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In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss
 

In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss

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Class Action (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) vs. President Andrew Johnson, President Rutherfore B. Hayes

Class Action (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) vs. President Andrew Johnson, President Rutherfore B. Hayes

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    In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss In the united states district court plaintiff motion in oppostion to dismiss Document Transcript

    • In The United States District Court<br />For the Eastern District of Texas<br />Beaumont Division<br />Louis Charles Hamilton II<br />(Negro African American)<br />Plaintiff Civil Action 1:10-CV-00808<br />And All other African (Negroes) <br />Americans in and for<br />The United States of America<br />Plaintiff(s)<br />Vs. <br />United States of America,<br />Defendant<br />And<br />Vs.<br />President Andrew Johnson,<br />Co-Defendant<br />President Rutherford B. Hayes<br />Co-Defendant<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Motion in Opposition<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein files their Motion in opposition of Defendant(s) (The United States of America) Motion to Dismiss cause no. 1:10-CV-00808<br /> By Defendant (The United States of America) Attorney(s) of record, John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas.<br />Pro Se (Negro) Plaintiff herein” Louis Charles Hamilton II”, His Family, and past descendants and all (Negro) Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and there (Negro) descendants <br />Within the Defendant (The United States of America) to include but not limited to all other controlling Interest thereof the Defendant (The United States of America); <br />Being race of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein reply, rejoin, retort and have company before the Honorable Justice, Judge Ron Clark and Honorable U.S. Magistrate Judge Keith F. Giblin as follows:<br />1.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) by and through its attorneys of records at this time John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas moves for dismissal of Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) complaint with prejudice no less,<br />Pursuant to federal rule of civil procedure 12(b) (1) for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and/or 12(b) (6) for failure to state a claim for relief which the Honorable Court may grant on behalf of the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s).<br />2.<br />Pro Se (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein appearing on behalf of himself, family, and All (Negro) Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans within the Defendant (The United States of America) redirects the “Honorable Justices” concentration, awareness and attention <br />3.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) having fully stated with great carful detail numerous “direct cause” of actions and claims for reliefs being care for brought, and sought before this Honorable United States Federal Eastern District Court of Texas<br /> To render the “Honorable Justice” that full civil redress being address, obtain and contemplated before a “Jury Trial” on behalf of not just the Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) and his personal claims raise herein regards to Defendant (The United States of America) <br />4.<br />Direct, abandon, desert, neglect and total carelessness over the (Negro) Plaintiff and (among others) Plaintiff(s) having full civil rights for Life, Peace, Dignity, Equal Justice in the full Protection of the laws of the United States of America within the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah <br />5.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) fully being in protection from prosecution of “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” past, present teaching of the racial “Curse of Cain” doctrine with its “having direct effect” upon the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) and his lost of family as described herein the complaint.<br /> 6.<br />To include but not limited to “The Church of Jesus Christ” of Latter Day Saints continue prosecution of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) by “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” teaching of the racial “Curse of Cain” doctrine and its continue effects being blueprint, and applied all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) are still curse of the skin of darkness and their for fully of the Devil.<br />7.<br />Plaintiff respectfully assert both John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas on behalf of the Defendant (The United States of America) snag, hindrance, fail, fold, found difficulty and gone completely on the “blink” <br />8.<br />In Defendant (The United States of America) legal civil reply herein and addressing even one single of Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) claims of “badly behaved” “numerous problem(s)”, “issues”, and “crisis” in dealing with “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” teaching of the racial “Curse of Cain” doctrine, and Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah having a full private enclave closed society LDS Nation<br /> And it’s continue effects being blueprint, and applied upon all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein 2011 we are still curse of the skin of darkness and there for fully of the Devil.<br />9.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully furtherance assert before the “Honorable Justice” both John M. Bales, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas,<br /> And Assistant United States Attorney Andrea L. Parker for the Eastern District of Texas on behalf of the Defendant (The United States of America) took complete resolution with intention in a “single-mindedness” girls/guys gone completely on the 2011 “blink” legal approach<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein having not suffered at the “direct target hands” of the described Defendant(s) (The United States of America) from kidnapping to “Slave Codes”, Black Codes and latter “Jim Crow” Laws well into the 1960’s time frame<br />As all being intent against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) by device of mutable criminal acts to include but not limited direct acts of “Death” against the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein for profit. <br />10.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) having inserts with “Cruel Killer Punishment No Less” a substandard tactics of racial division, inferior, and segregation blueprint purposed<br /> Against the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) peace, rights, will, and dignity thus fully being imposed by the said Defendant herein (The United States of America) <br />Which Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) shall enforce upon each and described every such claims, damages and suffering raise herein before the Honorable Justice for relief as described in the Complaint. <br />11. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) cause of action(s) <br />Count (1). <br /> Defamation of Character <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) state before the “Honorable Justice” Defamation—also called calumny, vilification, traducement, slander (for transitory statements), and libel (for written, broadcast, or otherwise published words)—is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, product, group, government, or nation a negative image. It is usually a requirement that this claim be false and that the publication is communicated to someone other than the person defamed (the claimant).<br />12. <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) first furtherance’s bestow before the “Honorable Court” the actual Defendant herein (The United States of America)<br />A "Complete" United States History “Time Line”<br />1430Portuguese start voyages down the west coast of Africa1492Columbus arrives in Western Hemisphere1509-1547Henry VIII rules EnglandProtestant reformation begins in England1558-1603Reign of Queen Elizabeth I.  Ireland conquered by England.1607Jamestown founded1612Tobacco made a profitable crop by John Rolfe1619First group of blacks brought to VirginiaFirst legislative assembly meets in Virginia1620First Pilgrims in Plymouth1622Indian attacks in Virginia end hopes of becoming a bi-racial society1629Great Puritan migration to Massachusetts Bay1636Harvard founded1676Bacon's Rebellion1686Creation of Dominion of New England1688Glorious Revolution in England1700250,000 settlers in English colonies1704First colonial newspaper1720sColonial economic life quickens1739-1744Great Awakening1756-1763French and Indian War1763Proclamation Line established1763-1764Pontiac's Rebellion1764-1765Sugar Act and Stamp Act Controversies1766Declaratory Act1767Townshend Act, New York Assembly suspended1770Boston Massacre1772Committees of Correspondence formed1773Boston Tea Party1774Coercive Acts, First Continental Congress convenes1775Revolution begins with fighting at Lexington and Concord1776Declaration of Independence1777British defeated at Saratoga1778French join the war against the British1781Battle of YorktownArticles of Confederation ratified1783Peace signed in Paris1784-1787Northwest Ordinance of 1784, 1785, and 17871786Annapolis Convention1787Shays' RebellionConstitutional Convention1788Federalist Papers writtenConstitution ratified1789George Washington inaugurated as President of the United StatesFrench Revolution begins1790Capital placed on the Potomac River1793Citizen Genet1794Whiskey RebellionIndians defeated at Fallen Timbers1795Jay Treaty, Pinckney Treaty1798Un-declared war with FranceAlien and Sedition ActsKentucky and Virginia Resolutions1800Jefferson elected1803Louisiana Purchase1807-1809Embargo in effect1808Slave trade ended1809Non-intercourse Act1812War with England1814Treaty of Ghent1820Missouri Compromise1820sFirst labor unions formedRomanticism flourished in America1823Monroe Doctrine1828Andrew Jackson elected1830sRailroad era begins1831Nat Turner's rebellionLiberator founded1832Nullification crisis1834Whig party formed1835Texas Revolution, Republic of Texas established1840sManifest DestinyTelegraph and railroads create a communications revolution1846Mexican War begins1848Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo ended Mexican War.  U. S. acquires California and territory of New Mexico which includes present-day Nevada, Utah, Arizona, new Mexico, and part of Colorado.1849Gold discovered in California1850Compromise of 1850California admitted to the unionFugitive Slave Law strengthened1853Gadsden Purchase1854Kansas-Nebraska ActRepublican Party formed1856Violence in KansasSenator Sumner attacked in the Senate1858Lincoln-Douglas Debates1859John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry1860Democratic Party splits apartAbraham Lincoln elected 16th President of the United StatesLower South secedes1861Confederate States of America formedCivil War begins at Fort SumterUpper South secedesNorth is defeated at the first battle of Bull Run1862Battle of AntietamMorill Tariff, Homestead ActEmancipation Proclamation issued (effective January 1, 1863)1864Grant's wilderness campaignSherman takes AtlantaSherman's "March to the Sea"1865Sherman takes South and North CarolinaLee surrenders at Appomattox Court HouseThirteenth Amendment abolishes slaveryLincoln assassinatedAndrew Johnson becomes PresidentKKK formed1867First Reconstruction Act launches Radical ReconstructionAlaska purchased1868Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Civil RightsJohnson impeached1870Fifteenth Amendment forbids denial of vote on racial grounds1870sTerrorism against blacks in South, flourishing of Darwinism and ideas of racial inferiority1876End of ReconstructionBattle of Little Big Horn1877Munn v. Illinois:  Court rules states may regulate warehouse rates1879Stand Oil Trust formed1880sBig Business emerge1883Railroad companies divide nation into four time zonesPendleton Civil Service Act1886Haymarket Riots1887Interstate Commerce CommissionDavies Act1890Sherman Anti-Trust ActMassacre at Wounded KneeSherman Silver Purchase Act1890-1920Fifteen million "new" immigrants1893Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act1895Pollock v FarmersCourt strikes down income tax1898War with SpainHawaii annexed1899Peace with Spain, U. S. receives Philippines, Samoa, Guam, and Puerto Rico1900Gold Standard1901Theodore Roosevelt becomes President1904Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine1904-1914Panama Canal built1906Hepburn Act, Pure Food and Drug ActThe Jungle1912Election of Woodrow Wilson1913Sixteen Amendment authorizing income tax ratifiedSeventeenth Amendment providing for direct elections of Senators ratifiedFederal Reserve System begunWilson broadens segregation in civil service1914World War 1 beginsU. S. troops occupy Vera Cruz1915U. S. troops sent to HaitiLusitania sunk, U. S. intervenedKKK revived1916Germany issues Sussex pledge1917Russian RevolutionU. S. enters WW11918WW1 endsTreaty of Versailles1919Eighteenth Amendment prohibits alcoholic beveragesRed Scare1920Nineteenth Amendment gives women the right to voteFirst radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh1921Washington Naval Conference1924Revenue Act slashes income tax on wealthy and corporations1927Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic1929Stock market crashes1932Franklin Roosevelt elected1933Bank holiday, "Hundred Days"NRA, AAA, FDIC, TVA, FERA, CCCTwentieth Amendment changes inauguration day to JanuaryTwenty-first Amendment repeals prohibitionHitler comes to power in Germany1934Gold standard terminatedSEC1935Social Security Act, WP, NLRACIO formedU. S. Begins neutrality legislation1936FDR re-elected1937FDR attempts to pack Supreme CourtJapan invades China1938United States Housing AuthorityFair labor Standards ActHitler takes Austria, Munich Agreement1939World War 2 begins1940Roosevelt makes destroyers-for-bases deal with the BritishFall of FranceFirst peacetime draft1941Lend-Lease, Battle of Britain, Hitler attacks USSRAtlantic CharterJapan attacks Pearl Harbor1942Allied year of disasterU. S. interns JapaneseU. S. halts Japanese at Coral Sea and Midway1943Tide turns against AxisRussia wins at Stalingrad, unconditional surrender demandedItaly invaded1944France invadedBombing of Japan beginsRussia sweeps through Eastern EuropePhilippines liberated1945YaltaFDR diesGermany surrendersAtom bombsEnd of WW 21976U. S. - USSR relations worsen"Iron Curtain" speech1947Cold War beginsMarshall PlanContainment1948-1949Berlin AirliftTaft-HartleyMilitary integrated1949NATORussia explodes the bombCommunists control China1950Korean WarJoseph McCarthy1951Twenty-second Amendment limits the President to two terms1952Dwight Eisenhower elected President1953Industries agree on guaranteed annual wage1954Brown v. Board of Education, Supreme Court strikes down "separate but equal."Vietnam divided1955Montgomery Bus Boycott, emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr.1957SputnikEisenhower DoctrineLittle rock CrisisCivil Rights Act1958First U. S. satellite and ICBMNASAU. S. occupies Lebanon1960U-2 shot down over RussiaSoviet and Chinese splitJohn F. Kennedy elected Presidentnon-violent protests against segregation1961Freedom ridesTwenty-third Amendment gives District of Columbia the right to vote for PresidentBerlin crisisPeace CorpsBay of Pigs16,000 in Vietnam1962University of Mississippi integratedCuban Missile Crisis1963Civil Rights march on WashingtonJFK assassinatedFeminine Mystique1964Free speech movement at BerkeleyBeatlesTwenty-fourth Amendment outlaws the poll taxWar on povertyGulf of Tonkin1965Great SocietyOperation Rolling Thunder in VietnamMalcolm X assassinated1966Black PowerFrance withdraws from NATON. O. W. formed1967Detroit RiotPeace movement in the U. S.1968Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther Kin murderedTet OffensiveJohnson won't seek re-electionRichard Nixon elected President1969VietnamizationFirst man on the moonNixon proposed New Federalism1970Massacre at Kent StateEPA establishedCambodian invasion creates anti-war turbulenceSALT talks begin1971Nixon opens talks with ChinaWage-price controlsMy Lai massacre revealedPentagon Papers published1972Intensive bombing of North VietnamWatergateNixon re-electedGNP over 1 trillion1973Cease-fire in VietnamU. S. forces withdrawSpiro Agnew resigns1974Watergate tapesNixon resigns, Ford's pardonSerious inflation and recession1975Vietnam falls44% of married women employed1976BicentennialJimmy Carter elected President1977Human rights1978Camp David AccordsPanama Canal treaties ratified1979SALT 2 completedU. S. recognizes chinaAmerican Embassy in Iran occupiedUSSR invaded Afghanistan1980U. S. boycotts Olympics, withdraws from SALT 2Reagan elected President1981American hostages held in Iran freed on Reagan's inauguration day (Plaintiff herein USN Hamilton II chain to Pearl Harbor Hawaii Flag Pole within 24 hrs. later.) (Again)…………….<br />13.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American will assert, show respectfully before the “Honorable Justice”, Slave codes were laws which each state, or colony, of the Defendant (The United States of America) enacted which defined the status of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American slaves and the rights of(White) Defendant (The United States of America) masters.<br />14.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American will assert, show respectfully before the “Honorable Justice”, Such slaves codes by the Defendant (The United States of America) gave Defendant (The United States of America) (White) slave-owners “absolute power” over their (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American “human property”.<br />15.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans will show before the “Honorable Justice”, the Defendant (The United States of America) Provisions<br /> Definition of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American "slaves" by the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Virginia, 1650 <br />“Act XI. All persons except Negroes are to be provided with arms and ammunitions or be fined at the pleasure of the governor and council.” <br />Virginia, 1662 <br />“Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children got by any Englishmen upon a Negro shall be slave or Free, Be it therefore enacted and declared by this present Grand assembly, that all children born in this country shall be held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother." <br />Maryland, 1664 <br />“That whatsoever free-born [English] woman shall intermarry with any slave [...] shall serve the master of such slave during the life of her husband; and that all the issue of such free-born women, so married shall be slaves as their fathers were.” <br />Virginia, 1667 <br />“Act III. Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children that are slaves by birth [...] should by virtue of their baptism be made free, it is enacted that baptism does not alter the condition to the person as to his bondage or freedom; masters freed from this doubt may more carefully propagate Christianity by permitting slaves to be admitted to that sacrament.” <br />Virginia, 1682 <br />“Act I. It is enacted that all servants [...] which shall be imported into this country either by sea or by land, whether Negroes, Moors [Muslim North Africans], mulattoes or Indians who and whose parentage and native countries are not Christian at the time of their first purchase by some Christian [...] and all Indians, which shall be sold by our neighboring Indians, or any other trafficking with us for slaves, are hereby adjudged, deemed and taken to be slaves to all intents and purposes any law, usage, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.” <br />Virginia, 1705<br />"All servants imported and brought into the Country...who were not Christians in their native Country...shall be accounted and be slaves. All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves within this dominion...shall be held to be real estate." <br />South Carolina, 1712 <br />"Be it therefore enacted, by his Excellency, William, Lord Craven, Palatine.... and the rest of the members of the General Assembly, now met at Charles Town, for the South-west part of this Province, and by the authority of the same, That all negroes, mulatoes, mestizoes or Indians, which at any time heretofore have been sold, or now are held or taken to be, or hereafter shall be bought and sold for slaves, are hereby declared slaves; and they, and their children, are hereby made and declared slaves...." <br />Virginia, 1705 – "If any slave resists his master...correcting such a slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction...the master shall be free of all punishment...as if such accident never happened." <br />South Carolina, 1712 - "Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That no master, mistress, overseer, or other person whatsoever, that hath the care and charge of any negro or slave, shall give their negroes and other slaves leave...to go out of their plantations.... Every slave hereafter out of his master's plantation, without a ticket, or leave in writing, from his master...shall be whipped...." <br />Louisiana, 1724 - "The slave who, having struck his master, his mistress, or the husband of his mistress, or their children, shall have produced a bruise, or the shedding of blood in the face, shall suffer capital punishment." <br /> Reading by (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American Black slaves illegal<br />Alabama, 1833, section 31 - "Any person or persons who attempt to teach any free person of color, or slave, to spell, read, or write, shall, upon conviction thereof by indictment, be fined in a sum not less than two hundred and fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars." <br />Alabama, 1833, section 32 - "Any free person of color who shall write for any slave a pass or free paper, on conviction thereof, shall receive for every such offense, thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, and leave the state of Alabama within thirty days thereafter..." <br />Alabama, 1833, section 33 - "Any slave who shall write for any other slave, any pass or free-paper, upon conviction, shall receive, on his or her back, fifty lashes for the first offence, and one hundred lashes for every offence thereafter..." <br />16.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Court” Consequently Defendant (The United States of America) “slave codes” and slave patrols were established to act as a supplementary force to regulate the black population.<br />17.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Court” The Virginia Slave Codes of 1705 of the Defendant (The United States of America) were a series of laws enacted by the Colony of Virginia's House of Burgesses imposed upon<br />Regulating activities related to interactions between (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American “slaves” and Defendant (The United States of America) U.S. (White) citizens in the U.S. state of Virginia. <br />The enactment of the “Slave Codes” is the foundation blueprint of the Defendant (The United states of America) Virginia's slave legislation.<br />18.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully fully acknowledge before the “Honorable Justice” With respect during this precise time frame 1619-1865 <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein were in fact (Slaves) the first 10 Amendments to the Defendant (The United States of America) Constitution. <br />Called the "Bill of Rights", were ratified on December 15, 1791 and fully with all “intent purpose” did not under any circumstances apply to any of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein.<br />19.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert Defendant (The United States of America) Amendments as follows:<br />AmendmentsProposal dateEnactment date1stProtects the freedom of religion, speech, and the press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the governmentSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17912ndProtects the right to keep and bear armsSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17913rdProhibits the forced quartering of soldiers out of war timeSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17914thProhibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable causeSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17915thSets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardySeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17916thProtects the right to have a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counselSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17917thProvides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common lawSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17918thProhibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishmentSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 17919thAsserts the existence of unenumerated rights retained by the peopleSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 179110thLimits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the ConstitutionSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 179111thImmunity of states from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders. Lays the foundation for sovereign immunityMarch 4, 1794February 7, 179512thRevises presidential election proceduresDecember 9, 1803June 15, 180413thAbolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crimeJanuary 31, 1865December 6, 186514thDefines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issuesJune 13, 1866July 9, 186815thProhibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitudeFebruary 26, 1869February 3, 187016thAllows the federal government to collect income taxJuly 12, 1909February 3, 191317thRequires senators to be directly electedMay 13, 1912April 8, 191318thEstablishes Prohibition of alcohol (Repealed by Twenty-first Amendment)December 18, 1917January 16, 191919thEstablishes women's suffrageJune 4, 1919August 18, 192020thFixes the dates of term commencements for Congress (January 3) and the President (January 20); known as the "lame duck amendment"March 2, 1932January 23, 193321stRepeals the Eighteenth AmendmentFebruary 20, 1933December 5, 193322ndLimits the president to two terms, or a maximum of 10 years (i.e., if a Vice President serves not more than one half of a President's term, they can be elected to a further two terms)March 24, 1947February 27, 195123rdProvides for representation of Washington, D.C. in the Electoral CollegeJune 16, 1960March 29, 196124thProhibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxesSeptember 14, 1962January 23, 196425thCodifies the Tyler Precedent; defines the process of presidential successionJuly 6, 1965February 10, 196726thEstablishes 18 as the national voting ageMarch 23, 1971July 1, 197127thPrevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until the beginning of the next session of CongressSeptember 25, 1789May 5 or 7, 1992<br />20.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Respectfully, assert before the “Honorable Justice” once again to take “Judicial notice” With respect during this precise time frame 1619- December 9, 1803 The Defendant (The United States of America) instituted the 1st through 12th Amendments to their Constitution as described above in paragraph (19) above with an Enactment date June 15, 1804.<br />21. <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein respectfully fully acknowledge before the “Honorable Justice” during the exact time frame 1619-December 9th, 1803 <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein were in fact (Slaves) to include but limited to the first (12) Amendments to the Defendant (The United States of America) Constitution <br />Fully with all “intent purpose” did not under any circumstances apply to any of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein.<br />22.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein respectfully assert “at this time also” before the “Honorable Justice” Natives Americans (Indians) meaning “all Indians”, which shall be sold by The Defendant (The United States of America) by defendant neighboring Indians, or any other trafficking with Defendant (The United States of America) for slaves, are hereby adjudged, deemed and taken to be (Indians) as slaves to all intents and purposes any law, usage, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.” Virginia, 1682 “Act I.<br />23.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” In 1865, the Defendant (The United States of America) <br /> Louisiana legislature implemented shortly after the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American slaves were emancipated “black codes” into effect. <br />24. <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) assert before the “Honorable Justice” Race was defined by blood; the presence of any amount of black blood made one (Negro) African American black , employment was required of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) freedmen; violators faced vagrancy charges <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) Freedmen could not assemble without the presence of a white person under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes.<br />25.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) Freedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and their duties and hours were tightly regulated under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes.<br />26.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) Freedmen were not to be taught to read or write under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes<br />27.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) having Public facilities being segregated under Defendant (The United States of America) Black Codes<br />28.<br />Any (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans Violators of this Defendant (The United States of America) enacted by the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) Black Codes laws were subject to being whipped or branded or worst. <br />29.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Mississippi black codes as follows:<br />"Negroes must make annual contracts for their labor in writing; if they should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year. Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work. Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their employers.<br /> Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such Negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were twenty-one, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily, and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating liquors to a Negro. When Negroes could not pay the fines and costs after legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to the lowest bidder...." <br />30. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely South Carolina “Black Codes as follows:<br />"In South Carolina persons of color contracting for service were to be known as "servants and those with whom they contracted, as "masters." On farms the hours of labor would be from sunrise to sunset daily, except on Sunday.<br /> The Negroes Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) were to get out of bed at dawn. Time lost would be deducted from their wages, as would be the cost of food, nursing, etc., during absence from sickness. Absentees on Sunday must return to the plantation by sunset. House servants were to be at call at all hours of the day and night on all days of the week. <br />They must be "especially civil and polite to their masters, their masters' families and guests," and they in return would receive "gentle and kind treatment." Corporal and other punishment was to be administered only upon order of the district judge or other civil magistrate. <br />31.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Following the Death of Joseph Smith, Jr., in the Defendant (The United States of America) city of Carthage, Illinois, in 1844, the more than 11,000<br /> Brigham Young, the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, emerged as the leader Brigham Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers came to the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847.<br />32.<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Disputes between the Mormon inhabitants and the Defendant (The United States of America) US Government intensified due to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' practice of plural marriage, or polygamy, among its members. <br />The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. The Defendant (The United States of America) U.S. Government, which had been reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.<br />33. <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Members of the LDS Church were viewed as un-American by the Defendant (The United States of America) and rebellious when news of their polygamous practices spread. <br />In 1857, particularly heinous accusations of abdication of government <br />And general immorality by former associate justice William W. Drummond, among others, <br />Caused the Defendant (The United States of America) administration of James Buchanan to send a secret military "expedition" to Utah.<br /> When the supposed rebellion should be quelled, Alfred Cumming would take the place of Brigham Young as territorial governor. The resulting conflict is known as the Defendant (The United States of America) Utah War.<br />34.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff furtherance’s respectfully state, assert before the “Honorable Justice” As troops approached Salt Lake City in northern Utah, nervous Mormon settlers attacked and killed 120 immigrants from Arkansas and Missouri in southern Utah. The slaughtered Fancher-Baker party was enroute to California. The attack became known as the Mountain Meadows massacre. <br />35.<br />The massacre became a point of contention between LDS leaders and the federal government for decades. Only one person, John D. Lee, was ever convicted of the murders, and he was executed at the massacre site.<br />36.<br />Before troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston entered the territory, Brigham Young ordered all residents of Salt Lake City to evacuate southward to Utah Valley and sent out a force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the government's advance. <br />Although wagons and supplies were burned, eventually the troops arrived in 1858, and Young surrendered official control to Cumming, although most subsequent commentators claim that Young retained true power in the territory. A steady stream of governors appointed by the president quit the position, often citing the traditions of their supposed territorial government. <br />37.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert By agreement with “Brigham Young”, Johnston established Camp Floyd, 40 miles (60 km) away from Salt Lake City, to the southwest.<br />38.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young and other Church Presidents and Apostles taught from 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine; <br />That Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein "Negroes" are "cursed" and "inferior" and the children of Cain and were "less valiant" in the War in Heaven, <br />And thus all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American blacks were "banned" (called "the priesthood-ban") from the Mormon priesthood and Mormon Temples until June 8th, 1978.<br />39.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young preached that God's Law demanded that all interracial (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American couples should be "killed on the spot"<br /> Along with their (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American children by having their throats cut, and their blood spilling upon the ground. <br />Brigham Young preach this "blood atonement" practice should also be applied to thieves, adulterers, blasphemers (whose who call him or Joseph Smith "false prophets") and "apostates" (ex-Mormons). <br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein assert before the Honorable Justice” There is ample evidence that "Blood Atonement" was regularly practiced in Utah from 1852 until 1877; the year Brigham Young died.<br />40.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young and other Church Presidents and Apostles taught from 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine; <br />That Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s)"Negroes" are "cursed" and "inferior" and the children of Cain and were "less valiant" in the War in Heaven, and thus all blacks were "banned" (called "the priesthood-ban") from the Mormon priesthood and Mormon Temples until June 8th, 1978.<br />41.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert Brigham Young, successor to Joseph Smith, legalized Negro and Indian slavery in Defendant (The United States of America) Utah in 1850, and a number of Mormons (including Mormon Apostle Charles C. Rich) owned black slaves. <br />42.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert before the Honorable Justice Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah <br />Had many "anti-Negro" segregationist laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein until the late 1960s in addition to the Curse of Cain Doctrine; teaching by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.<br />43.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein respectfully assert the Defendant (The United States of America) imposed “Jim Crow Laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans Blacks herein Here is a sampling of laws from various Defendant (The United States of America) states:<br />43.<br />Nurses No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. Alabama <br />44.<br />Buses All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races. Alabama <br />45.<br />Railroads The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama <br />46.<br />Restaurants It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama <br />47.<br />Pool and Billiard Rooms It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards. Alabama <br />48.<br />Toilet Facilities, Male Every employer of white or negro males shall provide for such white or negro males reasonably accessible and separate toilet facilities. Alabama <br />49.<br />Intermarriage The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona <br />50.<br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida <br />51.<br />Cohabitation Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida <br />52.<br />Education The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately. Florida <br />53.<br />Juvenile Delinquents There shall be separate buildings, not nearer than one fourth mile to each other, one for white boys and one for negro boys. White boys and negro boys shall not, in any manner, be associated together or worked together. Florida <br />54.<br />Mental Hospitals The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together. Georgia <br />55.<br />Intermarriage It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. Georgia <br />56.<br />Barbers No colored barber shall serve as a barber [to] white women or girls. Georgia <br />57.<br />Burial The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. Georgia <br />58.<br />Restaurants All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license. Georgia <br />59.<br />Amateur Baseball It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. Georgia <br />60.<br />Parks It shall be unlawful for colored people to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white persons...and unlawful for any white person to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the use and benefit of colored persons. Georgia <br />61.<br />Wine and Beer All persons licensed to conduct the business of selling beer or wine...shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room at any time. Georgia <br />62.<br />Reform Schools The children of white and colored races committed to the houses of reform shall be kept entirely separate from each other. Kentucky <br />63.<br />Circus Tickets All circuses, shows, and tent exhibitions, to which the attendance of...more than one race is invited or expected to attend shall provide for the convenience of its patrons not less than two ticket offices with individual ticket sellers, and not less than two entrances to the said performance, with individual ticket takers and receivers, and in the case of outside or tent performances, the said ticket offices shall not be less than twenty-five (25) feet apart. Louisiana <br />64.<br />Housing Any person...who shall rent any part of any such building to a negro person or a negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a negro person or negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five ($25.00) nor more than one hundred ($100.00) dollars or be imprisoned not less than 10, or more than 60 days, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court. Louisiana <br />65.<br />The Blind The board of trustees shall...maintain a separate building...on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race. Louisiana <br />66.<br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between the negro a nd a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. Maryland <br />67.<br />Railroads All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers. Maryland <br />68.<br />Education Separate schools shall be maintained for the children of the white and colored races. Mississippi <br />69.<br />Promotion of Equality Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine or not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both. Mississippi <br />70.<br />Intermarriage The marriage of a white person with a negro or mulatto or person who shall have one-eighth or more of negro blood, shall be unlawful and void. Mississippi <br />71.<br />Hospital Entrances There shall be maintained by the governing authorities of every hospital maintained by the state for treatment of white and colored patients separate entrances for white and colored patients and visitors, and such entrances shall be used by the race only for which they are prepared. Mississippi <br />72.<br />Prisons The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the negro convicts. Mississippi <br />73.<br />Education Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored school. Missouri <br />74.<br />Intermarriage All marriages between...white persons and negroes or white persons and Mongolians...are prohibited and declared absolutely void...No person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person, nor shall any white person be permitted to marry any negro or person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood. Missouri <br />75.<br />Education Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent. New Mexico <br />76.<br />Textbooks Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. North Carolina <br />77.<br />Libraries The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals. North Carolina <br />78.<br />Militia The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization. No organization of colored troops shall be permitted where white troops are available, and while white permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers. North Carolina <br />79.<br />Transportation The...Utilities Commission...is empowered and directed to require the establishment of separate waiting rooms at all stations for the white and colored races. North Carolina <br />80.<br />Teaching Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not less than ten dollars ($10.00) nor more than fifty dollars ($50.00) for each offense. Oklahoma <br />81.<br />Fishing, Boating, and Bathing The [Conservation] Commission shall have the right to make segregation of the white and colored races as to the exercise of rights of fishing, boating and bathing. Oklahoma <br />82.<br />Mining The baths and lockers for the negroes shall be separate from the white race, but may be in the same building. Oklahoma <br />83.<br />Telephone Booths The Corporation Commission is hereby vested with power and authority to require telephone companies...to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths. That the Corporation Commission shall determine the necessity for said separate booths only upon complaint of the people in the town and vicinity to be served after due hearing as now provided by law in other complaints filed with the Corporation Commission. Oklahoma <br />84.<br />Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter. South Carolina <br />85.<br />Child Custody It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro. South Carolina <br />86.<br />Libraries Any white person of such county may use the county free library under the rules and regulations prescribed by the commissioners court and may be entitled to all the privileges thereof. Said court shall make proper provision for the negroes of said county to be served through a separate branch or branches of the county free library, which shall be administered by [a] custodian of the negro race under the supervision of the county librarian. Texas <br />87.<br />Education [The County Board of Education] shall provide schools of two kinds; those for white children and those for colored children. Texas <br />88.<br />Theaters Every person...operating...any public hall, theatre, opera house, motion picture show or any place of public entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored persons, shall separate the white race and the colored race and shall set apart and designate...certain seats therein to be occupied by white persons and a portion thereof , or certain seats therein, to be occupied by colored persons. Virginia <br />89.<br />Railroads The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race. Virginia <br />90.<br />Intermarriage All marriages of white persons with Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming<br />91.