”, “slander”, and made usage of “defamation” and discrimination pattern and practices being “notarized”<br /> In referring an inferior race being that all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their descendants being fully committed as “inferior conquer human (Negro) race”<br />231.<br /> As “blueprinted, explain, express, and fully enforced under capital punishment as described by the Defendant (The United States of America) and their imposed “Slave Codes” with the “Massive toll of loss of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans lives <br />In excess of a easy declaration of 20-30 Million (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein descendants being simply capture, enforced, and destroyed<br /> To simply furtherance’s obtain and maintain 20-30 Million more (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants under Defendant (The United States of America) “Genocide” and complete “Holocaust” conditions in the time frame of 1619-1865.<br />232.<br />Argument VIII<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Codes”, “Black Codes”, and Jim Crow Laws“Completely denied all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans any equality at all<br />233.<br /> And in “General concept” equated the (Negro) race as continue “inferior property animals” completely dehumanized to be disposed of in any manner, a lesser human being, whom is fully denied equal civil right as the same as “White Supremacy races” within the Defendant (The United States of America) with “Capitol punishment in “Slave Codes”, “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws” of “Death” for any references of equality being made between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and the Defendant (The United States of America) imposed superior race of (White).<br />Argument IX<br />234.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) propaganda through “Slave Codes”, “Black Codes”, and Jim Crow Laws of the Defendant (The United States of America) was fully intended to dehumanize the (Negro) race by naming the “Inferior race” being (Negro)<br />with the “legal imposed blueprint laws” to create widespread anti-Semitism and lay the ground work for the elimination of the “civil rights” and just gain freedom of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants.<br />Argument X<br />235.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints” both imposed Laws, legal document(s), religious doctrines, posters, and use schools, the media <br />And preached that the (Negro) race must be excluded from (White) society of the Defendant (The United States of America, no mixing of the “White and (Negro) race with penalty of Death for any misunderstanding.<br />Argument XI<br />236.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” as a result of the Defendant (The United States of America) “conspiracy propaganda” blueprinted in “Slave Codes”, Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws resulted <br />In “widespread ridicule, major violence, wrongful death, humiliation, civil and religious persecution of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans driving them into complete “poverty and despair” setting the stage for continue “mass genocide” in whole” under Defendant (The United States of America) imposed “slave codes” as described herein.<br />Argument XII<br />237.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Codes”, Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws Enacted by the described Defendant (The United States of America) in full collusion with “White Supremacy” races<br />Especially with the passing of the “Black Codes” enacted in 1865 after described defendant herein (The United States of America) already imposed “Slavery Holocaust” from 1619-1865 following with “Jim Crow Laws well into 1968 era<br />238.<br /> Said described “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws blueprint enforcement formally established the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans race as “second class citizens”, enforced the furtherance’s criminal (RICO) persecution upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants, for abuse, taking advantage, exploitation, <br />Mistreatment in labor utilization operation(s) for Defendant (The United States of America) continue manipulation for “greed and 100% profit” over the civil well being of the (Negro) race within the described Defendant (The United States of America).<br />239.<br />Thus continue setting the stage for continue mass genocide “in part” by the Defendant (The United States of America) against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein in the time frame of 1865-1867 stripping the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants<br /> Of the just little so call received freedom and supposed share civil rights enjoyed by all (White) races without interferences, <br />240<br />To include but not limited to the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendants fully restricted in the daily lives, after the next passage of imposed “Jim Crow Laws” <br />Which clear intent established “among other things” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein being continue second class citizens for “misuse as cheap labor supply” as described by “Defendant <br />(The United States of America) History “ultimately” “Wrongful Death” having occurred through acts of violence’s hence (Negro) “Churches”, business, schools, and homes were burn looted and destroyed most often sometime with (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American occupants fully trap inside.<br />241.<br />Thus consequently as a consequence “continue setting the stage” for continue mass genocide “in part” by the Defendant (The United States of America) against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race herein in the time frame of 1867 till present 2011 undersign date.<br />Argument XIII<br />242.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, and state fully respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) fully target”, <br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans children’s hopes and dreams by “stereotype within” from a pervasive legacy of racism and poverty.<br />243.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” In 1662 the Defendant (The United States of America) Virginia Assembly passed a law that (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants children should be held, bond or free, <br />244.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) In 1663 the Maryland legislature enacted a law that <br />" all negroes and other slaves within the province, and all negroes and other slaves to be thereafter imported into the province, should serve during life; and all children born of any negro should be slaves, as their fathers were, for the term of their lives."<br />245.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) once purchased a (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans said described defendant (The United States of America)<br />“Commonly branded” the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans “salves descendants” with a symbol of the “trading company” or “voyage owner” on either their “chest or back” as a means of marking their commercial property and distinguishing Defendant (The United States of America) cargoes from the rest.<br />246.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans Black African Americans herein state, and declare before the “Honorable Justice” during Defendant (The United States of America) 18th century era, <br />Defendant (The United States of America) planters economically dependent on the “slave trade” came to depend on all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans children(s) and youth. <br />247.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) adopted the strategy of “abduction and importing” younger (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American for the sole purpose as slaves who also would live longer. <br />As a result of the described defendant actions, (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American “youth” became an attractive asset on the auction blocks of the Defendant (The United States of America) slave markets.<br />Argument XIV<br />248.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein further assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) made justification in that the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants where to be better off, prime conditions, under refuge of learn education better way of and through “Christianity in coming to Defendant (America)<br /> “However the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” this was not the case to be by said described defendant ,<br />249<br />“Only Defendant (The United States of America) full criminal intent was blueprinted to provided absolute “bondage and Chains”, “100% Chattel slavery free labor system”, capital punishment for learning “White only” education in “books and math figures” or escape, “force upon medical experiments”, “mass sterilization”,<br /> “Absolutely total economic plunder”, “imposed illiteracy” “Order to hang any (Negro) who having caused mixing of race with “White Supremacy” or sex with a “White Women”, <br />250.<br />Full order and fiancés by the Defendant (The United States of America) in collision, operation with the Klu Klux Klan (KKK), Slave Patrols, and other Paramilitary “White Supremacy groups” to provide massive “Killing”, “Plunder”, “terrorizing to denied (Negro) fear in voting” <br /> Destroy everything of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants<br /> “Freeman soon obtain such as “Schools”, “Homes”, “Business” and “Churches”, all mostly being occupied in the “Southern States” of the (The United States of America) of the Defendant after “Civil War” and (Negro) stated supply freedom from said “Bondage and Chains, and imposed Chattel Slavery free labor system”<br />Argument XV<br />251. <br />The Defendant (The United States of America) having gain approximately 222,505,049 hours of forced labor from the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans descendants between 1619 and 1865 according to “Harper’s Magazine”<br />252.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans here declare before the Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) in collusion and compliances with “White Supremacy” races in acts of Not only killing (Among other things) to control (Negro) Plaintiff African American “Votes”<br /> But to include but not limited said described defendant herein also through the creation of “Absolute poverty stricken conditions by the Defendant (The United States of America) that materially and psychologically did destroy and diminish (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans dignity, happiness, and capacity to fulfill basic material needs and fully remains the same imposed “Genocide in part” condition in 2011.<br />253.<br />As a result of Defendant (The United States of America) long history (RICO) pattern and practices of careful designed blueprint Laws against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and “their past Descendants <br />Suffer from imposed genocide in part as the result of the continue consistent, conscious, unified policies of every branch of government of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Argument XVI<br />254.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) having engaged in a conspiracy against (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in genocide in part in the suppression of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans<br /> Past ability to vote “fairly” through imposed poll taxes and literacy tests within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Argument XVII<br />255.<br />Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff (s) Black African Americans herein state, declare, simply before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “full criminal (RICO) committed acts and actions being since 1619-1968 <br />With a very long history of practices and patterns having not been applied though the intent Dehumanization of the all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for profit and the establishment of the Defendant “White Supremacy” <br />Through the fully imposed Defendant (The United States of America) “Hostile” “Slave Codes”, Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws” era 1619-1968 “emancipated (Negro) slaves, freeman African Americans descendant herein having had been allowed to fully possess and retain the profits of their labor.<br />256.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein might now control a much larger share of Defendant (The United States of America) American social and monetary wealth.<br />Not only did the Defendant (The United States of America) insure (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American freedmen and -women not receive a share of these profits, <br />But the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants were stripped of the small amounts of compensation paid to some of the (Negro) race during defendant described Reconstruction with furtherance’s Killer terrorization tactic. <br />Argument XVIII<br />257.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare in “hostile fashion” and very honesty before the “Honorable Justice” <br />The enormous “Wealth” of the Defendant (The United States of America), was greatly enhanced by the full abuse, taking advantage, manipulation, mistreatment and exploitation of all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and all of their descendants labor operation(s) and labor utilization(s) though complete hostile (RICO) criminal pattern and practices of the infamous “Slave free labor tactic” <br />258.<br />And fully imposing a “Genocide state” upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans both being inflicted wrongfully “in full and in part” <br />To include but not limited to labor camps were even established in 1865 by the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) the moment the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants freedom was established after “Civil War”<br />In which all furtherance’s Defendant (The United States of America) tactics of capture, abused, misused, mistreatment of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein were used as slave labor until they died in a Genocide state of “premature death associated with murder”, exhaustion or disease.<br />Argument XIX<br />259.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice)”Defendant (United States of America) fully knew about the “Extreme Lynching” and was applied in their “Slave Codes” and “Black Codes” and the described defendant herein (The United States of America) did nothing to prevent. <br />260.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice)” Defendant (United States of America) fully knew about the “super-exploitation” and “inhuman hardships” inflicted upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American Blacks <br />And did nothing “rock solid”, “concrete”, “unyielding”, “pure and continuous” in a time frame running of 1619 until 1968 “Civil Rights Movement” to insure that Defendant (The United States of America) past inaction, past indifference in the face of such cruel conquer oppression means that it was full Defendant (The United States of America) intent policy. <br />Argument XX<br />261.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) “Declare” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) imposed genocide in part current conditions against all of (Negro) Plaintiff Black African-American herein is current Defendant (The United States of America) monopoly capital, <br />“Monopoly's immediate interest nearly (4) four Billion dollars in “super profits” that it extracts yearly from all acts and actions <br />As described being current in 2011 “exploitation and oppression” “Genocide in part” of the Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein (Negro) people.<br />Argument XXI<br />262.<br /> The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Entire History” in control of wage differentials being fully inflicted on all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans labor and workers force.<br />263.<br />Described Defendant herein (The United States of America) Full commitment “one hundred per cent” sturdy, substantial “Intent and purposed” in design carry through a criminal (RICO) pattern and practices of “Price Fixing” having also driven down the wages for workers of all races other that (Negro) within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />264.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans assert Before the “Honorable Justice” that wage differential (RICO) pattern and Practice in “price fixing” scheme of things in 2011 to pour tens of billions in extra un-earn rightfully profits into the controlling 10% greedy corporate (America) massive financial already “over flowing” financial accounts each year. <br />Argument XXII<br />265.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) during the imposed laws of “Slavery” early on (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants tired to sue for “freedom” before the “courts” of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br /> And some (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants succeeded.<br />In 1781. (Negro) Plaintiff descendant “Mun Bett” sued on the ground that the declaration in the Defendant (The United States of America) Massachusetts constitution of 1780 that all people are “born free and equal” negated slavery;<br />266. <br />“She won her case” and took the name “Elizabeth Freeman”. “However The Defendant (The United States of America) absolute in (100%) profit in the “domination”, “oppression” and “tyranny” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein into a “genocide slave labor statehood” said described Defendant herein (The United States of America) officially formalized “Slavery,<br />267.<br />“Moreover” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants “civil rights” were repress and fully taking away, any furtherance’s attempts in the legal approach by any (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants of equality before the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” court(s) of law was fully barred.<br />268.