<br />Argument I<br />Petition of 1780 by Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) (Negro) slaves for the abolition of slavery in Connecticut<br />Unto your Honner the govener and all the wise men of the State of Connecticut which it hath Plesed god to Permit to gather at Hartford unto you we the the Poor and opresed Negro Sarvents of this Town By and with the advice of Each other and By the Desier of all the Negro Sarvents in this State Do in a most humble maner Criy unto you for Liberty alltho we have Desiered this faver from your honners Time after Time yet we are Not Discuriged But Do Still intend to Beag this faver from Time to Time tho you Should not grant us our Desiers this Time - <br />We are all of us the Same mind as we was when we asked this advantige of your honners Last may that our marsters have no more Rite to make us Searve them then we have to make our Marsters Searve us and we have Resen to wonder that our Case has not Ben taken into Consideration So fare as to Grant us our Libertys But we must consider what the Book of Eceleisastes says at 8 Chapter & at the 11 varce Because Sentence aganst an Evel work is not Executed Speedily theirfore the hart of the Sons of men is fully Set in them to do Evel - and for this Reson we Think our Cause is Not Regarded and we Still must Say as Jeremiah Says in his Lamentations at the 5 Chapter & at the 5 varce <br />Our necks are under Persecution we Labour and have no rest - But we are in good hopes that your honners will Take Notis of our Case and Do unto us as you would be Glad that we Should Do unto you if we was in your Condishon and you in ours But it hath Plesed god to Place us in the Sitawaytion we are now in But we Pray to god that he would Send forth his Good Spirit into your harts and Remind you of your Duty and make you the Instermints of Binding up the Brokenharted and of Proclaiming Liberty to the Captives and the opening of the Prison to them that are Bound We ask your good Will to Look upon us and we Criy unto you in the words of Job at the 19 Chapter & at the 21 varce Have Pity upon me have Pity upon me o ye my frindes - But we Still Look unto god Who Pursarves Both the Servent and the marster for we Know that in the 140 Psalm at the 12 varces That we have a Sartin Promos viz. I Know that the Lord will maintain the Cause of the afflicted and the Right of the Poor and we think that it is time for us to Criy aloud for our Liberty for No Son of man will give his Sarvent his Time unless he Thinks that he Dos Roung in Keeping off him and So Considers that their is a wa Ppurnounced aganst those that Take a way their Neighbours Servise with wages and giveth him Not for his work Jeremiah at the 22 Chapter & at the 13 varce wo unto him that Buildeth his house By Unriteousness and without wages and giveth him Not for his work and when their is a man that will give his Searvent his Liberty we must think that he Considers what the word of God Says in the 34 Chapter and the 10 varces of the Book of Jeremiah viz. <br />Now when all the Princes and all the people which had Entered into the Covenent heard that Every one Should Let his maid Searvent and Every one his man Servent go free that None Should Serve themselves of them any more then they obeyed and Let them go and We wish that all our marsters would consider the word of God as Job Did and Consider the Cause of his man Servent and of his maid Servent when we Contend with our marsters But we Cant find Such men as will other give or Sell ous Liberty & we all Both young and old Do ask your Kind and good will toasist us in geting our freedom for we have indured the galling yok of Bondige Ever Sence we have Ben Brought from our own Country and I those of us that Was Born in this Cuntry have Ben under Bondage our hol lives untill now and their is a grat nomber of us which have been Brotup By Such I men as have Not Larnt us to Read the woord of God Neather have have They Lamt us the mening of the word of I God But have Keept us from the Knoledge of that Salvation which we have a Right to By Jesus Christ But we Think that if we have our Liberty we Shall have an opportunity to Larn the word of God and to Recive good to our Sols as well as our Bodyes and if we Could But injoy our Liberty we think that we Should Be in as Fare a way to make our Calling and Electtion Suer and By Gods Goodness have our Sols Saved from Eerlasting Damnation But we are keep from all favers Both Bodys and Sols But we Look unto that god which is as able to Save us as he is to Save our Marsters But we Depend upon the Blesings of god in making the gurenel asimbly the insterments of Seating us at Liberty from these men that I Now hold us as Servents - But if your honners Refuse to asist us in Releving us from our Marsters we Shall I have Reson to say that you [.?.] Do Not your duty as the word of God says in the Book of Isaiah at the 58 Chapter and 6 varse I To undo the hevy Burdens and to Leat the oppressed Go free and that I ye Brak Every yoke - and this is the Duty of all that have an oppertunity to Releve them that are in Disstrass I and if your honners forgit your Duty all men may say that our Roulars Bare the Sword in vain But if we Kant have our Desier dont think hard of us if By our marsters we say as David Did By his enemies Psalms the 109 and the 6 varce <br />Set thou a wicked man over him and I Let Satan Stand at his Right hand the 7 varc when he Shall Be I Judged Let him Be Condemned and Let his Prayer Become Sin I the 8 varce Let his Days Be few and Let another take his offsice I the 9 varce Let his Children Be fatherliss and his wife a widow the 10 varce Let his Children Be Continually vagabonds and Beg Let them Seek their Bread also out of their Desolate Places the 11 varce Let the Extortioner Catch all that he hath and Let the Stranger Spoil all his Labour the 12 varce Let thair Be none to Extend mercy unto him Neither Let their Be any to favour his fatherless Children I the 13 verce Let his Posterity Be Cut off and in the generation I folowing Let their Name Be Blotted out the 14 varce Let The iniquity of his fathers Be Remembered with the Lord and Let Not the Sin of his mother Be Blotted the 15 varce Let them Be Before the Lord Continually that he may Cut off the memory of them from the Earth the 16 varce Because that he Remembered not to Shew marcy But Perscuted the Poor and nedy I man. And Surr we hope that you will Remember the Poor and oppresed negro men in the State which you are Chosen to Do Justice in So we are abliged to Lement Our Case as in Lamentations at the 5 chapter and 5 varce Our Necks are under Persecution we Labour and have no Rest.<br />92.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) having the significant that here Oct 1780." slaves are gaining "legal personality," which is to say that they can represent their interests in terms of law, <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) petition is written in a reasonably good hand by a slave who consulted a King James version of the Bible, and found in Governor Trumbull's papers leads “the Governor” never bothered to forward it to the Assembly on behalf of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />93.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein first show before the “Honorable Justice” The Timetable of World Legal History:<br />2350 BC: Urukagina's Code<br />This code has never been discovered but it is mentioned in other documents as a consolidation of existing "ordinances" or laws laid down by Mesopotamian kings. An administrative reform document was discovered which showed that citizens were allowed to know why certain actions were punished. It was also harsh by modern standards. Thieves and adulteresses were to be stoned to death with stones inscribed with the name of their crime. The code confirmed that the "king was appointed by the gods".<br />2050 BC: Ur-Nammu's Code<br />The earliest known written legal code of which a copy has been found, albeit a copy in such poor shape that only five articles can be deciphered. Archaeological evidence shows that it was supported by an advanced legal system which included specialized judges, the giving of testimony under oath, the proper form of judicial decisions and the ability of the judges to order that damages be paid to a victim by the guilty party. The Code allowed for the dismissal of corrupt men, protection for the poor and a punishment system where the punishment is proportionate to the crime. Although it is called "Ur-Nammu's Code, historians generally agree that it was written by his son Shugli.<br />1850 BC: The Earliest Known Legal Decision<br />A clay tablet reveals the case, in 1850BC, of the murder of a temple employee by three men. The victim's wife knew of the murder but remained silent. Eventually, the crime came to light and the men and woman were charged with murder. Nine witnesses testified against the men and woman and asked for the death penalty for all four. But the wife had two witnesses which told the court that she had been abused by her husband, that she was not part of the murder and that she was even worse off after her husband's death. The men were executed in front of the victim's house but the woman was spared.<br />1700 BC: Hammurabi's Code<br />This Babylonian king came to power in 1750 BC. Under his rule, a code of laws was developed and carved on a huge rock column. The expression "an eye for an eye" has come to symbolize the principle behind Hammurabi's code. It contains 282 clauses regulating a vast array of obligations, professions and rights including commerce, slavery, marriage, theft and debts. The punishments are, by modern standards, barbaric. The punishment for theft was the cutting off of a finger or a hand. A man's lower lip was cut off if he kissed a married woman. Defamation was punished by cutting out the tongue. If a house collapses because the builder did not make it strong enough, killing the owner, the builder was put to death. If the owner's son died, then the builder's son was executed.<br />1300 BC: The Ten Commandments<br />According to the Bible, it was in approximately 1300 BC that Moses received a list of ten laws directly from God. These laws were known as the Ten Commandments and were transcribed as part of the Book of Moses, which later became part of the Bible. Many of the Ten Commandments continue in the form of modern laws such as "thou shalt not kill" (modern society severely punishes the crime of murder), "thou shalt not commit adultery" (modern society allows a divorce on this grounds) and "thou shalt not steal" (modern society punishes theft as a crime). The Bible chapter that contains the Ten Commandments (Exodus) follows the recitation of the Commandments with a complete set of legal rules, which are based on the "eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth" legal philosophy of Hammurabi's Code. Click here to read the actual text of the Ten Commandments in the WWLIA LAW Museum Archives section.<br />1280 BC to 880 BC: The Laws of Manu<br />It has not yet been possible to pinpoint exactly when India's great Laws of Manu were written. The Laws were a written compilation of known legal rules which had been passed on from generation to generation. It formed the basis of the caste system in India, where people were classified by their social standing and regulated almost all facets of India's society from contracts to criminal law. The Laws of Manu used punishment sparingly and only as a last resort and rarely sadistic. Amputation, though, was a possible sentence. The members of the higher castes were punished more severely than those of the lower castes.<br />621 BC: Draco's Law<br />This Greek citizen was chosen to write a code of law for Athens (Greece). The penalty for many offences was death; so severe, that the word "draconian" comes from his name and has come to mean, in the English language, an unreasonably harsh law. His laws were the first written laws of Greece. These laws introduced the state's exclusive role in punishing persons accused of crime, instead of relying on private justice. The citizens adored Draco and upon entering an auditorium one day to attend a reception in his honour, the citizens of Athens showered him with their hats and cloaks as was their customary way to show appreciation. By the time they dug him out from under the clothing, he had been smothered to death.<br />600 BC: Lycergus' Law<br />This King of Sparta (southern Greece) was a renowned lawgiver. His laws were never written, just transmitted orally and were designed to support the military vocation of Sparta. It held that women had a duty to have children and that children born with deformity were killed. Children became wards of Sparta at the age of seven to prepare them for military duty. The greatest crime of all was retreat in battle. The Laws of Lycergus controlled virtually every aspect of the lives of citizens of Sparta.<br />550 BC: Solon's Laws<br />Solon was an Athenian statesman and lawmaker. He further refined Draco's laws and is credited with "democratizing" justice by making the courts more accessible to citizens.<br />536 BC: The Book of Punishments<br />A legal book printed in China which limited the ways to punish someone where they had been convicted of a serious crime. They included tattooing, cutting off of the nose, castration, feet amputation and death.<br />450 BC: The Twelve Tables<br />Ten Roman men were given wide powers to write the laws that were to govern Romans. They came up with ten laws to which two were later added. These laws are considered to form the foundation of all modern public and private law. They promoted the organization of public prosecution of crimes and instituted a system whereby injured parties could seek compensation from their aggressors. More importantly, they protected the lower class (plebes) from the legal abuses of the ruling class (the patricians) especially in the enforcement of debts. From that point on, a basic principle of Roman law is that the law must be written and justice cannot be left in the hands of judges alone to interpret. It also prohibited inter-class marriages, seriously punished theft and gave fathers rights of life or death over his sons. The Twelve Tables also punished the misuse of magic! Written on wood and bronze tablets, the Twelve Tables survived almost 1000 years until destroyed by invading gauls in 390.<br />350 BC (approximately): The Chinese Code of Li k'vei<br />The first Chinese imperial code of laws dealt with theft, robbery, prison, arrest and general rules. It served as a model for the T'ang Code.<br />399BC: The Trial of Socrates<br />Socrates was an Athenian philosopher. Socrates was not religious and preached logic. When Athens lost the Peloponnesian Wars, conservative Athenians looked for a scapegoat. Three citizens brought an accusation against the 70-year old popular philosopher for allegedly corrupting the youth and for not believing in the gods. He was tried before a jury of 501 citizens that found him guilty on a vote of 281-220. When asked to speak on the proposed sentence, Socrates mocked the jurors and they replied, 361-140, with a sentence of death. Socrates' promoted "conscience" and his death increased interest in his life and teachings.<br />529: Justinian's Code<br />This Emperor of Byzantine is best remembered for his codification of Roman Law in a series of books called Corpus Juris Civilis. His collection served as an important basis for law in contemporary society, and was inspired by logic-based Greek legal principles. Many legal maxims still in use today are derived from Justinian's Code. His work inspired the modern concept and, indeed, the very spelling of "justice". This Roman Code survived as the many parts of Germany until 1900 and important traces of it can be found in the law of Italy, Scotland, South Africa and Quebec. Roman law formed the base of civil law, one of the two main legal systems to govern modern society in the Western civilization (the other being English common law). A quote: "The things which are common to all (and not capable of being owned) are: the air, running water, the sea and the seashores."<br />604: The Seventeen Article Constitution of Japan<br />Written by a Japanese prince regent, the Constitution shaped morality and law in Japan, a country which had just begun to develop and become literate. Some examples of its paternalistic clauses are: "peace and harmony should be respected because they are very important for intergroup relations"; "There are very few evil men. If we teach them (the Buddha beliefs), they may become obedient"; "equality, speediness and integrity should be maintained in court procedures" and "the basic philosophy in all matters should be "against privacy" and "toward public benefit". In it, one can observe that the emphasis of "Oriental law" which seeks to prevent disputes, whereas the "Western law" seeks to resolve disputes.<br />653: T'ang Code<br />The territory which is now China was, since time immemorial, occupied by feuding kingdoms. It was not until 221 BC that the king of "Ch'in" managed to defeat the kings of the other 6 kingdoms and unite China. After 400 years of unification, the Empire developed a Code of Law called the T'sang Code, which listed crimes and their punishment in 501 articles. The Code revised earlier existing Chinese codes and standardized procedures. For examples, there were only two ways to perform capital punishment on a convicted criminal: beheading or hanging.<br />700: Fingerprinting Is Invented<br />Fingerprinting was in use by this time in China as a means of identifying people.<br />1100: First Law School<br />In medieval Italy, students of law would hire a teacher to teach them Roman Law, especially Justinian's Code Corpus Juris. One teacher, known as Irnerius was particularly popular and students began to flock to him from all over Europe. He taught in Bologna and the surge of students meant that he had to hire other teachers to form the world's first law school. By 1150, his law school had over 10,000 students and contributed to the revival of the Corpus Juris and the spread of Roman law throughout Europe!<br />1215: Magna Carta<br />At Runneymede, England, on June 15, 1215, King John of England signed the Magna Carta in which he conceded a number of legal rights to his barons and to the people. In order to finance his foreign wars, King John had taxed abusively. His Barons threatened rebellion and coerced the King into committing to rudimentary judicial guarantees such as the freedom of the church, fair taxation, controls over imprisonment (habeas corpus) and the right to all merchants to come and go, freely, except in time of war. The Magna Carta had 61 clauses the most important of which may have been #39: "No freeman shall be captured or imprisoned ... except by lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land". It was the first time a king allowed that even he could be compelled to observe a law or the barons were allowed to "distrain and distress him in every possible way", just short of a legal right to rebellion. Once sworn to the document, letters were sent to all sheriffs ordering them to read the Charter aloud in public. It has been called the "blueprint of English common law" and was even recently pleaded in a English case. Click here to read the entire text of the Magna Carta in the LAW Museum Archives.<br />1306: The Trial of Scotsman William Wallace<br />Click here to read the full text of "The Trial of Scotsman William Wallace".<br />1535: The Trial of Sir Thomas More<br />Click here to read the full text of "The Trial of Sir Thomas More".<br />1689: The English Bill of Rights<br />This bill was a precursor to the American Bill of Rights, and set out strict limits on the Royal Family's legal prerogatives such as a prohibition against arbitrary suspension of Parliament's laws. More importantly, it limited the right to raise money through taxation to Parliament. Click here to read the article (including the full text) on "The 1689 Bill of Rights".<br />1692: The Salem Witch Trials<br />In 1692, in the town of Salem, Massachusetts, USA, a group of young women accused several other women of practising withcraft or worhip of the Devil. The accusations turned into a judicial frenzy and over 300 people were acused of witchcraft, of which 20 were executed including a priest. The extremity of the penalty turned many against the prosecution of withcraft. There would be no more witchcraft trials in New England.<br />1740: South Carolina Slave Code<br />This infamous legislation regulated the use of slaves and became the model for slavery in other states, until repealed as an effect of the American Civil War. "All Negroes, Indians ... and all their offspring ... shall be and are hereby declared to be and remain forever hereafter slaves; and shall be deemed ... to be chattels personal in the hands of their owners."<br />1765: Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England<br />This British barrister set about writing down the entire English law in a 4-volume set, in easy-to-read English, thus making the law suddenly accessible to the common man. His research also made the book a must-read for lawyers and law students alike. It was re-published many times. Through it, the English law was readily imported to the British colonies and in fact it is said that Blackstone's Commentaries was the law in the American colonies for the first century of American independence. The Commentaries also allows us to witness the exact state of British law at that time on such things as the total legal submission of a wife to her husband, as was then considered natural law.<br />1776: The American Declaration of Independence<br />"We the people," starts the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776. The Declaration was a statement to the effect that "all political connection between (the United Colonies) and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be dissolved" and that a new state, the United States, was started. It remains a remarkable legal document in that it is the first time a government has rebuked the medieval theory that certain people possessed by right the power to rule others. "All men are created equal,"rings the declaration, and have "unalienable rights that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed." (Click here to read the Declaration of Independence.)<br />1787: The Constitution of the United States of America<br />The 7 articles of the American Constitution were signed in Philadelphia in 1787 and formed the basis of the first republican government in the world. The Constitution defined the institutions of government and the powers of each institution, carefully carving out the duties of the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The Constitution also declared that it was paramount to any other law, whether federal or state, and it would override any other inconsistent law. The American Constitution served as a model for the constitutions of many nations upon attaining independence or becoming democracies.<br />1788: Through the Operation of Penal Law, A Country Is Formed<br />Sydney was the site of the first British settlement on Australia, which had been designated as a prime location as a British penal colony. For fifty years, Britain sent its worst men, who were quickly chained into work gangs and put to building roads and bridges. By 1821, there were 30,000 British settlers in the British commonwealth, of which 75% were convicts.<br />1791: The American Bill of Rights<br />With the ink barely dry on the Constitution (signed only four years earlier), American statesmen amended their supreme law by declaring the rights of free speech, freedom of the press and of religion, a right to trial by one's peers (jury), and protection against "cruel and unusual punishment" or unreasonable searches or seizures. The ten amendments of Bill of Rights became known as the First to Tenth Amendment(s) respectively. The Bill of Rights influenced many modern charters or bills of rights around the world.<br />1803: Marbury versus Madison<br />In this case, the Supreme Court upheld the supremacy of the Constitution and stated unequivocally that it had the power to strike down actions taken by American federal or state legislative bodies which, in its opinion, offended the Constitution. This has come to be known as the power of "judicial review". This case is considered by the legal profession to be the most important milestone in the history of American law since the Constitution.<br />1804: Napoleonic Code<br />Under the government of Napoleon, France adopted a comprehensive code of law in 1804 which enshrined many of the victories obtained during the Revolution such as individual liberty, equality before the law and the lay character of the state. The Code also incorporated most parts of Roman law. The Code became a model for civil law systems such as Quebec, California and Louisiana. Perhaps the most important aspect of the Code was the fact that the law was written (as opposed to judge-made) and in a non-technical style and thus more accessible to the public. The Code regulated much of private law matters such as property, wills, contracts, liability and obligations. Many of its parts are traceable to Roman law. The French Code inspired similar civil codes in the Canadian Province of Quebec (1865), Germany (1900) and Switzerland (1907)<br />1864: The Geneva Convention<br />This agreement was designed to provide for minimal human rights in time of war such as the protection of military medical personnel and for the humane treatment of the wounded. It was later supplemented by a Prisoner of War Convention. Although frequently ignored in military operations, this documents remains an important legal document which, for the first time ever, sets out rudimentary standards of human decency during war.<br />1865: The Thirteenth Amendment<br />By this change to the American Constitution, slavery was abolished in the USA.<br />1945-46: The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial<br />A special panel of eight judges convened in this German town to try Nazi officers for crimes against peace, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed during World War II. The judges came from the USA, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Twenty-four Nazis were tried and twelve received death penalties (although one defendant, Hermann Göring, committed suicide hours before his execution). This trial was important as it showed that even in times of war, basic moral standards apply in spite of military law principles which oblige a subordinate officer to obey orders. "The true test," wrote the Tribunal, "is not the existence of the (superior) order but whether moral choice (in executing it) was in fact possible". The crimes included torture, deportation, persecution and mass extermination.<br />1948: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)<br />The GATT was developed by the United Nations and has served as a catalyst for the lifting of legal barriers against the free movement of goods, services and people. Now under the auspices of the World Trade Organization, the implementation of GATT by almost all countries is causing commercial law interplay between differing legal systems and, in most cases, providing impetus for those legal systems to move towards similarity and compatibility. The GATT also shows a new emphasis of the development of law in the world: from military and basic rights to trade and economic matters.<br />94.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) "We the people," starts the Declaration of Independence proclaimed on July 4, 1776.<br />95. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans respectfully assert furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant(s) (The United States of America) Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) on December 6, 1865 which “slavery” was placed in to action by said Defendant back during the year 1619<br />(246) Years the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans held against their peace, dignity and will for Slavery by the Defendant (The United States of America) herein under conformity of all “slave codes” as described in paragraph (15) above which time thereafter said defendant (The United States of America)Established instead of freedom for (Negros) in 1865 <br />Moreover said defendant establish “Black Codes” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) as described in paragraph (23) – (30) above while all of the comforts of the Defendant Constitution provisions being amendments 1-13 still do not pertain to the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) under new established “Black code” restriction as described by the Black Codes them self.<br />96. <br />Defendant(s) herein (The United States of America) already having secure sinfully in institute of their “iron brand” on (White supremacy) being well established for (246) years to date from 1619-1865<br />Include but not limited placement of crimes for (among other things) (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein obtain learning to write and having reading skills in the (246) past years.<br />97.<br />Now said Defendant (The United States of America) having once again secure sinfully in the instituted “Black Codes” to insure said Defendant (White Supremacy) in the time frame of 1865 by Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson)<br />To aid in said Defendant (The United States of America) civil/criminal conspiracy by further “hinder and regulate” Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) ability to (In among other things) obtain possession of “simple” learning to write and reading skills for (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein self preserve and equal advancement within the Defendant (The United States of America) in 1865.<br />98.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” intention, goal, aim, objective, meaning at the time of draft and blueprint against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein was fully design in “language and content” for the full “defamation purpose” intent to produce the effected concentration on inferior, lesser value, low-grade, substandard second –rate, shoddy, imperfect quality of all of the human (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Blacks African Americans living within the Defendant (The United States of America) during the precise time frame in 1865.<br />99.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein assert and strongly state upright, admirable, and honorable before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America)who did in all facts, status, state of affairs, position, circumstances and conditions after defendant imposed “Slave codes” capitol criminal institution situation and the release into freedom of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein;<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein assert and strongly state upright, admirable, and honorable before the “Honorable Justice” Said described defendant herein (The United States of America) <br />And Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson blueprint, design and executed continue a well self preserved (White Supremacy) destructed (RICO) pattern and practices to destroy all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein “civil reputation” by the creation of an “defamation environment” all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans having to “now endure” at the hand of the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Dishonorable as before “only under the new disguise malice” of limited freedom such as “Black Codes” being legal declare, provide regulations, and upon enforce punishment for violations<br /> Notwithstanding all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans facing wrongful death execution for exercising an attempt at voting rights in the year of 1865 within the Defendant (The United State of America).<br />100.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the first “comprehended defamatory and injurious statements” made in a public manner against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein was in fact published by said Defendant (The United States of America) <br />And Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) “Black Codes” declared that an action could be brought up against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein under this defamatory rule for continue control over all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein and assert fully Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy”.<br />101.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) and the Co-defendant (President Andrew Johnson) at the expensive of the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) life, peace, will, and dignity under blue printed defamatory “Black Codes” Defendant herein assurance continue supply of inexpensive (Negro) Plaintiff(s) and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein as agricultural labor, and maintain Defendant herein (The United States of America) (White) dominated hierarchy.<br />102.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” in addition said Defendant (The United States of America) and the Co-defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein, being actual (Founder of Ku Klux Klan) a paramilitary organization with a well-established records within the Defendant (The United States of America) of engaging in complete terrorism against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein,<br />103.<br /> The Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” such paramilitary organization as the (KKK) under the “direction” of the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) at the peace, will, dignity and expensive of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American herein already damaged reputation by the infamous “Black Codes” <br />Published defamatory among other things (Life Threaten election poster, pamphlets within the Defendant (The United States of America) especially dealing with terrorizing (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans votes<br />Being fullydesigned to be in full view throughout public to the effect that the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) is of immoral, wicked, morally wrong outlandish and terrifying human life creature being,<br /> Furtherance such defamatory practices and pattern by all said described Defendant(s) above is moral sanction and justify in the massive hanging and lynching of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />104.<br /> Argument II<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant institution of “Jim Crow Laws” as described in paragraph (43) above <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein state exactly between the precise time frame of 1870 and 1884, eleven of the Defendant (The United States of America) southern states legally banned miscegenation, or interracial marriages.<br />105.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein state exactly the Defendant (The United States of America) legal imposed bans were the "ultimate segregation laws" in that they clearly spelled out the idea that (whites) were superior to all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans herein<br /> And that any mixing of the two threatened Defendant (The United States of America) “White Status” and the “purity” of the “White Race” within the defendant (The United States of America). <br />106.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully with simplicity and ease assert before the “Honorable Justice” numerous (RICO) defamatory pattern and practices were instituted by the said described defendant herein;<br />In that among other things the Defendant (The United States of America) Schools by “blue print and devise” executed under “Jim Crow” segregation laws of the defendant herein appeared on the books in nearly every defendant (The United States of America) southern state prior to 1888, beginning with namely Tennessee and Arkansas in 1866. <br />Virginia erected in 1869 a constitutional ban against blacks and whites attending the same schools, followed by Tennessee in 1870, Alabama and North Carolina in 1875, Texas in 1876, Georgia in 1877, and Florida in 1885. Arkansas and Mississippi passed school segregation statutes in 1873 and 1878.<br />107.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Jim Crow Laws” wrongfully libel and label (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans conduct before public as being “ban- mannered”, “discourteous”,” impolite”, “vulgar”, “disrespectful” and straightforwardness to the exact point and effect all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) are very “foul creatures”;<br />108.<br /> Thus required the said Defendant herein (The United States of America) to supply such a defamatory (RICO) “pattern and practices” in the implementation in all of the “Jim Crow Laws” as some being described in paragraph (45) above to be fully direct, executed against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein from a precise time frame 1866 herein well into and beyond the time frame of 1965 over 100 years defendant (The United States of America) <br />III “Jim Crow defamatory civil and criminal Law phase” being organization, established, introduce, set up, emplaced, instituted and foundation against the peace, will, and dignity of all of the described (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />109.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) usage of “defamation device” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein <br />Through said defendant (The United States of America) “infusion combination cocktail blend” to incite pure “ignorance”,” “racism”, and “violence” among the (White Supremacy) race against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein<br /> Devised for the Defendant (The United States of America) prolong self-interest to be sustain and spread racial divisions through defamatory pattern and practices through “Jim Crow Laws” of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />110.<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” By 1900, Defendant herein (The United States of America new “Jim Crow laws” and Defendant (The United States of America) old (Slavery) customs in the North and the South states of the Defendant,<br /> (The United States of America) had created a complete “segregated hostile society” that used “defamatory tactic” to fully condemn the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein (Negro) race to “second-class citizenship”.<br />111.<br />Argument III<br />Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant fight over (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Blacks Africans Americans civil rights issue. <br />112.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) race for governor of Ohio in 1867. Allen Granbery Thurman’s campaign included the promise of barring all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American Black citizens from voting. He narrowly lost to future Co-Defendant President Rutherford B. Hayes.<br />113.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) Denying (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black men the right to vote through legal defamatory maneuvering and violence was a first step in taking away the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans civil rights. <br />114.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein respectfully assert further before the “Honorable Justice” Beginning in the 1890s, Defendant (The United States of America)southern states enacted literacy tests, poll taxes, elaborate registration systems, and eventually whites-only Democratic Party primaries to exclude (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans voters. <br />115.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein respectfully assert further the Defendant (The United States of America) defamatory vote laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) proved very effective.<br /> In Defendant Mississippi, fewer than 9,000 of the 147,000 voting-age (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans were registered after 1890. <br />In Louisiana, where more than 130,000 (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans voters had been registered in 1896, the number had plummeted to 1,342 by 1904. <br />116.<br />Argument IV<br />(Negro)Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant (The United States of America) states Both Indiana (1816) and Illinois (1818) abolished slavery by their constitutions. <br />However both followed the state of Ohio policy of trying to prevent (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans immigration by passing laws of the Defendant (The United States of America) requiring (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans <br />Who moved into the said state above of the Defendant (The United States of America) to produce legal documents verifying that (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans were free and further posting bond to guarantee the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans were of “good behavior”.<br />117.<br />Argument V<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the Honorable Justice” (In the early to mid-1800's) "The overwhelming majority of white northerners within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Care little about the welfare of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American slaves, and treated (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) blacks African Americans who lived among (White Citizens) with extreme contempt, ridicule, discrimination and sometimes violence.<br />118.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) under the imposed “Black Codes” in 1865 hold that all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans reputation, standing, and character in the Defendant (The United States of America) public <br />Being fully contempt, at a complete state of ridicule by impeaching the “actual Honesty of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein ability from testifying “Honesty” against a “Whiteman” in a Court of Law.<br />119.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff African American herein (Hamilton II) his entire (Negro) family and all of the (Negro) Plaintiff(s)African Americans herein embrace, become accustomed to, quite familiarize, and accommodate to the Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Codes” sound underlayment foundation <br />In providing the actual defamatory start of defendant (The United States of America) pattern and practices against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race since 1619 well into the year of our lord 2011.<br />120.<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully complimentary assert on behalf of Defendant herein (The United States of America) being fully in this time frame, 2011 safe and sound, <br />Secure, protected, assured, and quite stable in its own self preserved “blueprint establishment” of “Absolute White Supremacy” and “Absolute Immunity” for “White Supremacy” on behalf of the said described defendant herein (The United State of America) (White) race “over all other” living human (race) as rule by the Defendant (The United States of America) “Supreme Court” of the (Americans) land “as simply Refer to”<br /> Dred Scott (No.s 251-256), Pace vs Alabama (No.s 254-256), The Civil Rights Cases (No.s 257-258), Plessy vs Furgusson (No.s 259-303) and Cummings vs Richmond (No.s 304-305)Ozawa v. United States (1922), United States v. Thind (1923), Lum v. Rice (1927), Hirabayashi v. United States (1943), Korematsu v. United States (1944).<br />121.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert before the “Honorable Justice” being at state of continue standing left very legally vulnerable, at the hands of Defendant (The United States of America) by all of the past insulting, libelous, (RICO) defamatory pattern and practices of single out the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American race herein (among others).<br />122.<br />From the past date of 1619 for (1), “slavery for 100% profit” of the described defendant, (2) abuse by install some sort of freedom imposed under a derogatory legal defamatory second class citizenship installments through a (RICO) device of civil/criminal “Black Codes 1865-66 and “Jim Crow Laws” into 1960s to secure non other further 100% profit” by Defendant (The United States of America)<br />123.<br />Enforcement of “cheap labor” upon, and at the expensive of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans as described herein on behalf of Defendant (The United States of America) exercise, execute of an offensive manipulation, exploitation, cruelty, maltreatment, neglect<br /> And violence associated with said defamatory abuse of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein through the casting of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans <br />As “human trash” belittle, sneer at, mock, ridicule, disrespect and scorn before the public of the Defendant (United States of America) and all of its neighbors (Countries) by said defamatory abuse and continue manipulation for the main objective 100% greed in Defendant (The United States of America) pursuit for profit and (White Supremacy). <br />124.<br />Argument VI<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert all out and very straight forward before the “Honorable Justice” <br />Defendant (The United States of America) entire “slave codes” in its entirety was quite hostile, defamatory practices and actions developed, directed, against the peace, will, dignity over all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race being (Negro) herein<br /> For said described defendant (The United States of America) selfish profit and greed and to secure a “White Superior Race” standing over all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race herein<br /> (Among) secure standing for said described defendant (The United States of America) over any others (race) other the “White” within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />125.<br /> Argument VII<br />(Negro)Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) <br />“Complete Hostile “Defamatory pattern and practices continue on ward by said described defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah “direct and blueprinted” against the peace, will, and dignity of all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans described here.<br />126.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, factual in <br />that before the “Honorable Justice” in that “Brigham Young” the President of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, and the first band of “Mormon” pioneers came to the Defendant (The United States of America) State namely Utah, city of Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. <br />Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers crossed the plains and settled in Utah.[12]<br />For the first few years Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive. <br />The barren desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place they could practice their religion without interference.<br />127.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert furtherance’s in that before the “Honorable Justice” “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, seek hidden, concealed, secreted out of sight practices of their religion which involved practice of plural marriage, or polygamy, among its members.<br /> However they may veiled in such out of sight marriages.<br />128.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully furtherance’s assert and state strong before the “Honorable Justice” The Latter Day Saint movement has had a range of “policies and doctrines” relating to race in regard to (Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein- with all descended people of (Negro) race.<br />Many References to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans people, and social condition <br />Many References to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans herein people spiritual standing place in Western Christianity<br /> Many Mormon scriptures complicated, with varying “degrees and forms” of defamatory and discrimination against black people as described in support in paragraph (130) and 131) below.<br />129.<br />"You see some classes of the human family that are black, uncouth, uncomely, disagreeable and low in their habits, wild, and seemingly deprived of nearly all the blessings of the intelligence that is generally bestowed upon mankind.<br />The first man that committed the odious crime of killing one of his brethren will be cursed the longest of any one of the children of Adam. Cain slew his brother. Cain might have been killed, and that would have put a termination to that line of human beings.<br />This was not to be, and the Lord put a mark upon him, which is the flat nose and black skin. Trace mankind down to after the flood, and then another curse is pronounced upon the same race--that they should be the "servant of servants;" and they will be, until that curse is removed."<br />Brigham Young-President and second 'Prophet' of the Mormon Church, 1844-1877- Extract from Journal of Discourses.<br />130.<br />The Book of Mormon.<br /> 1: 2 Nephi 5: 21- 'And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, that they had become like unto a flint; wherefore, as they were white, and exceedingly fair and delightsome, that they might not be enticing unto my people, the Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them.'<br />Alma 3: 6"And the skins of the Lamanites were dark, according to the mark which was set upon their fathers, which was a curse upon them because of their transgression and their rebellion against their brethren, who consisted of Nephi, Jacob, and Joseph, and Sam, who were just and holy men."<br />3 Nephi 2:14-15" And it came to pass that those Lamanites who had united with the Nephites were numbered among the Nephites; And their curse was taken from them, and their skin became white like unto the Nephites."<br />Moses 7:22" And Enoch also beheld the residue of the people which were the sons of Adam; and they were a mixture of all the seed of Adam save it was the seed of Cain, for the seed of Cain were black, and had not place among them."<br />Abraham 1:21-24,27"Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land."<br />"The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in the land."<br />"Now, Pharaoh being of that lineage by which he could not have the right of Priesthood, notwithstanding the Pharaohs would fain claim it from Noah, through Ham, therefore my father was led away by their idolatry"<br />131.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert furtherance’s in that before the “Honorable Justice” “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, Brigham Young and other Church Presidents and Apostles taught from 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine; <br />That "Negroes" Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein are "cursed" and "inferior" and the children of Cain and were "less valiant" in the War in Heaven, <br />And thus all "Negroes" Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) blacks were "banned" (called "the priesthood-ban") from the Mormon priesthood and Mormon Temples until June 8th, 1978.<br />132.<br />To include but not limited to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, President Brigham Young preached that God's Law demanded that interracial couples should be "killed on the spot" along with their children by having their “throats cut”, and their “blood spilling upon the ground”.<br />133.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert quite “dreadful and ghastly” in that before the “Honorable Justice”: the Defendant (The United States of America) is the “legal holding direct responsible party” of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, appalling, evil, debauched, unscrupulous, ruthless, unruly, grave disposition, nature, character and outlook upon all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) black African Americans herein by first and foremost Defendant (The United States of America)<br /> Introduction of *See (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans paragraph (15 ) above: in the “Warp Defamatory practices” by said defendant (The United States of America) refinement of “Slavery” with all of its, misshapenness, trimmings, deformity , distortion, abnormality in that this is not nice either…..duh….<br />134.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” give direct, complete, upfront, and blunt factual guide in that The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. <br />The Defendant (The United States of America) U.S. Government, which had been reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the Defendant (The United States of America) union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.<br />Members of the LDS Church were viewed as un-American and rebellious when news of their polygamous practices spread. In 1857, <br />Particularly heinous accusations of abdication, resignation, abandonment of the Defendant (The United States of America) federal government.<br />135.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully state before the “Honorable Justice” A steady stream of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Governors appointed by the “President James Buchanan” administration quit the position, often citing the traditions of their supposed territorial (Utah) government. <br />By “full agreement” between “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, President Brigham Young, and the Defendant (The United States of America) and its federal troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston<br />Albert Sidney Johnston established Camp Floyd, 40 miles (60 km) away from the Defendant (The United States of America) city of “Salt Lake City”, to the southwest and absolutely, from top to bottom, from tip to toe, wholly and completely provided the “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, their President Brigham Young, and all<br />Mormons their closed society, enclave, commune, community to practice their “Mormon” religion as described therein without any , intrusion, meddling, hindrance interference or intervention by the Defendant (The United States of America) .<br />136. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully state before the “Honorable Justice” Because of the American Civil War, federal troops were pulled out of Utah Territory in 1861.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) territory of (Utah) was then left furtherance’s without prying, interfering, meddling and in complete control of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, its President Brigham Young, LDS Mormons hands until Patrick E. Connor arrived with a regiment of California volunteers in 1862. <br />Connor established Fort Douglas just 3 miles (5 km) east of Salt Lake City and encouraged his people to discover mineral deposits to bring more non-Mormons into the territory with no intervention, snoop, be inquisitive, interfere in “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, <br /> And their President Brigham Young, closed society, enclave, commune, community to be further allow to practice their “Mormon” religion as described therein without any interference from the Defendant (The United States of America) time frame of 1848 until 1978 (130 year period) the Curse of Cain Doctrine;, <br />To include but not limited to secret "Endowment Ceremony" in Mormon Temples The original Endowment portrayed a Christian minister as a hirling of Lucifer, the Devil as a black man, Mormons were washed nude in tubs, and swore blood oaths not to reveal Endowment secrets (oaths removed in 1990).<br />137. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United State of America) fail completely in full disclosure to all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein the “confidentiality agreement” made between the “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, their past President Brigham Young, and any and all future Church President acting on the behalf of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, and all<br />LDS Mormons having been provided their full sought closed society, enclave, commune, community to fully continues practice their “Mormon” religion as described therein without any, intrusion, meddling, hindrance interference or intervention by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />138.<br />While namely The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, ongoing full “religion practices and rituals” being fully<br />In direct “hostile”, defamatory”, conflict” with all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans described herein own religious faith, will, dignity ,and pursuit of liberty & happiness free from religious prosecution within Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah, <br />Furtherance’s All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein having assurance by said Defendant (The United States of America) full security in normalize, peace, and dignity as provided for the said described defendant (White) race.<br />139.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein own up, admit, divulge factual documentation in that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first declare The registration of the copyright of the “Book of Mormon” in Great Britain came to be in 1841 when Parley P. Pratt, Brigham Young and Heber C Kimball took five copies of the 1830-version of the “Book of Mormon” into Stationer's Hall in London.<br />140.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein own up, admit, divulge furtherance’s factual documentation in that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first American edition of the “Book of Mormon” was published in 1830, followed by another edition published in Kirtland, Ohio in 1837.<br /> In which said Defendant (The United States of America) having full knowledge of the content, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first American edition of the Book of Mormon important significance, meaning, connotation and consequence in its “ hostile direct action(s)” in the full rituals defamatory religious practices at the expensive, peace, will, and dignity of the all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />141.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s factual substance in that the Defendant (The United States of America) comply in “full knowledge” of the content, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”, first American edition of the “Book of Mormon” it’s important defamatory significance, meaning, connotation and consequence <br />Defendant herein (The United States of America) publish, aid, manufacturing , distribution, mail circulation and made transmission of the “Book of Mormon” full rituals defamatory religious practices at the defamatory expensive, peace, will, and dignity against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein within the Defendant (The United States of America) custody, possession and control.<br />142.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s factual substance in that the Defendant (The United States of America) break down, crash, neglect and continue to fail fully to provide all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black herein significant “Public caution”, counsel, notification, alert, cautionary, forewarning, word of warning <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and (Negro) descendants thereof being subject in serious, jeopardy, peril, danger, harm, risk at being fully subject to the religious prosecution, prejudgment, defamatory prejudice practices, ridicule, mockery, scoff at, bigotry, hate, violence associated with Discrimination by the religious teaching of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints” and “a very “large percentage” of its “Mormon commune” in long-standing, deep-rooted, from way back full support of old “Mormon traditions”.<br />143.<br />Argument VIII<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully apply for the “Honorable Justice” application viewing in the Defendant herein (The United States of America) defamatory pattern and practices from the past as described herein thus continue being present today in manuscript, books, films, movies, pictures, radio broadcast,<br /> Televise, program, recording, relay, leaflets, promotional vote material, flyers ,school academic, screen and cinema fully having produce and depict the Defendant herein (The United States of America) exhibit, demonstration, flaunt, parade, pose, make an exhibition of display before Defendant (The United States of America) “National Public”<br />144.<br /> And all of its Neighbors countries a defamatory insulting predicament plight against the will, peace and dignity of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans described herein by said Defendant (The United States of America) force imposed conquer in providing defamatory slavery suffrage, defamatory “black codes coerce full manipulation” and defamatory Jim Crow” push continue compel constrain on segregation.<br />145.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” historically the Defendant (The United State of America) “Black Codes and “Jim Crow laws” were in many ways a model adoption for the Nuremberg Laws, German legislation against Jews, which the Congress of the Nazi Party met to pass in 1935.<br />146.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s the Defendant (The United State of America) 1865 “Black Codes and later “Jim Crow laws” instituted against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein was used as a main drafting outline for <br />These Nuremberg Laws, German legislation policies of 1933-1940 “targeted peoples”, in particular Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals and handicapped people, who were labeled as "inferior" in a racial hierarchy that placed the Herrenvolk (or "master race") of the Volksgemeinschaft (or "national community") at the top, and ranked Slavs, Romani, persons of color and Jews at the bottom.<br />147.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein furtherance’s assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United State of America) 1865 “Infamous black codes” forced inherited laws and 1867 “Jim Crow” continue defamatory laws era of said described defendant being<br />Instituted against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein existed well into 1964 during the passage of the Defendant (The United States of America) Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964)<br />*See Plaintiff exhibit (A) Birth Certificate of the (Negro) Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) Navy Veteran born November 8th 1961 in Los Angeles CA<br />*See Plaintiff exhibit (B) the (Negro) Plaintiff(s) (Barack Hussein Obama II) the 44th President of the Defendant (The United States of America) whom was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu Oahu.<br />148.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” in history as times gone by the Defendant (The United State of America) “ <br />Having premeditated a future positioned, emplaced, very factual herein 2011 a true defamatory state, unnerve, ongoing, placement of an “outstanding”, “unresolved”, “open-end”, arguable “second class citizenship” remain still upon all of the “Jim Crow Born Babies” born under 1964 as described herein by the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans exhibit(s) (A) and (B)<br />149.<br />To include but not limited to the “religious curse of Cain prosecution doctrine” and all of its ill trimmings and teachings by the Defendant (The United States of America) state primarily “Utah” and the “Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” well and beyond 1978<br /> Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans Being actively religious sought out separate and prosecuted against, <br />While legally (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans held racial substandard humans also in suit in common civil law and criminal law<br /> Being wrongfully civil/criminal/religious directed against the entire (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein this undersigned date within the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Utah as described in paragraph (32) throughout paragraph (42) above <br />And as furtherance’s described in paragraph (126) throughout paragraph (144).<br />150.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” Injury to Personal Reputation, Impeaching Honesty, Imputation of Crime, Disease and Sexual Misconduct<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein a outstanding cause for actions against the Defendant (The United States of America) in regards to all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American reputed Injuries sustained to “Personal Reputation attacks, Impeaching Honesty in court of laws, Imputation of Crime, Disease and Sexual Misconduct is to a certain extent extreme <br />“Defamatory pattern and practices” by the Defendant (The United States of America) in their “Malicious Intermarriage Laws as some described below:<br />151.<br />Intermarriage The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona <br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida <br />Intermarriage It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. Georgia <br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between the negro and a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. Maryland <br />Intermarriage The marriage of a white person with a negro or mulatto or person who shall have one-eighth or more of negro blood, shall be unlawful and void. Mississippi <br />Intermarriage All marriages between...white persons and negroes or white persons and Mongolians...are prohibited and declared absolutely void...No person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person, nor shall any white person be permitted to marry any negro or person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood. Missouri <br />Intermarriage All marriages of white persons with Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming <br />Cohabitation Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida <br />152.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) Anti-miscegenation laws, that enforced racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships between all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and all (White) "races". <br />153.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) Anti-miscegenation laws,<br /> Four miscegenation laws were passed in Utah between 1888 and 1953, prohibiting intermarriage between whites and those of African or Asian descent. School segregation was barred in 1895. <br /> The “Utah” state's miscegenation law was repealed in 1963. <br /> 154.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “absolutely assert” before the “Honorable Justice” all legal charge of “pattern and practices” in defamatory accusation, insinuation, and legal law citation of imputation of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American reputation(s)<br /> Being involving in such Crime, disease and sexual misconduct is fully and foremost evident in the passage of the Anti-miscegenation laws, by the Defendant (The United State of America) there after the “Black Codes” law were removed to include but limited to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Blacks African Americans herein affirm before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) state<br /> Namely Ohio had enacted Black Laws against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein in 1804 and 1807 that compelled (Negro) blacks entering the Defendant (The United States of America) state of Ohio to post bond of $500 guaranteeing “good behavior” and to produce a court paper as proof that they were free.<br />155.<br />Prompting (all) Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein from the passage of slavery time to this very undersign date well place “high admiration” and having a “loving high regard” for Canada <br />With the “appreciate” true Canadian unselfish offer of a “safe home” from the “Governor” for all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />And a “firm message” "Tell the “Republicans” on your side of the line that we “Royalists” do not know men by their color. <br />Should you come to us you will be entitled to all the privileges of the rest of His Majesty's subjects." <br /> 156.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein “affirm and establish” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) Anti-miscegenation laws, 1865 “Black Codes and later “Jim Crow laws” <br />Fully instituted against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein was used also as a main drafting profile outline for These Nuremberg Laws, German legislation policies of 1933-1940<br /> To single out one race being described as inferior for all aspect in discrimination advantages to be effective it was essential to have a clear definition of who was or was not a Jew. <br />This was one important function of the “Nuremberg laws” and the numerous supplementary decrees that were proclaimed to further them.<br /> 157.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans state for the “Honorable Justice clear facts The Reich Citizenship Law had little practical effect as it deprived German Jews only of the right to “vote and hold office” <br /> Same as the Defendant (The United States of America) “Black codes” mandate and made exclusive against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein in regards to also “vote and hold office” to secure Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” <br /> To include but not limited to the Defendant (The United States of America) acknowledge to established all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein as inferior human subjects, very substandard and complete low-grade in familiarity relationships of intimacy between (Negro) and superior (White).<br />158.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully honestly state before the “Honorable Justice” reincorporate and reinforce fully all as described in the Complaint(s) to include all as being detail fully herein from paragraph (1) throughout paragraph (159) above<br /> Said described Defendant herein (The United States of America) being fully committed to Defamation, Slander, and Libel of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in a Timeline of 1619-2011<br />(A).1619-1865-(Slavery) against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />(B). July 24th 1847-(open) “Religious Prosecution” by the “Utah” and “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />(C). 1865-1866-(Black Codes) Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and “KKK” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />(D). 1866-1964-(Jim Crow Laws) and “KKK” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans.<br />159. <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “discharged clear” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Black Codes were written Laws”, in clear cut American English hand written language describing a full comprehensible plain being unmistakable defamatory libel<br /> That all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein placement in 1865 there after alleged Freemen within the Defendant (The United States of America) status being “Second Class Citizens” as described above in paragraph (29) and (30).<br />160.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “discharged clear” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Jim Crow Laws” were written Laws”, in clear cut American English hand written language describing a full comprehensible plain being unmistakable defamatory libel<br /> that all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein placement there after alleged Freemen within the Defendant (The United States of America) status being “Second Class Citizens” as described above in paragraph (43) and (90).<br />161.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully “discharged clear” before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” and “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” “Book of Mormon” is actual written “Religious Church Doctrines”, in clear cut “American English” hand written language describing a full comprehensible plain being unmistakable defamatory libel<br />Describing that all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein having “defamatory libel spiritual placement” (among other placement) there upon arrival after “Death”<br />162.<br />To include but not limited to Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” incorporated their own version of “Black Codes and “Jim Crow Laws” of their own in the (Utah) “Mormon LDS Nation” within the Defendant (The United States of America) all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein status to being “Second Class Citizens” and beyond.<br />163.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) cause of action(s) <br />Count (2). <br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument I<br />All Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein respectfully unmistakable assert before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) has committed massive “Wrongful Death” against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) descendants as described:<br /> (A).1619-1865-Insitution and maintain “Chattel Slavery” against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for a scheme of things for exploitation of 100% profit.<br />(B). 1865-1866-(Enforcement of Black Codes) by Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and “KKK” conspire to maintain the same against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for a scheme of things for exploitation of 100% profit. <br />(C). 1866-1964-(Jim Crow Laws) and “KKK” conspire to maintain the same against All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for a scheme of things for exploitation of 100% profit. <br />164.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” extreme “wrongful death” occurred against the all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) first and foremost on the “List of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans “slave ships”<br />Adelaide, French slave ship, sank 1714 near Cuba. <br />Aurore, along with the Duc du Maine, the first French slave ships that brought the first slaves to Louisiana. <br />La Amistad, cargo ship which sometimes carried slaves. <br />Braunfisch, a Brandenburgian slave ship lost in 1688 in a revolt. <br />Brookes, sailing in the 1780s.<br />Clotilde, burned and sunk at Mobile, in autumn 1859. <br />Cora, captured by the USS Constellation in 1860. <br />The Creole case was the result of a slave rebellion in 1841 on board the Creole, a ship involved in the United States coastwise slave trade. <br />Desire, first American slave ship. <br />This ship sailed from La Rochelle in 1784, picked up about 500 Africans from north of the Congo River, and sold its slaves in Saint Domingue.<br />La Rochelle slave ship Le Saphir ex-voto, 1741<br />Elisabeth, sailing from Jamaica for West Africa. <br />Duc du Maine, along with the Aurore, the first French slave ships that brought the first slaves to Louisiana. <br />Fredensborg, Danish slave ship, sank in 1768 off Tromøy in Norway, after a journey in the triangular trade. Leif Svalesen has written a book about the journey. <br />Hannibal. An English slaver of the Atlantic slave trade. <br />Henrietta Marie. Sank 1700 near Marquesas Keys, Florida, excavated in 1980s. <br />Hope, American brig which brought slaves to Rhode Island <br />Jesus of Lübeck 700-ton ship used on the second voyage of John Hawkins to transport 400 captured Africans in 1564. Queen Elizabeth I was his partner and rented him the vessel. <br />Kron-Printzen, Danish slave ship, sank in 1706 with 820 slaves on board. <br />Le Concord. Slave ship turned pirate ship aka Queen Anne's Revenge. Sank 1717. <br />Lord Ligonier. <br />Don Francisco. Slave ship captured in 1837. Sold as a colonial trader renamed James Matthews. Excavated by Western Australian Museum in 1974 <br />Madre de Deus (Mother of God), 1567. John Hawkins captured this ship and transported 400 Africans. <br />Manuela, built as clipper ship Sunny South, captured by HMS Brisk in Mozambique Channel with over 800 slaves aboard. <br />Margaret Scott confiscated and sunk as part of the Stone fleet in 1862 <br />Nightingale, clipper ship captured by Saratoga near Cabinda, Angola in 1861 with 961 slaves aboard. <br />Pons, American built barque captured by the USS Yorktown 1 December 1845 with 850-900 slaves.<br />Salamander, Brandenburgian slave ship. <br />Sally, of Newport, Rhode Island - reviewed in the Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. <br />Tecora, Portuguese slave ship that transported the slaves who would later revolt aboard La Amistad. <br />Triton captured by the USS Constellation 1861. <br />Trouvadore, wrecked in Turks and Caicos 1841. 193 slaves survived. Project commenced in 2004 to locate the ship. <br />Wanderer, formerly last slave ship to the U.S. (Nov. 1858) until Clotilde reported. <br />Wildfire, a barque, arrested off the Florida coast by the US Navy in 1860; carrying 450 slaves.<br />Whydah Gally, slave ship turned into pirate ship-sank 1717. <br />Zong, a British slave ship infamous for the massacre which occurred on board in 1781. <br />165.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) cause of action(s) <br />Count (2). <br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument II<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectfully before the “Honorable Justice” extreme “wrongful death” occurred against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein during:<br />*Defendant (The United States of America) enforcement of Slave codes (Wrongful death occurred) 1619-1865<br />*Defendant (The United States of America) Black codes enforcement (Wrongful death occurred) 1865-1866<br />*Defendant (The United States of America) Jim Crow Laws enforcement (Wrongful death occurred) 1866-1964<br />166. <br /> “Wrongful Death”<br />Argument III<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein assert, declare and make clear before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United State of America) cause “Wrongful Death” for education reasoning as follows by defendant (The United States of America) State (among others) namely as described below: <br />North Carolina<br />“Any free person, who shall teach, or attempt to teach, any slave to or write, the use of figures excepted, or shall give or sell to such slave any book or pamphlet, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, if a white man or women, shall be fine not less than one hundred nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned, and if a free person of colour, shall be fined, imprisoned, or whipped not exceeding thirty-nine nor less than twenty lashes.<br />167.<br />"If any person shall willfully bring into the State, with an intent to circulate, or shall aid or abet the bringing into, or the circulation or publication, the State, any written or printed in or out of the State, <br />The evident tendency whereof is to cause slaves to become discontented with the bondage in which they are held by their masters and the laws regulating the same, and free negroes to be dissatisfied with their social condition and the denial to them of political privileges, <br />And thereby to excite among the said slaves and free negroes a disposition to make conspiracies, insurrections, or resistance against the peace and quiet of the public, such person so offending shall be deemed guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof shall, for the first offence, be imprisoned not less than one year, <br />And be put in the pillory and whipped, at the discretion of the court, and for the second offence shall suffer death.<br />168.<br />Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff assert honestly before the “Honorable Justice” millions of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) were captured over a “three to four” hundred year period” by the Defendant (The United States of America) and then transported under the most horrible conditions, so many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American as much as a third died in transit. <br /> Then tortured and beaten for the smallest reasons, many died when they got here just from such “Killer Abuse”.<br />169.<br /> The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American slave’s descendants were considered property by the Defendant (The United States of America) like cattle,<br />Many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) were worked to death. <br /> Lived under very poor conditions and many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants were beaten to death by the Defendant (The United States of America) for trying to escape. <br />170.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” to take “Judicial Notice” all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans descendants were also considered 3/5 of a human being, <br />So it is hard to count how many (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans there were doing this time frame of 1619-1865 being captured and “just simply” Killed off as described throughout “Slavery of the (Negro) race.<br />And I Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) don't think you the “Honorable Justice” can put a number on exact how many wrongful death occurred during this time frame.<br />171.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein assert that the Defendant (The United States of America) and their paramilitary organization Ku Klux Klan <br />Reconstruction 1st Klan (1865-1877) <br />Nathan Bedford Forrest, leader of the first Klan committed this atrocity Fort Pillow Massacre 1864 277 blacks,<br />1500 estimated by the Tuskegee Institute 1200 blacks 300 whites 100-200 killed in South Carolina 150 Florida The rest mostly killed during (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American black voting in Louisiana in the 1868 the Defendant (The United States of America) US Presidential Election by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and the Ku Klux Klan The Klan was also partially involved in the Colfax Massacre (1873) Colfax riot occurred, more than 100 African American men killed;<br />172.<br />Nadir 2nd Klan ( 1915 - 1944) 416 Klan was frequently involved in lynching’s, killed mostly blacks in this era Murdered Blacks returning from WW1 Killed Leo Frank (Jewish White) Killed 6 blacks attempting to vote in Orange County Florida <br />173.<br />Civil Rights 3rd Klan (1954-1968) <br />In states such of the Defendant (The United States of America) as Alabama and Mississippi, Klan members forged alliances with governors' administrations.<br />In Birmingham and elsewhere, the KKK groups bombed the houses of (Negro) civil rights activists. <br />In some cases they used physical violence, intimidation and assassination directly against (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black Africans Americans individuals.<br /> Many murders against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein went unreported and were not prosecuted by the Defendant (The United States of America) local and state “White” authorities.<br />These murders are well known and include, but are not limited to 1963 murder Medgar Evers 1963 16th street Baptist church bombing 1964 Mississippi Burning 1965 Viola Luizo Shooting 1966 Vernon Dahmer Killing <br />174.<br />David Duke 4th Klan 1979 Greensboro Massacre 5 killed <br />175.5th Klan 1981 Lynching Michael Donald <br />176.<br />6th Klan (2010)<br /> Dec 15, 2010 ... 26 year old African American “Frederick Jermaine Carter was found hanging in the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Mississippi tree in a white suburb on Friday, December 3, 2010 <br />(Rule suicide) <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein, “NAACP” and especially Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) “fully do not agree at all”.<br />177.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein, assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the following figures in a direction to allow estimation before the Honorable Justice in gage of the possible numerous (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants “Wrongful Death Toll”<br />178.<br />African American Slavery<br />In American Holocaust (1992), David Stannard estimates that some 30 to 60 million Africans died being enslaved. He claims a 50% mortality rate among new slaves while being gathered and stored in Africa, a10% mortality among the survivors while crossing the ocean, and another 50% mortality rate in the first "seasoning" phase of slave labor. Overall, he estimates a 75-80% mortality rate in transit.<br />179.<br />In Slavery A World History, Milton Meltzer estimates that 10 million slaves arrived in the Americas. This would be the residue after 12.5% of those shipped out from Africa died on the ocean, 4-5% died while waiting in harbor, and 33% died during the first year of seasoning.<br />180.<br />In "The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Holocaust" (Is the Holocaust Unique, A. Greebaum, ed., 1996), Seymour Drescher estimates that 21M were enslaved, 1700-1850, of which 7M remained in slavery inside Africa. 4M died "as a direct result of enslavement". Of the 12M shipped to America, 15%, or 2M more, died in the Middle Passage and seasoning year.<br />181.<br />Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1994): "[A]s many as eight million Africans may have died in order to bring four million slaves to the Caribbean islands."<br />182.<br />In The Slave Trade, Hugh Thomas estimates that 13M left African ports, and 11,328,000 arrived. Here are a few other numbers from Thomas:<br />No year-by-year stats, but by piecing together scattered decade stats, I figure that 5M slaves were shipped in the 18th Century. <br />Shipboard mortality among slaves: <br />Mercado in 1569 estimated an average shipboard mortality of 20% <br />Brazilian historians: 15-20% in 16th C; 10% in 19th C. <br />English trade: <br />1680s: 24% <br />early 18th C: 10% <br />1780s: 5.65%<br />Hugh Thomas: 9% reasonable est. for 18th C. <br />19th C <br />Cliffe: 35% <br />House of Commons: 9.1% <br />Thomson: 9% <br />Hotham: 5%<br />183.<br />In the chapter on African population in the Atlas of World Population History (1978), Colin McEvedy estimates that 9.5 million African slaves were imported into the Americas between 1500 and 1880. He also suggests a 15% mortality rate on the ocean.<br />Rummel estimates a total death toll of 17,267,000 African slaves (1451-1870)*****<br />Among slaves going to Orient: 2,400,000 dead <br />Among slaves staying in Africa: 1,200,000 dead <br />Among slaves going to New World: 13,667,000 dead<br />Fredric Wertham claims that 150,000,000 Africans died of the slave trade.<br />184.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” Looking at all the scholarship on the subject, it looks like, at the very least, 35% of those enslaved in Africa died before they were ever put to work in America. <br />On the other hand, at least 20% of them survived. Between these extreme possibilities (35-80%), the most likely mortality rate is 62%.<br />185.<br />In terms of absolute numbers, the lowest possible (and only barely possible at that) death toll we can put on the trans-Atlantic slave trade is 6 million. If the Honorable Justice assume the absolute worst, a death toll as high as 60 million is at the very edge of possibility;<br />186.<br /> However, the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” likeliest number of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants deaths toll would fall somewhere from 15 to 20 million.<br />Death RatesLowLikelyHighSeasoning15%33%50%Arrived9.5M11M15MOcean Crossing10%15%18%Africa20%33%50%Died6M17.8M58M<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans state before the “Honorable Justice” If 5 million (Negro) slaves were shipped in the 18th Century to the Defendant (The United States of America) (the busiest century, see Hugh Thomas, above), <br />Then the 18th Century death toll of the Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants could be around 8.1 million. (=5/11*17.8)<br />187.<br />“Keeping in mind before the “Honorable Justice” that these numbers only count the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein descendants “dead” among the first generation of (Negro) slaves brought from Africa to the Defendant (The United States of America).<br /> Subsequent generations of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants would contribute additional “premature or unnatural” deaths by the direct cause by the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />188.<br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument IV<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “emit” for the “Honorable Justice” numerous unrecorded “premature or unnatural” death occurred <br /> Against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants associated with all cause of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein actions for control: <br />In conspirer usage by group force in (among other things) “hanging”, “fire squads”, “bombing”, “Drowning”, Mutilation” <br />By the “intimidation”, “terrorizing”, “harassment” (scheme of things) by the (KKK) in clear “association”, relationship”, involvement”, alliance”, society”<br /> By Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants. <br />189.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “emit” respectful furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) (KKK) being fully funded by said described defendants (USA) <br />In a long (RICO) history involving “Mail and Wire fraud”, “Money Laundry” “Poll taxes” “Theft of direct Taxes”, “Federal Financial Institution Fraud” scheme of things (among other clever scams) all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein diverted “taxes” “property” and other “monetary value” to be put in “full funding support usage” by the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) “Killing Spree” <br />190.<br />Said (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff Black African Americans herein “monetary value” aid in paying for the complete ”Atrocity”, acts of all ”Murder(S)”, “Act of violence”, ”crime” and cruelty by the Defendant (The United States of America) in association with the (KKK) against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein since:<br />(a). <br />First institution of “poll taxes” by Defendant (The United States of America) against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American in the time frame of 1867-1966 <br />With (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants “Illegal Poll Taxes” Being still taken in the usage by the described Defendant (The United States of America) payment to (KKK) during the “Jim Crow Laws” time frame in Defendant (The United States of America) states namely “Alabama”, “Mississippi”, “Texas”, and “Virginia” throughout 1966.<br />(b). <br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) engage in the direct acts in “history” involving “Mail and Wire fraud”, “Money Laundry” <br /> “Theft of Taxes”, “Financial Institution Fraud” and “theft of any monetary value” for a “White Supremacy” (scheme of things) with the Defendant (The United States of America) officially up to the time frame of The Enforcement Act (17 Stat. 13),<br /> Commonly known as the Ku Klux Klan Act or the Civil Rights Act of 1871, at which time payment to the Defendant (The United States of America) themselves was declare illegal to continue said described Defendant (The United States of America) “Atrocity”, and acts of all”Murder(s)”, “Act of violence”,”crime” and cruelty directed at the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein peace, will and dignity<br />192.<br />Section 1 of the act (now codified at 42 U.S.C. § 1983, and called in this entry "section 1983"), provided that any person deprived of rights conferred by the Constitution by someone acting "under color" of law (i.e., a state or local official acting with legally granted authority, or, through purporting to act within such limits, an official may be misusing authority) or custom could bring suit in federal court and recover damages or equitable relief.<br />193.<br /> Section 2 (now codified at 42 U.S.C. § 1985, and called in this entry "section 1985") of the act provided criminal sanctions and a civil damages action for conspiracy to commit a range of offenses. These offenses included attempting to overthrow the government, intimidating witnesses or parties to legal action, using threat or force to influence jurors,<br /> Or going on the highway in disguise to deprive others of the exercise of constitutional rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.<br />194.<br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument V<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” in the mode, behavior, and manner involving of<br /> “Vote disfranchisement” for control by Defendant (The United States of America) and secure “White Supremacy” executed and directed against the peace, will, and dignity of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />195.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” <br />Election of 1876 ranks higher than other disputed elections within the Defendant (The United States of America) because it is set against the backdrop of Reconstruction efforts for the behalf of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants.<br />196.<br /> Samuel Tilden led in popular and electoral votes but was one shy of the necessary votes to win. The existence of disputed electoral votes led to the Compromise of 1877. <br />A commission was formed and voted along party lines, awarding Co-Defendant Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) the “presidency” of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />197.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) 1866-Ku Klux Klan (KKK) being fully funded by said described defendant herein and “established as a “Social Club” <br />For “former confederates soldiers and groups such as “The Knight(s) of the white camellia, the white caps, and other violently upheld the tenets of “White Supremacy” of the Defendant (The United States of America) to redeem the control after defeat during “Civil War”<br />198.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful before the “Honorable Justice” <br />“Moreover” the Defendant (The United States of America) sponsor “Kill Groups” were responsible for the increasing number of anti-negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “Riots” and “Wrongful Death” being caused associated “Lynching’s” or “Negro Vote that convulsed the Defendant (The United States of America) south beginning 1870.<br />199.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Co-defendant President Rutherford B. Hayes agreed to end Reconstruction and recall all Defendant (The United States of America) troops from the South protecting the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein<br />200.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful furtherance’s being all criminal in actions and done by Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) in collusion with Defendant (The United States of America) <br />And their willingness to continue imposed a institution in “White Supremacy” for the continue exploitation in “greed and profit” at the expense of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein exchange for the presidency. <br />201.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “state and assert” respectful furtherance’s with Significance the election of Co-defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) <br />Meant the end of Defendant (The United States of America) said described “Reconstruction Acts” and official assignments for the (KKK) “Death Warrant” in the numerous of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American receiving premature “Wrongful Deaths” during this time frame being well into 1968 at the hand of “lynching tactics” of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br /> 202.<br />“Wrongful Death”<br />Argument VI<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the Co-Defendant Herein (President Andrew Johnson) in his “Establishment prime military force in the Institution and actual finding founder of The Infamous “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK). <br />And their “quite” very extreme criminal destructive (RICO) “patter and practices” in leaving and bring about a whole lot of “Wrongful Premeditated Premature Death Toll”, <br />Massive “Theft of property and goods” (among other cruel) acts and actions against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants in collusion with the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Argument VII<br />203.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare furtherance’s “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the Co-Defendant Herein (President Andrew Johnson) in his “Establishment” of “Black Codes” for Profit and establishment of Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” <br />204.<br />Against the peace, rights, will and dignity of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein bring about additional direct cause for action in said “Wrongful Premeditated Premature Death Toll” <br />Being with intent and done against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein in full collusion with the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Argument VIII<br />205.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the Co-Defendant Herein (President Andrew Johnson) in his “Establishment” of “Black codes” direct as follows:<br />206.<br />In terms of real employment, by force labor & prison camps, force under wage employment in full criminal (RICO) pattern and practice of “price fixing with intent for in keeping with already previous establish slave free chattel profits wages<br />For the full benefit of Defendant (The United States of America) and their continue collusion establishment of “White Supremacy” for greedy 100% labor profits & continue labor control “against and direct over” all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein civil rights, peace, will, and dignity causing “Wrongful Death”. <br />Argument IX<br />207.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the imposed “Jim Crow Laws” by the Defendant (The United States of America) for “Labor Control and “continue establishment of “White Supremacy during the time frame shortly their after said described Defendant herein already having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />208.