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) official state sponsor laws declare the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein as “property” in all respects “save one” “The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants could be punished if they broke the law. <br />Argument XXIII<br />269.<br />Defendant herein (The United States of America) and the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) in 1865 furtherance’s “Establishment” in authority, supply groups such as militias, slave patrol, mobs or terrorist special army units, “moreover former confederate Army soldiers” namely Klu Klux Klan (among others) “White” soldiers of fortune hunters<br />Whom often already “trained and armed” to carry out the special target “massive genocidal killings” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein in the power rule, supremacy, and oppression of full votes rights,<br />270.<br /> For the full command, control, dominance by the Defendant (The United States of America) Government police, policy, labor price fixing scheme of things being in full conspiracy, collusion, involvement, agreement, consent, approval, knowledge and complicity with greedy “White Supremacy” corporations and private institutions for unfair advantages and unjust revenue.<br />271.<br />To include but not limited to Defendant (United States of America) “impose complete blueprint” of segregated of the (Negro) race into out of city limits run down habitats of slums, and “ghettoes”, <br />With systematic whole sale “destruction”, “devastation”, “obliteration” homes, schools, business, and churches being fully applied in combine criminal acts with “theft of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans land”, “goods and services”, theft of monetary funds through Government imposed “poll taxes <br />272.<br />While Defendant (The United States of America) gain fully in “complete oppression” through laundry of all said monies acquired in the poll taxes scheme of things) (among other scheme of things) being executed against all of the Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants as completely described in the complaint of such whole sale “destruction”, “devastation”, “obliteration” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans lives, homes, schools, business, and churches by the Defendant (The United States of America) sponsor “Para Militia Kill Groups such as Klu Klux Klan among others. <br />Argument XXIV<br />271.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “declare and state” before the “Honorable Justice”, Defendant (The United States of America) “sketch”, “plan”, “draft”, and made into law then published and public broadcast official said described Laws<br /> “Black Codes, and “Jim Crow Laws” being “just in legal causes” under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” of the land of (America)<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage or even social interaction between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their (Negro) descendants with (White) races within the Defendant (The United States of America) severe punishment (whip) and or “Death” for any violation thereof; <br />Defendant outline version of Complete secure “White Supremacy” race only, with enforcement of segregation, defamation, and a complete (Negro) race statehood summary dealing “cruelty enforce “oppression”.<br />Argument XXV<br />272.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “declare and state” before the “Honorable Justice”, Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah Mormon Nation” <br />And “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” “Conjured up religious scriptures” “sketch”, “plan”, “drafted”, and made into “Mormon Church doctrines” no less; And “Utah Mormon Nation” “State laws” within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />273.<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage or social interaction between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their (Negro) descendants with (White) “Mormon superior” races <br />Within the Defendant (The United States of America) “Utah Mormon Nation” <br />(Negro) adult male being premature in loss of life by instant “Quick Death on the spot” for any human couples being made violation thereof; <br />With any “(Negro)” “off spring children” found being mixed of “White Mormon superior races” and (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein said blood”<br />The Mixed off spring child(s) throats also being quickly being slit on the “very spot” also with the dead couples; <br />Having the child(s) leaking blood from there on throat(s) upon the ground; until said mixed (Negro) off spring child(s) premature Death fully having occurred.<br />274.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein furtherance’s state and declare before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Utah Mormon Nation” and “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saint”<br />Then “published and made circulation such cruel hostile intent to carry out such killer actions and defamatory causes in “The Book of Mormon” religious Church Books,<br /> With “Utah Mormon Nation” “State Laws” fully conspire, collusion and legal written agreement(s) effecting the same thereof a “Genocide statehood” being executed against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American(s) herein and descendants peace, will, civil rights, and dignity<br />275.<br />Both being done before public and broadcast being official in purpose and intent said described Laws and religious “Mormon (LDS) doctrines being both “just also in causes” (LDS) Church and Mormon Nation Utah state laws under Defendant (The United States of America) constitutional laws<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage or social interaction between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their (Negro) descendants with (White) “Mormon superior races” within the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy Utah Mormon Nation.<br />276.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendants “official in facing absolute “quick capitol premature Death on the spot” for any violation thereof within the Utah Mormon Nation; with Full compliance by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints religious prosecution and church doctrine all thereof affect the same execution against the (Negro) races.<br /> 277.<br />Therefore surly secure “White Mormon Supremacy” race only, with the full affected enforcement of “segregation”, “defamation”, “oppression” by laws and a complete Anti-(Negro) race enforcement being under “extreme executed oppression” by both “LDS Church” and “Mormon Utah Nation State” <br />Within the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy Utah Mormon Nation” being fully enforcement a statehood of “Genocide”<br />Against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their descendants.<br />Argument XXVI<br />278.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff (Louis Charles Hamilton II) Defendant (The United States of America) “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah” “passed LDS State and Church Laws being (4)“Four” miscegenation legal declared laws “Which were passed in Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” to wit: <br />Between 1888 and 1953, The “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah” LDS state's miscegenation law was repealed in 1963. <br />279.<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage” or “social interaction” between the (Negro) Plaintiff “Louis Charles Hamilton II herein and His “White Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton” under Defendant (The United States of America) constitutional laws <br />Defendant (The United States of America) Being fully in blueprint in repression executed said miscegenation law that was repealed in 1963 <br />To the fullest prosecution civil and religious prosecution against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1985) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “LDS Mormon Nation “Utah”<br />280.<br /> Court Docket No. 85-4904223 as being detail and described in the complaint of the Plaintiff there in for the hostile abduction (Phase I) of the (Innoncent) (2) minor step daughter(s) Shaunna and Billie Jean Benns as life paws against the “Marriage of the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) and His “Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah”. <br />281.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff (Hamilton II) being fully executed, civil conspiracy against, complete oppression, in being among other things “Evil” and the Devil” for having actual (Negro) blood birth right heritage <br />Prosecution within a “Court of Law” to the fullest under “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and LDS Mormon Nation State of Utah” “State 1963 Laws”<br />282.<br /> In association LDS Church doctrines (Negro) Plaintiff (Hamilton II) Being domination under the full “Curse of Cain” prosecution cruelty and “Negro imposed Genocide Statehood for mixing of the White Mormon and (Negro) races<br /> In full collusion, involvement, agreement, approval and teaching within the “Book of Mormon” as described in the “Salt Lake City” Court Transcript(s)” being done all in (1985) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah” Docket No. 85-4904223.<br />283.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Black African American Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” <br />Being fully executed, conspiracy, oppression, to the fullest against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1989) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah”<br /> Docket No. 890902118 as described in the complaint of the Plaintiff in furtherance interferences, conspiracy, and oppression being done in aid by Detective “Carl Voyles” Salt Lake City Police <br />284.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Black African American Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” <br />Being fully executed, conspiracy, oppression, to the fullest against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1989) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah”<br /> Docket No. 890900167 as described in the complaint of the Plaintiff in furtherance interferences, conspiracy, and oppression being done in aid by Klu Klux Klan, “Doctorman Investment”,<br />285.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Black African American Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” <br />Being fully executed, conspiracy, oppression, to the fullest against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1993) and (1994) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah”<br /> Docket No. 934902442, Docket No. 94490002 As described in the complaint of the Plaintiff in furtherance interferences, conspiracy, and oppression being cause for Plaintiff (Hamilton II) civil rights, peace will and dignity being fully civilly destroyed (Hamilton II) Herein having made (2) attempt of divorce filing against “Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton) as fully described above before a “Court of Law within the Defendant (The United States of America) “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah”. <br />286.<br />(Pro Se Hamilton II) But wanting reconciliation only and living in peace in (Utah) with our own 2 daughters “end result” (Rachel Ann Hamilton (Dead) our first born baby Killed in the womb”, our step daughter taken fully away and my two natural daughter “Chandra D. Hamilton and Natasha C. Hamilton <br />Assuming fully (Dead Also) and legal bury of all three under all conditions, state of affairs, status, position(s), situation(s) and circumstance(s), under the assumed names of (Walker).<br />287.<br />As being described in the “Complaint” of the Pro Se Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein is his wrongful death of “Wife” and Now Plaintiff (Hamilton II)surmise the same wrongful loss occurred of life for his (2) missing daughter(s) <br />After the “Extreme Criminal (RICO) Hostile” act(s) and action(s) of abduction of the personal 1994“Home-Movie Video” of Plaintiff (Hamilton II) minor daughter(s) being in possession, custody and control of between both;<br />288. <br />“UPS (United Parcel Services)” and “CVS/Caremark Corporation” in criminal intent, civil collusion, agreements, hinder, oppression and conspiracy with all as legally described fully herein the Complaint and Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein Motion in opposition of the Defendant (The United States of America)to dismiss.<br /> “United States Federal Court” Docket No. 12011-CV-00240.<br />Argument XXVII<br />289.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff “Louis Charles Hamilton II, herein “declare”, “state”, “affirm” very respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah LDS Mormon Federation” <br />“Jim Crow State Laws” continue being actives since 1963-1985 additional position, condition, shape, agreement and harmony with “The Church of Jesus” of “Latter Day Saints” conformity, union, concurrence “religious doctrine” and arrangement(s) to fully prosecute, <br />290.<br />Oppress, afflict, distress, dominate, keep down, and “fully torment” the (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II” for additional reasoning of Negro Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II Entire Family Heritage Having Absolute History of Christianity through our “Roman Catholics Faith” unkind, hurtful, spiteful, and unforgiving “being fully “very vindictive”, “bitter”, and “implacable” having any “Kind of harmony with “The Church of Jesus” of “Latter Day Saints” “Utah LDS Mormon Federation”<br />291.<br />Furtherance’s before: “The Honorable Justice” (Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff “Louis Charles Hamilton II herein having full standing for just cause of action being in question, query, examine, grill, and probe before the “Honorable Justice” additional violation(s) against (Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) civil rights to the <br />“Equal Protection Clause” of the 14th Amendments” (Among other Amendment violations) being destroyed by the said described Defendant (The United States of America) <br />292.<br />In conspiracy, collusion, agreement and acknowledgement(s), with “The Church of Jesus” of “Latter Day Saints” “Utah LDS Mormon Federation State” Being domination under the full “Curse of Cain” religious prosecution, infliction of cruelty, unswervingly in a straight line directly at “Negro” Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II)<br /> Being wrongfully against civil rights, peace, will, and dignity(Hamilton II) fully imposed under a condition of Absolutely “Genocide Statehood” in association with full “Religious Prosecution” because of race being (Negro blood) <br />Furtherance’s Pro Se (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein being wrongfully imposed under a condition of Absolutely “Genocide Statehood” “oppression and domination” in association with full “Religious Prosecution” because Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II)<br />And his Entire (Negro) Family Blood Heritage Having Also Absolute Religious History of “Keeping very much in touch” with “Christianity” through our “Roman Catholics Faith”.<br />294.<br />Argument XXVIII<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans frankly, candidly and openly Declare before the “Honorable Justice” “White Supremacy Extremist Kill groups (among others) such as the “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK) being fixed in “terrorism target killing attacks upon (Negro) pro-moderates and (White) moderates<br /> For the full “elimination”, and “terrorizing imposed tactic”, of said “moderates” being despised in “Civil rights activist(s)” nature <br />Or being precisely tune in honest (White) race person or person(s) being straightforwardly truthfully in the equal rights of the (Negro) race, thus fully having full entitlement(s) to having peace, liberty, and dignity within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br /> 295.<br />As opposed to force slavery, mistreatment, abuse in collusion with “Corporation Greedy in major “Capitol Revenue Gains” by unswervingly in compliance openly by the usage, acknowledge in “Oppression” “Slavery” and Imposed Genocide Statehood being inflicted upon all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans since a era time frame of 1619-2011(among many others wrongful Death and Attempts)<br />Abraham Lincoln <br />"Michael Schwerner”<br />Eugene Thomas,<br /> Andrew Goodman, <br />James Chaney, <br />Martin Luther King Jr.,<br /> Malcolm X <br /> Medgar Evers<br />John F. Kennedy<br />Robert Francis Kennedy<br />Attempt Assassination of Gabrielle Giffords (Rep). <br />With the “Wrongful Death” of “Justice John Knoll, <br />CHRISTINA TAYLOR GREEN, 9:, GABE ZIMMERMAN, 30:, PHYLLIS SCHNECK, 79:, DORWIN STODDARD, 76:, DOROTHY MORRIS, 76:<br />Argument XXIX<br />296.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, and declare before the “Honorable Justice” undisputed facts in complete possession standing before the “Justice” in having honorable just cause of action(s), <br />And full legal standing against the Defendant (The United States of America) for “Abuse of Power” in the legal capacity of "official misconduct", as described herein the “Complaint and Motion in opposition to dismiss in that Defendant being with full knowledge, awareness, realization, comprehension, facts and data in all their own complicity, involvement(s), knowledge, consent(s), approval(s), collusion(s), taking apart(s), association(s), connection(s), contribution(s), <br />Attachment(s), “enthusiasm and agreement(s) in the full commission of all unlawful acts and action(s) as described by the Defendant (The United States of America) own “Slave Codes. Black Codes, and “Jim Crow laws” Curse of Cain religious doctrines and all other contribution factors fully having great concern as described in the Amend complaint and fully also entertain respectful herein, <br />Being committed against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans peace, will, dignity and civil rights “being all done no less in an “official capacity”, statesmanship by the Defendant its self (The United States of America),<br />297.