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) continue on this (RICO) criminal pattern and practices of causing “Wrongful Deaths” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans in the full application in maintaining the crude “Jim Crow Laws”, into 1968 <br />To included but not limited to the “illegal storage” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) “Black African Americans being as “Cheap source of Labor” in Defendant (The United States of America) southern states “Prison and Labor” encampment(s) under the directives provisions of “Jim Crow Laws” resulting in more of the “Wrongful Deaths” rate toll account being levy upon and against the civil rights, peace, will and dignity of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein.<br />Argument X<br />209.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein making (12) % of the population within the Defendant (The United States of America) but (Negro) race account for 35% of the Abortions within the Defendant (The United States of America) at approximately (1400) (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black “Children” aborted everyday from the Defendant (The United States of America) population <br />210.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans here furtherance’s state before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) history of “Targeting pitiable, poverty-stricken, impoverished, penniless, meager, deprived, scanty, deficient, feeble, inadequate, inferior poor economic playing “Major Factor” in continue “Wrongful Loss of Life .<br />Argument XI<br />211.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state, declare “very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused numerous “Wrongful Death” <br />In the mode, behavior, and manner involving of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “High Incarceration of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) at such “Huge numbers” of any other race other than (Negro) in the last (100) years resulting in the “chief factor” of “Wrongful Death” being committed and a direct cause of action against the Defendant herein (The United States of America.<br />Argument XII<br />212.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein assert, state, declare, “Very respectful” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having caused “Wrongful Death” of the Plaintiff entire Family “Wife” (Rachel Ann Hamilton) and (actual) own “Two Daughters” Chandra and Natasha Hamilton as described in the Complaint and all records attached herein by the Defendant “State of Utah” <br />And its “religious prosecution practices” against (Negro) Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) and against his entire family “civil rights, peace, will, and dignity(s) in complicity, collusion, conspiracy with “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints” <br />213.<br />To include but not limited to the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” being full in intent, complicity, collusion, and direct involvement under (RICO) criminal pattern and practice in the “Full Civil prosecution” of the Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) <br />Directly under four “Jim Crow Miscegenation Laws” passed by the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” between 1888 -1963 “fully prohibiting” the “Intermarriage and ongoing cohabitation” relationship<br /> Between the Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II and his “Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton all being done in the year of (1985) no less within the 3rd District Court for the State of Utah of the Defendant (The United States of America) “Court Docket No. 85-4904223<br />214.<br />With the Plaintiff herein (Hamilton II) furtherance’s being “religious prosecution and “chastised” before the Defendant (The United States of America) “Religious Mormon Court of Law” on open said “court transcripts records” 85-4904223 <br />Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein (Negro) descendant furtherance’s being declared “Evil” within the direct teaching of the “Book of Mormon” in connection, complicity, collusion, conspiracy with “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints” “Curse of Cain doctrines”<br /> And the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) “Wife” Mormon Family of (Lowell and Helen Walker) of “Salt Lake City” Utah (RICO) criminal scheme of things to destroy and prosecute the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) and his family (rights) in the (among other things) by the abduction of the two step daughters (Shanna and Billie Jean Benn’s) as described in the complaint.<br />215<br />To include but not limited to the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” being intent, complicity, collusion, and direct involvement under (RICO) criminal pattern and practice in the cover up’ and concealment in the “Wrongful Death” of the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein <br />‘Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton actual cause of death and the bogus concealment in her legal name for “Mormon religion bury practices”, as described in the complaint fully of the Plaintiff (Hamilton II)<br />With the “Wrongful Death toll” of the (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II being his “wife” (Rachel Ann Hamilton), Plaintiff (Hamilton II) one “unborn child” kill off as described in the complaint<br /> And Plaintiff (Hamilton II) “Wrongful Death” of his very own two natural Daughters “Chandra and Natasha Hamilton”.<br />216.<br /> Genocide <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” herein real causes of action for “Genocide” being fully levy against the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: <br />217.<br />Killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. <br />Genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, attempt to commit genocide, complicity in genocide. <br /> “Persons committing whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals”. <br />218.<br />“The Eight Stages of Genocide”. <br />Identified classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination and denial as the eight key stages to historic genocidal events.<br />Classification includes creating categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality<br /> 219.<br />Symbolization includes giving names or using symbols in support of those classifications. Stanton does offer the caveat that classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization.<br /> <br />Dehumanization occurs when one group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.<br />  220.<br />Organization of genocidal actions, usually by the state, use groups such as militias, mobs or terrorist to provide deniability of state responsibility.  In some cases, special army units or militias are often trained and armed to carry out the genocidal killings.<br /> <br />Polarization occurs when extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center.<br /> <br />Preparations commence when victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. <br />221.<br />Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.<br /> <br />Extermination begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing.<br /> 221.<br />Denial is the eighth stage that always follows genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. <br />The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims.<br />223.<br />Argument I<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare before the “Honorable Justice” herein the Defendant (The United State of America) as fully illustrate and described in the Complaint of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein<br />Said Defendant (The United States of America) imposed criminal (RICO) act(s) and action(s) of “Slavery” “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws” severely directed upon and express against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s)Black African-American herein and their descendants<br /> Being all against their will, peace, civil rights and dignity, “triumph over”, “get the better”, “absolute defeat”, “overpower”,<br /> “Overthrow”, “dominate” and “conquer” in purposed intent “manipulation”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “mistreatment”, and “exploitation” of a (Negro) race namely (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein being “capture” and “occupy” completely for massive profit(s) in “monopoly” “Wealth”, “Assets”, “Investments”, “Resources” and “Capital”.<br />224.<br />Argument II<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) well blueprint movement in conspire “Genocide in whole” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants progression started clear back in the time frame during the era of 1619-1865 well on track<br />225.<br />Argument III<br />To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants well documented blueprinted 1865-1867 under “Black Codes” by the conspire Defendant (The United States of America) and the described Co-Defendant herein (President Andrew Johnson).<br />226.<br />Argument IV<br />To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their past descendants well documented blueprinted 1867-1968 under conspire “Jim Crow Laws” by the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />227.<br />Argument V<br />To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein from 1968 till present date 2011 well documented blueprinted <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein making (12) % of the population within the Defendant (The United States of America) but (Negro) race account for 35% of the Abortions within the Defendant (The United States of America) at approximately (1400) (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black “Children” aborted everyday from the Defendant (The United States of America) population. <br />228.<br />Argument VI<br /> To “Genocide in part” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein from 1968 till present date 2011 well “documented” and “blueprinted” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein being fully in a state of complete “High prison Incarceration rate” of the<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “only” at such “Huge numbers” of any other race other than (Negro) Black African American within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />229.<br />Argument VII <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare being fully committed before the “Honorable Justice”<br />Defendant herein (The United States of America) in collusion, conspiracy and connection with stated “Slave codes”<br />Defendant “Simply” without question blueprint and supply a complete “Classification” upon the human races within the Defendant (the United States of America) between “White Supremacy” races living with peace, dignity, privileged, fortunate, total advantages and trimmings.<br />230.<br />Without furtherance’s question, undisputed facts and circumstances said described Defendant (The United States of America) depicted, “liable”, “slander”, and made usage of “defamation” and discrimination pattern and practices being “notarized”<br /> In referring an inferior race being that all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their descendants being fully committed as “inferior conquer human (Negro) race”<br />231.<br /> As “blueprinted, explain, express, and fully enforced under capital punishment as described by the Defendant (The United States of America) and their imposed “Slave Codes” with the “Massive toll of loss of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans lives <br />In excess of a easy declaration of 20-30 Million (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans herein descendants being simply capture, enforced, and destroyed<br /> To simply furtherance’s obtain and maintain 20-30 Million more (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants under Defendant (The United States of America) “Genocide” and complete “Holocaust” conditions in the time frame of 1619-1865.<br />232.<br />Argument VIII<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Codes”, “Black Codes”, and Jim Crow Laws“Completely denied all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans any equality at all<br />233.<br /> And in “General concept” equated the (Negro) race as continue “inferior property animals” completely dehumanized to be disposed of in any manner, a lesser human being, whom is fully denied equal civil right as the same as “White Supremacy races” within the Defendant (The United States of America) with “Capitol punishment in “Slave Codes”, “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws” of “Death” for any references of equality being made between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and the Defendant (The United States of America) imposed superior race of (White).<br />Argument IX<br />234.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) propaganda through “Slave Codes”, “Black Codes”, and Jim Crow Laws of the Defendant (The United States of America) was fully intended to dehumanize the (Negro) race by naming the “Inferior race” being (Negro)<br />with the “legal imposed blueprint laws” to create widespread anti-Semitism and lay the ground work for the elimination of the “civil rights” and just gain freedom of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants.<br />Argument X<br />235.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints” both imposed Laws, legal document(s), religious doctrines, posters, and use schools, the media <br />And preached that the (Negro) race must be excluded from (White) society of the Defendant (The United States of America, no mixing of the “White and (Negro) race with penalty of Death for any misunderstanding.<br />Argument XI<br />236.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” as a result of the Defendant (The United States of America) “conspiracy propaganda” blueprinted in “Slave Codes”, Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws resulted <br />In “widespread ridicule, major violence, wrongful death, humiliation, civil and religious persecution of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans driving them into complete “poverty and despair” setting the stage for continue “mass genocide” in whole” under Defendant (The United States of America) imposed “slave codes” as described herein.<br />Argument XII<br />237.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Codes”, Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws Enacted by the described Defendant (The United States of America) in full collusion with “White Supremacy” races<br />Especially with the passing of the “Black Codes” enacted in 1865 after described defendant herein (The United States of America) already imposed “Slavery Holocaust” from 1619-1865 following with “Jim Crow Laws well into 1968 era<br />238.<br /> Said described “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws blueprint enforcement formally established the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans race as “second class citizens”, enforced the furtherance’s criminal (RICO) persecution upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants, for abuse, taking advantage, exploitation, <br />Mistreatment in labor utilization operation(s) for Defendant (The United States of America) continue manipulation for “greed and 100% profit” over the civil well being of the (Negro) race within the described Defendant (The United States of America).<br />239.<br />Thus continue setting the stage for continue mass genocide “in part” by the Defendant (The United States of America) against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein in the time frame of 1865-1867 stripping the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants<br /> Of the just little so call received freedom and supposed share civil rights enjoyed by all (White) races without interferences, <br />240<br />To include but not limited to the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendants fully restricted in the daily lives, after the next passage of imposed “Jim Crow Laws” <br />Which clear intent established “among other things” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein being continue second class citizens for “misuse as cheap labor supply” as described by “Defendant <br />(The United States of America) History “ultimately” “Wrongful Death” having occurred through acts of violence’s hence (Negro) “Churches”, business, schools, and homes were burn looted and destroyed most often sometime with (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American occupants fully trap inside.<br />241.<br />Thus consequently as a consequence “continue setting the stage” for continue mass genocide “in part” by the Defendant (The United States of America) against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans race herein in the time frame of 1867 till present 2011 undersign date.<br />Argument XIII<br />242.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, and state fully respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) fully target”, <br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans children’s hopes and dreams by “stereotype within” from a pervasive legacy of racism and poverty.<br />243.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” In 1662 the Defendant (The United States of America) Virginia Assembly passed a law that (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants children should be held, bond or free, <br />244.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) In 1663 the Maryland legislature enacted a law that <br />" all negroes and other slaves within the province, and all negroes and other slaves to be thereafter imported into the province, should serve during life; and all children born of any negro should be slaves, as their fathers were, for the term of their lives."<br />245.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) once purchased a (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans said described defendant (The United States of America)<br />“Commonly branded” the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans “salves descendants” with a symbol of the “trading company” or “voyage owner” on either their “chest or back” as a means of marking their commercial property and distinguishing Defendant (The United States of America) cargoes from the rest.<br />246.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans Black African Americans herein state, and declare before the “Honorable Justice” during Defendant (The United States of America) 18th century era, <br />Defendant (The United States of America) planters economically dependent on the “slave trade” came to depend on all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans children(s) and youth. <br />247.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) adopted the strategy of “abduction and importing” younger (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American for the sole purpose as slaves who also would live longer. <br />As a result of the described defendant actions, (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American “youth” became an attractive asset on the auction blocks of the Defendant (The United States of America) slave markets.<br />Argument XIV<br />248.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein further assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant herein (The United States of America) made justification in that the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants where to be better off, prime conditions, under refuge of learn education better way of and through “Christianity in coming to Defendant (America)<br /> “However the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice” this was not the case to be by said described defendant ,<br />249<br />“Only Defendant (The United States of America) full criminal intent was blueprinted to provided absolute “bondage and Chains”, “100% Chattel slavery free labor system”, capital punishment for learning “White only” education in “books and math figures” or escape, “force upon medical experiments”, “mass sterilization”,<br /> “Absolutely total economic plunder”, “imposed illiteracy” “Order to hang any (Negro) who having caused mixing of race with “White Supremacy” or sex with a “White Women”, <br />250.<br />Full order and fiancés by the Defendant (The United States of America) in collision, operation with the Klu Klux Klan (KKK), Slave Patrols, and other Paramilitary “White Supremacy groups” to provide massive “Killing”, “Plunder”, “terrorizing to denied (Negro) fear in voting” <br /> Destroy everything of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants<br /> “Freeman soon obtain such as “Schools”, “Homes”, “Business” and “Churches”, all mostly being occupied in the “Southern States” of the (The United States of America) of the Defendant after “Civil War” and (Negro) stated supply freedom from said “Bondage and Chains, and imposed Chattel Slavery free labor system”<br />Argument XV<br />251. <br />The Defendant (The United States of America) having gain approximately 222,505,049 hours of forced labor from the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans descendants between 1619 and 1865 according to “Harper’s Magazine”<br />252.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans here declare before the Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) in collusion and compliances with “White Supremacy” races in acts of Not only killing (Among other things) to control (Negro) Plaintiff African American “Votes”<br /> But to include but not limited said described defendant herein also through the creation of “Absolute poverty stricken conditions by the Defendant (The United States of America) that materially and psychologically did destroy and diminish (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans dignity, happiness, and capacity to fulfill basic material needs and fully remains the same imposed “Genocide in part” condition in 2011.<br />253.<br />As a result of Defendant (The United States of America) long history (RICO) pattern and practices of careful designed blueprint Laws against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and “their past Descendants <br />Suffer from imposed genocide in part as the result of the continue consistent, conscious, unified policies of every branch of government of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Argument XVI<br />254.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) having engaged in a conspiracy against (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in genocide in part in the suppression of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans<br /> Past ability to vote “fairly” through imposed poll taxes and literacy tests within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />Argument XVII<br />255.<br />Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff (s) Black African Americans herein state, declare, simply before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “full criminal (RICO) committed acts and actions being since 1619-1968 <br />With a very long history of practices and patterns having not been applied though the intent Dehumanization of the all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein for profit and the establishment of the Defendant “White Supremacy” <br />Through the fully imposed Defendant (The United States of America) “Hostile” “Slave Codes”, Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws” era 1619-1968 “emancipated (Negro) slaves, freeman African Americans descendant herein having had been allowed to fully possess and retain the profits of their labor.<br />256.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein might now control a much larger share of Defendant (The United States of America) American social and monetary wealth.<br />Not only did the Defendant (The United States of America) insure (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American freedmen and -women not receive a share of these profits, <br />But the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants were stripped of the small amounts of compensation paid to some of the (Negro) race during defendant described Reconstruction with furtherance’s Killer terrorization tactic. <br />Argument XVIII<br />257.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare in “hostile fashion” and very honesty before the “Honorable Justice” <br />The enormous “Wealth” of the Defendant (The United States of America), was greatly enhanced by the full abuse, taking advantage, manipulation, mistreatment and exploitation of all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and all of their descendants labor operation(s) and labor utilization(s) though complete hostile (RICO) criminal pattern and practices of the infamous “Slave free labor tactic” <br />258.<br />And fully imposing a “Genocide state” upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans both being inflicted wrongfully “in full and in part” <br />To include but not limited to labor camps were even established in 1865 by the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) the moment the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants freedom was established after “Civil War”<br />In which all furtherance’s Defendant (The United States of America) tactics of capture, abused, misused, mistreatment of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein were used as slave labor until they died in a Genocide state of “premature death associated with murder”, exhaustion or disease.<br />Argument XIX<br />259.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice)”Defendant (United States of America) fully knew about the “Extreme Lynching” and was applied in their “Slave Codes” and “Black Codes” and the described defendant herein (The United States of America) did nothing to prevent. <br />260.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state respectful before the “Honorable Justice)” Defendant (United States of America) fully knew about the “super-exploitation” and “inhuman hardships” inflicted upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African American Blacks <br />And did nothing “rock solid”, “concrete”, “unyielding”, “pure and continuous” in a time frame running of 1619 until 1968 “Civil Rights Movement” to insure that Defendant (The United States of America) past inaction, past indifference in the face of such cruel conquer oppression means that it was full Defendant (The United States of America) intent policy. <br />Argument XX<br />261.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) “Declare” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) imposed genocide in part current conditions against all of (Negro) Plaintiff Black African-American herein is current Defendant (The United States of America) monopoly capital, <br />“Monopoly's immediate interest nearly (4) four Billion dollars in “super profits” that it extracts yearly from all acts and actions <br />As described being current in 2011 “exploitation and oppression” “Genocide in part” of the Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein (Negro) people.<br />Argument XXI<br />262.<br /> The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Entire History” in control of wage differentials being fully inflicted on all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans labor and workers force.<br />263.<br />Described Defendant herein (The United States of America) Full commitment “one hundred per cent” sturdy, substantial “Intent and purposed” in design carry through a criminal (RICO) pattern and practices of “Price Fixing” having also driven down the wages for workers of all races other that (Negro) within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />264.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans assert Before the “Honorable Justice” that wage differential (RICO) pattern and Practice in “price fixing” scheme of things in 2011 to pour tens of billions in extra un-earn rightfully profits into the controlling 10% greedy corporate (America) massive financial already “over flowing” financial accounts each year. <br />Argument XXII<br />265.<br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) during the imposed laws of “Slavery” early on (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants tired to sue for “freedom” before the “courts” of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br /> And some (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants succeeded.<br />In 1781. (Negro) Plaintiff descendant “Mun Bett” sued on the ground that the declaration in the Defendant (The United States of America) Massachusetts constitution of 1780 that all people are “born free and equal” negated slavery;<br />266. <br />“She won her case” and took the name “Elizabeth Freeman”. “However The Defendant (The United States of America) absolute in (100%) profit in the “domination”, “oppression” and “tyranny” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein into a “genocide slave labor statehood” said described Defendant herein (The United States of America) officially formalized “Slavery,<br />267.<br />“Moreover” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants “civil rights” were repress and fully taking away, any furtherance’s attempts in the legal approach by any (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants of equality before the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” court(s) of law was fully barred.<br />268.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) official state sponsor laws declare the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein as “property” in all respects “save one” “The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants could be punished if they broke the law. <br />Argument XXIII<br />269.<br />Defendant herein (The United States of America) and the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) in 1865 furtherance’s “Establishment” in authority, supply groups such as militias, slave patrol, mobs or terrorist special army units, “moreover former confederate Army soldiers” namely Klu Klux Klan (among others) “White” soldiers of fortune hunters<br />Whom often already “trained and armed” to carry out the special target “massive genocidal killings” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein in the power rule, supremacy, and oppression of full votes rights,<br />270.<br /> For the full command, control, dominance by the Defendant (The United States of America) Government police, policy, labor price fixing scheme of things being in full conspiracy, collusion, involvement, agreement, consent, approval, knowledge and complicity with greedy “White Supremacy” corporations and private institutions for unfair advantages and unjust revenue.<br />271.<br />To include but not limited to Defendant (United States of America) “impose complete blueprint” of segregated of the (Negro) race into out of city limits run down habitats of slums, and “ghettoes”, <br />With systematic whole sale “destruction”, “devastation”, “obliteration” homes, schools, business, and churches being fully applied in combine criminal acts with “theft of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans land”, “goods and services”, theft of monetary funds through Government imposed “poll taxes <br />272.<br />While Defendant (The United States of America) gain fully in “complete oppression” through laundry of all said monies acquired in the poll taxes scheme of things) (among other scheme of things) being executed against all of the Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants as completely described in the complaint of such whole sale “destruction”, “devastation”, “obliteration” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans lives, homes, schools, business, and churches by the Defendant (The United States of America) sponsor “Para Militia Kill Groups such as Klu Klux Klan among others. <br />Argument XXIV<br />271.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “declare and state” before the “Honorable Justice”, Defendant (The United States of America) “sketch”, “plan”, “draft”, and made into law then published and public broadcast official said described Laws<br /> “Black Codes, and “Jim Crow Laws” being “just in legal causes” under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” of the land of (America)<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage or even social interaction between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their (Negro) descendants with (White) races within the Defendant (The United States of America) severe punishment (whip) and or “Death” for any violation thereof; <br />Defendant outline version of Complete secure “White Supremacy” race only, with enforcement of segregation, defamation, and a complete (Negro) race statehood summary dealing “cruelty enforce “oppression”.<br />Argument XXV<br />272.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “declare and state” before the “Honorable Justice”, Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah Mormon Nation” <br />And “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” “Conjured up religious scriptures” “sketch”, “plan”, “drafted”, and made into “Mormon Church doctrines” no less; And “Utah Mormon Nation” “State laws” within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />273.<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage or social interaction between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their (Negro) descendants with (White) “Mormon superior” races <br />Within the Defendant (The United States of America) “Utah Mormon Nation” <br />(Negro) adult male being premature in loss of life by instant “Quick Death on the spot” for any human couples being made violation thereof; <br />With any “(Negro)” “off spring children” found being mixed of “White Mormon superior races” and (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein said blood”<br />The Mixed off spring child(s) throats also being quickly being slit on the “very spot” also with the dead couples; <br />Having the child(s) leaking blood from there on throat(s) upon the ground; until said mixed (Negro) off spring child(s) premature Death fully having occurred.<br />274.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein furtherance’s state and declare before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) “Utah Mormon Nation” and “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saint”<br />Then “published and made circulation such cruel hostile intent to carry out such killer actions and defamatory causes in “The Book of Mormon” religious Church Books,<br /> With “Utah Mormon Nation” “State Laws” fully conspire, collusion and legal written agreement(s) effecting the same thereof a “Genocide statehood” being executed against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American(s) herein and descendants peace, will, civil rights, and dignity<br />275.<br />Both being done before public and broadcast being official in purpose and intent said described Laws and religious “Mormon (LDS) doctrines being both “just also in causes” (LDS) Church and Mormon Nation Utah state laws under Defendant (The United States of America) constitutional laws<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage or social interaction between the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their (Negro) descendants with (White) “Mormon superior races” within the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy Utah Mormon Nation.<br />276.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendants “official in facing absolute “quick capitol premature Death on the spot” for any violation thereof within the Utah Mormon Nation; with Full compliance by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints religious prosecution and church doctrine all thereof affect the same execution against the (Negro) races.<br /> 277.<br />Therefore surly secure “White Mormon Supremacy” race only, with the full affected enforcement of “segregation”, “defamation”, “oppression” by laws and a complete Anti-(Negro) race enforcement being under “extreme executed oppression” by both “LDS Church” and “Mormon Utah Nation State” <br />Within the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy Utah Mormon Nation” being fully enforcement a statehood of “Genocide”<br />Against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their descendants.<br />Argument XXVI<br />278.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff (Louis Charles Hamilton II) Defendant (The United States of America) “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah” “passed LDS State and Church Laws being (4)“Four” miscegenation legal declared laws “Which were passed in Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah” to wit: <br />Between 1888 and 1953, The “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah” LDS state's miscegenation law was repealed in 1963. <br />279.<br />“Fully forbid” intermarriage” or “social interaction” between the (Negro) Plaintiff “Louis Charles Hamilton II herein and His “White Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton” under Defendant (The United States of America) constitutional laws <br />Defendant (The United States of America) Being fully in blueprint in repression executed said miscegenation law that was repealed in 1963 <br />To the fullest prosecution civil and religious prosecution against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1985) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “LDS Mormon Nation “Utah”<br />280.<br /> Court Docket No. 85-4904223 as being detail and described in the complaint of the Plaintiff there in for the hostile abduction (Phase I) of the (Innoncent) (2) minor step daughter(s) Shaunna and Billie Jean Benns as life paws against the “Marriage of the Plaintiff (Hamilton II) and His “Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah”. <br />281.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff (Hamilton II) being fully executed, civil conspiracy against, complete oppression, in being among other things “Evil” and the Devil” for having actual (Negro) blood birth right heritage <br />Prosecution within a “Court of Law” to the fullest under “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and LDS Mormon Nation State of Utah” “State 1963 Laws”<br />282.<br /> In association LDS Church doctrines (Negro) Plaintiff (Hamilton II) Being domination under the full “Curse of Cain” prosecution cruelty and “Negro imposed Genocide Statehood for mixing of the White Mormon and (Negro) races<br /> In full collusion, involvement, agreement, approval and teaching within the “Book of Mormon” as described in the “Salt Lake City” Court Transcript(s)” being done all in (1985) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah” Docket No. 85-4904223.<br />283.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Black African American Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” <br />Being fully executed, conspiracy, oppression, to the fullest against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1989) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah”<br /> Docket No. 890902118 as described in the complaint of the Plaintiff in furtherance interferences, conspiracy, and oppression being done in aid by Detective “Carl Voyles” Salt Lake City Police <br />284.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Black African American Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” <br />Being fully executed, conspiracy, oppression, to the fullest against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1989) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah”<br /> Docket No. 890900167 as described in the complaint of the Plaintiff in furtherance interferences, conspiracy, and oppression being done in aid by Klu Klux Klan, “Doctorman Investment”,<br />285.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Black African American Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein under Defendant (The United States of America) “constitutional laws” <br />Being fully executed, conspiracy, oppression, to the fullest against the said (Negro) African American Pro Se Plaintiff herein (Louis Charles Hamilton II) in (1993) and (1994) 3rd District Court, Salt Lake City, “Utah”<br /> Docket No. 934902442, Docket No. 94490002 As described in the complaint of the Plaintiff in furtherance interferences, conspiracy, and oppression being cause for Plaintiff (Hamilton II) civil rights, peace will and dignity being fully civilly destroyed (Hamilton II) Herein having made (2) attempt of divorce filing against “Wife” Rachel Ann Hamilton) as fully described above before a “Court of Law within the Defendant (The United States of America) “LDS Mormon Nation in “Utah”. <br />286.<br />(Pro Se Hamilton II) But wanting reconciliation only and living in peace in (Utah) with our own 2 daughters “end result” (Rachel Ann Hamilton (Dead) our first born baby Killed in the womb”, our step daughter taken fully away and my two natural daughter “Chandra D. Hamilton and Natasha C. Hamilton <br />Assuming fully (Dead Also) and legal bury of all three under all conditions, state of affairs, status, position(s), situation(s) and circumstance(s), under the assumed names of (Walker).<br />287.<br />As being described in the “Complaint” of the Pro Se Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein is his wrongful death of “Wife” and Now Plaintiff (Hamilton II)surmise the same wrongful loss occurred of life for his (2) missing daughter(s) <br />After the “Extreme Criminal (RICO) Hostile” act(s) and action(s) of abduction of the personal 1994“Home-Movie Video” of Plaintiff (Hamilton II) minor daughter(s) being in possession, custody and control of between both;<br />288. <br />“UPS (United Parcel Services)” and “CVS/Caremark Corporation” in criminal intent, civil collusion, agreements, hinder, oppression and conspiracy with all as legally described fully herein the Complaint and Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein Motion in opposition of the Defendant (The United States of America)to dismiss.<br /> “United States Federal Court” Docket No. 12011-CV-00240.<br />Argument XXVII<br />289.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff “Louis Charles Hamilton II, herein “declare”, “state”, “affirm” very respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Utah LDS Mormon Federation” <br />“Jim Crow State Laws” continue being actives since 1963-1985 additional position, condition, shape, agreement and harmony with “The Church of Jesus” of “Latter Day Saints” conformity, union, concurrence “religious doctrine” and arrangement(s) to fully prosecute, <br />290.<br />Oppress, afflict, distress, dominate, keep down, and “fully torment” the (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II” for additional reasoning of Negro Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II Entire Family Heritage Having Absolute History of Christianity through our “Roman Catholics Faith” unkind, hurtful, spiteful, and unforgiving “being fully “very vindictive”, “bitter”, and “implacable” having any “Kind of harmony with “The Church of Jesus” of “Latter Day Saints” “Utah LDS Mormon Federation”<br />291.<br />Furtherance’s before: “The Honorable Justice” (Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff “Louis Charles Hamilton II herein having full standing for just cause of action being in question, query, examine, grill, and probe before the “Honorable Justice” additional violation(s) against (Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) civil rights to the <br />“Equal Protection Clause” of the 14th Amendments” (Among other Amendment violations) being destroyed by the said described Defendant (The United States of America) <br />292.<br />In conspiracy, collusion, agreement and acknowledgement(s), with “The Church of Jesus” of “Latter Day Saints” “Utah LDS Mormon Federation State” Being domination under the full “Curse of Cain” religious prosecution, infliction of cruelty, unswervingly in a straight line directly at “Negro” Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II)<br /> Being wrongfully against civil rights, peace, will, and dignity(Hamilton II) fully imposed under a condition of Absolutely “Genocide Statehood” in association with full “Religious Prosecution” because of race being (Negro blood) <br />Furtherance’s Pro Se (Negro) Plaintiff Louis Charles Hamilton II herein being wrongfully imposed under a condition of Absolutely “Genocide Statehood” “oppression and domination” in association with full “Religious Prosecution” because Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II)<br />And his Entire (Negro) Family Blood Heritage Having Also Absolute Religious History of “Keeping very much in touch” with “Christianity” through our “Roman Catholics Faith”.<br />294.<br />Argument XXVIII<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans frankly, candidly and openly Declare before the “Honorable Justice” “White Supremacy Extremist Kill groups (among others) such as the “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK) being fixed in “terrorism target killing attacks upon (Negro) pro-moderates and (White) moderates<br /> For the full “elimination”, and “terrorizing imposed tactic”, of said “moderates” being despised in “Civil rights activist(s)” nature <br />Or being precisely tune in honest (White) race person or person(s) being straightforwardly truthfully in the equal rights of the (Negro) race, thus fully having full entitlement(s) to having peace, liberty, and dignity within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br /> 295.<br />As opposed to force slavery, mistreatment, abuse in collusion with “Corporation Greedy in major “Capitol Revenue Gains” by unswervingly in compliance openly by the usage, acknowledge in “Oppression” “Slavery” and Imposed Genocide Statehood being inflicted upon all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans since a era time frame of 1619-2011(among many others wrongful Death and Attempts)<br />Abraham Lincoln <br />"Michael Schwerner”<br />Eugene Thomas,<br /> Andrew Goodman, <br />James Chaney, <br />Martin Luther King Jr.,<br /> Malcolm X <br /> Medgar Evers<br />John F. Kennedy<br />Robert Francis Kennedy<br />Attempt Assassination of Gabrielle Giffords (Rep). <br />With the “Wrongful Death” of “Justice John Knoll, <br />CHRISTINA TAYLOR GREEN, 9:, GABE ZIMMERMAN, 30:, PHYLLIS SCHNECK, 79:, DORWIN STODDARD, 76:, DOROTHY MORRIS, 76:<br />Argument XXIX<br />296.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, and declare before the “Honorable Justice” undisputed facts in complete possession standing before the “Justice” in having honorable just cause of action(s), <br />And full legal standing against the Defendant (The United States of America) for “Abuse of Power” in the legal capacity of "official misconduct", as described herein the “Complaint and Motion in opposition to dismiss in that Defendant being with full knowledge, awareness, realization, comprehension, facts and data in all their own complicity, involvement(s), knowledge, consent(s), approval(s), collusion(s), taking apart(s), association(s), connection(s), contribution(s), <br />Attachment(s), “enthusiasm and agreement(s) in the full commission of all unlawful acts and action(s) as described by the Defendant (The United States of America) own “Slave Codes. Black Codes, and “Jim Crow laws” Curse of Cain religious doctrines and all other contribution factors fully having great concern as described in the Amend complaint and fully also entertain respectful herein, <br />Being committed against all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans peace, will, dignity and civil rights “being all done no less in an “official capacity”, statesmanship by the Defendant its self (The United States of America),<br />297.<br />And also being committed to the same “official misconduct” by Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) and also being committed to the same “official misconduct” by Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) <br />Management authority and full objective(s), plan(s), aim(s), intention(s), meaning, being fully focused with continue intent in illegitimate private gain for “Defendant (The United States of America) and crooked corporation(s) and private pirate institutions conspiracy Confederate, at the expensive of the (Negro) race<br />With “White Supremacy fully primary being in establishment, domination, control in management, handling of, treatment, executions, and operation(s) of all “Hostile acts and actions of direct “oppression” in combination with the ill full effect being furtherance’s in usage for exploitation.<br />Usage clearly affects the performance of all described Defendant herein in their combine fiduciary “official duties”.<br />298.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) commission objective, target, plan, meaning, and or combination of disgusting, sickening, vulgar, dreadful, uncouth uncivilized “gross negligence” in allowed; <br />299.<br />(a).<br />“Theft of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein taxes” through “poll tax” scheme of thing and Revenue Taxes being diverted for “State sponsored “oppression”, and fully support Genocide elimination plan statehood fully funding, enforce, and being “blue print” and “imposed” upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American “blood heritage”.<br />300.<br />(b).<br />“Theft of All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein Land, Property, Good and services, cattle and stock through a “Genocide oppression statehood being inflicted through enlistment of Klu Klux Klan and other paramilitary “State sponsored” by the Defendant (The United States of America) concentrating purpose “labor price fixing oppression”.<br />301.<br />(c).<br />False imprisonment into “labor Camps of All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants for objectives by the Defendant (The United States of America) concentrating purpose in continue (RICO) “labor price fixing oppression scheme of things”<br />302.<br />(d). “Mass Murder” and “Premature Wrongful Death” in associated with Drowning, Hanging, Fire Squads, Premeditated Arson associated with bombings, voluntary manslaughter, crucification, battery, mutilation, gross malicious medical experimentations, <br />Massive imprisonment, massive sterilization, and to include but not limited to “malicious prosecution criminalize of the (Negro) by agents, police, associations, representative, relations, links, confederate, ally, accomplice, colleague, partner, and affiliates.<br />303.<br />(e). Manipulation, exploitation and operation in “oppression target profiteering” through the legalization of “Black Codes Laws” and “Jim Crow Laws” era of 1865-1968 against all of the Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American(s) herein and their descendants by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Collusion, association, representative, relations, link, confederate, ally, accomplice, colleague, partner and affiliate with a well plan operation in an “extreme and outrageous” (RICO) Criminal Racketeering history, poll tax fraud, terrorizing and intimidation voter disfranchisement,<br />304.<br />“Labor wages price fixing”, mail & wire fraud in association with all as described completely in the complaint, securities and money fraud, money laundry, financial institution fraud, embezzlement of pension, welfare, and retirement fund scheme of things, <br />For a continual “oppression target profiteering” imposed “Genocide Statehood” in 2011 upon the entire (Negro) race within the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />To include but not limited described defendant (America) full, final and complete assurances in securities thereof complete longevity in “White Supremacy” superior races within the described Defendant (The United States of America) being forever enforced against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “blood heritage” herein.<br />305.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare being very respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the following “Timeline” in paragraph (307) below best describe, portray, depict, express and explain Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Complete declaration, decision, ruling, resolution, and determination in “capitol execution” of firmness in enforcement and rely upon “oppression”, “tyranny”, “domination” direct through “State” imposed rigidity being fully inflicted under direction involving the stiffness of “Slave Free Labor” 100% employment system.<br />306.<br /> Defendant (The United States of America) “Solidity and conformity” of a selfish imposed “Genocide Statehood” and “Second class citizenship being holy “ill inflicted” wrongfully upon all Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their “blood heritage” (Negro) descendants. <br />307.<br />“From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia”<br /> 17th century<br />1619<br />Unknown – The first record of African slavery in English Colonial America. <br />1640<br />Unknown – John Punch, a black indentured servant, ran away with two white indentured servants, James Gregory and Victor. After the three were captured, the white men were sentenced to four more years of servitude but Punch was required to serve Virginia planter Hugh Gym for life. It is one of the first cases in which lifetime indentured servitude was based on race.[1][2] <br />1654<br />Unknown – John Casor, a black man, became the first legally-recognized slave-for-life in the Virginia colony. <br />1662<br />Unknown – Virginia law defined that children of enslaved mothers followed the status of their mothers and were considered slaves, regardless of their father's status. <br />1676<br />Unknown – Both free and enslaved African Americans fought in Bacon's Rebellion along with English colonists. <br />18th century<br />See also: Atlantic slave trade<br />1705<br />unknown – The Virginia Slave codes defines as slaves all those servants brought into the colony who were not Christian in their original countries, as well as those Indians sold to colonists by other Indians. <br />1712<br />April 6 – The New York Slave Revolt of 1712, one of the first of many such rebellions (see the article). <br />1739<br />September 9 – In the Stono Rebellion, South Carolina slaves gather at the Stono River to plan an armed march for freedom. <br />1760<br />Unknown – Jupiter Hammon has a poem printed, becoming the first published African-American poet. <br />1770<br />March 5 – Crispus Attucks is killed by British soldiers in the Boston Massacre, a precursor to the American Revolution. <br />1773<br />unknown – Phillis Wheatley has her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral published. <br />1774<br />– The first black Baptist congregations are organized in the South: Silver Bluff Baptist Church in South Carolina, and First African Baptist Church near Petersburg, Virginia. <br />1775<br />April 14 – The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage holds four meetings. Re-formed in 1784 as the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, Benjamin Franklin would later be its president. <br />1776–1783 American Revolution<br />Thousands of enslaved African Americans in the South escape to British or Loyalist lines, as they were promised freedom if they fought with the British. In South Carolina, 25,000 enslaved African Americans, one-quarter of those held, escape to the British.[3] After the war, many African Americans leave with the British for England; others go with other Loyalists to Canada and settle in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Still others go to Jamaica and the West Indies. <br />Many free blacks in the North fight with the colonists for the rebellion. <br />1777<br />July 8 – The Vermont Republic (a sovereign nation at the time) abolishes slavery, the first future state to do so. <br />1780<br />Pennsylvania becomes the first then-U.S.-state to abolish slavery. <br />1787<br />July 13 – The Northwest Ordinance bans the expansion of slavery into U.S. territories north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. <br />1788<br />– The First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Georgia is organized under Andrew Bryan. <br />1790–1810 Manumission of slaves<br />– Following the Revolution, numerous slaveholders in the Upper South free their slaves; the percentage of free blacks rises from less than one to 10 percent. By 1810, 75 percent of all blacks in Delaware are free, and 7.2 percent of blacks in Virginia are free.[4] <br />1791<br />February – Major Andrew Ellicott hires Benjamin Banneker to assist in a survey of the boundaries of the 100-square-mile (260 km2) federal district that would later become the District of Columbia. <br />1793<br />February 12 – The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 is passed. (See also Fugitive slave laws.) <br />1794<br />March 14 – Eli Whitney is granted a patent on the cotton gin. This enables the widespread cultivation and processing of short-staple cotton, dramatically increasing the need for enslaved labor, and leading to the development of King Cotton in the Deep South. It leads to the forced migration of one million slaves to the area in the antebellum period, mostly by internal slave trade. <br />July – Two independent black churches open in Philadelphia: the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, with Absalom Jones, and the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, with Richard Allen, the first church of what would become a new black denomination in 1816. <br />[edit] 19th century<br />[edit] 1800–1859<br />See also: Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War<br />Early 19th century<br />unknown – first Black Codes enacted. <br />1800<br />August 30 – Gabriel Prosser's attempt to lead a slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia is suppressed. <br />1807<br />unknown – Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves <br />1808<br />January 1 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned; this is also the earliest day under the United States Constitution that an amendment could be made restricting slavery. <br />1816<br />unknown – The first separate black denomination of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) is founded by Richard Allen, who is elected its first bishop. <br />unknown – The American Colonization Society is begun by Robert Finley, to send free African Americans to what is to become Liberia in Africa.[5] <br />1820<br />March 6 – The Missouri Compromise allows for the entry as states of Maine and Missouri, and decides which future states slavery would be allowed in. <br />unknown – The British West Africa Squadron's slave trade suppression activities are assisted by forces from the United States Navy, starting in 1820 with the USS Cyane. With the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the relationship is formalised and they jointly run the Africa Squadron. <br />1821<br />unknown – The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is officially formed. <br />1822<br />July 14 – Denmark Vesey's slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina is suppressed. <br />1829<br />September – David Walker begins publication of the abolitionist pamphlet Walker's Appeal. <br />1830<br />October 28 - Josiah Henson, a slave who fled and arrived in Canada, is an author, abolitionist, minister and the inspiration behind the book Uncle Tom's Cabin.[6] <br />1831<br />unknown – William Lloyd Garrison begins publication of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator. <br />August – Nat Turner leads the most successful slave rebellion in U.S. history. The rebellion is suppressed, but only after many deaths. <br />1833<br />unknown – The American Anti-Slavery Society, an abolitionist society, is founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass becomes a key leader of the society. <br />1839<br />July 2 – Slaves revolt on the La Amistad, resulting in a Supreme Court case (see Amistad (1841)). <br />1840<br />unknown – The Liberty Party breaks away from the American Anti-Slavery Society due to grievances with William Lloyd Garrison's leadership. <br />1842<br />unknown – The U.S. Supreme Court rules, in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842), that states do not have to offer aid in the hunting or recapture of slaves, greatly weakening the fugitive slave law of 1793. <br />1843<br />June 1 – Isabella Baumfree, a former slave, changes her name to Sojourner Truth and begins to preach for the abolition of slavery. <br />August – Henry Highland Garnet delivers his famous speech Call to Rebellion. <br />1847<br />unknown – Frederick Douglass begins publication of the abolitionist newspaper the North Star. <br />unknown – Joseph Jenkins Roberts of Virginia becomes the first president of Liberia. <br />1849<br />unknown – Roberts v. Boston seeks to end racial discrimination in Boston public schools. <br />unknown – Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery to Philadelphia, and begins helping other slaves to escape via the Underground Railroad. <br />1850<br />September 18 – As part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 which requires any federal official to arrest anyone suspected of being a runaway slave. <br />1852<br />March 20 – Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe is published. <br />1853<br />December – Clotel; or, The President's Daughter is the first novel published by an African-American. <br />1855<br />unknown – John Mercer Langston is one of the first African Americans elected to public office when elected as a town clerk in Ohio. <br />1856<br />May 21 – The Sacking of Lawrence in Bleeding Kansas. <br />May 25 – John Brown, whom Abraham Lincoln called a "misguided fanatic", retaliates for Lawrence's sacking in the Pottawatomie Massacre. <br />unknown – Wilberforce University is founded by collaboration between Methodist Episcopal and African Methodist Episcopal representatives. <br />1857<br />March 6 – In Dred Scott v. Sandford, the Supreme Court upholds slavery. This decision is regarded as a key cause of the American Civil War. <br />1859<br />unknown – Harriet E. Wilson writes the autobiographical novel Our Nig. <br />unknown – In Ableman v. Booth the Supreme Court of the United States holds that state courts cannot issue rulings that contradict the decisions of federal courts, thus upholding the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. <br />First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation – President Lincoln meets with his cabinet.<br />1860–1874<br />1861<br />April 12 – The American Civil War begins (secessions began in December, 1860), and lasts until April 9, 1865. Tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans of all ages escaped to Union lines for freedom. Contraband camps were set up in some areas, where blacks started learning to read and write. Others traveled with the Union Army. By the end of the war, more than 180,000 African Americans, mostly from the South, fought with the Union Army and Navy as members of the US Colored Troops and sailors. <br />May 2 – The first North American military unit with African-American officers is the 1st Louisiana Native Guard of the Confederate Army (disbanded in February 1862). <br />August 6 – The first of the Confiscation Acts authorizes the confiscation of any Confederate property, including all slaves who fought or worked for the Confederate military. The second act in mid-1862 extends this. <br />1862<br />March 13 – Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves <br />September 22 – Announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation, after the Battle of Antietam, to go into effect January 1, 1863. <br />1863–1877 Reconstruction<br />1863<br />January 1 – The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect. <br />January 31 – U.S. Army commissions the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, a combat unit made up of escaped slaves. <br />May 22 – U.S. Army recruits United States Colored Troops. (The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment would be featured in the 1989 film Glory.) <br />July – Irish ethnic protests against the draft in New York City turn into riots against blacks – the so-called New York Draft Riots. <br />1864<br />April 12 – The Battle of Fort Pillow, which results in controversy about whether a massacre of surrendered African-American troops was conducted or condoned. <br />1865<br />March 3 – Congress passes the bill that forms the Freedman's Bureau. <br />December 18 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishes slavery in the U.S. <br />unknown – Shaw Institute is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina, as the first black college in the South. <br />unknown – Atlanta College is founded. <br />unknown – Every southern state passes Black Codes that restrict the freedmen, who were emancipated but not yet full citizens. <br />1866<br />April 9 – The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is passed by Congress over Johnson's presidential veto. All persons born in the United States are now citizens. <br />unknown – The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Pulaski, Tennessee, made up of white Confederate veterans; it becomes a paramilitary insurgent group to enforce white supremacy. <br />July – New Orleans white citizens riot against blacks. <br />September 21 – The U.S. Army regiment of Buffalo Soldiers (African Americans) is formed. <br />unknown – The Second Freedmen's Bureau Act would have provided longer enforcement of rights for freedmen, but it is vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. <br />1867<br />March 2 – Howard University is founded in Washington, D.C. <br />1868<br />April 1 – Hampton Institute is founded in Hampton, Virginia. <br />July 9 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution's Section 1 requires due process and equal protection. <br />unknown – Through 1877, whites attack black and white Republicans to suppress voting. Every election cycle is accompanied by violence, increasing in the 1870s. <br />unknown – Elizabeth Keckly publishes Behind the Scenes (or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House). <br />1870<br />February 3 – The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the right of male citizens of the United States to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude. <br />February 25 – Hiram Rhodes Revels becomes the first black member of the Senate (see African Americans in the United States Congress). <br />unknown – Christian Methodist Episcopal Church founded. <br />1871<br />October 10 – Octavius Catto, a civil rights activist, is murdered during harassment of blacks on Election Day in Philadelphia. <br />unknown – US Civil Rights Act of 1871 passed, also known as the Klan Act. <br />1872<br />December 11 – P. B. S. Pinchback is sworn in as the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives. <br />Disputed gubernatorial election in Louisiana cause political violence for more than two years. Both Republican and Democratic governors hold inaugurations and certify local officials. <br />1873<br />April 14 – In the Slaughter-House Cases the Supreme Court votes 5–4 for a narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court also discusses dual citizenship: State citizens and U.S. citizens. <br />Easter, the Colfax Massacre – More than 100 blacks in the Red River area of Louisiana are killed when attacked by white militia after defending Republicans in local office – continuing controversy from gubernatorial election. <br />Coushatta Massacre – Republican officeholders are run out of town and murdered by white militia before leaving the state – four of six were relatives of a Louisiana state senator, a northerner who had settled in the South, married into a local family and established a plantation. Five to twenty black witnesses are also killed. <br />1874<br />Founding of paramilitary groups that act as the "military arm of the Democratic Party": the White League in Louisiana and the Red Shirts in Mississippi, and North and South Carolina. They terrorize blacks and Republicans, turning them out of office, killing some, disrupting rallies, and suppressing voting. <br />September – In New Orleans, continuing political violence erupts related to the still-contested gubernatorial election of 1872. Thousands of the White League armed militia march into New Orleans, then the seat of government, where they outnumber the integrated city police and black state militia forces. They defeat Republican forces and demand that Gov. Kellogg leave office. The Democratic candidate McEnery is installed and White Leaguers occupy the capitol, state house and arsenal. This was called the "Battle of Liberty Place". The White League and McEnery withdraw after three days in advance of federal troops arriving to reinforce the Republican state government. <br /> 1875–1899<br />1875<br />March 1 – Civil Rights Act of 1875 signed. <br />Unknown – The Mississippi Plan to intimidate blacks and suppress black voter registration and voting. <br />1876<br />July 8 – The Hamburg Massacre occurs when local people riot against African Americans who were trying to celebrate the Fourth of July. <br />varied – White Democrats regain power in many southern state legislatures and pass the first Jim Crow laws. <br />1877<br />Unknown – With the Compromise of 1877, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes withdraws federal troops from the South in exchange for being elected President of the United States, causing the collapse of the last three remaining Republican state governments. The compromise formally ends the Reconstruction era of the United States. <br />1879<br />spring – Thousands of African Americans refuse to live under segregation in the South and migrate to Kansas. They become known as Exodusters. <br />1880<br />Unknown – In Strauder v. West Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that African Americans could not be excluded from juries. <br />During the 1880s, African Americans in the South reach a peak of numbers in being elected and holding local offices, even while white Democrats are working to assert control at state level. <br />1881<br />April 11 – Spelman Seminary is founded as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary. <br />July 4 – Booker T. Washington opens the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. <br />1882<br />A biracial populist coalition achieves power in Virginia (briefly). The legislature founds the first public college for African Americans, Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, as well as the first mental hospital for African Americans, both near Petersburg, Virginia. The hospital was established in December 1869, at Howard's Grove Hospital, a former Confederate unit, but is moved to a new campus in 1882. <br />1884<br />Unknown – Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published, featuring the admirable African-American character Jim. <br />Unknown – Judy W. Reed, of Washington, D.C., and Sarah E. Goode, of Chicago, are the first African-American women inventors to receive patents. Signed with an "X", Reed's patent no. 305,474, granted September 23, 1884, is for a dough kneader and roller. Goode's patent for a cabinet bed, patent no. 322,177, is issued on July 14, 1885. Goode, the owner of a Chicago furniture store, invented a folding bed that could be formed into a desk when not in use. <br />unknown – Ida B. Wells sues the Chesapeake, Ohio & South Western Railroad Company for its use of segregated "Jim Crow" cars. <br />1886<br />Norris Wright Cuney becomes the chairman of the Texas Republican Party, the most powerful role held by any African American in the South during the 19th century. <br />1887<br />October 3 – The State Normal School for Colored Students, which would become Florida A&M University, is founded. <br />1888<br />October 16 – In Civil Rights Cases, the United States Supreme Court strikes down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 as unconstitutional. <br />1890<br />Mississippi, with a white Democrat-dominated legislature, passes a new constitution that effectively disfranchises most blacks through voter registration and electoral requirements, e.g., poll taxes, residency tests and literacy tests. This shuts them out of the political process, including service on juries and in local offices. <br />By 1900 two-thirds of the farmers in the bottomlands of the Mississippi Delta are African Americans who cleared and bought land after the Civil War.[7] <br />1892<br />Unknown – Ida B. Wells publishes her pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases. <br />1895<br />September 18 – Booker T. Washington delivers his Atlanta Compromise address at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. <br />Unknown – * W. E. B. Du Bois is the first African-American to be awarded a Ph.D by Harvard University. <br />1896<br />May 18 – In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court upholds de jure racial segregation of "separate but equal" facilities. (see Jim Crow laws for historical discussion). <br />Unknown – The National Association of Colored Women is formed by the merger of smaller groups. <br />Unknown – As one of the earliest Black Hebrew Israelites in the United States, William Saunders Crowdy re-establishes the Church of God and Saints of Christ. <br />Unknown – George Washington Carver is invited by Booker T. Washington to head the Agricultural Department at what would become Tuskegee University. His work would revolutionize farming – he found about 300 uses for peanuts. <br />1898<br />Unknown – Louisiana enacts the first state-wide grandfather clause that provides exemption for illiterate whites to voter registration literacy test requirements. <br />Unknown – In Williams v. Mississippi the Supreme Court upholds the voter registration and election provisions of Mississippi's constitution because they applied to all citizens. Effectively, however, they disenfranchise blacks and poor whites. The result is that other southern states copy these provisions in their new constitutions and amendments through 1908, disfranchising most African Americans and tens of thousands of poor whites until the 1960s. <br />1899<br />September 18 – The "Maple Leaf Rag" is an early ragtime composition for piano by Scott Joplin. <br /> 20th century<br /> 1900–1924<br />1900<br />Since the Civil War, 30,000 African-American teachers had been trained and put to work in the South. The majority of blacks had become literate.[8] <br />1901<br />unknown – Booker T. Washington's autobiography Up from Slavery is published. <br />unknown – Benjamin Tillman, senator from South Carolina, comments on Theodore Roosevelt's dining with Booker T. Washington: “The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that nigger will necessitate our killing a thousand niggers in the South before they learn their place again.” <br />1903<br />September – W. E. B. Du Bois's article The Talented Tenth published. <br />unknown – W. E. B. Du Bois's seminal work The Souls of Black Folk is published. <br />1904<br />May 15 – Sigma Pi Phi, the first African-American Greek-letter organization, is founded by African-American men as a professional organization, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. <br />Unknown – Orlando, Florida hires its first black postman. <br />1905<br />July 11 – First meeting of the Niagara Movement, an interracial group to work for civil rights. <br />1906<br />Unknown – The Brownsville Affair, which eventually involves President Roosevelt. <br />December 4 – African-American men found Alpha Phi Alpha at Cornell University, the first intercollegiate fraternity for African-American men. <br />1907<br />unknown – National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A. formed. <br />1908<br />December 26 – Jack Johnson wins the World Heavyweight Title. <br />Alpha Kappa Alpha – At Howard University, African-American college women found the first college sorority for African-American women. <br />1909<br />February 12 – Planned first meeting of group which would become the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an interracial group devoted to civil rights. The meeting actually occurs on May 31, but February 12 is normally cited as the NAACP's founding date. <br />May 31 – The National Negro Committee meets and is formed; it will be the precursor to the NAACP. <br />1910<br />May 30 – The National Negro Committee chooses "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" as its organization name. <br />September 29 – Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes formed; the next year it will merge with other groups to form the National Urban League. <br />unknown – The NAACP begins publishing The Crisis. <br />1913<br />unknown – The Moorish Science Temple of America, a religious organization, is founded by Noble Drew Ali (Timothy Drew). <br />1914<br />Newly elected president Woodrow Wilson orders physical re-segregation of federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities.[9][10][11] <br />1915<br />February 8 – The Birth of a Nation is released to film theaters. The NAACP protests in cities across the country, convincing some not to show the film. <br />June 21 – In Guinn v. United States, the Supreme Court rules against grandfather clauses used to deny blacks the vote. <br />September 9 – Professor Carter G. Woodson founds the Association for the Study of African American Life and History in Chicago. <br />unknown – A schism from the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. forms the National Baptist Convention of America, Inc. <br />1916<br />January – Professor Carter Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History begins publishing the Journal of Negro History, the first academic journal devoted to the study of African-American history. <br />March 23 – Marcus Garvey arrives in the U.S. (see Garveyism). <br />unknown – Los Angeles hires the country's first black female police officer.[citation needed] <br />unknown – The Great Migration begins and lasts until 1940. Approximately one and a half million African-Americans move from the Southern United States to the North and Midwest. More than five million migrate in the Second Great Migration from 1940–1970, which includes more destinations in California and the West. <br />1917<br />May–June – East St. Louis Riot <br />In Buchanan v. Warley, the United States Supreme Court upholds that racially segregated housing violates the 14th Amendment. <br />1918<br />Unknown – Orlando's first black doctor opens practice. <br />1919<br />summer – Red Summer of 1919 riots: Chicago, Washington, D.C.; Knoxville, Indianapolis, and elsewhere. <br />September 28 – Omaha Race Riot of 1919, Nebraska. <br />October 1–5 – Elaine Race Riot, Phillips County, Arkansas. Numerous blacks are convicted by an all-white jury or plead guilty. In Moore v. Dempsey (1923), the Supreme Court overturns six convictions for denial of due process under the Fourteenth Amendment. <br />1920<br />February 13 – Negro National League (1920–1931) established. <br />Unknown – Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall are the first two African-American players in the National Football League (NFL). Pollard goes on to become the first African-American coach in the NFL. <br />1921<br />May 23 – Shuffle Along is the first major African American hit musical on Broadway. <br />May 31 – Tulsa Race Riot, Oklahoma <br />Unknown – Bessie Coleman becomes the first African American to earn a pilot's license. <br />1923<br />January 1 – 7 Rosewood massacre: Six African Americans and two whites die in a week of violence when a white woman in Rosewood, Florida, claims she was beaten and raped by a black man. <br />February 19 – In Moore v. Dempsey, the Supreme Court holds that mob-dominated trials violate the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. <br />Unknown – Jean Toomer's novel Cane is published. <br />1924<br />unknown – Spelman Seminary becomes Spelman College. <br />1925–1949<br />1925<br />spring – American Negro Labor Congress founded. <br />August 8 – 35,000 Ku Klux Klan members march in Washington, D.C. (see List of protest marches on Washington, D.C.) <br />unknown – Countee Cullen publishes his first collection of poems in Color. <br />unknown – Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters organized. <br />unknown – The Harlem Renaissance is named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke (also known as the New Negro Movement). <br />1926<br />unknown – The Harlem Globetrotters founded. <br />unknown – Historian Carter G. Woodson proposes Negro History Week. <br />Corrigan v Buckley challenges deed restrictions by which a white seller could not sell to a black buyer. As opposed to Buchanan v. Warley, this is a step in the wrong direction as the US Supreme Court rules in favor of Buckley, stating that the 14th Amendment does not apply because Washington, DC is a city and not a state, thereby rendering the Due Process Clause inapplicable. Also, that the Due Process Clause does not apply to private agreements. <br />1928<br />unknown – Claude McKay's Home to Harlem wins the Harmon Gold Award for Literature. <br />1929<br />unknown – The League of United Latin American Citizens, the first organization to fight for the civil rights of Hispanic Americans, is founded in Corpus Christi, Texas. <br />unknown – John Hope becomes president of Atlanta University. Graduate classes are offered in liberal arts subjects, making Atlanta University the first predominantly black university to offer graduate education. <br />unknown - Hallelujah! is released and is one of the first films to star an all black cast. <br />1930<br />unknown – The League of Struggle for Negro Rights is founded in New York City. <br />unknown – Jessie Daniel Ames forms the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching. She gets 40,000 white women to sign a pledge against lynching and for change in the South.[12] <br />1931<br />March 25 – Scottsboro Boys arrested. All are later freed, pardoned or paroled. The film Heavens Fall was made about the incident. <br />unknown – Walter Francis White becomes the executive secretary of the NAACP. <br />1932<br />unknown – The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male begins. <br />1934<br />unknown – Wallace D. Fard, leader of the Nation of Islam, mysteriously disappears. He is succeeded by Elijah Muhammad. <br />1935<br />June 18 – In Murray v. Pearson, Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston of the NAACP successfully argue the landmark case in Maryland to open admissions to the University of Maryland School of Law on the basis of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. <br />Jesse Owens wins gold medals in front of Hitler.<br />1936<br />August – Sprinter Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. <br />1937<br />unknown – Zora Neale Hurston authors the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God <br />unknown – Southern Negro Youth Congress founded. <br />1938<br />Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada <br />1939<br />Easter Sunday – Marian Anderson performs on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. at the instigation of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt after the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall and the District of Columbia Board of Education declined a request to use the auditorium of a white public high school. <br />unknown – Billie Holiday first performs "Strange Fruit" in New York City. The song, a protest against lynching written by Abel Meeropol under the pen name Lewis Allan, became a signature song for Holiday. <br />The Little League is formed, becoming the nation's first non-segregated youth sport. <br />August 21 – Five African-American men recruited and trained by African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker conduct a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia, library and are arrested after being refused library cards.[13] <br />September 21 – Followers of Father Divine and the International Peace Mission Movement join with workers to protest racially unfair hiring practices by conducting "a kind of customers' nickel sit down strike" in a restaurant.[14] <br />1940s to 1970<br />Second Great Migration – In multiple acts of resistance, more than 5 million African Americans leave the violence and segregation of the South for jobs, education, and the chance to vote in northern, midwestern and California cities. <br />1940<br />February 12 – In Chambers v. Florida, the Supreme Court frees three black men who were coerced into confessing to a murder. <br />February 29 - Hattie McDaniel becomes the first African-American to win an Academy Award. She wins Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Mammy in Gone with the Wind. <br />October 25 – Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is promoted to be the first African-American general in the U.S. Army. <br />unknown – Richard Wright authors Native Son <br />unknown – NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund is formed. <br />1941<br />January 25 – A. Philip Randolph proposes a March on Washington, effectively beginning the March on Washington Movement. <br />early 1941 – U.S. Army forms African-American air combat units, the Tuskegee Airmen. <br />June 25 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802, the "Fair Employment Act", to require equal treatment and training of all employees by defense contractors. <br />Mitchell v US – the Interstate Commerce Clause is used to successfully desegregate seating on trains. <br />1942<br />Six non-violence activists in the Fellowship of Reconciliation — Bernice Fisher, James Russell Robinson, George Houser, James Farmer, Jr., Joe Guinn and Homer Jack — found the Committee on Racial Equality, which becomes Congress of Racial Equality. <br />1943<br />unknown – Doctor Charles R. Drew's achievements are recognized when he becomes the first African-American surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery. <br />unknown – Lena Horne stars in the all African-American film Stormy Weather. <br />1944<br />April 3 – In Smith vs. Allwright, the Supreme Court rules that the whites-only Democratic Party primary in Texas was unconstitutional.[15] <br />April 25 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated. <br />July 17 – Port Chicago disaster, which led to the Port Chicago mutiny. <br />August 1–7 - Philadelphia transit strike of 1944 - a strike by white transit workers protesting against job advancement by black workers is broken by the U.S. military under the provisions of the Smith-Connally Act <br />November 7 – Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Harlem, New York. <br />unknown – Miami hires its first black police officers. <br />1945–1975 Second Reconstruction/American Civil Rights Movement<br />1945<br />August – The first issue of Ebony. <br />unknown – Freeman Field Mutiny, where black officers attempt to desegregate an all-white officers club. <br />1946<br />June 3 – In Morgan v. Virginia, the US Supreme Court invalidates provisions of the Virginia Code which require the separation of white and colored passengers where applied to interstate bus transport. The state law is unconstitutional insofar as it is burdening interstate commerce – an area of federal jurisdiction.[16] <br />unknown – In Florida, Daytona Beach, DeLand, Sanford, Fort Myers, Tampa, and Gainesville all have black police officers. So does Little Rock, Arkansas; Louisville, Kentucky; Charlotte, North Carolina; Austin, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio in Texas; Richmond, Virginia; Chattanooga and Knoxville in Tennessee <br />unknown – Renowned actor/singer Paul Robeson founds the American Crusade Against Lynching. <br />1947<br />April 9 – The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sends 16 men on the Journey of Reconciliation. <br />April 15 – Jackie Robinson plays his first game for the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first black baseball player in professional baseball in 60 years. <br />unknown – John Hope Franklin authors the non-fiction book From Slavery to Freedom <br />1948<br />January 12 – In Sipuel v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Okla., the Supreme Court rules that the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Law School could not deny admission based on race ("color"). <br />May 3 – In Shelley v. Kraemer, and companion case Hurd v Hodge (ACLU) the Supreme Court rules that the government cannot enforce racially restrictive covenants and asserts that they are in conflict with the nation's public policy. <br />July 12 – Hubert Humphrey makes a controversial speech in favor of American civil rights at the Democratic National Convention. <br />July 26 – President Harry S. Truman issues Executive Order 9981 ordering the end of segregation in the Armed Forces. <br />unknown – Atlanta hires its first black police officers. <br />[edit] 1950–1959<br />For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology <br />1950<br />June 5 – In McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents the Supreme Court rules that a public institution of higher learning could not provide different treatment to a student solely because of his race. <br />June 5 – In Sweatt v. Painter the Supreme Court rules that a separate-but-equal Texas law school was actually unequal, partly in that it deprived black students from the collegiality of future white lawyers. <br />June 5 – In Henderson v. United States the Supreme Court abolishes segregation in railroad dining cars. <br />The Leadership Conference on Civil Rights is created in Washington, DC to promote the enactment and enforcement of effective civil rights legislation and policy. <br />unknown – Orlando, Florida, hires its first black police officers. <br />unknown – Dr. Ralph Bunche wins the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize. <br />unknown – Chuck Cooper, Nathaniel Clifton and Earl Lloyd break the barriers into the NBA. <br />1951<br />April 23 – High school students in Farmville, Virginia, go on strike: the case Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County is heard by the Supreme Court in 1954 as part of Brown v. Board of Education. <br />July 26 – The United States Army high command announces it will desegregate the Army. <br />December 24 – The home of NAACP activists Harry and Harriette Moore in Mims, Florida, is bombed by KKK group; both die of injuries. <br />December 28 – The Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) is founded in Cleveland, Mississippi by T.R.M. Howard, Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, and other civil rights activists. Assisted by member Medgar Evers, the RCNL distributed more than 50,000 bumper stickers bearing the slogan, "Don't Buy Gas Where you Can't Use the Restroom." This campaign successfully pressured many Mississippi service stations to provide restrooms for blacks. <br />1952<br />January 28 – Briggs v. Elliott: after a District Court orders separate but equal school facilities in South Carolina, the Supreme Court agrees to hear the case as part of Brown v. Board of Education. <br />April 1 – Chancellor Collins J. Seitz finds for the black plaintiffs (HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebhart_v._Belton" o "Gebhart v. Belton"Gebhart v. Belton, Gebhart v. Bulah) and orders the integration of Hockessin elementary and Claymont High School in Delaware based on assessment of "separate but equal" public school facilities required by the Delaware constitution. <br />September 4 – Eleven black students attend the first day of school at Claymont High School, Delaware, becoming the first black students in the 17 segregated states to integrate a white public school. The day occurs without incident or notice by the community. <br />September 5 – The Delaware State Attorney General informs Claymont Superintendent Stahl that the black students will have to go home because the case is being appealed. Stahl, the School Board and the faculty refuse and the students remain. The two Delaware cases are argued before the Warren Supreme Court by Redding, Greenberg and Marshall and are used as an example of how integration can be achieved peacefully. It was a primary influence in the Brown v. Board case. The students become active in sports, music and theater. The first two black students graduated in June 1954 just one month after the Brown v. Board case. <br />unknown – Ralph Ellison authors the novel Invisible Man which wins the National Book Award. <br />1953<br />August 13 – Executive Order 10479 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower establishes the anti-discrimination Committee on Government Contracts. <br />September 1 – In the landmark case Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, WAC Sarah Keys, represented by civil rights lawyer Dovey Roundtree, becomes the first black to challenge "separate but equal" in bus segregation before the Interstate Commerce Commission. <br />unknown – James Baldwin's semi-autobiographical novel Go Tell It on the Mountain is published. <br />1954<br />May 3 – In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court of the United States rules that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States are entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. <br />May 17 – The Supreme Court rules against the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. and in Bolling v. Sharpe, thus overturning Plessy v. Ferguson. <br />July 11 – The first White Citizens' Council meeting takes place, in Mississippi. <br />July 30 – At a special meeting in Jackson, Mississippi called by Governor Hugh White, T.R.M. Howard of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, along with nearly one hundred other black leaders, publicly refuse to support a segregationist plan to maintain "separate but equal" in exchange for a crash program to increase spending on black schools. <br />November – Charles Diggs, Jr., of Detroit is elected to Congress, the first African American elected from Michigan. <br />Frankie Muse Freeman is the lead attorney for the landmark NAACP case Davis et al. v. the St. Louis Housing Authority, which ended legal racial discrimination in public housing with the city. Constance Baker Motley was also an attorney for NAACP: it was a rarity to have two women attorneys leading such a high-profile case. <br />1955<br />January 7 – Marian Anderson (of 1939 fame) becomes the first African American to perform with the New York Metropolitan Opera. <br />January 15 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10590, establishing the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce a nondiscrimination policy in Federal employment. <br />Rosa Parks pictured in 1955<br />May 7 – NAACP and Regional Council of Negro Leadership activist Reverend George W. Lee is killed in Belzoni, Mississippi. <br />May 31 – The Supreme Court rules in "Brown II" that desegregation must occur with "all deliberate speed". <br />June 29 – The NAACP wins a Supreme Court decision, ordering the University of Alabama to admit Autherine Lucy. <br />August 13 – Regional Council of Negro Leadership registration activist Lamar Smith is murdered in Brookhaven, Mississippi. <br />August 28 – Teenager Emmett Till is killed for whistling at a white woman in Money, Mississippi. <br />November 7 – The Interstate Commerce Commission bans bus segregation in interstate travel in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, extending the logic of Brown v. Board to the area of bus travel across state lines. <br />December 1 – Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus, starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This occurs nine months after 15-year-old high school student Claudette Colvin became the first to refuse to give up her seat. Colvin's was the legal case which eventually ended the practice in Montgomery. <br />unknown – Roy Wilkins becomes the NAACP executive secretary. <br />1956<br />January 16 – FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover writes a rare open letter of complaint directed to civil rights leader Dr. T.R.M. Howard after Howard charged in a speech that the "FBI can pick up pieces of a fallen airplane on the slopes of a Colorado mountain and find the man who caused the crash, but they can't find a white man when he kills a Negro in the South." [17] <br />February 3 – Autherine Lucy is admitted to the University of Alabama. Whites riot, and she is suspended. Later, she is expelled for her part in further legal action against the university. <br />February 24 – The policy of Massive Resistance is declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. <br />February/March- The Southern Manifesto, opposing integration of schools, is created and signed by members of the Congressional delegations of Southern states, including 19 senators and 81 members of the House of Representatives, notably the entire delegations of the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia. On March 12, it is released to the press. <br />April 10 – Singer Nat King Cole is assaulted during a segregated performance at Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama. <br />May 26 – Circuit Judge Walter B. Jones issues an injunction prohibiting the NAACP from operating in Alabama. <br />May 28 – The Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott begins. <br />June 5 – The Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) is founded at a mass meeting in Birmingham, Alabama. <br />November 5 – Nat King Cole hosts the first show of The Nat King Cole Show. The show went off the air after only 13 months because no national sponsor could be found. <br />November 13 – In Browder v. Gayle, the Supreme Court strikes down Alabama laws requiring segregation of buses. This ruling, together with the ICC's 1955 ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach banning Jim Crow in bus travel among the states, is a landmark in outlawing Jim Crow in bus travel. <br />December 25 – The parsonage in Birmingham, Alabama occupied by Fred Shuttlesworth , movement leader, is bombed. Shuttlesworth receives only minor scrapes. <br />December 26 – The ACMHR tests the Browder v. Gayle ruling by riding in the white sections of Birmingham city buses. 