<br />And also being committed to the same “official misconduct” by Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) and also being committed to the same “official misconduct” by Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) <br />Management authority and full objective(s), plan(s), aim(s), intention(s), meaning, being fully focused with continue intent in illegitimate private gain for “Defendant (The United States of America) and crooked corporation(s) and private pirate institutions conspiracy Confederate, at the expensive of the (Negro) race<br />With “White Supremacy fully primary being in establishment, domination, control in management, handling of, treatment, executions, and operation(s) of all “Hostile acts and actions of direct “oppression” in combination with the ill full effect being furtherance’s in usage for exploitation.<br />Usage clearly affects the performance of all described Defendant herein in their combine fiduciary “official duties”.<br />298.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) commission objective, target, plan, meaning, and or combination of disgusting, sickening, vulgar, dreadful, uncouth uncivilized “gross negligence” in allowed; <br />299.<br />(a).<br />“Theft of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein taxes” through “poll tax” scheme of thing and Revenue Taxes being diverted for “State sponsored “oppression”, and fully support Genocide elimination plan statehood fully funding, enforce, and being “blue print” and “imposed” upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American “blood heritage”.<br />300.<br />(b).<br />“Theft of All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein Land, Property, Good and services, cattle and stock through a “Genocide oppression statehood being inflicted through enlistment of Klu Klux Klan and other paramilitary “State sponsored” by the Defendant (The United States of America) concentrating purpose “labor price fixing oppression”.<br />301.<br />(c).<br />False imprisonment into “labor Camps of All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants for objectives by the Defendant (The United States of America) concentrating purpose in continue (RICO) “labor price fixing oppression scheme of things”<br />302.<br />(d). “Mass Murder” and “Premature Wrongful Death” in associated with Drowning, Hanging, Fire Squads, Premeditated Arson associated with bombings, voluntary manslaughter, crucification, battery, mutilation, gross malicious medical experimentations, <br />Massive imprisonment, massive sterilization, and to include but not limited to “malicious prosecution criminalize of the (Negro) by agents, police, associations, representative, relations, links, confederate, ally, accomplice, colleague, partner, and affiliates.<br />303.<br />(e). Manipulation, exploitation and operation in “oppression target profiteering” through the legalization of “Black Codes Laws” and “Jim Crow Laws” era of 1865-1968 against all of the Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American(s) herein and their descendants by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Collusion, association, representative, relations, link, confederate, ally, accomplice, colleague, partner and affiliate with a well plan operation in an “extreme and outrageous” (RICO) Criminal Racketeering history, poll tax fraud, terrorizing and intimidation voter disfranchisement,<br />304.<br />“Labor wages price fixing”, mail & wire fraud in association with all as described completely in the complaint, securities and money fraud, money laundry, financial institution fraud, embezzlement of pension, welfare, and retirement fund scheme of things, <br />For a continual “oppression target profiteering” imposed “Genocide Statehood” in 2011 upon the entire (Negro) race within the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />To include but not limited described defendant (America) full, final and complete assurances in securities thereof complete longevity in “White Supremacy” superior races within the described Defendant (The United States of America) being forever enforced against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “blood heritage” herein.<br />305.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare being very respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the following “Timeline” in paragraph (307) below best describe, portray, depict, express and explain Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Complete declaration, decision, ruling, resolution, and determination in “capitol execution” of firmness in enforcement and rely upon “oppression”, “tyranny”, “domination” direct through “State” imposed rigidity being fully inflicted under direction involving the stiffness of “Slave Free Labor” 100% employment system.<br />306.<br /> Defendant (The United States of America) “Solidity and conformity” of a selfish imposed “Genocide Statehood” and “Second class citizenship being holy “ill inflicted” wrongfully upon all Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their “blood heritage” (Negro) descendants. <br />307.<br />“From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia”<br /> 17th century<br />1619<br />Unknown – The first record of African slavery in English Colonial America. <br />1640<br />Unknown – John Punch, a black indentured servant, ran away with two white indentured servants, James Gregory and Victor. After the three were captured, the white men were sentenced to four more years of servitude but Punch was required to serve Virginia planter Hugh Gym for life. It is one of the first cases in which lifetime indentured servitude was based on race.[1][2] <br />1654<br />Unknown – John Casor, a black man, became the first legally-recognized slave-for-life in the Virginia colony. <br />1662<br />Unknown – Virginia law defined that children of enslaved mothers followed the status of their mothers and were considered slaves, regardless of their father's status. <br />1676<br />Unknown – Both free and enslaved African Americans fought in Bacon's Rebellion along with English colonists. <br />18th century<br />See also: Atlantic slave trade<br />1705<br />unknown – The Virginia Slave codes defines as slaves all those servants brought into the colony who were not Christian in their original countries, as well as those Indians sold to colonists by other Indians. <br />1712<br />April 6 – The New York Slave Revolt of 1712, one of the first of many such rebellions (see the article). <br />1739<br />September 9 – In the Stono Rebellion, South Carolina slaves gather at the Stono River to plan an armed march for freedom. <br />1760<br />Unknown – Jupiter Hammon has a poem printed, becoming the first published African-American poet. <br />1770<br />March 5 – Crispus Attucks is killed by British soldiers in the Boston Massacre, a precursor to the American Revolution. <br />1773<br />unknown – Phillis Wheatley has her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral published. <br />1774<br />– The first black Baptist congregations are organized in the South: Silver Bluff Baptist Church in South Carolina, and First African Baptist Church near Petersburg, Virginia. <br />1775<br />April 14 – The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage holds four meetings. Re-formed in 1784 as the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, Benjamin Franklin would later be its president. <br />1776–1783 American Revolution<br />Thousands of enslaved African Americans in the South escape to British or Loyalist lines, as they were promised freedom if they fought with the British. In South Carolina, 25,000 enslaved African Americans, one-quarter of those held, escape to the British.[3] After the war, many African Americans leave with the British for England; others go with other Loyalists to Canada and settle in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Still others go to Jamaica and the West Indies. <br />Many free blacks in the North fight with the colonists for the rebellion. <br />1777<br />July 8 – The Vermont Republic (a sovereign nation at the time) abolishes slavery, the first future state to do so. <br />1780<br />Pennsylvania becomes the first then-U.S.-state to abolish slavery. <br />1787<br />July 13 – The Northwest Ordinance bans the expansion of slavery into U.S. territories north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. <br />1788<br />– The First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia is organized under Andrew Bryan. <br />1790–1810 Manumission of slaves<br />– Following the Revolution, numerous slaveholders in the Upper South free their slaves; the percentage of free blacks rises from less than one to 10 percent. By 1810, 75 percent of all blacks in Delaware are free, and 7.2 percent of blacks in Virginia are free.[4] <br />1791<br />February – Major Andrew Ellicott hires Benjamin Banneker to assist in a survey of the boundaries of the 100-square-mile (260 km2) federal district that would later become the District of Columbia. <br />1793<br />February 12 – The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 is passed. (See also Fugitive slave laws.) <br />1794<br />March 14 – Eli Whitney is granted a patent on the cotton gin. This enables the widespread cultivation and processing of short-staple cotton, dramatically increasing the need for enslaved labor, and leading to the development of King Cotton in the Deep South. It leads to the forced migration of one million slaves to the area in the antebellum period, mostly by internal slave trade. <br />July – Two independent black churches open in Philadelphia: the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, with Absalom Jones, and the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, with Richard Allen, the first church of what would become a new black denomination in 1816. <br />[edit] 19th century<br />[edit] 1800–1859<br />See also: Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War<br />Early 19th century<br />unknown – first Black Codes enacted. <br />1800<br />August 30 – Gabriel Prosser's attempt to lead a slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia is suppressed. <br />1807<br />unknown – Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves <br />1808<br />January 1 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned; this is also the earliest day under the United States Constitution that an amendment could be made restricting slavery. <br />1816<br />unknown – The first separate black denomination of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) is founded by Richard Allen, who is elected its first bishop. <br />unknown – The American Colonization Society is begun by Robert Finley, to send free African Americans to what is to become Liberia in Africa.[5] <br />1820<br />March 6 – The Missouri Compromise allows for the entry as states of Maine and Missouri, and decides which future states slavery would be allowed in. <br />unknown – The British West Africa Squadron's slave trade suppression activities are assisted by forces from the United States Navy, starting in 1820 with the USS Cyane. With the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the relationship is formalised and they jointly run the Africa Squadron. <br />1821<br />unknown – The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is officially formed. <br />1822<br />July 14 – Denmark Vesey's slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina is suppressed. <br />1829<br />September – David Walker begins publication of the abolitionist pamphlet Walker's Appeal. <br />1830<br />October 28 - Josiah Henson, a slave who fled and arrived in Canada, is an author, abolitionist, minister and the inspiration behind the book Uncle Tom's Cabin.[6] <br />1831<br />unknown – William Lloyd Garrison begins publication of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator. <br />August – Nat Turner leads the most successful slave rebellion in U.S. history. The rebellion is suppressed, but only after many deaths. <br />1833<br />unknown – The American Anti-Slavery Society, an abolitionist society, is founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass becomes a key leader of the society. <br />1839<br />July 2 – Slaves revolt on the La Amistad, resulting in a Supreme Court case (see Amistad (1841)). <br />1840<br />unknown – The Liberty Party breaks away from the American Anti-Slavery Society due to grievances with William Lloyd Garrison's leadership. <br />1842<br />unknown – The U.S. Supreme Court rules, in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842), that states do not have to offer aid in the hunting or recapture of slaves, greatly weakening the fugitive slave law of 1793. <br />1843<br />June 1 – Isabella Baumfree, a former slave, changes her name to Sojourner Truth and begins to preach for the abolition of slavery. <br />August – Henry Highland Garnet delivers his famous speech Call to Rebellion. <br />1847<br />unknown – Frederick Douglass begins publication of the abolitionist newspaper the North Star. <br />unknown – Joseph Jenkins Roberts of Virginia becomes the first president of Liberia. <br />1849<br />unknown – Roberts v. Boston seeks to end racial discrimination in Boston public schools. <br />unknown – Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery to Philadelphia, and begins helping other slaves to escape via the Underground Railroad. <br />1850<br />September 18 – As part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 which requires any federal official to arrest anyone suspected of being a runaway slave. <br />1852<br />March 20 – Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe is published. <br />1853<br />December – Clotel; or, The President's Daughter is the first novel published by an African-American. <br />1855<br />unknown – John Mercer Langston is one of the first African Americans elected to public office when elected as a town clerk in Ohio. <br />1856<br />May 21 – The Sacking of Lawrence in Bleeding Kansas. <br />May 25 – John Brown, whom Abraham Lincoln called a "misguided fanatic", retaliates for Lawrence's sacking in the Pottawatomie Massacre. <br />unknown – Wilberforce University is founded by collaboration between Methodist Episcopal and African Methodist Episcopal representatives. <br />1857<br />March 6 – In Dred Scott v. Sandford, the Supreme Court upholds slavery. This decision is regarded as a key cause of the American Civil War. <br />1859<br />unknown – Harriet E. Wilson writes the autobiographical novel Our Nig. <br />unknown – In Ableman v. Booth the Supreme Court of the United States holds that state courts cannot issue rulings that contradict the decisions of federal courts, thus upholding the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. <br />First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation – President Lincoln meets with his cabinet.<br />1860–1874<br />1861<br />April 12 – The American Civil War begins (secessions began in December, 1860), and lasts until April 9, 1865. Tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans of all ages escaped to Union lines for freedom. Contraband camps were set up in some areas, where blacks started learning to read and write. Others traveled with the Union Army. By the end of the war, more than 180,000 African Americans, mostly from the South, fought with the Union Army and Navy as members of the US Colored Troops and sailors. <br />May 2 – The first North American military unit with African-American officers is the 1st Louisiana Native Guard of the Confederate Army (disbanded in February 1862). <br />August 6 – The first of the Confiscation Acts authorizes the confiscation of any Confederate property, including all slaves who fought or worked for the Confederate military. The second act in mid-1862 extends this. <br />1862<br />March 13 – Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves <br />September 22 – Announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation, after the Battle of Antietam, to go into effect January 1, 1863. <br />1863–1877 Reconstruction<br />1863<br />January 1 – The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect. <br />January 31 – U.S. Army commissions the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, a combat unit made up of escaped slaves. <br />May 22 – U.S. Army recruits United States Colored Troops. (The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment would be featured in the 1989 film Glory.) <br />July – Irish ethnic protests against the draft in New York City turn into riots against blacks – the so-called New York Draft Riots. <br />1864<br />April 12 – The Battle of Fort Pillow, which results in controversy about whether a massacre of surrendered African-American troops was conducted or condoned. <br />1865<br />March 3 – Congress passes the bill that forms the Freedman's Bureau. <br />December 18 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishes slavery in the U.S. <br />unknown – Shaw Institute is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina, as the first black college in the South. <br />unknown – Atlanta College is founded. <br />unknown – Every southern state passes Black Codes that restrict the freedmen, who were emancipated but not yet full citizens. <br />1866<br />April 9 – The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is passed by Congress over Johnson's presidential veto. All persons born in the United States are now citizens. <br />unknown – The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Pulaski, Tennessee, made up of white Confederate veterans; it becomes a paramilitary insurgent group to enforce white supremacy. <br />July – New Orleans white citizens riot against blacks. <br />September 21 – The U.S. Army regiment of Buffalo Soldiers (African Americans) is formed. <br />unknown – The Second Freedmen's Bureau Act would have provided longer enforcement of rights for freedmen, but it is vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. <br />1867<br />March 2 – Howard University is founded in Washington, D.C. <br />1868<br />April 1 – Hampton Institute is founded in Hampton, Virginia. <br />July 9 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution's Section 1 requires due process and equal protection. <br />unknown – Through 1877, whites attack black and white Republicans to suppress voting. Every election cycle is accompanied by violence, increasing in the 1870s. <br />unknown – Elizabeth Keckly publishes Behind the Scenes (or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House). <br />1870<br />February 