22 demonstrators are arrested. <br />unknown – Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission formed. <br />unknown – Director J. Edgar Hoover orders the FBI to begin the COINTELPRO program to investigate and disrupt "dissident" groups within the United States. <br />1957<br />January – Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is named chairman of the organization. <br />May 17 – The Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom in Washington, DC is at the time the largest non-violent demonstration for civil rights. <br />September 4 – Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to block integration of Little Rock Central High School. <br />September – President Dwight Eisenhower federalizes the National Guard and also orders US Army troops to ensure Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas is integrated. Federal and National Guard troops escort the Little Rock Nine. <br />September 27 – Civil Rights Act of 1957 signed by President Eisenhower. <br />1958<br />January 18 - Willie O'Ree breaks the color barrier in the National Hockey League, in his first game playing for the Boston Bruins. <br />June 29 – Bethel Baptist Church (Birmingham, Alabama) is bombed by Ku Klux Klan members. <br />June 30 – In NAACP v. Alabama, the Supreme Court rules that the NAACP was not required to release membership lists to continue operating in the state. <br />August – Clara Luper and the NAACP Youth Council conduct the largest successful sit-in to date, on drug store lunch-counters in Oklahoma City. This starts a successful six-year campaign by Luper and the Council to desegregate businesses and related institutions in Oklahoma City. <br />September 12 – In Cooper v. Aaron the Supreme Court rules that the states were bound by the Court's decisions. <br />unknown – Publication of Here I Stand, Paul Robeson's manifesto-autobiography. <br />1959<br />January 12 – Motown Records is founded by Berry Gordy. <br />April 24 – Mack Charles Parker is lynched three days before his trial. <br />unknown – A Raisin in the Sun, a play by Lorraine Hansberry, debuts on Broadway. The 1961 film of it will star Sidney Poitier. <br /> 1960–1969<br />For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology <br />1960<br />February 1 – Four black students sit at the Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, sparking six months of the Greensboro Sit-Ins. <br />February 13 – The Nashville, Tennessee Sit-in begins, although the Nashville students, trained by activist and nonviolent teacher James Lawson, had been doing preliminary groundwork towards the action for two months. The sit-in ends successfully in May. <br />February 17 – Alabama grand jury indicts Martin Luther King (MLK) for tax evasion. <br />February 20 – Virginia Union University students stage sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter in Richmond, Virginia.[18] <br />March 3 – Vanderbilt University expels James Lawson for sit-in participation. <br />March 7 – Felton Turner of Houston is beaten and hanged upside-down in a tree, initials KKK carved on his chest. <br />March 19 – San Antonio becomes first city to integrate lunch counters. <br />March 20 – Florida Governor LeRoy Collins calls lunch counter segregation “unfair and morally wrong.” <br />April 8 – Weak civil rights bill survives Senate filibuster. <br />April 15–17 – The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is formed in Raleigh, North Carolina. <br />April 19 – Z. Alexander Looby's home is bombed, with no injuries. Looby, a Nashville civil rights lawyer, was active in the cities ongoing sit-in movement. <br />May – Nashville sit-ins end successfully. <br />May 6 – Civil Rights Act of 1960 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. <br />May 28 – William Robert Ming and Hubert Delaney obtain an acquittal of MLK from an all-white jury in Alabama.[19] <br />June 24 – MLK meets Senator John F. Kennedy (JFK). <br />June 28 – Bayard Rustin resigns from SCLC after condemnation by Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. <br />July 11 – To Kill a Mockingbird published. <br />July 31 – Elijah Muhammad calls for an all-black state. Membership in Nation of Islam estimated at 100,000. <br />August – Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker replaces Ella Baker as SCLC’s Executive Director. <br />October 19 – MLK and fifty others arrested at sit-in at Atlanta’s Rich’s Department Store. <br />October 26 – MLK’s earlier probation revoked; he is transferred to Reidsville State Prison. <br />October 28 – After intervention from Robert F. Kennedy (RFK), King is free on bond. <br />November 8 – John F. Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election. <br />November 14 – Ruby Bridges becomes the first African-American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the South (William Frantz Elementary School) following court-ordered integration in New Orleans, Louisiana. This event was portrayed by Norman Rockwell in his 1964 painting The Problem We All Live With. <br />December 5 – In Boynton v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court holds that racial segregation in bus terminals is illegal because such segregation violates the Interstate Commerce Act. This ruling, in combination with the ICC's 1955 decision in Keys v. Carolina Coach, effectively outlaws segregation on interstate buses and at the terminals servicing such buses. <br />1961<br />January 11 – Rioting over court-ordered admission of first two African Americans (Hamilton E. Holmes and Charlayne Hunter-Gault) at the University of Georgia leads to their suspension, but they are ordered reinstated. <br />January 31 – Member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and nine students arrested in Rock Hill, South Carolina. <br />March 6 – President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order 10925, which establishes a Presidential committee that later becomes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. <br />May 4 – The first group of Freedom Riders, with the intent of integrating interstate buses, leaves Washington, D.C. by Greyhound bus. The group, organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), leaves shortly after the U.S. Supreme Court has outlawed segregation in interstate transportation terminals.[20] <br />May 14 – The Freedom Riders' bus is attacked and burned outside of Anniston, Alabama. A mob beats the Freedom Riders upon their arrival in Birmingham. The Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi, and spend forty to sixty days in Parchman Penitentiary.[20] <br />May 17 – Nashville students, coordinated by Diane Nash and James Bevel, take up the Freedom Ride, signaling the increased involvement of SNCC. <br />May 20 – Freedom Riders are assaulted in Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station. <br />May 21 – MLK, the Freedom Riders, and congregation of 1,500 at Rev. Ralph Abernathy’s First Baptist Church in Montgomery are besieged by mob of segregationists; Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy sends federal marshals to protect them. <br />May 29 – Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, citing the 1955 landmark ICC ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company and the Supreme Court's 1960 decision in Boynton v. Virginia, petitions the ICC to enforce desegregation in interstate travel. <br />June–August – U.S. Dept. of Justice initiates talks with civil rights groups and foundations on beginning Voter Education Project. <br />July – SCLC begins citizenship classes; Andrew J. Young hired to direct the program. Bob Moses begins voter registration in McComb, Mississippi. <br />September – James Forman becomes SNCC’s Executive Secretary. <br />September 23 – Interstate Commerce Commission, at Robert F. Kennedy’s insistence, issues new rules ending discrimination in interstate travel, effective November 1, 1961, six years after the ICC's own ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company. <br />September 25 – Voter registration activist Herbert Lee killed in McComb, Mississippi. <br />November 1 – All interstate buses required to display a certificate that reads: “Seating aboard this vehicle is without regard to race, color, creed, or national origin, by order of the Interstate Commerce Commission.”[21] <br />November 1 – SNCC workers Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon and nine Chatmon Youth Council members test new ICC rules at Trailways bus station in Albany, Georgia.[22] <br />November 17 – SNCC workers help encourage and coordinate black activism in Albany, Georgia, culminating in the founding of the Albany Movement as a formal coalition.[22] <br />November 22 – Three high school students from Chatmon’s Youth Council arrested after using “positive actions” by walking into white sections of the Albany bus station.[22] <br />November 22 – Albany State College students Bertha Gober and Blanton Hall arrested after entering the white waiting room of the Albany Trailways station.[22] <br />December 10 – Freedom Riders from Atlanta, SNCC leader Charles Jones, and Albany State student Bertha Gober are arrested at Albany Union Railway Terminal, sparking mass demonstrations, with hundreds of protesters arrested over the next five days.[23] <br />December 11–15 – Five hundred protesters arrested in Albany, Georgia. <br />December 15 – Dr. King arrives in Albany, Georgia in response to a call from Dr. W. G. Anderson, the leader of the Albany Movement to desegregate public facilities.[20] <br />December 16 – Dr. King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia demonstration. He is charged with obstructing the sidewalk and parading without a permit.[20] <br />December 18 – Albany truce, including a 60-day postponement of King's trial; MLK leaves town.[24] <br />unknown – Whitney Young is appointed executive director of the National Urban League and begins expanding its size and mission. <br />unknown – Black Like Me written by John Howard Griffin, a white southerner who deliberately tanned and dyed his skin to allow him to directly experience the life of the Negro in the Deep South, is published, displaying the brutality of Jim Crow segregation to a national audience. <br />1962<br />January 18–20 – Student protests over sit-in leaders’ expulsions at Baton Rouge’s Southern University, the nation’s largest black school, close it down. <br />February – Representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP form the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). A grant request to fund COFO voter registration activities is submitted to the Voter Education Project (VEP). <br />February 26 – Segregated transportation facilities, both interstate and intrastate, ruled unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court. <br />March – SNCC workers sit-in at US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy's office to protest jailings in Baton Rouge. <br />March 20 – FBI installs wiretaps on NAACP activist Stanley Levison’s office. <br />April 3 – Defense Department orders full racial integration of military reserve units, except the National Guard. <br />April 9 – Corporal Roman Duckworth shot by a police officer in Taylorsville, Mississippi. <br />June – Leroy Willis becomes first black graduate of the University of Virginia College of Arts and Sciences. <br />June – SNCC workers establish voter registration projects in rural southwest Georgia. <br />July 10 – August 28 SCLC renews protests in Albany; MLK in jail July 10–12 and July 27 – August 10. <br />August 31 – Fannie Lou Hamer attempts to register to vote in Indianola, Mississippi. <br />September 9 – Two black churches used by SNCC for voter registration meetings are burned in Sasser, Georgia. <br />September 20 – James Meredith is barred from becoming the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. <br />September 30 – October 1 – Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black orders James Meredith admitted to Ole Miss. Meredith enrolls; riot ensues. French photographer Paul Guihard and Oxford resident Ray Gunter are killed. <br />October – Leflore County, Mississippi, supervisors cut off surplus food distribution in retaliation against voter drive. <br />October 23 – FBI begins Communist Infiltration (COMINFIL) investigation of SCLC. <br />October 14–28 – Cuban Missile Crisis. <br />November 7–8 – Edward Brooke selected Massachusetts Attorney General, Leroy Johnson elected Georgia State Senator, Augustus F. Hawkins elected first black from California in Congress. <br />November 20 – Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy authorizes FBI wiretap on Stanley Levison’s home telephone. <br />November 20 – President John F. Kennedy upholds 1960 campaign promise to eliminate housing segregation by signing Executive Order 11063 banning segregation in Federally funded housing. <br />1963<br />January 18 – Incoming Alabama governor George Wallace calls for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" in his inaugural address. <br />April 3 – May 10 – The Birmingham campaign, organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights challenges city leaders and business owners in Birmingham, Alabama, with daily mass demonstrations. <br />April – Mary Lucille Hamilton, Field Secretary for the Congress of Racial Equality, refuses to answer a judge in Gadsden, Alabama, until she is addressed by the honorific "Miss". It was the custom of the time to address white people by honorifics and people of color by their first names. Hamilton is jailed for contempt of court and refuses to pay bail. The case Hamilton v. Alabama is filed by the NAACP. It went to the Supreme Court, which ruled in 1964 that courts must address persons of color with the same courtesy extended to whites. <br />April 7 - Ministers John Thomas Porter, Nelson H. Smith and A. D. King lead a group of 2,000 marchers to protest the jailing of movement leaders in Birmingham. <br />April 12 - Martin Luther King, Jr. is arrested in Birmingham for "parading without a permit". <br />April 16 – King's Letter from Birmingham Jail is completed. <br />April 23 – CORE activist William L. Moore is killed in Gadsden, Alabama. <br />May 2–4 – Birmingham's juvenile court is inundated with African-American children and teenagers arrested after James Bevel launches his "D-Day" youth march, which spans three days to become the Children's Crusade.[25] <br />May 9–10 – After images of fire hoses and police dogs turned on protesters are shown on television, the Children's Crusade lays the groundwork for the terms of a negotiated truce on Thursday, May 9 – an end to mass demonstrations in return for rolling back oppressive segregation laws and practices. MLK and Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth announce the terms of the settlement on Friday, May 10, only after MLK holds out to orchestrate the release of thousands of jailed demonstrators with bail money from Harry Belafonte and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.[26] <br />May 13 – In United States of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. the City of Jackson, Mississippi et al., the United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit rules the city's attempt to circumvent laws desegregating interstate transportation facilities by posting sidewalk signs outside Greyhound, Trailways and Illinois Central terminals reading "Waiting Room for White Only — By Order Police Department" and "Waiting Room for Colored Only — By Order Police Department" to be unlawful.[27] <br />June 9 – Fannie Lou Hamer is among several SNCC workers badly beaten by police in the Winona, Mississippi, jail after their bus stops there. <br />June 11 – "The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door": Alabama Governor George Wallace stands in front of a schoolhouse door at the University of Alabama in an attempt to stop desegregation by the enrollment of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood. Wallace only stands aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach, and the Alabama National Guard. Later in life he apologizes for his opposition to racial integration then. <br />June 11 – President John F. Kennedy makes his historic civil rights speech, promising a bill to Congress the next week. About civil rights for "Negroes", in his speech he asks for "the kind of equality of treatment which we would want for ourselves." <br />June 12 – NAACP worker Medgar Evers is murdered in Jackson, Mississippi. (His killer is convicted in 1994.)[28] <br />Summer – 80,000 blacks quickly register to vote in Mississippi by a test project to show their desire to participate. <br />June 19 – President Kennedy sends Congress (H. Doc. 124, 88th Cong., 1st session.) his proposed Civil Rights Act.[29] <br />August 28 – March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is held. Dr. Martin Luther King gives his I Have a Dream speech.[30] <br />September 10 – Birmingham, Alabama City Schools are integrated by National Guardsmen under orders from JFK. <br />September 15 – 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham kills four young girls. That same day, in response to the killings, James Bevel and Diane Nash begin the Alabama Project, which will later grow into the Selma Voting Rights Movement. <br />November 22 – President Kennedy is assassinated. The new President, Lyndon B. Johnson, decides that accomplishing JFK's legislative agenda is his best strategy, which he pursues with the results below in 1964–1965.[31] <br />1964<br />All year – The Alabama Voting Rights Project continues organizing as James Bevel, Diane Nash, and James Orange work without the support of SCLC, the group which Bevel represents as its Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education. <br />January 23 – Twenty-fourth Amendment abolishes the poll tax for Federal elections. <br />Summer – Mississippi Freedom Summer – voter registration in the state. Create the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party to elect an alternative slate of delegates for the national convention, as blacks are still officially disfranchised. <br />April 13 - Sidney Poitier wins the Academy Award for Best Actor for role in Lilies of the Field. <br />June 21 – Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders, three civil rights workers disappear, later to be found murdered. <br />June 28 – Organization of Afro-American Unity is founded by Malcolm X, lasts until his death. <br />July 2 – Civil Rights Act of 1964[32] signed.[31] <br />August – Congress passes the Economic Opportunity Act which, among other things, provides federal funds for legal representation of Native Americans in both civil and criminal suits. This allows the ACLU and the American Bar Association to represent Native Americans in cases that later win them additional civil rights. <br />August – The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegates challenge the seating of all-white Mississippi representatives at the Democratic national convention. <br />December 10 – Dr. Martin Luther King is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the youngest person so honored.[33] <br />December 14 – In Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, the Supreme Court upholds the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[32] <br />The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.<br />1965<br />February 18 – A peaceful protest march in Selma leads to Jimmie Lee Jackson being shot to death by Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler, who in 2007 is indicted for his murder. <br />February 21 – Malcolm X is shot to death in Manhattan, New York, probably by three members of the Nation of Islam. <br />March 7 – Bloody Sunday: Civil rights workers in Selma, Alabama, begin a march to Montgomery but are stopped by a massive police blockade as they cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Many marchers are severely injured and one killed. This action, initiated and organized by James Bevel, becomes the visual symbol of the Selma Voting Rights Movement. <br />March 15 – President Lyndon Johnson uses the phrase "We shall overcome" in a speech before Congress on the voting rights bill.[34] <br />March 25 – White volunteer Viola Liuzzo is shot and killed by Ku Klux Klan members in Mississippi – one of whom was an FBI informant. <br />June 2 – Black deputy sheriff Oneal Moore is murdered in Varnado, Louisiana. <br />July 2 – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission opens. <br />August 6 – Voting Rights Act of 1965 signed by President Johnson.[34][34] <br />August 11 – Watts Riots erupt in south Los Angeles. <br />September – Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong become the first African-American students to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. <br />September 15 – Bill Cosby co-stars in I Spy, becoming the first black person to appear in a starring role on American television. <br />September 24 – President Johnson signs Executive Order 11246 requiring Equal Employment Opportunity by federal contractors. <br />1966<br />January 10 – NAACP local chapter president Vernon Dahmer is injured by a bomb in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. He dies the next day. <br />June 5 – James Meredith begins a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. Shortly after starting, he is shot with birdshot and injured. Civil rights leaders and organizations rally and continue the march leading to, on June 16, Stokely Carmichael first using the slogan Black power in a speech. <br />September – Nichelle Nichols is cast as a female black officer on television's Star Trek. She briefly considers leaving the role, but is encouraged by Dr. Martin Luther King to continue as an example for their community. <br />October – Black Panthers founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California. <br />November – Edward Brooke is elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts. He is the first black senator since 1881. <br />1967<br />January 9 – Julian Bond is seated in the Georgia House of Representatives by order of the Supreme Court after his election. <br />June 12 – In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. <br />June 13 – Thurgood Marshall is the first African American appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. <br />August 2 – The film In the Heat of the Night is released, starring Sidney Poitier. <br />December 11 – The film Guess Who's Coming to Dinner is released, also with Sidney Poitier. <br />unknown – In the trial of accused killers in the Mississippi civil rights worker murders, the jury convicts 7 of 18 accused men. Conspirator Edgar Ray Killen is later convicted in 2005. <br />unknown – The film The Great White Hope starring James Earl Jones is released; it is based on the experience of heavyweight Jack Johnson. <br />unknown – The book Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools is published. <br />1968<br />February 8 – The Orangeburg Massacre occurs during university protest in South Carolina. <br />March – While filming a prime time television special, Petula Clark touches Harry Belafonte's arm during a duet. Chrysler Corporation, the show's sponsor, insists the moment be deleted, but Clark stands firm, destroys all other takes of the song, and delivers the completed program to NBC with the touch intact. The show is broadcast on April 8, 1968.[35] <br />April 4 – Dr. Martin Luther King is shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee by James Earl Ray. <br />April 11 – Civil Rights Act of 1968 is signed. The Fair Housing Act is Title VIII of this Civil Rights Act – it bans discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. The law is passed following a series of contentious open housing campaigns throughout the urban North. The most significant of these campaigns took place in Chicago (1966) and in Milwaukee (1967–68). In both cities, angry white mobs attacked non-violent protesters.[36][37] <br />May 12- Poor People's Campaign marches on Washington, DC. <br />June 6 – Robert F. Kennedy, a Civil Rights advocate, is assassinated after winning the California presidential primary. His appeal to minorities helped him secure the victory. <br />September 17 – Diahann Carroll stars in the title role in Julia, as the first African American actress to star in her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker. <br />October 3 – The play The Great White Hope opens; it runs for 546 performances and later becomes a film. <br />October – Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games. <br />November 22 – First interracial kiss on American television, between Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner on Star Trek. <br />unknown – In Powe v. Miles, a federal court holds that the portions of private colleges that are funded by public money are subject to the Civil Rights Act. <br />unknown – Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African-American woman elected to Congress. <br />1969<br />June – The second of two US federal appeals court decisions not only confirms members of the public hold legal standing to participate in broadcast station license hearings, but under the Fairness Doctrine finds the record of segregationist TV station WLBT beyond repair. The FCC is ordered to open proceedings for a new licensee.[38] <br />December – Fred Hampton, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party, is shot and killed while asleep in bed during a police raid on his home. <br />unknown – United Citizens Party is formed in South Carolina when Democratic Party refuses to nominate African-American candidates. <br />unknown – W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research founded at Harvard University. <br />unknown – The Revised Philadelphia Plan is instituted by the Department of Labor. <br />unknown – The Congressional Black Caucus is formed. <br /> 1970–2000<br />1970<br />January 19 – G. Harrold Carswell's nomination to the Supreme Court rejected. <br />May 27 – The film Watermelon Man is released, directed by Melvin Van Peebles and starring Godfrey Cambridge. <br />unknown – First blaxploitation films released. <br />1971<br />April 20 – The Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upholds desegregation busing of students to achieve integration. <br />June – Control of segregationist TV station WLBT given to a bi-racial foundation. <br />December – Jesse Jackson organizes Operation PUSH. <br />unknown – Ernest J. Gaines's Reconstruction-era novel The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman published. <br />1972<br />January 25 – Shirley Chisholm becomes the first major-party African-American candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination. <br />November 16 – In Baton Rouge, two Southern University students are killed by white sheriff deputies during a school protest over lack of funding from the state. Today, the university’s Smith-Brown Memorial Union is named in their honor. <br />1973<br />February 27 – Start of 71-day standoff at Wounded Knee between federal authorities and members of the American Indian Movement. <br />unknown – Combahee River Collective, a Black feminist group, is established in Boston, out of New York's National Black Feminist Organization. <br />1974<br />July 25 – In Milliken v. Bradley, the Supreme Court in a 5–4 decision holds that outlying districts could only be forced into a desegregation busing plan if there was a pattern of violation on their part. This decision reinforces the trend of white flight. <br />Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective, the first "out" organization for lesbians, womanists and women of color formed in New York City. <br />1975<br />April 30 – In the pilot episode of Starsky and Hutch, Richard Ward plays an African-American boss of white Americans for the first time on TV. <br />1976<br />February – Black History Month is founded by Professor Carter Woodson's Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History. <br />unknown – The novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley is published. <br />1977<br />unknown – Combahee River Collective, a Black feminist group, publishes the Combahee River Collective Statement. <br />unknown – President Jimmy Carter appoints Andrew Young to serve as Ambassador to the United Nations, the first African-American to serve in the position. <br />1978<br />June 28 – Regents of the University of California v. Bakke bars racial quota systems in college admissions but affirms the constitutionality of affirmative action programs giving equal access to minorities. <br />1979<br />unknown – United Steelworkers of America v. Weber is a case regarding affirmative action in which the United States Supreme Court holds that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not bar employers from favoring women and minorities. <br />1982<br />unknown – Charles Fuller writes A Soldier's Play, which is later made into the film A Soldier's Story. <br />November 30 – Michael Jackson releases Thriller, which becomes the best-selling album of all time. <br />1983<br />May 24 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Bob Jones University did not qualify as either a tax-exempt or a charitable organization due to its racially discriminatory practices.[39] <br />August 30 – Guion Bluford becomes the first African-American to go into space. <br />November 2 - President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating a federal holiday to honor Dr. Martin Luther King. <br />unknown – Alice Walker receives the Pulitzer Prize for her novel The Color Purple. <br />1984<br />September 13 – The film A Soldier's Story is released, dealing with racism in the U.S. military. <br />unknown – The Cosby Show begins, and is regarded as one of the defining television shows of the decade. <br />1986<br />January 20 – Established by legislation in 1983, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is first celebrated as a national holiday. <br />1987<br />unknown – The Public Broadcasting Service's six-part documentary Eyes on the Prize is first shown, covering the years 1954–1965. In 1990 it is added to by the eight-part Eyes on the Prize II covering the years 1965–1985. <br />1988<br />unknown – Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988. <br />December 9 – The film Mississippi Burning is released, regarding the 1964 Mississippi civil rights workers murders. <br />1989<br />February 10 – Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to lead a major United States political party. <br />October 1 – Colin Powell becomes Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. <br />December 15 – The film Glory is released: it features African-American Civil War soldiers. <br />1990<br />January 13 – Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected African American governor as he takes office in Richmond, Virginia. <br />1991<br />March 3 – Four white police officers are videotaped beating African-American Rodney King in Los Angeles. <br />October 15 – Senate confirms the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. <br />November 21 – Civil Rights Act of 1991 enacted. <br />unknown – Henry Louis Gates, Jr. becomes Harvard University's Director of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research. <br />1992<br />April 29 – 1992 Los Angeles riots erupt after officers accused of beating Rodney King are acquitted. <br />September 12 – Mae Carol Jemison becomes the first African American woman to travel in space when she goes into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. <br />November 3 – Carol Moseley Braun becomes the first African American woman to be elected to the United States Senate. <br />November 18 – Director Spike Lee's film Malcolm X is released. [2] <br />1994<br />March 29 – Cornel West's text Race Matters is published. <br />1995<br />June 30 – In Miller v. Johnson the Supreme Court rules that gerrymandering based on race is unconstitutional. <br />October 16 – Million Man March in Washington, D.C., co-initiated by Louis Farrakhan and James Bevel. <br />1997<br />July 9 – Director Spike Lee releases his documentary 4 Little Girls, about the 1963 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. <br />October 25 – Million Woman March in Philadelphia. <br />1998<br />June 7 – James Byrd, Jr. is brutally murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. The scene is reminiscent of earlier lynchings. In response, Byrd's family create the James Byrd Foundation for Racial Healing. <br />October 23 – The film American History X is released, powerfully highlighting the problems of urban racism. <br />2000<br />May 3 – Bob Jones University, a fundamentalist South Carolina private institution, ends its ban on interracial dating.[40] <br /> 21st century<br />2001<br />January 20 – Colin Powell becomes Secretary of State. <br />2003<br />June 23 – Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger upholds the University of Michigan Law School's admission policy. However, in the simultaneously-heard Gratz v. Bollinger the university is required to change a policy. <br />2005<br />June 21 – Edgar Ray Killen is convicted of participating in the Mississippi civil rights worker murders. <br />October 15 – The Millions More Movement holds a march in Washington D.C. <br />October 25 – Rosa Parks dies at the age of 92. She was famous for starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. Her body lies in state in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. before her funeral. <br />2007<br />May 10 – Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler is indicted for the murder of Jimmie Lee Jackson on February 18, 1965. <br />June 28 – Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 decided along with Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education prohibits assigning students to public schools solely for the purpose of achieving racial integration and declines to recognize racial balancing as a compelling state interest. <br />2008<br />June 3 – Barack Obama receives enough delegates by the end of state primaries to be the presumptive Democratic Party of the United States nominee.[41] <br />August 28 – At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, in a stadium filled with supporters, Barack Obama accepts the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. <br />November 4 – Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States of America, opening his victory speech with, "If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer."[citation needed] <br />2009<br />January 20 – Barack Obama sworn in as the 44th President of the United States, the first African-American ever to become president. <br />January 30 – Former Maryland Lt. Governor Michael Steele becomes Chairman of the Republican National Committee. <br />unknown – The U.S. Postal Service issues a commemorative six-stamp set portraying twelve civil rights pioneers. <br />October 9 – Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. <br />2010<br />July 19 – Shirley Sherrod first is pressured to resign from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and immediately thereafter receives its apology after she is inaccurately accused of being racist towards white Americans. <br />“To include but not limited to” <br />“The Bombing attempt of the 2011 (MLK) Parade in Washington State.<br />Argument XXX<br />308.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” direct cause of action and standing being presented for the Defendant (The United States of America), direct “perverse”, “vicious”, “rebellious”, and quite “pertinacious manner”, “style”, and “screwed up behavior” <br />In the complete “devastation method(s) and approach” in “Violation(s) of the (Negro) race “Entire possession, ownership, tenure, custody, respect, and equal protection thereof the “Amendment(s) to the Constitution” of the Defendant herein (The United States of America) to wit: <br />309.<br />Defendant (The United States of America) Constitution as depicted in paragraph (19) above could in no “fashion or form” included the (Negro) race in 1865 after the “Civil War”<br /> During the “Crazy, Idiotic”, “Fanatical”, “Cruel” acts and actions rule of the Co-Defendant herein (President Andrew Johnson) fully imposed “Black Codes” against the “suppose Freeman having civilized “Amendments” rights of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />310.<br />This legal “Black Codes” conflicting oppression blueprint, design and purposed enforcement by the Defendant (The United States of America) being very contradictory, at odds, opposing, incongruous and very inconsistent with any type of equality, fairness, and safety for the (Negro) race under the enjoyment in a “Constitution” having all the legal “drips of trimmings” as referred by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />311.<br />Following Defendant (The United States of America) already oppression imposed “Genocide Statehood” upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants in the “Full Slave Codes” enforcement since the time frame of 1619-1865.<br />312. <br />Defendant 1st Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 1<br />Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; <br />Or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) the rights to testify against whites, to serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote, and express legal concern publicly.<br />313.<br />Defendant 2nd Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 2A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 2nd Amendment rights as described below<br />1866AlabamaRace-based total gun ban. Black Code of Alabama in January 1866 prohibited blacks to own or carry firearms or other deadly weapons and prohibited “any person to sell, give, or lend fire-arms or ammunition of any description whatever” to any black. <br />314.<br />Defendant 5th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 5No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; <br />Nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 5th Amendment rights as described below:<br />CIVIL RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN IN MISSISSIPPI<br />Sec. 4....In addition to cases in which freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes are now by law competent witnesses, freedmen, free negroes, or mulattoes shall be competent in civil cases, when a party or parties to the suit, either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants, <br />And a white person or white persons, is or are the opposing party or parties, plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants. They shall also be competent witnesses in all criminal prosecutions where the crime charged is alleged to have been committed by a white person upon or against the person or property of a freedman, free negro, or mulatto: Provided, <br />That in all cases said witnesses shall be examined in open court, on the stand; except, however, they may be examined before the grand jury, and shall in all cases be subject to the rules and tests of the common law as to competency and credibility....<br />315.<br />Defendant 6th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 6In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 6th Amendment rights as described below:<br />CIVIL RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN IN MISSISSIPPI<br />Sec. 7....Every civil officer shall, and every person may, arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any “freedman”, “free negro”, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer before the expiration of his or her term of service without good cause; <br />And said officer and person shall be entitled to receive for arresting and carrying back every deserting employee aforesaid the sum of five dollars, and ten cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery; and the same shall be paid by the employer, and held as a set-off for so much against the wages of said deserting employee: <br />Provided, that said arrested party, after being so returned, may appeal to the justice of the peace or member of the board of police of the county, who, on notice to the alleged employer, shall try summarily whether said appellant is legally employed by the alleged employer, and has good cause to quit said employer; either party shall have the right of appeal to the county court, pending which the alleged deserter shall be remanded to the alleged employer or otherwise disposed of, as shall be right and just; and the decision of the county court shall be final....<br />316.<br />Defendant 8th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 8Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 8th Amendment rights as described below for Mississippi and Louisiana:<br />CIVIL RIGHTS OF FREEDMEN IN MISSISSIPPI<br />Sec. 9....If any person shall persuade or attempt to persuade, entice, or cause any “freedman”, “free negro”, or mulatto to desert from the legal employment of any person before the expiration of his or her term of service, or shall knowingly employ any such deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, or shall knowingly give or sell to any such deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any food, raiment, or other thing,<br /> He or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars and not more than two hundred dollars and the costs; and if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding two months’ imprisonment in the county jail, and he or she shall moreover be liable to the party injured in damages: <br />Provided, if any person shall, or shall attempt to, persuade, entice, or cause any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to desert from any legal employment of any person, with the view to employ said freedman, free negro, or mulatto without the limits of this State, such person, on conviction, shall be fined not less than fifty dollars, and not more than five hundred dollars and costs; and if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding six months imprisonment in the county jail....<br />317<br />Black Codes - Louisiana<br />No Negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town of Opelousas without special permission from his employers. . . . Whoever shall violate this provision shall suffer imprisonment and two days work on the public streets, or pay a fine of five dollars." <br />Any Negro found on the streets of the town after ten o'clock in the evening had to work for five days on the public streets or pay a $5 fine.<br />No Negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .<br />No Negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . that is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. . . . <br />No public meetings or congregations of Negroes or freedmen shall be allowed within the limits of the town. . . . <br />No Negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission from the mayor or president of the board of police..... <br />No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons.... <br />No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise within the limits of Opelousas without permission in writing from his employer in the parish of St. Landry<br />*Every Negro [is] to be in the service of some “white person”, or “former owner”. ... <br />318.<br />Defendant 9th Amendment clearly stating <br />Amendment 9The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.<br /> “However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 9th Amendment rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Black Codes - South CarolinaThe South Carolina legislature decreed that no black man "shall pursue the practice, art, trade or business of an artisan, mechanic, or shopkeeper, or any other trade or employment besides that of husbandry, or that of a servant under contract for labor, until he shall have obtained a license from the judge of the district court, which license shall be good for one year only." <br />A black shopkeeper or peddler had to pay $100 a year for a license. If a black man under contract for his labor left or was fired before the end of his contract time, he must "forefeit his wages for that year up to the time of quitting." Moreover, any person "giving or selling to any deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any food, raiment, or other things shall be guilty of a misdemeanor" punishable by a fine of up to $200, and be subject to suit by the employer. In virtually every instance the inability to pay a fine would result in a sentence to labor for a period ranging from six months to a year.<br />319.<br />Moreover Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans (Negro) state furtherance’s before the Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) having imposed illegal “poll taxes” were done being “imposed in every state”, upon the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants ranging in amount from Georgia's $1 per head on every man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty to $2 in Alabama on every person between the ages of eighteen and fifty, and to $3 in Florida. <br />A (Negro)black man could not buy or rent land except in a city. South Carolina required that a (Negro) black man pay an exorbitant fee to engage in trade or open a store. Nor, in that state, could he serve on juries. Unemployment was treated as a crime, and the unemployed could be sentenced to work without pay.<br />320.<br />Defendant 13th Amendment clearly stating <br />The 13th Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." Formally abolishing slavery in the United States, <br />*Note* The 13th Amendment of the Defendant (The United States of America) was passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 13th Amendment rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America)<br />Louisiana Black Codes of 1865 <br />AN ACTRelative to apprentices and indentured servants.