3 – The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the right of male citizens of the United States to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude. <br />February 25 – Hiram Rhodes Revels becomes the first black member of the Senate (see African Americans in the United States Congress). <br />unknown – Christian Methodist Episcopal Church founded. <br />1871<br />October 10 – Octavius Catto, a civil rights activist, is murdered during harassment of blacks on Election Day in Philadelphia. <br />unknown – US Civil Rights Act of 1871 passed, also known as the Klan Act. <br />1872<br />December 11 – P. B. S. Pinchback is sworn in as the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives. <br />Disputed gubernatorial election in Louisiana cause political violence for more than two years. Both Republican and Democratic governors hold inaugurations and certify local officials. <br />1873<br />April 14 – In the Slaughter-House Cases the Supreme Court votes 5–4 for a narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court also discusses dual citizenship: State citizens and U.S. citizens. <br />Easter, the Colfax Massacre – More than 100 blacks in the Red River area of Louisiana are killed when attacked by white militia after defending Republicans in local office – continuing controversy from gubernatorial election. <br />Coushatta Massacre – Republican officeholders are run out of town and murdered by white militia before leaving the state – four of six were relatives of a Louisiana state senator, a northerner who had settled in the South, married into a local family and established a plantation. Five to twenty black witnesses are also killed. <br />1874<br />Founding of paramilitary groups that act as the "military arm of the Democratic Party": the White League in Louisiana and the Red Shirts in Mississippi, and North and South Carolina. They terrorize blacks and Republicans, turning them out of office, killing some, disrupting rallies, and suppressing voting. <br />September – In New Orleans, continuing political violence erupts related to the still-contested gubernatorial election of 1872. Thousands of the White League armed militia march into New Orleans, then the seat of government, where they outnumber the integrated city police and black state militia forces. They defeat Republican forces and demand that Gov. Kellogg leave office. The Democratic candidate McEnery is installed and White Leaguers occupy the capitol, state house and arsenal. This was called the "Battle of Liberty Place". The White League and McEnery withdraw after three days in advance of federal troops arriving to reinforce the Republican state government. <br /> 1875–1899<br />1875<br />March 1 – Civil Rights Act of 1875 signed. <br />Unknown – The Mississippi Plan to intimidate blacks and suppress black voter registration and voting. <br />1876<br />July 8 – The Hamburg Massacre occurs when local people riot against African Americans who were trying to celebrate the Fourth of July. <br />varied – White Democrats regain power in many southern state legislatures and pass the first Jim Crow laws. <br />1877<br />Unknown – With the Compromise of 1877, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes withdraws federal troops from the South in exchange for being elected President of the United States, causing the collapse of the last three remaining Republican state governments. The compromise formally ends the Reconstruction era of the United States. <br />1879<br />spring – Thousands of African Americans refuse to live under segregation in the South and migrate to Kansas. They become known as Exodusters. <br />1880<br />Unknown – In Strauder v. West Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that African Americans could not be excluded from juries. <br />During the 1880s, African Americans in the South reach a peak of numbers in being elected and holding local offices, even while white Democrats are working to assert control at state level. <br />1881<br />April 11 – Spelman Seminary is founded as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary. <br />July 4 – Booker T. Washington opens the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. <br />1882<br />A biracial populist coalition achieves power in Virginia (briefly). The legislature founds the first public college for African Americans, Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, as well as the first mental hospital for African Americans, both near Petersburg, Virginia. The hospital was established in December 1869, at Howard's Grove Hospital, a former Confederate unit, but is moved to a new campus in 1882. <br />1884<br />Unknown – Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published, featuring the admirable African-American character Jim. <br />Unknown – Judy W. Reed, of Washington, D.C., and Sarah E. Goode, of Chicago, are the first African-American women inventors to receive patents. Signed with an "X", Reed's patent no. 305,474, granted September 23, 1884, is for a dough kneader and roller. Goode's patent for a cabinet bed, patent no. 322,177, is issued on July 14, 1885. Goode, the owner of a Chicago furniture store, invented a folding bed that could be formed into a desk when not in use. <br />unknown – Ida B. Wells sues the Chesapeake, Ohio & South Western Railroad Company for its use of segregated "Jim Crow" cars. <br />1886<br />Norris Wright Cuney becomes the chairman of the Texas Republican Party, the most powerful role held by any African American in the South during the 19th century. <br />1887<br />October 3 – The State Normal School for Colored Students, which would become Florida A&M University, is founded. <br />1888<br />October 16 – In Civil Rights Cases, the United States Supreme Court strikes down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 as unconstitutional. <br />1890<br />Mississippi, with a white Democrat-dominated legislature, passes a new constitution that effectively disfranchises most blacks through voter registration and electoral requirements, e.g., poll taxes, residency tests and literacy tests. This shuts them out of the political process, including service on juries and in local offices. <br />By 1900 two-thirds of the farmers in the bottomlands of the Mississippi Delta are African Americans who cleared and bought land after the Civil War.[7] <br />1892<br />Unknown – Ida B. Wells publishes her pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases. <br />1895<br />September 18 – Booker T. Washington delivers his Atlanta Compromise address at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. <br />Unknown – * W. E. B. Du Bois is the first African-American to be awarded a Ph.D by Harvard University. <br />1896<br />May 18 – In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court upholds de jure racial segregation of "separate but equal" facilities. (see Jim Crow laws for historical discussion). <br />Unknown – The National Association of Colored Women is formed by the merger of smaller groups. <br />Unknown – As one of the earliest Black Hebrew Israelites in the United States, William Saunders Crowdy re-establishes the Church of God and Saints of Christ. <br />Unknown – George Washington Carver is invited by Booker T. Washington to head the Agricultural Department at what would become Tuskegee University. His work would revolutionize farming – he found about 300 uses for peanuts. <br />1898<br />Unknown – Louisiana enacts the first state-wide grandfather clause that provides exemption for illiterate whites to voter registration literacy test requirements. <br />Unknown – In Williams v. Mississippi the Supreme Court upholds the voter registration and election provisions of Mississippi's constitution because they applied to all citizens. Effectively, however, they disenfranchise blacks and poor whites. The result is that other southern states copy these provisions in their new constitutions and amendments through 1908, disfranchising most African Americans and tens of thousands of poor whites until the 1960s. <br />1899<br />September 18 – The "Maple Leaf Rag" is an early ragtime composition for piano by Scott Joplin. <br /> 20th century<br /> 1900–1924<br />1900<br />Since the Civil War, 30,000 African-American teachers had been trained and put to work in the South. The majority of blacks had become literate.[8] <br />1901<br />unknown – Booker T. Washington's autobiography Up from Slavery is published. <br />unknown – Benjamin Tillman, senator from South Carolina, comments on Theodore Roosevelt's dining with Booker T. Washington: “The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that nigger will necessitate our killing a thousand niggers in the South before they learn their place again.” <br />1903<br />September – W. E. B. Du Bois's article The Talented Tenth published. <br />unknown – W. E. B. Du Bois's seminal work The Souls of Black Folk is published. <br />1904<br />May 15 – Sigma Pi Phi, the first African-American Greek-letter organization, is founded by African-American men as a professional organization, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. <br />Unknown – Orlando, Florida hires its first black postman. <br />1905<br />July 11 – First meeting of the Niagara Movement, an interracial group to work for civil rights. <br />1906<br />Unknown – The Brownsville Affair, which eventually involves President Roosevelt. <br />December 4 – African-American men found Alpha Phi Alpha at Cornell University, the first intercollegiate fraternity for African-American men. <br />1907<br />unknown – National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A. formed. <br />1908<br />December 26 – Jack Johnson wins the World Heavyweight Title. <br />Alpha Kappa Alpha – At Howard University, African-American college women found the first college sorority for African-American women. <br />1909<br />February 12 – Planned first meeting of group which would become the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial group devoted to civil rights. The meeting actually occurs on May 31, but February 12 is normally cited as the NAACP's founding date. <br />May 31 – The National Negro Committee meets and is formed; it will be the precursor to the NAACP. <br />1910<br />May 30 – The National Negro Committee chooses "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" as its organization name. <br />September 29 – Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes formed; the next year it will merge with other groups to form the National Urban League. <br />unknown – The NAACP begins publishing The Crisis. <br />1913<br />unknown – The Moorish Science Temple of America, a religious organization, is founded by Noble Drew Ali (Timothy Drew). <br />1914<br />Newly elected president Woodrow Wilson orders physical re-segregation of federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities.[9][10][11] <br />1915<br />February 8 – The Birth of a Nation is released to film theaters. The NAACP protests in cities across the country, convincing some not to show the film. <br />June 21 – In Guinn v. United States, the Supreme Court rules against grandfather clauses used to deny blacks the vote. <br />September 9 – Professor Carter G. Woodson founds the Association for the Study of African American Life and History in Chicago. <br />unknown – A schism from the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. forms the National Baptist Convention of America, Inc. <br />1916<br />January – Professor Carter Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History begins publishing the Journal of Negro History, the first academic journal devoted to the study of African-American history. <br />March 23 – Marcus Garvey arrives in the U.S. (see Garveyism). <br />unknown – Los Angeles hires the country's first black female police officer.[citation needed] <br />unknown – The Great Migration begins and lasts until 1940. Approximately one and a half million African-Americans move from the Southern United States to the North and Midwest. More than five million migrate in the Second Great Migration from 1940–1970, which includes more destinations in California and the West. <br />1917<br />May–June – East St. Louis Riot <br />In Buchanan v. Warley, the United States Supreme Court upholds that racially segregated housing violates the 14th Amendment. <br />1918<br />Unknown – Orlando's first black doctor opens practice. <br />1919<br />summer – Red Summer of 1919 riots: Chicago, Washington, D.C.; Knoxville, Indianapolis, and elsewhere. <br />September 28 – Omaha Race Riot of 1919, Nebraska. <br />October 1–5 – Elaine Race Riot, Phillips County, Arkansas. Numerous blacks are convicted by an all-white jury or plead guilty. In Moore v. Dempsey (1923), the Supreme Court overturns six convictions for denial of due process under the Fourteenth Amendment. <br />1920<br />February 13 – Negro National League (1920–1931) established. <br />Unknown – Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall are the first two African-American players in the National Football League (NFL). Pollard goes on to become the first African-American coach in the NFL. <br />1921<br />May 23 – Shuffle Along is the first major African American hit musical on Broadway. <br />May 31 – Tulsa Race Riot, Oklahoma <br />Unknown – Bessie Coleman becomes the first African American to earn a pilot's license. <br />1923<br />January 1 – 7 Rosewood massacre: Six African Americans and two whites die in a week of violence when a white woman in Rosewood, Florida, claims she was beaten and raped by a black man. <br />February 19 – In Moore v. Dempsey, the Supreme Court holds that mob-dominated trials violate the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. <br />Unknown – Jean Toomer's novel Cane is published. <br />1924<br />unknown – Spelman Seminary becomes Spelman College. <br />1925–1949<br />1925<br />spring – American Negro Labor Congress founded. <br />August 8 – 35,000 Ku Klux Klan members march in Washington, D.C. (see List of protest marches on Washington, D.C.) <br />unknown – Countee Cullen publishes his first collection of poems in Color. <br />unknown – Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters organized. <br />unknown – The Harlem Renaissance is named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke (also known as the New Negro Movement). <br />1926<br />unknown – The Harlem Globetrotters founded. <br />unknown – Historian Carter G. Woodson proposes Negro History Week. <br />Corrigan v Buckley challenges deed restrictions by which a white seller could not sell to a black buyer. As opposed to Buchanan v. Warley, this is a step in the wrong direction as the US Supreme Court rules in favor of Buckley, stating that the 14th Amendment does not apply because Washington, DC is a city and not a state, thereby rendering the Due Process Clause inapplicable. Also, that the Due Process Clause does not apply to private agreements. <br />1928<br />unknown – Claude McKay's Home to Harlem wins the Harmon Gold Award for Literature. <br />1929<br />unknown – The League of United Latin American Citizens, the first organization to fight for the civil rights of Hispanic Americans, is founded in Corpus Christi, Texas. <br />unknown – John Hope becomes president of Atlanta University. Graduate classes are offered in liberal arts subjects, making Atlanta University the first predominantly black university to offer graduate education. <br />unknown - Hallelujah! is released and is one of the first films to star an all black cast. <br />1930<br />unknown – The League of Struggle for Negro Rights is founded in New York City. <br />unknown – Jessie Daniel Ames forms the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching. She gets 40,000 white women to sign a pledge against lynching and for change in the South.[12] <br />1931<br />March 25 – Scottsboro Boys arrested. All are later freed, pardoned or paroled. The film Heavens Fall was made about the incident. <br />unknown – Walter Francis White becomes the executive secretary of the NAACP. <br />1932<br />unknown – The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male begins. <br />1934<br />unknown – Wallace D. Fard, leader of the Nation of Islam, mysteriously disappears. He is succeeded by Elijah Muhammad. <br />1935<br />June 18 – In Murray v. Pearson, Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston of the NAACP successfully argue the landmark case in Maryland to open admissions to the University of Maryland School of Law on the basis of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. <br />Jesse Owens wins gold medals in front of Hitler.<br />1936<br />August – Sprinter Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. <br />1937<br />unknown – Zora Neale Hurston authors the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God <br />unknown – Southern Negro Youth Congress founded. <br />1938<br />Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada <br />1939<br />Easter Sunday – Marian Anderson performs on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. at the instigation of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt after the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall and the District of Columbia Board of Education declined a request to use the auditorium of a white public high school. <br />unknown – Billie Holiday first performs "Strange Fruit" in New York City. The song, a protest against lynching written by Abel Meeropol under the pen name Lewis Allan, became a signature song for Holiday. <br />The Little League is formed, becoming the nation's first non-segregated youth sport. <br />August 21 – Five African-American men recruited and trained by African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker conduct a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia, library and are arrested after being refused library cards.[13] <br />September 21 – Followers of Father Divine and the International Peace Mission Movement join with workers to protest racially unfair hiring practices by conducting "a kind of customers' nickel sit down strike" in a restaurant.