<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Louisiana, in General Assembly convened, That it shall be the duty of Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace and other civil officers of this State, to report to the Clerks of the District Courts of their respective Parishes, and in the Parish of Orleans (left bank) to the Mayor of the City of New Orleans, and on the right bank to the President of the Police Jury, on the first Monday of each month, for each and every year, all persons under the age of eighteen years, if females, and twenty-one, if males, who are orphans, or whose parent, parents, or tutor, have not the means, or who refuse to provide for and maintain said minors; and, thereupon, it shall be the duty of the Clerks of the District Courts, <br />Mayor and President of the Police Jury aforesaid, to examine whether the party or parties, so reported from time to time, come within the purview and meaning of this Act, and if so, to apprentice said minor or minors, in manner and form as prescribed by the Civil Code of the State of Louisiana; provided, that orphans coming under the provisions of this Act shall be authorized to select said employers when they have arrived at the age of puberty, unless they shall have been previously apprenticed; provided, that any indenture of apprentice or indented servant, made before a Justice of the Peace and two disinterested witnesses, <br />And the original deposited with and recorded by the Recorder of Mortgages for the Parish, in a book provided for that purpose, shall be valid and binding on the parties, and when made by the clerk, shall be also deposited with the Recorder of Mortgages, and all expenses for passing said acts of indenture shall be paid by the employer. <br />Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, &c., That persons who have attained the age of majority, whether in this State or any other State of the United States, or in a foreign country, may bind themselves to services to be performed in this country, for the term of five years, on such terms as they may stipulate, as domestic servants and to work on farms, plantations or in manufacturing establishments, which contracts shall be valid and binding on the parties to the same. <br />Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, &c., That in all cases, when the age of the minor cannot be ascertained by record testimony, the Clerks of the District Courts, Mayor and President of the Police Jury, or Justices of the Peace aforesaid, shall fix the age, according to the best evidence before them. <br />Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, &c., That all laws or parts of laws conflicting with the provisions of this Act, be, and the same are hereby repealed, and that this Act take effect from and after its passage. <br />DUNCAN S. CAGE, Speaker of the House of Representatives.ALBERT VOORHIES, Lieutenant Governor and President of the Senate. <br />Approved December 21, 1865. <br />J. MADISON WELLSGovernor of the State of Louisiana  <br />321.<br />Defendant 14th Amendment clearly stating <br />Fourteenth Amendment to the Defendant (United States of America)<br /> Constitution - Rights Guaranteed Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection<br />AMENDMENT XIV of the UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION<br />Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. <br />Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.<br /> No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. <br />Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. <br />Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. <br />Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. <br />Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. <br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1865 “Black Codes” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 14th Amendment rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America) as follows:<br />322.<br />Source, Laws of the State of Mississippi, *Passed at a Regular Session of the Mississippi Legislature, held in Jackson, October, November and December, 1965, Jackson, 1866, pp. 82-93, 165-167,<br />Apprentice Law<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that it shall be the duty of all sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other civil officers of the several counties in this state to report to the Probate courts of their respective counties semiannually, at the January and July terms of said courts, all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes under the age of eighteen within their respective counties, beats, or districts who are orphans, or whose parent or parents have not the means, or who refuse to provide for and support said minors; and thereupon it shall be the duty of said Probate Court to order the clerk of said court to apprentice said minors to some competent and suitable person, on such terms as the court may direct, having a particular care to the interest of said minors:<br />Provided, that the former owner of said minors shall have the preference when, in the opinion of the court, he or she shall be a Suitable person for that purpose.<br />Section 2. Be it further enacted, that the said court shall be fully satisfied that the person or persons to whom said minor shall be apprenticed shall be a suitable person to have the charge and care of said minor and fully to protect the interest of said minor. The said court shall require the said master or mistress to execute bond and security, payable to the state of Mississippi, conditioned that he or she shall furnish said minor with sufficient food and clothing; to treat said minor humanely; furnish medical attention in case of sickness; teach or cause to be taught him or her to read and write, if under fifteen years old; and will conform to any law that may be hereafter passed for the regulation of the duties and relation of master and apprentice:<br />Provided, that said apprentice shall be bound by indenture, in case of males until they are twenty-one years old, and in case of females until they are eighteen years old.<br />Section 3. Be it further enacted, that in the management and control of said apprentices, said master or mistress shall have power to inflict such moderate corporeal chastisement as a father or guardian is allowed to inflict on his or her child or ward at common law:<br />Provided, that in no case shall cruel or inhuman punishment be inflicted.<br />Section 4. Be it further enacted, that if any apprentice shall leave the employment of his or her master or mistress without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand said apprentice to the service of his or her master or mistress; and in the event of a refusal on the part of said apprentice so to return, then said justice shall commit said apprentice to the jail of said county, on failure to give bond, until the next term of the county court; and it shall be the duty of said court, at the first term thereafter, to investigate said case; and if the court shall be of opinion that said apprentice left the employment of his or her master or mistress without good cause, to order him or her to be punished, as provided for the punishment of hired freedmen, as may be from time to time provided for by law, for desertion, until he or she shall agree to return to his or her master or mistress:<br />Provided, that the court may grant continuances, as in other cases; and provided, further, that if the court shall believe that said apprentice had good cause to quit his said master or mistress, the court shall discharge said apprentice from said indenture and also enter a judgment against the master or mistress for not more than $100, for the use and benefit of said apprentice, to be collected on execution, as in other cases.<br />Section 5. Be it further enacted, that if any person entice away any apprentice from his or her master or mistress, or shall knowingly employ an apprentice, or furnish him or her food or clothing, without the written consent of his or her master or mistress, of shall sell or give said apprentice ardent spirits, without such consent, said person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof before the county court, be punished as provided for the punishment of persons enticing from their employer hired freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes.<br />Section 6. Be it further enacted, that it shall be the duty of all civil officers of their respective counties to report any minors within their respective counties to said Probate Court who are subject to be apprenticed under the provisions of this act, from time to time, as the facts may come to their knowledge; and it shall be the duty of said court, from time to time, as said minors shall be reported to them or otherwise come to their knowledge, to apprentice said minors as hereinbefore provided.<br />Section 7. Be it further enacted, that in case the master or mistress of any apprentice shall desire, he or she shall have the privilege to summon his or her said apprentice to the Probate Court, and thereupon, with the approval of the court, he or she shall be released from all liability as master of said apprentice, and his said bond shall be canceled, and it shall be the duty of the court forthwith to reapprentice said minor; and in the event any master of in apprentice shall die before the close of the term of service of said apprentice, it shall be the duty of the court to give the preference in reapprenticing said minor to the widow, or other member of said master's family:<br />Provided, that said widow or other member of said family shall be a suitable person for that purpose.<br />Section 8. Be it further enacted, that in case any master or mistress of any apprentice, bound to him or her under this act shall be about to remove or shall have removed to any other state of the United States by the laws of which such apprentice may be an inhabitant thereof, the Probate Court of the proper county may authorize the removal of such apprentice to such state, upon the said master or mistress entering into bond, with security, in a penalty to be fixed by the judge, conditioned that said master or mistress will, upon such removal, comply with the laws of such state in such cases:<br />Provided, that said master shall be cited to attend the court at which such order is proposed to be made and shall have a right to resist the same by next friend, or otherwise.<br />Section 9. Be it further enacted, that it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or Mulatto having a minor child or children to apprentice the said minor child or children as provided for by this act.<br />Section 10. Be it further enacted, that in all cases where the age of the freedman, free Negro, or mulatto cannot be ascertained by record testimony, the judge of the county court shall fix the age.<br />II.<br />Vagrancy Law<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all rogues and vagabonds, idle and dissipated persons, beggars, jugglers, or persons practising unlawful games or plays, runaways, common drunkards, common nightwalkers, pilferers, lewd, wanton, or lascivious persons, in speech or behavior, common railers and brawlers, persons who neglect their calling or employment, misspend what they earn, or do not provide for the support of themselves or their families or dependents, and all other idle and disorderly persons, including all who neglect all lawful business, or habitually misspend their time by frequenting houses of ill-fame, gaming houses, or tippling shops, shall be deemed and considered vagrants under the provisions of this act; and, on conviction thereof shall be fined not exceeding $100, with all accruing costs, and be imprisoned at the discretion of the court not exceeding ten days.<br />Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes in this state over the age of eighteen years found on the second Monday in January 1966, or thereafter, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assembling themselves together either in the day or nighttime, and all white persons so assembling with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes, or usually associating with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes on terms of equality, or living in adultery or fornication with a freedwoman, free Negro, or mulatto, shall be deemed vagrants; and, on conviction thereof, shall be fined in the sum of not exceeding, in the case of a freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, 150, and a white man, $200, and imprisoned at the discretion of the court, the free Negro not exceeding ten days, and the white man not exceeding six months.<br />Section 3. Be it further enacted, that all justices of the peace, mayors, and aldermen of incorporated towns and cities of the several counties in this state shall have jurisdiction to try all questions of vagrancy in their respective towns, counties, and cities; and it is hereby made their duty, whenever they shall ascertain that any person or persons in their respective towns, counties, and cities are violating any of the provisions of this act, to have said party or parties arrested and brought before them and immediately investigate said charge; and, on conviction, punish said party or parties as provided for herein. And it is hereby made the duty of all sheriffs, constables, town constables, city marshals, and all like officers to report to some officer having jurisdiction all violations of any of the provisions of this act; and it shall be the duty of the county courts to inquire if any officers have neglected any of the duties required by this act; and in case any officer shall fail or neglect any duty herein, it shall be the duty of the county court to fine said officer, upon conviction, not exceeding $100, to be paid into the county treasury for county purposes.<br />Section 4. Be it further enacted, that keepers of gaming houses, houses of prostitution, all prostitutes, public or private, and all persons who derive their chief support in employments that militate against good morals or against laws shall be deemed and held to be vagrants.<br />Section 5. Be it further enacted, that all fines and forfeitures collected under the provisions of this act shall be paid into the county treasury for general county purposes; and in case any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto shall fail for five days after the imposition of any fine or forfeiture upon him or her for violation of any of the provisions of this act to pay the same, that it shall be, and is hereby made, the duty of the sheriff of the proper county to hire out said freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to any person who will, for the shortest period of service, pay said fine or forfeiture and all costs:<br />Provided, a preference shall be given to the employer, if there be one, in which case the employer shall be entitled to deduct and retain the amount so paid from the wages of such freedman, free Negro, or mulatto then due or to become due; and in case such freedman, free Negro, or mulatto cannot be hired out he or she may be dealt with as a pauper.<br />Section 6. Be it further enacted, that the same duties and liabilities existing among white persons of this state shall attach to freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes to support their indigent families and all colored paupers; and that, in order to secure a support for such indigent freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes, it shall be lawful, and it is hereby made the duty of the boards of county police of each county in this state, to levy a poll or capitation tax on each and every freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, between the ages of eighteen and sixty years, not to exceed the sum of s I annually, to each person so taxed, which tax, when collected, shall be paid into the county treasurer's hands and constitute a fund to be called the Freedman's Pauper Fund, which shall be applied by the commissioners of the poor for the maintenance of the poor of the freedmen, free Negroes. and mulattoes of this state, under such regulations as may be established by the boards of county police, in the respective counties of this state.<br />Section 7. Be it further enacted, that if any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto shall fail or refuse to pay any tax levied according to the provisions of the 6th Section of this act, it shall be prima facie evidence of vagrancy, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff to arrest such freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, or such person refusing or neglecting to pay such tax, and proceed at once to hire, for the shortest time, such delinquent taxpayer to anyone who will pay the said tax, with accruing costs, giving preference to the employer, if there be one.<br />Section 8. Be it further enacted, that any person feeling himself or herself aggrieved by the judgment of any justice of the peace, mayor, or alderman in cases arising under this act may, within five days, appeal to the next term of the county court of the proper county, upon giving bond and security in a sum not less than $25 nor more than $150, conditioned to appear and prosecute said appeal, and abide by the judgment of the county court, and said appeal shall be tried de novo in the county court, and the decision of said court shall be final.<br />Civil Rights of Freedmen<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes may sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded in all the courts of law and equity of this state, and may acquire personal property and choses in action, by descent or purchase, and may dispose of the same in the same manner and to the same extent that white persons may:<br />Provided, that the provisions of this section shall not be construed as to allow any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to rent or lease any lands or tenements, except in incorporated towns or cities, in which places the corporate authorities shall control the same.<br />Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes may intermarry with each other, in the same manner and under the same regulations that are provided by law for white persons:<br />Provided, that the clerk of probate shall keep separate records of the same.<br />Section 3. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes who do now and have heretofore lived and cohabited together as husband and wife shall be taken and held in law as legally married, and the issue shall be taken and held as legitimate for all purposes. That it shall not be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any white person to intermarry with any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto; and any person who shall so intermarry shall be deemed guilty of felony and, on conviction thereof, shall be confined in the state penitentiary for life; and those shall be deemed freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes who are of pure Negro blood; and those descended from a Negro to the third generation inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white person.<br />Section 4. Be it further enacted, that in addition to cases in which freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes are now by law competent witnesses, freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes shall be competent in civil cases when a party or parties to the suit, either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants, also in cases where freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes is or are either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants, and a white person or white persons is or are the opposing party or parties, plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants. They shall also be competent witnesses in all criminal prosecutions where the crime charged is alleged to have been committed by a white person upon or against the person or property of a freedman, free Negro, or mulatto:<br />Provided, that in all cases said witnesses shall be examined in open court on the stand, except, however, they may be examined before the grand jury, and shall in all cases be subject to the rules and tests of the common law as to competency and credibility.<br />Section 5. Be it further enacted, that every freedman, free Negro, and mulatto shall, on the second Monday of January 1866, and annually thereafter, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have a written evidence thereof, as follows, to wit: if living in any incorporated city, town, or village, a license from the mayor thereof; and if living outside of any incorporated city, town, or village, from the member of the board of police of his beat, authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work, or a written contract, as provided in Section 6 of this act, which licenses may be revoked for cause, at any time, by the authority granting the same.<br />Section 6. Be it further enacted, that all contracts for labor made with freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes for a longer period than one month shall be in writing and in duplicate, attested and read to said freedman, free Negro, or mulatto by a beat, city, or county officer, or two disinterested white persons of the county in which the labor is to be performed, of which each party shall have one; and said contracts shall be taken and held as entire contracts; and if the laborer shall quit the service of the employer before expiration of his term of service without good cause, he shall forfeit his wages for that year, up to the time of quitting.<br />Section 7. Be it further enacted, that every civil officer shall, and every person may, arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer before the expiration of his or her term of service without good cause, and said officer and person shall be entitled to receive for arresting and carrying back every deserting employee aforesaid the sum of $5, and 10 cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery, and the same shall be paid by the employer, and held as a setoff for so much against the wages of said deserting employee:<br />Provided, that said arrested party, after being so returned, may appeal to a justice of the peace or member of the board of police of the county, who, on notice to the alleged employer, shall try summarily whether said appellant is legally employed by the alleged employer and his good cause to quit said employer; either party shall have the right of appeal to the county court, pending which the alleged deserter shall be remanded to the alleged employer or otherwise disposed of as shall be right and just, and the decision of the county court shall be final.<br />Section 8. Be it further enacted, that upon affidavit made by the employer of any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, or other credible person before any justice of the peace or member of the board of police, that any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, legally employed by said employer, has illegally deserted said employment, such justice of the peace or member of the board of police shall issue his warrant or warrants, returnable before himself, or other such officer, directed to any sheriff, constable, or special deputy, commanding him to arrest said deserter and return him or her to said employer, and the like proceedings shall be had as provided in the preceding section; and it shall be lawful for any officer to whom such warrant shall be directed to execute said warrant in any county of this state, and that said warrant may be transmitted without endorsement to any like officer of another county, to be executed and returned as aforesaid, and the said employer shall pay the cost of said warrants and arrest and return, which shall be set off for so much against the wages of said deserter.<br />Section 9. Be it further enacted, that if any person shall persuade or attempt to persuade, entice, or cause any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to desert from the legal employment of any person before the expiration of his or her term of service, or shall knowingly employ any such deserting freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, or shall knowingly give or sell to any such deserting freedman, free Negro, or mulatto any food, raiment, or other thing, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor; and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than $25 and not more than $200 and the costs; and, if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding two months' imprisonment in the county jail, and he or she shall moreover be liable to the party injured in damages:<br />Provided, if any person shall, or shall attempt to, persuade, entice, or cause any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to desert from any legal employment of any person with the view to employ said freedman, free Negro, or mulatto without the limits of this state, such person, on conviction, shall be fined not less than $50 and not more than $1500 and costs; and, if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding six months' imprisonment in the county jail,<br />Section 10. Be it further enacted, that it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to charge any white person, freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, by affidavit, with any criminal offense against his or her person or property; and, upon such affidavit, the proper process shall be issued and executed as if said affidavit was made by a white person; and it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, in any action, suit, or controversy pending or about to be instituted, in any court of law or equity of this state. to make all needful and lawful affidavits, as shall be necessary for the institution, prosecution, or defense of such suit or controversy.<br />Section 11. Be it further enacted, that the penal laws of this state, in all cases not otherwise specially provided for, shall apply and extend to all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes.<br />IV.<br />Penal Code<br />Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that no freedman, free Negro, or mulatto not in the military service of the United States government, and not licensed so to do by the board of police of his or her county, shall keep or carry firearms of any kind, or any ammunition, dirk, or Bowie knife; and, on conviction thereof in the county court, shall be punished by fine, not exceeding $10, and pay the costs of such proceedings, and all such arms or ammunition shall be forfeited to the informer; and it shall be the duty of every civil and military officer to arrest any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto found with any such arms or ammunition, and cause him or her to be committed for trial in default of bail.<br />Section 2. Be it further enacted, that any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto committing riots, routs, affrays, trespasses, malicious mischief, cruel treatment to animals, seditious speeches, insulting gestures, language, or acts, or assaults on any person, disturbance of the peace, exercising the function of a minister of the Gospel without a license from some regularly organized church, vending spirituous or intoxicating liquors, or committing any other misdemeanor t e punishment of which is not specifically provided for by law shall, upon conviction thereof in the county court, be fined not less than $10 and not more than $100, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days.<br />Section 3. Be it further enacted, that if any white person shall sell, lend, or give to any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto any firearms, dirk, or Bowie knife, or ammunition, or any spirituous or intoxicating liquors, such person or persons so offending, upon conviction thereof in the county court of his or her county, shall be fined not exceeding $50, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days:<br />Provided, that any master, mistress, or employer of any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto may give to any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto apprenticed to or employed by such master, mistress, or employer spirituous or intoxicating liquors, but not in sufficient quantities to produce intoxication.<br />Section 4. Be it further enacted, that all the penal and criminal laws now in force in this state defining offenses and prescribing the mode of punishment for crimes and misdemeanors committed by slaves, free Negroes, or mulattoes be and the same are hereby reenacted and declared to be in full force and effect against freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes, except so far m the mode and manner of trial and punishment have been changed or altered by law.<br />Section 5. Be it further enacted, that if any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto convicted of any of the misdemeanors provided against in this act shall fail-or refuse, for the space of five days after conviction, to pay the fine and costs imposed, such person shall be hired out by the sheriff or other officer, at public outcry, to any white person who will pay said fine and all costs and take such convict for the shortest time. (Westport, Conn., 1972) Ark. Narr., Vol. 8, 175- 179.<br />323.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America)”denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and the descendants furtherance’s the 14th Amendment full enjoyment in rights as described below by Defendant (The United States of America) from era of 1866-67 after black codes “throughout 1968 as follows: “Jim Crow Laws” being imposed from various states of the Defendant (The United States of America):<br />Nurses No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. Alabama <br />Buses All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races. Alabama <br />Railroads The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama <br />Restaurants It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama <br />Pool and Billiard Rooms It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards. Alabama <br />Toilet Facilities, Male Every employer of white or negro males shall provide for such white or negro males reasonably accessible and separate toilet facilities. Alabama <br />Intermarriage The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona <br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. Florida <br />Cohabitation Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida <br />Education The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately. Florida <br />Juvenile Delinquents There shall be separate buildings, not nearer than one fourth mile to each other, one for white boys and one for negro boys. White boys and negro boys shall not, in any manner, be associated together or worked together. Florida <br />Mental Hospitals The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together. Georgia <br />Intermarriage It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. Georgia <br />Barbers No colored barber shall serve as a barber [to] white women or girls. Georgia <br />Burial The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. Georgia <br />Restaurants All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license. Georgia <br />Amateur Baseball It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. Georgia <br />Parks It shall be unlawful for colored people to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white persons...and unlawful for any white person to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the use and benefit of colored persons. Georgia <br />Wine and Beer All persons licensed to conduct the business of selling beer or wine...shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room at any time. Georgia <br />Reform Schools The children of white and colored races committed to the houses of reform shall be kept entirely separate from each other. Kentucky <br />Circus Tickets All circuses, shows, and tent exhibitions, to which the attendance of...more than one race is invited or expected to attend shall provide for the convenience of its patrons not less than two ticket offices with individual ticket sellers, and not less than two entrances to the said performance, with individual ticket takers and receivers, and in the case of outside or tent performances, the said ticket offices shall not be less than twenty-five (25) feet apart. Louisiana <br />Housing Any person...who shall rent any part of any such building to a negro person or a negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a negro person or negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five ($25.00) nor more than one hundred ($100.00) dollars or be imprisoned not less than 10, or more than 60 days, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court. Louisiana <br />The Blind The board of trustees shall...maintain a separate building...on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race. Louisiana <br />Intermarriage All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, or between a white person and a member of the Malay race; or between the negro a nd a member of the Malay race; or between a person of Negro descent, to the third generation, inclusive, and a member of the Malay race, are forever prohibited, and shall be void. Maryland <br />Railroads All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers. Maryland <br />Education Separate schools shall be maintained for the children of the white and colored races. Mississippi <br />Promotion of Equality Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine or not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both. Mississippi <br />Intermarriage The marriage of a white person with a negro or mulatto or person who shall have one-eighth or more of negro blood, shall be unlawful and void. Mississippi <br />Hospital Entrances There shall be maintained by the governing authorities of every hospital maintained by the state for treatment of white and colored patients separate entrances for white and colored patients and visitors, and such entrances shall be used by the race only for which they are prepared. Mississippi <br />Prisons The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the negro convicts. Mississippi <br />Education Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored school. Missouri <br />Intermarriage All marriages between...white persons and negroes or white persons and Mongolians...are prohibited and declared absolutely void...No person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person, nor shall any white person be permitted to marry any negro or person having one-eighth part or more of negro blood. Missouri <br />Education Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent. New Mexico <br />Textbooks Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. North Carolina <br />Libraries The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals. North Carolina <br />Militia The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization.No organization of colored troops shall be permitted where white troops are available, and while white permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers. North Carolina <br />Transportation The...Utilities Commission...is empowered and directed to require the establishment of separate waiting rooms at all stations for the white and colored races. North Carolina <br />Teaching Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not less than ten dollars ($10.00) nor more than fifty dollars ($50.00) for each offense. Oklahoma <br />Fishing, Boating, and Bathing The [Conservation] Commission shall have the right to make segregation of the white and colored races as to the exercise of rights of fishing, boating and bathing. Oklahoma <br />Mining The baths and lockers for the negroes shall be separate from the white race, but may be in the same building. Oklahoma <br />Telephone Booths The Corporation Commission is hereby vested with power and authority to require telephone companies...to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths. That the Corporation Commission shall determine the necessity for said separate booths only upon complaint of the people in the town and vicinity to be served after due hearing as now provided by law in other complaints filed with the Corporation Commission. Oklahoma <br />Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter. South Carolina <br />Child Custody It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro. South Carolina <br />Libraries Any white person of such county may use the county free library under the rules and regulations prescribed by the commissioners court and may be entitled to all the privileges thereof. Said court shall make proper provision for the negroes of said county to be served through a separate branch or branches of the county free library, which shall be administered by [a] custodian of the negro race under the supervision of the county librarian. Texas <br />Education [The County Board of Education] shall provide schools of two kinds; those for white children and those for colored children. Texas <br />Theaters Every person...operating...any public hall, theatre, opera house, motion picture show or any place of public entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored persons, shall separate the white race and the colored race and shall set apart and designate...certain seats therein to be occupied by white persons and a portion thereof , or certain seats therein, to be occupied by colored persons. Virginia <br />Railroads The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race. Virginia <br />Intermarriage All marriages of white persons with Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming <br />Ohio<br />Enacted a <br />1877: Miscegenation Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned in three months, or both.<br />South Dakota<br />Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. <br />A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957.<br />1909: Miscegenation Intermarriage or illicit cohabitation forbidden between blacks and whites. Penalty: Felony, punishable by a fine up to $1,000, or by imprisonment up to ten years, or both.<br />1913: Miscegenation Law expanded to prohibit marriage between whites and persons belonging to the "African, Corean, Korean Malayan, or Mongolian race." Penalty: Felony, punishable by a fine up to $1,000, or by imprisonment in state prison up to ten years, or both.<br />1929: Miscegenation Miscegenation declared a felony. Also forbid marriages between persons of the Caucasian, Asian and Malay races.<br />1952: Adoption petitions must state race of petitioner and child.<br />Utah<br />Four miscegenation laws were passed in Utah between 1888 and 1953, prohibiting intermarriage between whites and those of African or Asian descent. School segregation was barred in 1895. The state's miscegenation law was repealed in 1963.<br />1888: Miscegenation Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person.<br />1907: Miscegenation Marriage laws amended, with earlier intermarriage provision remaining the same.<br />1933: Miscegenation Prohibited marriages between persons of the Caucasian and Asian races.<br />1953: Miscegenation Marriage between "white and Negro, Malayan, mulatto, quadroon, or octoroon void."<br />Nebraska<br />1865: Miscegenation Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both.<br />1911: Miscegenation Marriages between a white and colored person declared illegal. Also noted that marriages between whites and those persons with one-quarter or more Negro blood were void.<br />1929: Miscegenation Forbid marriages between persons of the Caucasian race and those persons with one eighth or more Asian blood.<br />1943: Miscegenation Prohibited marriage of whites with anyone with one-eighth or more Negro, Japanese or Chinese blood.<br />Nevada's laws... Enacted four miscegenation laws and a school segregation statute between 1865 and 1957. The education statute declared that blacks, Asians and Indians were prohibited from attending public schools, and that a separate school would be established for them if "deemed advisable." The state's miscegenation law offered an extensive list of inappropriate marriage candidates by race and color for Caucasians, including blacks, "Malay or brown race, Mongolian or yellow race, or Indian or red race." The miscegenation statute was repealed in 1959.<br /> Mississippi<br />"Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five thousand (5,000.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." <br />Indiana<br />Enacted seven Jim Crow laws in the areas of education and miscegenation between 1869 and 1952<br /> Persons who violated the miscegenation law could be imprisoned between one and ten years. The state barred school segregation in 1877, followed by a law giving equal access to public facilities in 1885.<br />1869: Education Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children.<br />1905: Miscegenation prohibited.<br />1952: Miscegenation Marriage between whites and Negroes void.<br />Colorado<br />1864: Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $500, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both.<br />1864-1908: Passed three Jim Crow laws between 1864 and 1908, all concerning miscegenation. School segregation was barred in 1876, followed by ending segregation of public facilities in 1885. Four laws protecting civil liberties were passed between 1930 and 1957, when the anti-miscegenation statute was repealed.<br />1908: Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and whites prohibited. Penalties: Punishable by imprisonment from three months to two years, or a fine of between $50 to $500, or both. Performing a marriage ceremony punishable by a fine of $50 to $500, or three months to two years' imprisonment, or both.<br />1930: Miscegenation declared a misdemeanor.<br />Connecticut<br />1879: Military Authorized state to organize four independent companies of infantry of "colored men". Companies were to receive same pay as other companies, including one company parade in the Spring and one in September.<br />1908: Miscegenation Prohibited intermarriage between white persons and those persons having one-eighth or more Negro blood.<br />1925: Antidefamation Prohibited motion picture theaters from showing any film which ridiculed the Negro race.<br />1933: Miscegenation declared a felony.<br />1935: Education Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869.<br />324.<br />Defendant 15th Amendment clearly stating <br />15th Amendment<br />AMENDMENT XV <br />Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.<br />Section 1.The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude--<br />Section 2.The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.<br />“However” Defendant (The United States of America) 1866-67 era throughout 1968 “Jim Crow Laws” denied (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants the 15th Amendment rights to vote as a sample described below by Defendant (The United States of America) as follows:<br />Texas adopted a poll tax in 1902. It required that otherwise eligible voters pay between $1.50 and $1.75 to register to vote - a lot of money at the time, and a big barrier to the working classes and poor. Poll taxes, which disproportionately affected African Americans and Mexican Americans, were finally abolished for national elections by the 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1964.<br />The white primary in Texas treated the Democratic Party as a private club whose membership could be restricted to citizens of Anglo heritage. It originated as a change in Democratic Party practice early in the twentieth century as a way to disenfranchise African Americans, and later in south Texas, Mexican Americans. In 1923 the white primary became state law. After numerous legal challenges to successive versions of the law the Legislature had passed to preserve the practice, the U.S. Supreme Court finally and decisively prohibited the white primary in the 1944 case Smith vs. Allwright.<br />325.<br />A Declaratory Judgment is a judgment of a court in a civil case which declares the rights, duties, or obligations of one or more parties in a dispute. <br />A declaratory judgment is legally binding, but it does not order any action by a party. In this way the declaratory judgment is like an action to quiet title, a paternity petition, or any other form of preventive adjudication.<br /> The declaratory judgment is generally distinguished from an advisory opinion because the latter does not resolve an actual case or controversy. A court may issue a declaratory judgment by itself or along with some other relief (such as an award of damages or an injunction). A declaratory judgment is sometimes called a declaratory ruling, a term which also includes decisions of regulatory agencies.<br />326.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein states, assert and move very respectful before the “Honorable Justice” all causes of action(s) being made under declaratory ruling throughout fully completely as described in the Amend Complaint to include but not limited to as follows:<br />327.<br />During The 1890s Defendant herein (The United States of America) launch a three pronged attack aimed at erasing, wipe out, expunge all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans' descendants having any “legal & Civil Fairness” in absolute participation in described defendant (America) “politics and the economy”.<br />328.<br />Full Declaratory Judgment before the “Honorable Justice” fully being made legal entry into the records by a Jury herein in that the Defendant (The United States of America) (for among other things)<br />Willfully, intentionally and knowingly in a fiduciary capacity (The United States of America) set on, determined, resolved, conspire, plan, connive collaborate and unite with “White Supremacy”, <br />Being a superior race by oppression, domination and resolution against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans blood heritage in;<br />1. Disenfranchisement--every southern state of the Defendant (The United States of America), between 1890 and 1905, passed laws designed specifically to prevent and target (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans from voting. <br />2. Defendant (The United States of America) Jim Crow Laws--In this same period, each southern state of the Defendant (The United States of America) passed laws formally segregating public facilities against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans. It was in the 1890s that the famous "white" and "colored" signs appeared.<br />3. “Massive Lynching”--In this same period, a campaign of lynching re-open and began, The Co-Defendant infamous founder (President Andrew Johnson) of his Klu Klux Klan (KKK) paramilitary killer bandits <br />“Restarted targeting” and providing massive premature “wrongful deaths” and destruction, inflicting cruel combine continue application plan into furtherance’s “genocide statehood death toll upon all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American (race) “men” descendants “especially”.<br />329.<br />Declaratory Judgment Vote Disfranchisement against (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants <br />In the 1890s, each southern state of the Defendant (The United States of America) passed constitutional amendments placing stipulations on voting that hit (Negro) Plaintiff Black African Americans descendants hardest. There were three main ways Defendant (The United States of America) scheme in doing this: “poll taxes, property tests and literacy tests.<br />Property tests made it illegal to vote unless you owned property. The poll tax simply put a tax on voting. Poll taxes, clearly had a discouraging effect on voting by poor (Negro) people<br /> Brings respectful to mind before the “Honorable Justice” taking complete judicial notice to factors<br /> In the vote scrubbing of 87,000 (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans voters in Florida that enabled George W. Bush to “steal” the 2000 election. <br />340.<br />Preponderance of the evidence n. the greater weight of the evidence required in a civil (non-criminal) lawsuit for the Trier of fact (jury or judge without a jury) to decide in favor of one side or the other. This preponderance is based on the more convincing evidence and its probable truth or accuracy, and not on the amount of evidence. <br />Thus, one clearly knowledgeable witness may provide a preponderance of evidence over a dozen witnesses with hazy testimony, or a signed agreement with definite terms may outweigh opinions or speculation about what the parties intended. <br />Preponderance of the evidence is required in a civil case and is contrasted with "beyond a reasonable doubt," which is the more severe test of evidence required to convict in a criminal trial. No matter what the definition stated in various legal opinions, the meaning is somewhat subjective.<br />341.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American here respectfully moves before the “Honorable Court” by all of the Preponderance of the evidence being Presented herein to be that said described defendant (American) “History” as outline the very moment in time to the present undersigned “Date of 2011” <br /> described “Hostile”, “Oppression”, “Genocide Statehood” application by Defendant (The United States of America) plan, blueprint, enrollment with “White Supremacy” and their “Main” Co- Agents, Confederates Bad Ass Actor(s) Klu Klux Klan (KKK) warranting full declaratory judgment as described to include but not limited to <br /> 342.