[14] <br />1940s to 1970<br />Second Great Migration – In multiple acts of resistance, more than 5 million African Americans leave the violence and segregation of the South for jobs, education, and the chance to vote in northern, midwestern and California cities. <br />1940<br />February 12 – In Chambers v. Florida, the Supreme Court frees three black men who were coerced into confessing to a murder. <br />February 29 - Hattie McDaniel becomes the first African-American to win an Academy Award. She wins Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Mammy in Gone with the Wind. <br />October 25 – Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is promoted to be the first African-American general in the U.S. Army. <br />unknown – Richard Wright authors Native Son <br />unknown – NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund is formed. <br />1941<br />January 25 – A. Philip Randolph proposes a March on Washington, effectively beginning the March on Washington Movement. <br />early 1941 – U.S. Army forms African-American air combat units, the Tuskegee Airmen. <br />June 25 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802, the "Fair Employment Act", to require equal treatment and training of all employees by defense contractors. <br />Mitchell v US – the Interstate Commerce Clause is used to successfully desegregate seating on trains. <br />1942<br />Six non-violence activists in the Fellowship of Reconciliation — Bernice Fisher, James Russell Robinson, George Houser, James Farmer, Jr., Joe Guinn and Homer Jack — found the Committee on Racial Equality, which becomes Congress of Racial Equality. <br />1943<br />unknown – Doctor Charles R. Drew's achievements are recognized when he becomes the first African-American surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery. <br />unknown – Lena Horne stars in the all African-American film Stormy Weather. <br />1944<br />April 3 – In Smith vs. Allwright, the Supreme Court rules that the whites-only Democratic Party primary in Texas was unconstitutional.[15] <br />April 25 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated. <br />July 17 – Port Chicago disaster, which led to the Port Chicago mutiny. <br />August 1–7 - Philadelphia transit strike of 1944 - a strike by white transit workers protesting against job advancement by black workers is broken by the U.S. military under the provisions of the Smith-Connally Act <br />November 7 – Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Harlem, New York. <br />unknown – Miami hires its first black police officers. <br />1945–1975 Second Reconstruction/American Civil Rights Movement<br />1945<br />August – The first issue of Ebony. <br />unknown – Freeman Field Mutiny, where black officers attempt to desegregate an all-white officers club. <br />1946<br />June 3 – In Morgan v. Virginia, the US Supreme Court invalidates provisions of the Virginia Code which require the separation of white and colored passengers where applied to interstate bus transport. The state law is unconstitutional insofar as it is burdening interstate commerce – an area of federal jurisdiction.[16] <br />unknown – In Florida, Daytona Beach, DeLand, Sanford, Fort Myers, Tampa, and Gainesville all have black police officers. So does Little Rock, Arkansas; Louisville, Kentucky; Charlotte, North Carolina; Austin, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio in Texas; Richmond, Virginia; Chattanooga and Knoxville in Tennessee <br />unknown – Renowned actor/singer Paul Robeson founds the American Crusade Against Lynching. <br />1947<br />April 9 – The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sends 16 men on the Journey of Reconciliation. <br />April 15 – Jackie Robinson plays his first game for the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first black baseball player in professional baseball in 60 years. <br />unknown – John Hope Franklin authors the non-fiction book From Slavery to Freedom <br />1948<br />January 12 – In Sipuel v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Okla., the Supreme Court rules that the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Law School could not deny admission based on race ("color"). <br />May 3 – In Shelley v. Kraemer, and companion case Hurd v Hodge (ACLU) the Supreme Court rules that the government cannot enforce racially restrictive covenants and asserts that they are in conflict with the nation's public policy. <br />July 12 – Hubert Humphrey makes a controversial speech in favor of American civil rights at the Democratic National Convention. <br />July 26 – President Harry S. Truman issues Executive Order 9981 ordering the end of segregation in the Armed Forces. <br />unknown – Atlanta hires its first black police officers. <br />[edit] 1950–1959<br />For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology <br />1950<br />June 5 – In McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents the Supreme Court rules that a public institution of higher learning could not provide different treatment to a student solely because of his race. <br />June 5 – In Sweatt v. Painter the Supreme Court rules that a separate-but-equal Texas law school was actually unequal, partly in that it deprived black students from the collegiality of future white lawyers. <br />June 5 – In Henderson v. United States the Supreme Court abolishes segregation in railroad dining cars. <br />The Leadership Conference on Civil Rights is created in Washington, DC to promote the enactment and enforcement of effective civil rights legislation and policy. <br />unknown – Orlando, Florida, hires its first black police officers. <br />unknown – Dr. Ralph Bunche wins the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize. <br />unknown – Chuck Cooper, Nathaniel Clifton and Earl Lloyd break the barriers into the NBA. <br />1951<br />April 23 – High school students in Farmville, Virginia, go on strike: the case Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County is heard by the Supreme Court in 1954 as part of Brown v. Board of Education. <br />July 26 – The United States Army high command announces it will desegregate the Army. <br />December 24 – The home of NAACP activists Harry and Harriette Moore in Mims, Florida, is bombed by KKK group; both die of injuries. <br />December 28 – The Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) is founded in Cleveland, Mississippi by T.R.M. Howard, Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, and other civil rights activists. Assisted by member Medgar Evers, the RCNL distributed more than 50,000 bumper stickers bearing the slogan, "Don't Buy Gas Where you Can't Use the Restroom." This campaign successfully pressured many Mississippi service stations to provide restrooms for blacks. <br />1952<br />January 28 – Briggs v. Elliott: after a District Court orders separate but equal school facilities in South Carolina, the Supreme Court agrees to hear the case as part of Brown v. Board of Education. <br />April 1 – Chancellor Collins J. Seitz finds for the black plaintiffs (HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebhart_v._Belton" o "Gebhart v. Belton"Gebhart v. Belton, Gebhart v. Bulah) and orders the integration of Hockessin elementary and Claymont High School in Delaware based on assessment of "separate but equal" public school facilities required by the Delaware constitution. <br />September 4 – Eleven black students attend the first day of school at Claymont High School, Delaware, becoming the first black students in the 17 segregated states to integrate a white public school. The day occurs without incident or notice by the community. <br />September 5 – The Delaware State Attorney General informs Claymont Superintendent Stahl that the black students will have to go home because the case is being appealed. Stahl, the School Board and the faculty refuse and the students remain. The two Delaware cases are argued before the Warren Supreme Court by Redding, Greenberg and Marshall and are used as an example of how integration can be achieved peacefully. It was a primary influence in the Brown v. Board case. The students become active in sports, music and theater. The first two black students graduated in June 1954 just one month after the Brown v. Board case. <br />unknown – Ralph Ellison authors the novel Invisible Man which wins the National Book Award. <br />1953<br />August 13 – Executive Order 10479 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower establishes the anti-discrimination Committee on Government Contracts. <br />September 1 – In the landmark case Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, WAC Sarah Keys, represented by civil rights lawyer Dovey Roundtree, becomes the first black to challenge "separate but equal" in bus segregation before the Interstate Commerce Commission. <br />unknown – James Baldwin's semi-autobiographical novel Go Tell It on the Mountain is published. <br />1954<br />May 3 – In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court of the United States rules that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States are entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. <br />May 17 – The Supreme Court rules against the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. and in Bolling v. Sharpe, thus overturning Plessy v. Ferguson. <br />July 11 – The first White Citizens' Council meeting takes place, in Mississippi. <br />July 30 – At a special meeting in Jackson, Mississippi called by Governor Hugh White, T.R.M. Howard of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, along with nearly one hundred other black leaders, publicly refuse to support a segregationist plan to maintain "separate but equal" in exchange for a crash program to increase spending on black schools. <br />November – Charles Diggs, Jr., of Detroit is elected to Congress, the first African American elected from Michigan. <br />Frankie Muse Freeman is the lead attorney for the landmark NAACP case Davis et al. v. the St. Louis Housing Authority, which ended legal racial discrimination in public housing with the city. Constance Baker Motley was also an attorney for NAACP: it was a rarity to have two women attorneys leading such a high-profile case. <br />1955<br />January 7 – Marian Anderson (of 1939 fame) becomes the first African American to perform with the New York Metropolitan Opera. <br />January 15 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10590, establishing the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce a nondiscrimination policy in Federal employment. <br />Rosa Parks pictured in 1955<br />May 7 – NAACP and Regional Council of Negro Leadership activist Reverend George W. Lee is killed in Belzoni, Mississippi. <br />May 31 – The Supreme Court rules in "Brown II" that desegregation must occur with "all deliberate speed". <br />June 29 – The NAACP wins a Supreme Court decision, ordering the University of Alabama to admit Autherine Lucy. <br />August 13 – Regional Council of Negro Leadership registration activist Lamar Smith is murdered in Brookhaven, Mississippi. <br />August 28 – Teenager Emmett Till is killed for whistling at a white woman in Money, Mississippi. <br />November 7 – The Interstate Commerce Commission bans bus segregation in interstate travel in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, extending the logic of Brown v. Board to the area of bus travel across state lines. <br />December 1 – Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus, starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This occurs nine months after 15-year-old high school student Claudette Colvin became the first to refuse to give up her seat. Colvin's was the legal case which eventually ended the practice in Montgomery. <br />unknown – Roy Wilkins becomes the NAACP executive secretary. <br />1956<br />January 16 – FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover writes a rare open letter of complaint directed to civil rights leader Dr. T.R.M. Howard after Howard charged in a speech that the "FBI can pick up pieces of a fallen airplane on the slopes of a Colorado mountain and find the man who caused the crash, but they can't find a white man when he kills a Negro in the South." [17] <br />February 3 – Autherine Lucy is admitted to the University of Alabama. Whites riot, and she is suspended. Later, she is expelled for her part in further legal action against the university. <br />February 24 – The policy of Massive Resistance is declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. <br />February/March- The Southern Manifesto, opposing integration of schools, is created and signed by members of the Congressional delegations of Southern states, including 19 senators and 81 members of the House of Representatives, notably the entire delegations of the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia. On March 12, it is released to the press. <br />April 10 – Singer Nat King Cole is assaulted during a segregated performance at Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama. <br />May 26 – Circuit Judge Walter B. Jones issues an injunction prohibiting the NAACP from operating in Alabama. <br />May 28 – The Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott begins. <br />June 5 – The Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) is founded at a mass meeting in Birmingham, Alabama. <br />November 5 – Nat King Cole hosts the first show of The Nat King Cole Show. The show went off the air after only 13 months because no national sponsor could be found. <br />November 13 – In Browder v. Gayle, the Supreme Court strikes down Alabama laws requiring segregation of buses. This ruling, together with the ICC's 1955 ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach banning Jim Crow in bus travel among the states, is a landmark in outlawing Jim Crow in bus travel. <br />December 25 – The parsonage in Birmingham, Alabama occupied by Fred Shuttlesworth , movement leader, is bombed. Shuttlesworth receives only minor scrapes. <br />December 26 – The ACMHR tests the Browder v. Gayle ruling by riding in the white sections of Birmingham city buses. 22 demonstrators are arrested. <br />unknown – Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission formed. <br />unknown – Director J. Edgar Hoover orders the FBI to begin the COINTELPRO program to investigate and disrupt "dissident" groups within the United States. <br />1957<br />January – Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is named chairman of the organization. <br />May 17 – The Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom in Washington, DC is at the time the largest non-violent demonstration for civil rights. <br />September 4 – Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to block integration of Little Rock Central High School. <br />September – President Dwight Eisenhower federalizes the National Guard and also orders US Army troops to ensure Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas is integrated. Federal and National Guard troops escort the Little Rock Nine. <br />September 27 – Civil Rights Act of 1957 signed by President Eisenhower. <br />1958<br />January 18 - Willie O'Ree breaks the color barrier in the National Hockey League, in his first game playing for the Boston Bruins. <br />June 29 – Bethel Baptist Church (Birmingham, Alabama) is bombed by Ku Klux Klan members. <br />June 30 – In NAACP v. Alabama, the Supreme Court rules that the NAACP was not required to release membership lists to continue operating in the state. <br />August – Clara Luper and the NAACP Youth Council conduct the largest successful sit-in to date, on drug store lunch-counters in Oklahoma City. This starts a successful six-year campaign by Luper and the Council to desegregate businesses and related institutions in Oklahoma City. <br />September 12 – In Cooper v. Aaron the Supreme Court rules that the states were bound by the Court's decisions. <br />unknown – Publication of Here I Stand, Paul Robeson's manifesto-autobiography. <br />1959<br />January 12 – Motown Records is founded by Berry Gordy. <br />April 24 – Mack Charles Parker is lynched three days before his trial. <br />unknown – A Raisin in the Sun, a play by Lorraine Hansberry, debuts on Broadway. The 1961 film of it will star Sidney Poitier. <br /> 1960–1969<br />For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology <br />1960<br />February 1 – Four black students sit at the Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, sparking six months of the Greensboro Sit-Ins. <br />February 13 – The Nashville, Tennessee Sit-in begins, although the Nashville students, trained by activist and nonviolent teacher James Lawson, had been doing preliminary groundwork towards the action for two months. The sit-in ends successfully in May. <br />February 17 – Alabama grand jury indicts Martin Luther King (MLK) for tax evasion. <br />February 20 – Virginia Union University students stage sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter in Richmond, Virginia.[18] <br />March 3 – Vanderbilt University expels James Lawson for sit-in participation. <br />March 7 – Felton Turner of Houston is beaten and hanged upside-down in a tree, initials KKK carved on his chest. <br />March 19 – San Antonio becomes first city to integrate lunch counters. <br />March 20 – Florida Governor LeRoy Collins calls lunch counter segregation “unfair and morally wrong.” <br />April 8 – Weak civil rights bill survives Senate filibuster. <br />April 15–17 – The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is formed in Raleigh, North Carolina. <br />April 19 – Z. Alexander Looby's home is bombed, with no injuries. Looby, a Nashville civil rights lawyer, was active in the cities ongoing sit-in movement. <br />May – Nashville sit-ins end successfully. <br />May 6 – Civil Rights Act of 1960 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. <br />May 28 – William Robert Ming and Hubert Delaney obtain an acquittal of MLK from an all-white jury in Alabama.[19] <br />June 24 – MLK meets Senator John F. Kennedy (JFK). <br />June 28 – Bayard Rustin resigns from SCLC after condemnation by Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. <br />July 11 – To Kill a Mockingbird published. <br />July 31 – Elijah Muhammad calls for an all-black state. Membership in Nation of Islam estimated at 100,000. <br />August – Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker replaces Ella Baker as SCLC’s Executive Director. <br />October 19 – MLK and fifty others arrested at sit-in at Atlanta’s Rich’s Department Store. <br />October 26 – MLK’s earlier probation revoked; he is transferred to Reidsville State Prison. <br />October 28 – After intervention from Robert F. Kennedy (RFK), King is free on bond. <br />November 8 – John F. Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election. <br />November 14 – Ruby Bridges becomes the first African-American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the South (William Frantz Elementary School) following court-ordered integration in New Orleans, Louisiana. This event was portrayed by Norman Rockwell in his 1964 painting The Problem We All Live With. <br />December 5 – In Boynton v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court holds that racial segregation in bus terminals is illegal because such segregation violates the Interstate Commerce Act. This ruling, in combination with the ICC's 1955 decision in Keys v. Carolina Coach, effectively outlaws segregation on interstate buses and at the terminals servicing such buses. <br />1961<br />January 11 – Rioting over court-ordered admission of first two African Americans (Hamilton E. Holmes and Charlayne Hunter-Gault) at the University of Georgia leads to their suspension, but they are ordered reinstated. <br />January 31 – Member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and nine students arrested in Rock Hill, South Carolina. <br />March 6 – President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order 10925, which establishes a Presidential committee that later becomes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. <br />May 4 – The first group of Freedom Riders, with the intent of integrating interstate buses, leaves Washington, D.C. by Greyhound bus. The group, organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), leaves shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court has outlawed segregation in interstate transportation terminals.[20] <br />May 14 – The Freedom Riders' bus is attacked and burned outside of Anniston, Alabama. A mob beats the Freedom Riders upon their arrival in Birmingham. The Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi, and spend forty to sixty days in Parchman Penitentiary.[20] <br />May 17 – Nashville students, coordinated by Diane Nash and James Bevel, take up the Freedom Ride, signaling the increased involvement of SNCC. <br />May 20 – Freedom Riders are assaulted in Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station. <br />May 21 – MLK, the Freedom Riders, and congregation of 1,500 at Rev. Ralph Abernathy’s First Baptist Church in Montgomery are besieged by mob of segregationists; Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy sends federal marshals to protect them. <br />May 29 – Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, citing the 1955 landmark ICC ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company and the Supreme Court's 1960 decision in Boynton v. Virginia, petitions the ICC to enforce desegregation in interstate travel. <br />June–August – U.S. Dept. of Justice initiates talks with civil rights groups and foundations on beginning Voter Education Project. <br />July – SCLC begins citizenship classes; Andrew J. Young hired to direct the program. Bob Moses begins voter registration in McComb, Mississippi. <br />September – James Forman becomes SNCC’s Executive Secretary. <br />September 23 – Interstate Commerce Commission, at Robert F. Kennedy’s insistence, issues new rules ending discrimination in interstate travel, effective November 1, 1961, six years after the ICC's own ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company. <br />September 25 – Voter registration activist Herbert Lee killed in McComb, Mississippi. <br />November 1 – All interstate buses required to display a certificate that reads: “Seating aboard this vehicle is without regard to race, color, creed, or national origin, by order of the Interstate Commerce Commission.”[21] <br />November 1 – SNCC workers Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon and nine Chatmon Youth Council members test new ICC rules at Trailways bus station in Albany, Georgia.[22] <br />November 17 – SNCC workers help encourage and coordinate black activism in Albany, Georgia, culminating in the founding of the Albany Movement as a formal coalition.[22] <br />November 22 – Three high school students from Chatmon’s Youth Council arrested after using “positive actions” by walking into white sections of the Albany bus station.[22] <br />November 22 – Albany State College students Bertha Gober and Blanton Hall arrested after entering the white waiting room of the Albany Trailways station.[22] <br />December 10 – Freedom Riders from Atlanta, SNCC leader Charles Jones, and Albany State student Bertha Gober are arrested at Albany Union Railway Terminal, sparking mass demonstrations, with hundreds of protesters arrested over the next five days.[23] <br />December 11–15 – Five hundred protesters arrested in Albany, Georgia. <br />December 15 – Dr. King arrives in Albany, Georgia in response to a call from Dr. W. G. Anderson, the leader of the Albany Movement to desegregate public facilities.[20] <br />December 16 – Dr. King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia demonstration. He is charged with obstructing the sidewalk and parading without a permit.[20] <br />December 18 – Albany truce, including a 60-day postponement of King's trial; MLK leaves town.[24] <br />unknown – Whitney Young is appointed executive director of the National Urban League and begins expanding its size and mission. <br />unknown – Black Like Me written by John Howard Griffin, a white southerner who deliberately tanned and dyed his skin to allow him to directly experience the life of the Negro in the Deep South, is published, displaying the brutality of Jim Crow segregation to a national audience. <br />1962<br />January 18–20 – Student protests over sit-in leaders’ expulsions at Baton Rouge’s Southern University, the nation’s largest black school, close it down. <br />February – Representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP form the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). A grant request to fund COFO voter registration activities is submitted to the Voter Education Project (VEP). <br />February 26 – Segregated transportation facilities, both interstate and intrastate, ruled unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court. <br />March – SNCC workers sit-in at US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy's office to protest jailings in Baton Rouge. <br />March 20 – FBI installs wiretaps on NAACP activist Stanley Levison’s office. <br />April 3 – Defense Department orders full racial integration of military reserve units, except the National Guard. <br />April 9 – Corporal Roman Duckworth shot by a police officer in Taylorsville, Mississippi. <br />June – Leroy Willis becomes first black graduate of the University of Virginia College of Arts and Sciences. <br />June – SNCC workers establish voter registration projects in rural southwest Georgia. <br />July 10 – August 28 SCLC renews protests in Albany; MLK in jail July 10–12 and July 27 – August 10. <br />August 31 – Fannie Lou Hamer attempts to register to vote in Indianola, Mississippi. <br />September 9 – Two black churches used by SNCC for voter registration meetings are burned in Sasser, Georgia. <br />September 20 – James Meredith is barred from becoming the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. <br />September 30 – October 1 – Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black orders James Meredith admitted to Ole Miss. Meredith enrolls; riot ensues. French photographer Paul Guihard and Oxford resident Ray Gunter are killed. <br />October – Leflore County, Mississippi, supervisors cut off surplus food distribution in retaliation against voter drive. <br />October 23 – FBI begins Communist Infiltration (COMINFIL) investigation of SCLC. <br />October 14–28 – Cuban Missile Crisis. <br />November 7–8 – Edward Brooke selected Massachusetts Attorney General, Leroy Johnson elected Georgia State Senator, Augustus F. Hawkins elected first black from California in Congress. <br />November 20 – Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy authorizes FBI wiretap on Stanley Levison’s home telephone. <br />November 20 – President John F. Kennedy upholds 1960 campaign promise to eliminate housing segregation by signing Executive Order 11063 banning segregation in Federally funded housing. <br />1963<br />January 18 – Incoming Alabama governor George Wallace calls for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" in his inaugural address. <br />April 3 – May 10 – The Birmingham campaign, organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights challenges city leaders and business owners in Birmingham, Alabama, with daily mass demonstrations. <br />April – Mary Lucille Hamilton, Field Secretary for the Congress of Racial Equality, refuses to answer a judge in Gadsden, Alabama, until she is addressed by the honorific "Miss". It was the custom of the time to address white people by honorifics and people of color by their first names. Hamilton is jailed for contempt of court and refuses to pay bail. The case Hamilton v. Alabama is filed by the NAACP. It went to the Supreme Court, which ruled in 1964 that courts must address persons of color with the same courtesy extended to whites. <br />April 7 - Ministers John Thomas Porter, Nelson H. Smith and A. D. King lead a group of 2,000 marchers to protest the jailing of movement leaders in Birmingham. <br />April 12 - Martin Luther King, Jr. is arrested in Birmingham for "parading without a permit". <br />April 16 – King's Letter from Birmingham Jail is completed. <br />April 23 – CORE activist William L. Moore is killed in Gadsden, Alabama. <br />May 2–4 – Birmingham's juvenile court is inundated with African-American children and teenagers arrested after James Bevel launches his "D-Day" youth march, which spans three days to become the Children's Crusade.[25] <br />May 9–10 – After images of fire hoses and police dogs turned on protesters are shown on television, the Children's Crusade lays the groundwork for the terms of a negotiated truce on Thursday, May 9 – an end to mass demonstrations in return for rolling back oppressive segregation laws and practices. MLK and Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth announce the terms of the settlement on Friday, May 10, only after MLK holds out to orchestrate the release of thousands of jailed demonstrators with bail money from Harry Belafonte and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.[26] <br />May 13 – In United States of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. the City of Jackson, Mississippi et al., the United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit rules the city's attempt to circumvent laws desegregating interstate transportation facilities by posting sidewalk signs outside Greyhound, Trailways and Illinois Central terminals reading "Waiting Room for White Only — By Order Police Department" and "Waiting Room for Colored Only — By Order Police Department" to be unlawful.[27] <br />June 9 – Fannie Lou Hamer is among several SNCC workers badly beaten by police in the Winona, Mississippi, jail after their bus stops there. <br />June 11 – "The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door": Alabama Governor George Wallace stands in front of a schoolhouse door at the University of Alabama in an attempt to stop desegregation by the enrollment of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood. Wallace only stands aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach, and the Alabama National Guard. Later in life he apologizes for his opposition to racial integration then. <br />June 11 – President John F. Kennedy makes his historic civil rights speech, promising a bill to Congress the next week. About civil rights for "Negroes", in his speech he asks for "the kind of equality of treatment which we would want for ourselves." <br />June 12 – NAACP worker Medgar Evers is murdered in Jackson, Mississippi. (His killer is convicted in 1994.)[28] <br />Summer – 80,000 blacks quickly register to vote in Mississippi by a test project to show their desire to participate. <br />June 19 – President Kennedy sends Congress (H. Doc. 124, 88th Cong., 1st session.) his proposed Civil Rights Act.[29] <br />August 28 – March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is held. Dr. Martin Luther King gives his I Have a Dream speech.[30] <br />September 10 – Birmingham, Alabama City Schools are integrated by National Guardsmen under orders from JFK. <br />September 15 – 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham kills four young girls. That same day, in response to the killings, James Bevel and Diane Nash begin the Alabama Project, which will later grow into the Selma Voting Rights Movement. <br />November 22 – President Kennedy is assassinated. The new President, Lyndon B. Johnson, decides that accomplishing JFK's legislative agenda is his best strategy, which he pursues with the results below in 1964–1965.[31] <br />1964<br />All year – The Alabama Voting Rights Project continues organizing as James Bevel, Diane Nash, and James Orange work without the support of SCLC, the group which Bevel represents as its Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education. <br />January 23 – Twenty-fourth Amendment abolishes the poll tax for Federal elections. <br />Summer – Mississippi Freedom Summer – voter registration in the state. Create the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party to elect an alternative slate of delegates for the national convention, as blacks are still officially disfranchised. <br />April 13 - Sidney Poitier wins the Academy Award for Best Actor for role in Lilies of the Field. <br />June 21 – Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders, three civil rights workers disappear, later to be found murdered. <br />June 28 – Organization of Afro-American Unity is founded by Malcolm X, lasts until his death. <br />July 2 – Civil Rights Act of 1964[32] signed.[31] <br />August – Congress passes the Economic Opportunity Act which, among other things, provides federal funds for legal representation of Native Americans in both civil and criminal suits. This allows the ACLU and the American Bar Association to represent Native Americans in cases that later win them additional civil rights. <br />August – The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegates challenge the seating of all-white Mississippi representatives at the Democratic national convention. <br />December 10 – Dr. Martin Luther King is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the youngest person so honored.[33] <br />December 14 – In Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, the Supreme Court upholds the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[32] <br />The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.<br />1965<br />February 18 – A peaceful protest march in Selma leads to Jimmie Lee Jackson being shot to death by Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler, who in 2007 is indicted for his murder. <br />February 21 – Malcolm X is shot to death in Manhattan, New York, probably by three members of the Nation of Islam. <br />March 7 – Bloody Sunday: Civil rights workers in Selma, Alabama, begin a march to Montgomery but are stopped by a massive police blockade as they cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Many marchers are severely injured and one killed. This action, initiated and organized by James Bevel, becomes the visual symbol of the Selma Voting Rights Movement. <br />March 15 – President Lyndon Johnson uses the phrase "We shall overcome" in a speech before Congress on the voting rights bill.[34] <br />March 25 – White volunteer Viola Liuzzo is shot and killed by Ku Klux Klan members in Mississippi – one of whom was an FBI informant. <br />June 2 – Black deputy sheriff Oneal Moore is murdered in Varnado, Louisiana. <br />July 2 – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission opens. <br />August 6 – Voting Rights Act of 1965 signed by President Johnson.[34][34] <br />August 11 – Watts Riots erupt in south Los Angeles. <br />September – Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong become the first African-American students to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. <br />September 15 – Bill Cosby co-stars in I Spy, becoming the first black person to appear in a starring role on American television. <br />September 24 – President Johnson signs Executive Order 11246 requiring Equal Employment Opportunity by federal contractors. <br />1966<br />January 10 – NAACP local chapter president Vernon Dahmer is injured by a bomb in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. He dies the next day. <br />June 5 – James Meredith begins a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. Shortly after starting, he is shot with birdshot and injured. Civil rights leaders and organizations rally and continue the march leading to, on June 16, Stokely Carmichael first using the slogan Black power in a speech. <br />September – Nichelle Nichols is cast as a female black officer on television's Star Trek. She briefly considers leaving the role, but is encouraged by Dr. Martin Luther King to continue as an example for their community. <br />October – Black Panthers founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California. <br />November – Edward Brooke is elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts. He is the first black senator since 1881. <br />1967<br />January 9 – Julian Bond is seated in the Georgia House of Representatives by order of the Supreme Court after his election. <br />June 12 – In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. <br />June 13 – Thurgood Marshall is the first African American appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. <br />August 2 – The film In the Heat of the Night is released, starring Sidney Poitier. <br />December 11 – The film Guess Who's Coming to Dinner is released, also with Sidney Poitier. <br />unknown – In the trial of accused killers in the Mississippi civil rights worker murders, the jury convicts 7 of 18 accused men. Conspirator Edgar Ray Killen is later convicted in 2005. <br />unknown – The film The Great White Hope starring James Earl Jones is released; it is based on the experience of heavyweight Jack Johnson. <br />unknown – The book Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools is published. <br />1968<br />February 8 – The Orangeburg Massacre occurs during university protest in South Carolina. <br />March – While filming a prime time television special, Petula Clark touches Harry Belafonte's arm during a duet. Chrysler Corporation, the show's sponsor, insists the moment be deleted, but Clark stands firm, destroys all other takes of the song, and delivers the completed program to NBC with the touch intact. The show is broadcast on April 8, 1968.[35] <br />April 4 – Dr. Martin Luther King is shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee by James Earl Ray. <br />April 11 – Civil Rights Act of 1968 is signed. The Fair Housing Act is Title VIII of this Civil Rights Act – it bans discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. The law is passed following a series of contentious open housing campaigns throughout the urban North. The most significant of these campaigns took place in Chicago (1966) and in Milwaukee (1967–68). In both cities, angry white mobs attacked non-violent protesters.[36][37] <br />May 12- Poor People's Campaign marches on Washington, DC. <br />June 6 – Robert F. Kennedy, a Civil Rights advocate, is assassinated after winning the California presidential primary. His appeal to minorities helped him secure the victory. <br />September 17 – Diahann Carroll stars in the title role in Julia, as the first African American actress to star in her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker. <br />October 3 – The play The Great White Hope opens; it runs for 546 performances and later becomes a film. <br />October – Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games. <br />November 22 – First interracial kiss on American television, between Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner on Star Trek. <br />unknown – In Powe v. Miles, a federal court holds that the portions of private colleges that are funded by public money are subject to the Civil Rights Act. <br />unknown – Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African-American woman elected to Congress. <br />1969<br />June – The second of two US federal appeals court decisions not only confirms members of the public hold legal standing to participate in broadcast station license hearings, but under the Fairness Doctrine finds the record of segregationist TV station WLBT beyond repair. The FCC is ordered to open proceedings for a new licensee.[38] <br />December – Fred Hampton, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party, is shot and killed while asleep in bed during a police raid on his home. <br />unknown – United Citizens Party is formed in South Carolina when Democratic Party refuses to nominate African-American candidates. <br />unknown – W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research founded at Harvard University. <br />unknown – The Revised Philadelphia Plan is instituted by the Department of Labor. <br />unknown – The Congressional Black Caucus is formed. <br /> 1970–2000<br />1970<br />January 19 – G. Harrold Carswell's nomination to the Supreme Court rejected. <br />May 27 – The film Watermelon Man is released, directed by Melvin Van Peebles and starring Godfrey Cambridge. <br />unknown – First blaxploitation films released. <br />1971<br />April 20 – The Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upholds desegregation busing of students to achieve integration. <br />June – Control of segregationist TV station WLBT given to a bi-racial foundation. <br />December – Jesse Jackson organizes Operation PUSH. <br />unknown – Ernest J. Gaines's Reconstruction-era novel The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman published. <br />1972<br />January 25 – Shirley Chisholm becomes the first major-party African-American candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination. <br />November 16 – In Baton Rouge, two Southern University students are killed by white sheriff deputies during a school protest over lack of funding from the state. Today, the university’s Smith-Brown Memorial Union is named in their honor. <br />1973<br />February 27 – Start of 71-day standoff at Wounded Knee between federal authorities and members of the American Indian Movement. <br />unknown – Combahee River Collective, a Black feminist group, is established in Boston, out of New York's National Black Feminist Organization. <br />1974<br />July 25 – In Milliken v. Bradley, the Supreme Court in a 5–4 decision holds that outlying districts could only be forced into a desegregation busing plan if there was a pattern of violation on their part. This decision reinforces the trend of white flight. <br />Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective, the first "out" organization for lesbians, womanists and women of color formed in New York City. <br />1975<br />April 30 – In the pilot episode of Starsky and Hutch, Richard Ward plays an African-American boss of white Americans for the first time on TV. <br />1976<br />February – Black History Month is founded by Professor Carter Woodson's Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History. <br />unknown – The novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley is published. <br />1977<br />unknown – Combahee River Collective, a Black feminist group, publishes the Combahee River Collective Statement. <br />unknown – President Jimmy Carter appoints Andrew Young to serve as Ambassador to the United Nations, the first African-American to serve in the position. <br />1978<br />June 28 – Regents of the University of California v. Bakke bars racial quota systems in college admissions but affirms the constitutionality of affirmative action programs giving equal access to minorities. <br />1979<br />unknown – United Steelworkers of America v. Weber is a case regarding affirmative action in which the United States Supreme Court holds that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not bar employers from favoring women and minorities. <br />1982<br />unknown – Charles Fuller writes A Soldier's Play, which is later made into the film A Soldier's Story. <br />November 30 – Michael Jackson releases Thriller, which becomes the best-selling album of all time. <br />1983<br />May 24 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Bob Jones University did not qualify as either a tax-exempt or a charitable organization due to its racially discriminatory practices.[39] <br />August 30 – Guion Bluford becomes the first African-American to go into space. <br />November 2 - President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating a federal holiday to honor Dr. Martin Luther King. <br />unknown – Alice Walker receives the Pulitzer Prize for her novel The Color Purple. <br />1984<br />September 13 – The film A Soldier's Story is released, dealing with racism in the U.S. military. <br />unknown – The Cosby Show begins, and is regarded as one of the defining television shows of the decade. <br />1986<br />January 20 – Established by legislation in 1983, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is first celebrated as a national holiday. <br />1987<br />unknown – The Public Broadcasting Service's six-part documentary Eyes on the Prize is first shown, covering the years 1954–1965. In 1990 it is added to by the eight-part Eyes on the Prize II covering the years 1965–1985. <br />1988<br />unknown – Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988. <br />December 9 – The film Mississippi Burning is released, regarding the 1964 Mississippi civil rights workers murders. <br />1989<br />February 10 – Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to lead a major United States political party. <br />October 1 – Colin Powell becomes Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. <br />December 15 – The film Glory is released: it features African-American Civil War soldiers. <br />1990<br />January 13 – Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected African American governor as he takes office in Richmond, Virginia. <br />1991<br />March 3 – Four white police officers are videotaped beating African-American Rodney King in Los Angeles. <br />October 15 – Senate confirms the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. <br />November 21 – Civil Rights Act of 1991 enacted. <br />unknown – Henry Louis Gates, Jr. becomes Harvard University's Director of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research. <br />1992<br />April 29 – 1992 Los Angeles riots erupt after officers accused of beating Rodney King are acquitted. <br />September 12 – Mae Carol Jemison becomes the first African American woman to travel in space when she goes into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. <br />November 3 – Carol Moseley Braun becomes the first African American woman to be elected to the United States Senate. <br />November 18 – Director Spike Lee's film Malcolm X is released. [2] <br />1994<br />March 29 – Cornel West's text Race Matters is published. <br />1995<br />June 30 – In Miller v. Johnson the Supreme Court rules that gerrymandering based on race is unconstitutional. <br />October 16 – Million Man March in Washington, D.C., co-initiated by Louis Farrakhan and James Bevel. <br />1997<br />July 9 – Director Spike Lee releases his documentary 4 Little Girls, about the 1963 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. <br />October 25 – Million Woman March in Philadelphia. <br />1998<br />June 7 – James Byrd, Jr. is brutally murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. The scene is reminiscent of earlier lynchings. In response, Byrd's family create the James Byrd Foundation for Racial Healing. <br />October 23 – The film American History X is released, powerfully highlighting the problems of urban racism. <br />2000<br />May 3 – Bob Jones University, a fundamentalist South Carolina private institution, ends its ban on interracial dating.[40] <br /> 21st century<br />2001<br />January 20 – Colin Powell becomes Secretary of State. <br />2003<br />June 23 – Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger upholds the University of Michigan Law School's admission policy. However, in the simultaneously-heard Gratz v. Bollinger the university is required to change a policy. <br />2005<br />June 21 – Edgar Ray Killen is convicted of participating in the Mississippi civil rights worker murders. <br />October 15 – The Millions More Movement holds a march in Washington D.C. <br />October 25 – Rosa Parks dies at the age of 92. She was famous for starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. Her body lies in state in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. before her funeral. <br />2007<br />May 10 – Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler is indicted for the murder of Jimmie Lee Jackson on February 18, 1965. <br />June 28 – Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 decided along with Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education prohibits assigning students to public schools solely for the purpose of achieving racial integration and declines to recognize racial balancing as a compelling state interest. <br />2008<br />June 3 – Barack Obama receives enough delegates by the end of state primaries to be the presumptive Democratic Party of the United States nominee.[41] <br />August 28 – At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, in a stadium filled with supporters, Barack Obama accepts the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. <br />November 4 – Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States of America, opening his victory speech with, "If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer."[citation needed] <br />2009<br />January 20 – Barack Obama sworn in as the 44th President of the United States, the first African-American ever to become president. <br />January 30 – Former Maryland Lt. Governor Michael Steele becomes Chairman of the Republican National Committee. <br />unknown – The U.S. Postal Service issues a commemorative six-stamp set portraying twelve civil rights pioneers. <br />October 9 – Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. <br />2010<br />July 19 – Shirley Sherrod first is pressured to resign from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and immediately thereafter receives its apology after she is inaccurately accused of being racist towards white Americans. <br />“To include but not limited to” <br />“The Bombing attempt of the 2011 (MLK) Parade in Washington State.<br />Argument XXX<br />308.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” direct cause of action and standing being presented for the Defendant (The United States of America), direct “perverse”, “vicious”, “rebellious”, and quite “pertinacious manner”, “style”, and “screwed up behavior” <br />In the complete “devastation method(s) and approach” in “Violation(s) of the (Negro) race “Entire possession, ownership, tenure, custody, respect, and equal protection thereof the “Amendment(s) to the Constitution” of the Defendant herein (The United States of America) to wit: <br />309.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) Constitution as depicted in paragraph (19) above could in no “fashion or form” included the (Negro) race in 1865 after the “Civil War”<br /> During the “Crazy, Idiotic”, “Fanatical”, “Cruel” acts and actions rule of the Co-Defendant herein (President Andrew Johnson) fully imposed “Black Codes” against the “suppose Freeman having civilized “Amendments” rights of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />310.<br />This legal “Black Codes” conflicting oppression blueprint, design and purposed enforcement by the Defendant (The United States of America) being very contradictory, at odds, opposing, incongruous and very inconsistent with any type of equality, fairness, and safety for the (Negro) race under the enjoyment in a “Constitution” having all the legal “drips of trimmings” as referred by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />311.<br />Following Defendant (The United States of America) already oppression imposed “Genocide Statehood” upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants in the “Full Slave Codes” enforcement since the time frame of 1619-1865.<br />312. <br />Defendant 1st Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 1<br />Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; <br />Or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) the rights to testify against whites, to serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote, and express legal concern publicly.<br />313.<br />Defendant 2nd Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 2A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 2nd Amendment rights as described below<br />1866AlabamaRace-based total gun ban. Black Code of Alabama in January 1866 prohibited blacks to own or carry firearms or other deadly weapons and prohibited “any person to sell, give, or lend fire-arms or ammunition of any description whatever” to any black. <br />314.<br />Defendant 5th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 5No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; <br />Nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 5th Amendment rights as described below:<br />CIVIL RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN IN MISSISSIPPI<br />Sec. 4....In addition to cases in which freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes are now by law competent witnesses, freedmen, free negroes, or mulattoes shall be competent in civil cases, when a party or parties to the suit, either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants, <br />And a white person or white persons, is or are the opposing party or parties, plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants. They shall also be competent witnesses in all criminal prosecutions where the crime charged is alleged to have been committed by a white person upon or against the person or property of a freedman, free negro, or mulatto: Provided, <br />That in all cases said witnesses shall be examined in open court, on the stand; except, however, they may be examined before the grand jury, and shall in all cases be subject to the rules and tests of the common law as to competency and credibility....<br />315.<br />Defendant 6th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 6In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 6th Amendment rights as described below:<br />CIVIL RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN IN MISSISSIPPI<br />Sec. 7....Every civil officer shall, and every person may, arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any “freedman”, “free negro”, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer before the expiration of his or her term of service without good cause; <br />And said officer and person shall be entitled to receive for arresting and carrying back every deserting employee aforesaid the sum of five dollars, and ten cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery; and the same shall be paid by the employer, and held as a set-off for so much against the wages of said deserting employee: <br />Provided, that said arrested party, after being so returned, may appeal to the justice of the peace or member of the board of police of the county, who, on notice to the alleged employer, shall try summarily whether said appellant is legally employed by the alleged employer, and has good cause to quit said employer; either party shall have the right of appeal to the county court, pending which the alleged deserter shall be remanded to the alleged employer or otherwise disposed of, as shall be right and just; and the decision of the county court shall be final....<br />316.<br />Defendant 8th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 8Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 8th Amendment rights as described below for Mississippi and Louisiana:<br />CIVIL RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN IN MISSISSIPPI<br />Sec. 9....If any person shall persuade or attempt to persuade, entice, or cause any “freedman”, “free negro”, or mulatto to desert from the legal employment of any person before the expiration of his or her term of service, or shall knowingly employ any such deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, or shall knowingly give or sell to any such deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any food, raiment, or other thing,<br /> He or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars and not more than two hundred dollars and the costs; and if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding two months’ imprisonment in the county jail, and he or she shall moreover be liable to the party injured in damages: <br />Provided, if any person shall, or shall attempt to, persuade, entice, or cause any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to desert from any legal employment of any person, with the view to employ said freedman, free negro, or mulatto without the limits of this State, such person, on conviction, shall be fined not less than fifty dollars, and not more than five hundred dollars and costs; and if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding six months imprisonment in the county jail....<br />317<br />Black Codes - Louisiana<br />No Negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town of Opelousas without special permission from his employers. . . . Whoever shall violate this provision shall suffer imprisonment and two days work on the public streets, or pay a fine of five dollars." <br />Any Negro found on the streets of the town after ten o'clock in the evening had to work for five days on the public streets or pay a $5 fine.<br />No Negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .<br />No Negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . that is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. . . . <br />No public meetings or congregations of Negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . . <br />No Negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission from the mayor or president of the board of police..... <br />No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons.... <br />No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise within the limits of Opelousas without permission in writing from his employer in the parish of St. Landry<br />*Every Negro [is] to be in the service of some “white person”, or “former owner”. ... <br />318.<br />Defendant 9th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 9The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.<br /> “However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 9th Amendment rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Black Codes - South CarolinaThe South Carolina legislature decreed that no black man "shall pursue the practice, art, trade or business of an artisan, mechanic, or shopkeeper, or any other trade or employment besides that of husbandry, or that of a servant under contract for labor, until he shall have obtained a license from the judge of the district court, which license shall be good for one year only." <br />A black shopkeeper or peddler had to pay $100 a year for a license. If a black man under contract for his labor left or was fired before the end of his contract time, he must "forefeit his wages for that year up to the time of quitting." Moreover, any person "giving or selling to any deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any food, raiment, or other things shall be guilty of a misdemeanor" punishable by a fine of up to $200, and be subject to suit by the employer. In virtually every instance the inability to pay a fine would result in a sentence to labor for a period ranging from six months to a year.<br />319.<br />Moreover Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans (Negro) state furtherance’s before the Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having imposed illegal “poll taxes” were done being “imposed in every state”, upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants ranging in amount from Georgia's $1 per head on every man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty to $2 in Alabama on every person between the ages of eighteen and fifty, and to $3 in Florida. <br />A (Negro)black man could not buy or rent land except in a city. South Carolina required that a (Negro) black man pay an exorbitant fee to engage in trade or open a store. Nor, in that state, could he serve on juries. Unemployment was treated as a crime, and the unemployed could be sentenced to work without pay.<br />320.<br />Defendant 13th Amendment clearly stating <br />The 13th Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." Formally abolishing slavery in the United States, <br />*Note* The 13th Amendment of the Defendant (The United States of America) was passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 13th Amendment rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Louisiana Black Codes of 1865 <br />AN ACTRelative to apprentices and indentured servants.<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Louisiana, in General Assembly convened, That it shall be the duty of Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace and other civil officers of this State, to report to the Clerks of the District Courts of their respective Parishes, and in the Parish of Orleans (left bank) to the Mayor of the City of New Orleans, and on the right bank to the President of the Police Jury, on the first Monday of each month, for each and every year, all persons under the age of eighteen years, if females, and twenty-one, if males, who are orphans, or whose parent, parents, or tutor, have not the means, or who refuse to provide for and maintain said minors; and, thereupon, it shall be the duty of the Clerks of the District Courts, <br />Mayor and President of the Police Jury aforesaid, to examine whether the party or parties, so reported from time to time, come within the purview and meaning of this Act, and if so, to apprentice said minor or minors, in manner and form as prescribed by the Civil Code of the State of Louisiana; provided, that orphans coming under the provisions of this Act shall be authorized to select said employers when they have arrived at the age of puberty, unless they shall have been previously apprenticed; provided, that any indenture of apprentice or indented servant, made before a Justice of the Peace and two disinterested witnesses, <br />And the original deposited with and recorded by the Recorder of Mortgages for the Parish, in a book provided for that purpose, shall be valid and binding on the parties, and when made by the clerk, shall be also deposited with the Recorder of Mortgages, and all expenses for passing said acts of indenture shall be paid by the employer. <br />Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, &c., That persons who have attained the age of majority, whether in this State or any other State of the United States, or in a foreign country, may bind themselves to services to be performed in this country, for the term of five years, on such terms as they may stipulate, as domestic servants and to work on farms, plantations or in manufacturing establishments, which contracts shall be valid and binding on the parties to the same. <br />Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, &c., That in all cases, when the age of the minor cannot be ascertained by record testimony, the Clerks of the District Courts, Mayor and President of the Police Jury, or Justices of the Peace aforesaid, shall fix the age, according to the best evidence before them. <br />Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, &c., That all laws or parts of laws conflicting with the provisions of this Act, be, and the same are hereby repealed, and that this Act take effect from and after its passage. <br />DUNCAN S. CAGE, Speaker of the House of Representatives.ALBERT VOORHIES, Lieutenant Governor and President of the Senate. <br />Approved December 21, 1865. <br />J. MADISON WELLSGovernor of the State of Louisiana  <br />321.<br />Defendant 14th Amendment clearly stating <br />Fourteenth Amendment to the Defendant (United States of America)<br /> Constitution - Rights Guaranteed Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection<br />AMENDMENT XIV of the UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION<br />Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. <br />Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.<br /> No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. <br />Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. <br />Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. <br />Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. <br />Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. <br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 14th Amendment rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America) as follows:<br />322.<br />Source, Laws of the State of Mississippi, *Passed at a Regular Session of the Mississippi Legislature, held in Jackson, October, November and December, 1965, Jackson, 1866, pp. 82-93, 165-167,<br />Apprentice Law<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that it shall be the duty of all sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other civil officers of the several counties in this state to report to the Probate courts of their respective counties semiannually, at the January and July terms of said courts, all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes under the age of eighteen within their respective counties, beats, or districts who are orphans, or whose parent or parents have not the means, or who refuse to provide for and support said minors; and thereupon it shall be the duty of said Probate Court to order the clerk of said court to apprentice said minors to some competent and suitable person, on such terms as the court may direct, having a particular care to the interest of said minors:<br />Provided, that the former owner of said minors shall have the preference when, in the opinion of the court, he or she shall be a Suitable person for that purpose.<br />Section 2. Be it further enacted, that the said court shall be fully satisfied that the person or persons to whom said minor shall be apprenticed shall be a suitable person to have the charge and care of said minor and fully to protect the interest of said minor. The said court shall require the said master or mistress to execute bond and security, payable to the state of Mississippi, conditioned that he or she shall furnish said minor with sufficient food and clothing; to treat said minor humanely; furnish medical attention in case of sickness; teach or cause to be taught him or her to read and write, if under fifteen years old; and will conform to any law that may be hereafter passed for the regulation of the duties and relation of master and apprentice:<br />Provided, that said apprentice shall be bound by indenture, in case of males until they are twenty-one years old, and in case of females until they are eighteen years old.<br />Section 3. Be it further enacted, that in the management and control of said apprentices, said master or mistress shall have power to inflict such moderate corporeal chastisement as a father or guardian is allowed to inflict on his or her child or ward at common law:<br />Provided, that in no case shall cruel or inhuman punishment be inflicted.<br />Section 4. Be it further enacted, that if any apprentice shall leave the employment of his or her master or mistress without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand said apprentice to the service of his or her master or mistress; and in the event of a refusal on the part of said apprentice so to return, then said justice shall commit said apprentice to the jail of said county, on failure to give bond, until the next term of the county court; and it shall be the duty of said court, at the first term thereafter, to investigate said case; and if the court shall be of opinion that said apprentice left the employment of his or her master or mistress without good cause, to order him or her to be punished, as provided for the punishment of hired freedmen, as may be from time to time provided for by law, for desertion, until he or she shall agree to return to his or her master or mistress:<br />Provided, that the court may grant continuances, as in other cases; and provided, further, that if the court shall believe that said apprentice had good cause to quit his said master or mistress, the court shall discharge said apprentice from said indenture and also enter a judgment against the master or mistress for not more than $100, for the use and benefit of said apprentice, to be collected on execution, as in other cases.<br />Section 5. Be it further enacted, that if any person entice away any apprentice from his or her master or mistress, or shall knowingly employ an apprentice, or furnish him or her food or clothing, without the written consent of his or her master or mistress, of shall sell or give said apprentice ardent spirits, without such consent, said person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof before the county court, be punished as provided for the punishment of persons enticing from their employer hired freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes.<br />Section 6. Be it further enacted, that it shall be the duty of all civil officers of their respective counties to report any minors within their respective counties to said Probate Court who are subject to be apprenticed under the provisions of this act, from time to time, as the facts may come to their knowledge; and it shall be the duty of said court, from time to time, as said minors shall be reported to them or otherwise come to their knowledge, to apprentice said minors as hereinbefore provided.<br />Section 7. Be it further enacted, that in case the master or mistress of any apprentice shall desire, he or she shall have the privilege to summon his or her said apprentice to the Probate Court, and thereupon, with the approval of the court, he or she shall be released from all liability as master of said apprentice, and his said bond shall be canceled, and it shall be the duty of the court forthwith to reapprentice said minor; and in the event any master of in apprentice shall die before the close of the term of service of said apprentice, it shall be the duty of the court to give the preference in reapprenticing said minor to the widow, or other member of said master's family:<br />Provided, that said widow or other member of said family shall be a suitable person for that purpose.<br />Section 8. Be it further enacted, that in case any master or mistress of any apprentice, bound to him or her under this act shall be about to remove or shall have removed to any other state of the United States by the laws of which such apprentice may be an inhabitant thereof, the Probate Court of the proper county may authorize the removal of such apprentice to such state, upon the said master or mistress entering into bond, with security, in a penalty to be fixed by the judge, conditioned that said master or mistress will, upon such removal, comply with the laws of such state in such cases:<br />Provided, that said master shall be cited to attend the court at which such order is proposed to be made and shall have a right to resist the same by next friend, or otherwise.<br />Section 9. Be it further enacted, that it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or Mulatto having a minor child or children to apprentice the said minor child or children as provided for by this act.<br />Section 10. Be it further enacted, that in all cases where the age of the freedman, free Negro, or mulatto cannot be ascertained by record testimony, the judge of the county court shall fix the age.<br />II.<br />Vagrancy Law<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all rogues and vagabonds, idle and dissipated persons, beggars, jugglers, or persons practising unlawful games or plays, runaways, common drunkards, common nightwalkers, pilferers, lewd, wanton, or lascivious persons, in speech or behavior, common railers and brawlers, persons who neglect their calling or employment, misspend what they earn, or do not provide for the support of themselves or their families or dependents, and all other idle and disorderly persons, including all who neglect all lawful business, or habitually misspend their time by frequenting houses of ill-fame, gaming houses, or tippling shops, shall be deemed and considered vagrants under the provisions of this act; and, on conviction thereof shall be fined not exceeding $100, with all accruing costs, and be imprisoned at the discretion of the court not exceeding ten days.<br />Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes in this state over the age of eighteen years found on the second Monday in January 1966, or thereafter, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assembling themselves together either in the day or nighttime, and all white persons so assembling with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes, or usually associating with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes on terms of equality, or living in adultery or fornication with a freedwoman, free Negro, or mulatto, shall be deemed vagrants; and, on conviction thereof, shall be fined in the sum of not exceeding, in the case of a freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, 150, and a white man, $200, and imprisoned at the discretion of the court, the free Negro not exceeding ten days, and the white man not exceeding six months.<br />Section 3. Be it further enacted, that all justices of the peace, mayors, and aldermen of incorporated towns and cities of the several counties in this state shall have jurisdiction to try all questions of vagrancy in their respective towns, counties, and cities; and it is hereby made their duty, whenever they shall ascertain that any person or persons in their respective towns, counties, and cities are violating any of the provisions of this act, to have said party or parties arrested and brought before them and immediately investigate said charge; and, on conviction, punish said party or parties as provided for herein. And it is hereby made the duty of all sheriffs, constables, town constables, city marshals, and all like officers to report to some officer having jurisdiction all violations of any of the provisions of this act; and it shall be the duty of the county courts to inquire if any officers have neglected any of the duties required by this act; and in case any officer shall fail or neglect any duty herein, it shall be the duty of the county court to fine said officer, upon conviction, not exceeding $100, to be paid into the county treasury for county purposes.<br />Section 4. Be it further enacted, that keepers of gaming houses, houses of prostitution, all prostitutes, public or private, and all persons who derive their chief support in employments that militate against good morals or against laws shall be deemed and held to be vagrants.<br />Se