<br />Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) conviction under the Preponderance of the evidence to wit: Conspire, with intent, having full knowledge, information, familiarity, and expertise in the Actual “Attempted Assassination” and the “Death of The President of the Defendant (The United State of America) <br />President Abraham Lincoln for control of all Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendant(s) herein and latter the full introduction, enforcement(s) By: Defendant (The United States of America) “Black Codes” Laws.<br />343. <br />Defendant (The United States of America) “History” alleges as follows:<br />John Wilkes Booth, had assigned George Atzerodt to alleges kill Co-Defendant “Vice President Andrew Johnson,” who was staying at the Kirkwood Hotel in Washington. Atzerodt was to go to the Vice President's room at 10:15 p.m. and shoot him.[46] On April 14, Atzerodt rented room 126 at the Kirkwood, directly above the room where Johnson was staying. <br />344.<br />He arrived at the Kirkwood at the appointed time and went to the bar downstairs. He was carrying a gun and a knife. Atzerodt asked the bartender, Michael Henry, about the Vice President's character and behavior. After spending some time at the hotel saloon, Atzerodt got drunk and wandered away down the streets of Washington. Nervous, he tossed his knife away in the street. He made his way to the Pennsylvania House Hotel by 2 a.m., where he checked into a room and went to sleep.<br />345.<br />Earlier that day, Booth stopped by the Kirkwood Hotel and left a note for Johnson that read, "I don't wish to disturb you. Are you at home? J. Wilkes Booth."<br /> The card was picked up that night by Johnson's personal secretary, William Browning.<br />This message has been interpreted in many different ways throughout the years.<br /> One theory is that Booth, afraid that Atzerodt would not succeed in killing Johnson, or worried that Atzerodt would not have the courage to carry out the assassination, tried to use the message to implicate Johnson in the conspiracy.<br /> Another theory is that Booth was actually trying to contact Browning in order to find out whether or not Johnson was expected to be at home in the Kirkwood that night.<br />346.<br />However” The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Preponderance of the evidence against the Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson as Follows:<br />347.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans assert, declare respectful before the “Honorable Court” herein all factual events being document public history records as described statement(s) by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />Factual when “Tennessee” seceded in 1861, Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson was a U.S. Senator from Greeneville in East Tennessee. <br />348.<br />Co-Defendant (Johnson) was elected governor of Tennessee, serving from 1853 to 1857. <br />349<br />He was then elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate, serving from October 8, 1857 – March 4, 1862. He was chairman of the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expense (Thirty-sixth Congress). <br />As a U.S. senator, he continued to push for the Homestead Act. <br />It finally passed in 1862, after the Civil War had begun and “White Supremacy Southerners had resigned from Congress.<br />350.<br />As the slavery question became more critical, Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein continued to take a middle course. <br />351.<br />Co-Defendant (Johnson) opposed the antislavery Republican Party because he believed the Constitution guaranteed the right to own (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendant’s “slaves”. <br />352.<br />Co-Defendant (Johnson) supported President Buchanan's administration. <br />He also approved the Lecompton Constitution proposed by proslavery settlers in Kansas. <br />When the Kansas territory was ready to seek admission to the Union in 1857, the key issue was whether it would be a free state or a slave state. <br />353.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) pro-slavery “White Supremacy” forces won control of the constitutional convention, which met in the town of Lecompton in September of that year 1857.<br />354.<br /> The complicated fight over the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution manifested the sectional tension that would erupt in the Civil War three years later.<br />355.<br />(Negro) Pro Se Plaintiff (Hamilton II) herein state for the “Judicial Honor” on record “However in that” at the same time, Co-Defendant (Johnson) hypocrite in doing so simply made it clear before public sympathy concerns <br />That his devotion to the Defendant (The United States of America) Union exceeded Co-Defendant (Johnson) devotion to right to own (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants as “slaves”.<br />356.<br />This was by the Co-Defendant (Johnson) a ploy; ruse, tactic, scheme and full undisclosed maneuver to furtherance’s personal political ambitions needed steps in gain for the Co-Defendant pursue in the “Highest Office” The Presidency of the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />357.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) 100% Proof being simple stated, assert and declared before the “Honorable Justice” in that right after the “Death” of President Abraham Lincoln, Co-Defendant (Johnson) became official President of the Defendant (The United States of America) without a “Vice President” <br />358.<br />“Infamous Black Codes” was a name given to laws passed by Defendant (The United States of America) Southern “White Supremacy governments established and supported during the presidency of Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson.<br />359.<br /> These “Black Code laws” of the Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson imposed severe restrictions on freed (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants slaves by the Defendant (The United States of America) such as prohibiting the full (Negro) citizen having the actual right to vote, <br />360.<br /> Co-Defendant (Johnson) furtherance’s Forbidding (Negro) descendants to sit on juries, limiting (Negro) descendants right to testify against any “white men”, carrying weapons in public places and working in certain occupations in “direct” contradiction in paragraph (355) above<br /> In regards to Co-Defendant (Johnson) having beforehand stated understanding all (Negro)race being fully freeman in direct contradiction, inconsistency of the Defendant (The United States of America) now oppressive enforcement of “Black Codes” by Co-Defendant (Johnson) <br />361.<br />To include but not limited to Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson “Black Codes Laws” being fully in “direct” contradiction of the Defendant (The United States of America) “Entire Constitution”.<br />362.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, and declare honest before the “Honorable Justice”<br />On April 14, 1865, Abraham Lincoln was shot and mortally wounded by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer,<br />363.<br />Co-Defendant (Andrew Johnson) first acting duty as acting President of the Defendant (The United States of America) “Oval Office” was to “Veto” a “Civil Rights Bill” in Favor of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African descendants race which was already working progress of (Lincoln) Presidential administration. <br />364.<br />Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson, in a letter to Gov. Thomas C. Fletcher of Missouri, wrote, "This is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for white men.<br />The States of America) Democratic Party, proclaiming itself the party of “white men”, <br />Defendant (The United States of America) North and South States, aligned with Co-Defendant (Johnson) racial stances.<br />365.<br />On 29 May 1865, Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson issued a “Proclamation of Amnesty” to the majority who fought for the Confederacy.<br />366.<br />Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson unsuccessfully sought to block ratification of the Defendant 14th amendment.<br />367.<br />However, (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” the Republicans on <br />April 9th– The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is passed by the Defendant (The United States of America) Congress over Co-Defendant President (Andrew Johnson's) presidential veto. <br />All persons born in the United States are now citizens (Negros) too.<br />368.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state before the “Honorable Justice” during the “month of April of 1866 Co-Defendant Andrew Johnson invited “Confederate General “Albert Pike” to the “White House” <br />Where upon he was conferred the “title of 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Freemason and pardon by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson<br />“However prior “General Albert Pike” whom was seriously wanted by the “Union Army” on conspiracy charges, having fled to Canada after Lincoln assassination giving rise to additional “Treason Charges” against Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson<br />369.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Dr. Samuel Mudd was charged with conspiring with (Booth) to Kill President Lincoln, <br />And sentenced July 7th 1865 to “life in prison” However” Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein eventually pardon Dr. Samuel Mudd early in 1869. <br />370.<br /> To include but not limited to One of Johnson's last significant acts was granting unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day, December 25, 1868,<br />371.<br />Your President is now the Tribune of the people, and, thank God, I am, and intend to assert the power which the people have placed in me... Tyranny and despotism can be exercised by many, more rigorously, more vigorously, and more severely, than by one. “As quoted” in Presidential Government in the United States: The Unwritten Constitution (1947) by Caleb Perry Patterson.<br />369. <br />Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson once suggested that God saw fit to have Lincoln assassinated so that he (Co-Defendant Johnson) could become president.<br />370.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) assert, and declare before the “Honorable Justice” Klu Klux Klan (KKK) was founded and formed by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson during the same time frame Co-Defendant (Johnson) imposed “Black Codes” upon all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein in 1865 <br />371.<br />And at the same time in Pulaski, Tennessee, the instituted (KKK) paramilitary as a terrorist organization by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein from all off the quick “Civil War” prison release under the <br />“Proclamation of Amnesty” for all veterans of the Confederate Army being provided in patrol, intimidation, terrorizing, repression, oppression, associated with massive premature wrongful deaths of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans. <br />372. <br />The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the Second Freedmen's Bureau Act would have provided longer enforcement of “civil rights” for all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants herein “freedmen”, but it is However vetoed by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson.<br />373.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state and declare before the “Honorable Justice” in that Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein even devised, devil scheme in Defendant (The United States of America)1865 “Black Codes Laws” enforcement; <br />374.<br />Complete severe retaliations directed to All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “Union Army” Servicemen in the complete “Massive Child Abduction” of (Negro) Children under “Black Codes” disguise Apprentices laws, forcing bogus labor actions from said (Negro) descendants Children’s being emplaced back onto Southern Slave Plantations, <br />375.<br />And under Defendant (The United States of America) blueprint, plan, involvement, complicity, conspiracy, collusion, and consent in union benefit with “White Supremacy” for a price fixing scam under a control almost absolute free labor “work camps” in design and full hostile conspiracy with the Co-Defendant herein President Andrew Johnson directed at the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “blood race”<br />375.<br />As evidence before the “Honorable Justice” depicted by (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in exhibit (C) direct at “Negro Union Servicemen” fight in the “Civil War”<br />And (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans depicted in exhibit (D)<br /> “Harper’s Weekly Lampoon “Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson” returns to his first Love <br /> A revealing take on Co-Defendant (Johnson) “Civil Rights” policies can be seen in the right store window pane in exhibit (D) with the sign<br /> “Colored Kids for sale”<br />376.<br />As also depicted in full before the “Honorable Court by Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and the Defendant herein (The United States of America) “Black Codes Laws” under the cover, cloak, conceal, cover up disguise 1865 Black Codes “Child Apprentices laws,<br />377.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, and being respectful before the “Honorable Justice” in that Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein with his “Rebel Paramilitary Army Confederate” forces from the previous “Civil War” now cloak as (KKK)<br />Being all during this time frame having furtherance’s official in criminal intent, aim, goal, plan, direction of a “target” while within the control, custody, and criminal (RICO) intention of the Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein<br />378. <br />To include but not limited before the “Honorable Justice” Being In the same full agreement, collusion, intent, aim, goal, plan, with the Defendant (The United States of America) in their “official fiduciary capacity of among other things “Government acting “Mayor” of the City of New Orleans LA, with his “Police Officers Force” and “All Acting Firemen(s)” <br />Being In the same full committed collusion, intent, aim, goal, plan, with “White Supremacy” races present for such objective action(s) of complete aggressive pursuit against the peace, will, dignity and “civil rights of all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein<br />For continue “Black Codes Laws” and future control through “the already profiteering establishment of complete “oppression”, “domination”, and “tyranny” for an continue imposed “Genocide Statehood” against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans races within the Defendant (The United States of America) as such described “oppression”, “domination”, and “tyranny” for said “Genocide Statehood” being foster, and completely described numerously being herein before the “Honorable Justice”<br />379.<br />Defendant (The United States of America), Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) “Mayor” of the City of New Orleans LA, with his “Police Officers Force” and “All Acting Firemen(s)” <br />380.<br /> Being fully committed to institute “massive government wrongful premature cause of “Death” associated with “Defendant (The United States of America) Government control “mass murder” and riot”(s) to rule, be in charge of, have domination power over <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American(s) descendants within the Defendant (The United States of America) during the “Vote Elections” year of 1866 as follows:<br />381.<br />News ArticleHarper's Weekly, March 30, 1867 page 202THE NEW ORLEANS MASSACREThe Committee of Congress appointed to investigate the riot in New Orleans on July 30, 1866; have lately presented a report, giving a full history of the tragedy. It is shown by that record that the riotous attack upon the Republican Convention, with its terrible results of massacre and murder, was planned and executed by the Mayor of New Orleans, and that it had the countenance of President Johnson, without which it would never have taken place. The report shows that the number known to have been killed was 38, of whom 37 were loyal, and one disloyal; 48, all loyal, were severely wounded; 98 slightly wounded, of whom 88 were loyal, and 10 policemen. Besides these there was evidence, though not fully certain, that 10 more were killed and 20 wounded. Of those known to be killed 34 were colored, of the severely wounded 40, of the slightly wounded 79. Preparations for the massacre were made under the shield of the municipal authorities for some time before it took place. Fire-companies prepared and armed themselves; the police were withdrawn from their posts, supplied with revolvers, and kept waiting at their station-houses until the signal for the butchery was given, And then rushed to the bloody work with a raging mob of rebel soldiers. The Mayor made no effort to stop the disorder, and the military commander was misled as to the hour of the meeting, so that he could not bring up his troops in time to repress the outrages. The spirit which dictated this terrible massacre of the Unionists of New Orleans "will not down," but continues to inspire such fury in the breast of the returned rebels as leads them to desire and plan another similar slaughter. The rebel element in the State and city has dominated ever since the riot of July last, and its influence and insolence has so rapidly increased as to threaten a second performance of the same horrible character. An election, deemed a fitting occasion for such an exhibition, was to have been held in New Orleans on March 11 last. So determined were the returned rebels to provoke a second riot that General Sheridan was compelled, in order to secure quiet and give protection to the Unionists, to forbid the opening of the polls, and to order that "the day of election be postponed until a district commander under the new military law shall have been appointed." General Sheridan has since been appointed to this command, and the elections henceforth will be conducted by and under his direction.<br />382.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, and being respectful before the “Honorable Justice” furtherance’s rely upon the “Honorable Justice” taking “Judicial Notice” <br />In that under Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein Administration similarly “Massive Wrongful Death(s)” and “Riots occurred being direct completely at the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants throughout the Defendant (The United States of America) “Election(s)” of 1866 when Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein running for the “Highest office” of the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />383.<br />As described “above in paragraph (381) in regards to the “New Orleans LA “Riots” and below” in being Memphis, Tenn. May 22 ’66 which Co-Defendant herein (Johnson) also being former Governor of said Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Tennessee<br />Such extreme criminal example of “Complete Lawless” for any (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans simple peace, will, dignity, civil rights to life and “plan old existences” being serious degraded, trash as depicted by paragraph “White Americans” hostile actions in paragraph (386) below<br />384.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare with “weight”, ”importance”, and “strong emphases” many of the Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) agreement, union, harmony, arrangement and conformity in all “hostile covert paramilitary operations” being conducted during Defendant (The United States of America) 1866 Election Year”;<br />“With Defendant” (The United States of America) concurrence committing to also massive wrongful premature death(s) associated with “homicide in “execution(s)” committed by Co-Defendant herein (Johnson) primarily in the well massive pre-organized pack, and deal gathering of the “Confederate Army Military” <br />Being cloak now fully in 1866 as Klu Klux Klan (KKK), among other Defendant (The United States of America) Government Police, among many other “White Supremacy hate Groups and “White Citizens”<br />385.<br />Doing such massive criminal (RICO) infliction of “Wrongful Deaths”, among other things as example of committing hangings, beating, mutilations terrorizing, theft, arson of homes, schools, business with most going selfish in being remain “unreported” by the Government Police during this time frame, <br />To include but not limited to nothing being with any little simple support effort in aid of stopping such major atrocity being committed with the aid by the Defendant (The United States of America) “Government Police” doing the undertaking”<br />Until well after the facts many funeral services having been conducted and any remaining (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein have been scared off fleeing for the scared lives with remaining scared family in toll.<br />386.<br />The Freedmen’s Bureau Report on the Memphis Race Riots of 1866T. W. Gilbreth May 22, 1866<br />Memphis, Tenn. May 22 ’66 Maj. Genl. O. O. Howard Commissioner B. R. F. & A. L. <br />Washington, D. C. <br />General, <br />In accordance with the instructions contained in S. O. No. 64, Ex. II, War Dept., B. R. F. & A. L. dated Washington, D. C. May 7, 1866 and your letter of "confidential instructions" of the same date, I have the honor herewith to submit a report of an investigation of the late riots in Memphis. <br />I reached Memphis May 11th and I found General Fisk, the Asst. Commissioner for Ky. And Tenn. here. He had already directed his Inspector General Col. C. T. Johnson to institute an investigation and I found the Colonel had commenced his work and was well advanced. <br />At the suggestion of General Fisk I immediately conferred with Colonel Johnson and we determined to make a joint investigation and report. We have taken some affidavits and as many more could have been procured if we could have taken the time. <br />I have the honor to be Very Respectfully Your Obdt. Servant (sd) T. W. Gilbreth Aid-de-Camp <br />Report of an investigation of the cause, origin, and results of the late riots in the city of Memphis made by Col. Charles F. Johnson, <br />Inspector General States of Ky. And Tennessee and Major T. W. Gilbreth, A. D. C. To Maj. Genl. Howard, Commissioner Bureau R. F. & A. Lands. <br />The remote cause of the riot as it appears to us is a bitterness of feeling which has always existed between the low whites & blacks, both of whom have long advanced rival claims for superiority, both being as degraded as human beings can possibly be. <br />In addition to this general feeling of hostility there was an especial hatred among the city police for the Colored Soldiers, who were stationed here for a long time and had recently been discharged from the service of the U. S., which was most cordially reciprocated by the soldiers. <br />This has frequently resulted in minor affrays not considered worthy of notice by the authorities. These causes combined produced a state of feeling between whites and blacks, which would require only the slightest provocation to bring about an open rupture. <br />The Immediate Cause <br />On the evening of the 30th April 1866 several policemen (4) came down Causey Street, and meeting a number of Negroes forced them off the sidewalk. In doing so a Negro fell and a policeman stumbled over him. The police then drew their revolvers and attacked the Negroes, beating them with their pistols. <br />Both parties then separated, deferring the settlement by mutual consent to some future time (see affidavit marked "A"). On the following day, May 1st, during the afternoon, between the hours of 3 and 5, a crowd of colored men, principally discharged soldiers, many of whom were more or less intoxicated, were assembled on South Street in South Memphis. <br />Three or four of these were very noisy and boisterous. Six policemen appeared on South Street, two of them arrested two of the Negroes and conducted them from the ground. The others remained behind to keep back the crowd, when the attempt was made by several Negroes to rescue their comrades. The police fell back when a promiscuous fight was indulged in by both parties. <br />During this affray one police officer was wounded in the finger, another (Stephens) was shot by the accidental discharge of his pistol in his own hand, and afterward died. <br />About this time the police fired upon unoffending Negroes remote from the riotous quarter. Colored soldiers with whom the police first had trouble had returned in the meantime to Fort Pickering. The police was soon reinforced and commenced firing on the colored people, men, women and children, in that locality, killing and wounding several. <br />Shortly after, the City Recorder (John C. Creighton) arrived upon the ground (corner of Causey and Vance Streets) and in a speech which received three hearty cheers from the crowd there assembled, councilled and urged the whites to arm and kill every Negro and drive the last one from the city. <br />Then during this night the Negroes were hunted down by police, firemen and other white citizens, shot, assaulted, robbed, and in many instances their houses searched under the pretense of hunting for concealed arms, plundered, and then set on fire, during which no resistance so far as we can learn was offered by the Negroes. <br />A white man by the name of Dunn, a fireman, was shot and killed by another white man through mistake (reference is here made to accompanying affidavit mkd "B"). <br />During the morning of the 2nd inst. (Wednesday) everything was perfectly quiet in the district of the disturbances of the previous day. A very few Negroes were in the streets, and none of them appeared with arms, or in any way excited except through fear. About 11 o’clock A. M. a posse of police and citizens again appeared in South Memphis and commenced an indiscriminate attack upon the Negroes, <br />they were shot down without mercy, women suffered alike with the men, and in several instances little children were killed by these miscreants. During this day and night, with various intervals of quiet, the nuisance continued. <br />The city seemed to be under the control of a lawless mob during this and the two succeeding days (3rd & 4th). All crimes imaginable were committed from simple larceny to rape and murder. Several women and children were shot in bed. <br />One woman (Rachel Johnson) was shot and then thrown into the flames of a burning house and consumed. Another was forced twice through the flames and finally escaped. In some instances houses were fired and armed men guarded them to prevent the escape of those inside. A number of men whose loyalty is undoubted, long residents of Memphis, who deprecated the riot during its progress, were denominated Yankees and Abolitionists, and were informed in language more emphatic than gentlemanly, that their presence here was unnecessary. <br />To particularize further as to individual acts of inhumanity would extend the report to too great a length. But attention is respectfully called for further instances to affidavits accompanying marked C, E, F & G. <br />The riot lasted until and including the 4th of May but during all this time the disturbances were not continual as there were different times of greater or less length in each day, in which the city was perfectly quiet, attacks occurring generally after sunset each day. <br />The rioters ceased their violence either of their own accord or from want of material to work on, the Negroes having hid themselves, many fleeing into the country. <br />Conduct of the Civil Authorities <br />The Hon. John Park, Mayor of Memphis, seemed to have lost entire control of his subordinates and either through lack of inclination and sympathy with the mob, or on utter want of capacity, completely failed to suppress the riot and preserve the peace of the city. His friends offer in extenuation of his conduct, that he was in a state of intoxication during a part or most of the time and was therefore unable to perform the high and responsible functions of his office. <br />Since the riot no official notice has been taken of the occurrence either by the Mayor or the Board of Aldermen, neither have the City Courts taken cognizance of the numerous crimes committed. <br />Although many of the perpetrators are known, no arrests have been made, nor is there now any indication on the part of the Civil Authorities that any are meditated by them. <br />It appears the Sheriff of this County (P. M. Minters) endeavored to oppose the mob on the evening of the 1st of May, but his good intentions were thwarted by a violent speech delivered by John C. Creighton, City Recorder, who urged and directed the arming of the whites and the wholesale slaughter of blacks. <br />This speech was delivered on the evening of the 1st of May to a large crowd of police and citizens on the corner of Vance and Causey streets, and to it can be attributed in a great measure the continuance of the disturbances. The following is the speech as extracted from the affidavits herewith forwarded marked "B"… <br />"That everyone of the citizens should get arms, organize and go through the Negro districts," and that he "was in favor of killing every God damned nigger"…"We are not prepared now, but let us prepare and clean out every damned son of a bitch of a nigger out of town…"Boys, I want you to go ahead and kill every damned one of the nigger race and burn up the cradle." <br />The effect of such language delivered by a municipal office so high in authority, to a promiscuous and excited assemblage can be easily perceived. From that time they seemed to act as though vested with full authority to kill, burn and plunder at will. <br />The conduct of a great number of the city police, who are generally composed of the lowest class of whites selected without reference to their qualifications for the position, was brutal in the extreme. Instead of protecting the rights of persons and property as is their duty, they were chiefly concerned as murderers, incendiaries and robbers. At times they even protected the rest of the mob in their acts of violence. <br />No public meeting has been held by the citizens, although three weeks have now elapsed since the riot, thus by their silence appearing to approve of the conduct of the mob. The only regrets that are expressed by the mass of the people are purely financial. There are, however, very many honorable exceptions, chiefly among men who have fought against the Government in the late rebellion, who deprecate in strong terms, both the Civil Authorities and the rioters. <br />Action of Bvt. Brig. Genl. Ben P. Runkle, Chief Supt., Bureau R. F. and A. L., Sub-District of Memphis <br />General Runkle was waited upon every hour in the day during the riot, by colored men who begged of him protection for themselves and families, and he, an officer of the Army detailed as Agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau was suffered the humiliation of acknowledging his utter inability to protect them in any respect. His personal appearance at the scenes of the riot had no affect on the mob, and he had no troops at his disposal. <br />He was obliged to put his Headquarters in a defensive state, and we believe it was only owing to the preparations made, that they were not burned down. Threats had been openly made that the Bureau office would be burned, and the General driven from the town. He, with his officers and a small squad of soldiers and some loyal citizens who volunteered were obliged to remain there during Thursday and Friday nights. <br />The origin and results of the riot may be summed up briefly as follows: <br />The remote cause was the feeling of bitterness which as always existed between the two classes. The minor affrays which occurred daily, especially between the police and colored persons.<br />The general tone of certain city papers which in articles that have appeared almost daily, have councilled the low whites to open hostilities with the blacks.<br />The immediate cause was the collision heretofore spoken of between a few policemen and Negroes on the evening of the 30th of April in which both parties may be equally culpable, followed on the evening of the 1st May by another collision of a more serious nature and subsequently by an indiscriminate attack upon inoffensive colored men and women.<br />Three Negro churches were burned, also eight (8) school houses, five (5) of which belonged to the United States Government, and about fifty (50) private dwellings, owned, occupied or inhabited by freedmen as homes, and in which they had all their personal property, scanty though it be, yet valuable to them and in many instances containing the hard earnings of months of labor. <br />Large sums of money were taken by police and others, the amounts varying five (5) to five hundred (500) dollars, the latter being quite frequent owing to the fact that many of the colored men had just been paid off and discharged from the Army. <br />No dwellings occupied by white men exclusively were destroyed and we have no evidence of any white men having been robbed. <br />From the present disturbed condition of the freedmen in the districts where the riot occurred it is impossible to determine the exact number of Negroes killed and wounded. The number already ascertained as killed is about (30) thirty; and the number wounded about fifty (50). Two white men were killed, viz., Stephens, a policemen and Dunn of the Fire Department. <br />The Surgeon who attended Stephens gives it as his professional opinion that the wound which resulted in his death was caused by the accidental discharge of a pistol in his hands (see affidavit marked "B"). Dunn was killed May 1st by a white man through mistake (see affidavit marked "B"). Two others (both Policemen) were wounded, one slightly in the finger, the other (Slattersly) seriously. <br />The losses sustained by the Government and Negroes as per affidavits received up to date amount to the sum of ninety eight thousand, three hundred and nineteen dollars and fifty five cents ($98,319.55). Subsequent investigations will in all probability increase the amount to one hundred and twenty thousand dollars ($120,00.00). <br />(signed) Chas. F. Jackson Col. And Insptr. Genl. Ky. & Tenn. T. W. Gilbreth Aide-de-Camp. <br />Source: Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Tennessee Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1869 National Archives Microfilm Publication M999, roll 34 "Reports of Outrages, Riots and Murders, Jan. 15, 1866 - Aug. 12, 1868" <br />387.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice”, The Klu Klux Klan (KKK) first formation as Defendant (The United States of America) “History claims” <br />  388.<br />At thus first, the (KKK) group was supposed to be intent as just a “social group” founded in Co-Defendant “President Andrew Johnson” home state of Tennessee, by none other than “ex-confederates” army military men from the Defendant (The United States of America) “Civil War “ <br />Being completely “War Beaten” already deadly set in absolute force against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants advancement(s) and any type of “Civil Rights” within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />389.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, state and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice”, “However the first formation of the (KKK) actual membership enlistment came about to be during the “time frame” moment(s) of 1865-66 era<br />390.<br /> Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein sought to guarantee, reassure, comfort, know for certain, and verify, “complete controls” over the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants “Freeman” <br />With several declare appointment being first and foremost On or about 29 May 1865, issued a “Proclamation of Amnesty” to the majority who fought for the Confederacy.<br />391.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare and admit respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein did in facts and circumstances <br />Second sought control, guarantee, reassure, comfort, know for certain, and verify having aid through and “complete controls” over the “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK) and in doing Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson so made public declare appointment(s) to “Confederate General Albert Pike” title of 32nd “Scottish Rite Freemason” there after “Confederate General Albert Pike” return from Canada.<br />392.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, declare and admit respectful before the “Honorable Justice” Jefferson Davis “Leader of the Confederate” appointed two men (Jacob Thompson and Clement Clay) <br />To head the Confederate Secret Service (CSS) in February 1864.----$5 million appropriated by Confederate Congress to fund CSS----Operations based largely in Canada<br />The Confederate Secret Service planned or engaged in numerous acts of terrorism or biological warfare.---Raid on St. Alban's, Vermont ---Fires started in New York City hotels (Election Day plot of 1864)---Plot to poison New York City water supply---Plot to infect Union soldiers and citizens with smallpox and yellow fever---Plot to kidnap Lincoln and hold until Confederate soldiers released---Plot to blow up White House<br />---Fall 1864 Booth, Surratt, Powell meet at least twice with CSS in Montreal---Oct. 13, 1864 Ciphered letter sent from Richmond to Booth: His "friends would be set to work as directed"---Nov. 1864 John Wilkes Booth begins recruiting for Lincoln kidnap plot---Nov. 29, 1864  Davis responds to offer to rid Confederacy of its "deadliest enemies"---Jan. 1865 Conspirator Lewis Powell seen meeting in Montreal with Clement Clay---Jan. 1865  Jacob Thompson talks of proposition by "group of bold men" to kill Union leaders---March 27, 1865  John Surratt visits Richmond and meets with Confederate AG and Jefferson Davis---April 3, 1865   John Surratt leaves Washington, D. C. for Canada---April 6, 1865 Surratt arrives in Montreal, bringing with him a ciphered letter from Richmond--------Thompson: "This makes the thing all right"--------$184,000 with drawl from Montreal Branch of Ontario Bank----April 9  General Robert E. Lee surrenders---April 10, 1865  Montreal justice of peace approached with information of plot to kill Lincoln and others---April 10, 1865  Confederate explosives expert plotting to blow up White House arrested---April 14, 1865  Lincoln assassinated and Secretary Seward stabbed<br />---May 29, 1865, Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) issued a “Proclamation of Amnesty” to the majority who fought for the Confederacy during which Klu Klux Klan (KKK) is paramilitary group is officially in formation<br />---April, 1866 Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) “Veto” Civil Rights Bill<br />--- April, 1866 Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) made public declare appointment(s) to “Confederate General Albert Pike” title of 32nd “Scottish Rite Freemason” there after upon “Confederate General Albert Pike” to (The United States of America)<br />---“Confederate General Albert Pike” having already being in mission to return to the Defendant (The United States of America) from (CSS) “Confederate Secret Service” Operations based largely in Canada completely after an arrest warrant having been issued by the “Union Army” for conspiracy in Lincoln assassination<br />--- Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) established fully “Union Army” arrest warrant for “Confederate General Albert Pike” being made forever null, unacceptable, worthless and void.<br />393.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein states, assert and declare respectful before the “Honorable Justice” the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) costumes history, <br />By Confederate veteran inventing an early (KKK) robe was not accidentally at all in early conception to conceived being cloak, cover up, disguise, mask and concealment<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert with “strong emphasis” this was surly needed for the more prominent, important, high-flying, leading, notorious famous (KKK) memberships<br /> From “Government Police”, “City Mayors” to “Governors” of the Defendant (The United States of America) and everything in between.<br />394.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein state, declare, and assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” that the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein (“KKK”) “Concealment Robe” being the “Notorious Grandest” of all in appearance, staging, and presentation for his “Personal Presidential inspections, and appointments for his high ranking “Confederate Band of Brothers”. <br />395. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein state, declare, and assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” that the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) Klu Klux Klan having full enrollment in The Pulaski Riot.<br />396. <br /> A sever race riot that occurred in the town of Pulaski, Tennessee in the summer of 1868. There were many external racial and societal influences but the origin of the riot appears to be a trade dispute between white Calvin Lamberth and Calvin Carter, an African-American. <br />Lamberth was told, afterwards, that Carter and his friend Whitlock Fields "threatened" Lamberth's black mistress. Lamberth found Fields and shot him twice with a pistol. After the shots were fired, local whites ran from their homes with pistols and shotguns.<br />397.<br />The mob attacked a grocery store containing eight black men. Though initially caught unawares, a few of the black men in the store were armed and together they were able to keep the mob at bay. <br />The town constable arranged a cease fire after many volleys of shots had been levelled at the store. As the black men left the store, eighteen of the white mob again rushed the men and fired on the group. <br />Two of the black men were killed (including Carter), two severely injured, and two more slightly injured. None of the white men were injured.<br />398.<br />Most of the white mob are believed to have been members of the Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, which was founded in Pulaski in 1865. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state also before the “Honorable Justice” In addition to the riot, there were other “wrongful death” being committed associated with premeditated murders and campaigns of general harassment were being waged in the area. <br />399.<br />The riot was just the largest demonstration of the Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) KKK's growing power in Giles County, TN and the Middle Tennessee area. <br />Over 1,300 lynchings were committed against (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants in Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Tennessee” <br />By the local (KKK) during the run up the Election of 1868 for “Tennessee State” local own hero being Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein.<br />400.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare and state also before the “Honorable Justice” most of the violence was directed towards (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s)Black African American descendants<br /> To break Republican support and hostile riots among other covert actions being committed to assure, pledge, give surety, comfort and confirm by such described criminal (RICO) murder, annoyance, aggravation, harassment, persecution activities by the Defendant (The United States of America) (KKK) as described in paragraph (399) above <br />All being official “prim and proper”, “ceremonial” for the “bequest and behalf” of Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein guarantee for re-election in 1868.<br />401.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare and state also before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein “Ku Klux Klan”, violence began to increase in the Defendant (The United States of America) Deep South. <br />In 1868 “white terrorists” tried to prevent Republicans from winning the fall election in Louisiana. Over a few days, they killed some two hundred (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendant freedmen in St. Landry Parish. <br />402.<br />To include before the “Honorable Justice” other violence erupted, From April to October, there were 1,081 political murders in Louisiana, in which most of the victims were freedmen.<br /> Violence was part of Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson) herein campaigns prior to the election of 1872 in several states.<br />403.<br /> In the Defendant (The United States of America) ‘Election of 1874 and 1875, more formal paramilitary groups affiliated with the Democratic Party conducted intimidation, terrorism and extreme murder(s), hanging associated with sever violence <br />Directed, primarily, all “target” being (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “voters” and their “allies” to reduce “Republican voting and turn officeholders out and secure defendant (The United States of America) imposed already “Hostile White Supremacy” <br />404<br />Aim, goal and reserved being further application in strict control, domination, and continue profiteering in (RICO) labor Price fixing scheme of things through the deliverances of continue cruelty, oppression, and tyranny. <br />These criminal paramilitary groups in alliance, partnership, bond, link, association, and coalition with the Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) such as the (KKK) included the “White League” and “Red Shirts”.<br />405.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare and state also before the “Honorable Justice” President Abraham Lincoln did not own (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants “Slaves”<br /> (Lincoln) 1865: “I have always thought that all men should be free; but if any should be slaves it should be first those who desire it for themselves, and secondly those who desire it for others.  Whenever I hear any one arguing for slavery I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally.” ( Lincoln, 1953, v8, p360-1).<br />406.<br />Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein bought his first (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants slave, a manservant named Sam, in 1837. He eventually owned 8. <br />“President Andrew Johnson” 1865: “You tell me, friends, of the liberation of the colored people of the South. But have you thought of the millions of Southern white people who have been liberated by the war?” <br />407.<br />Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein supported the Fugitive Slave Law and defended slavery.<br />Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein owned slaves at the beginning of the Civil War.  <br />Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein “claim” that some of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants slave came back voluntarily after being confiscated by the Confederates, and these he treated as freemen. (Johnson, v6, p 549.) 408.<br />Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein didn’t free all of his “slaves” individually he certainly freed them in 1864 when, (Johnson) as military governor of the Defendant (The United States of America) state namely “Tennessee”, <br /> Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein “proclaimed freedom” for all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants “slaves” in the state. <br />409.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state and summary respect before the “Honorable Justice” “after the Defendant (The United States of America) herein “Civil War” and their “Congress” in Washington DC have a “tussle”, “no hold bar” kicking below the belt, physical racial “free-for-all” <br />Over how far the Defendant (The United States of America) “Government” should go to secure “equality and “civil” rights for over “four Million Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants.<br />410. <br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” in 1865 President (Lincoln) shown great labor, try, work hard, <br />And simply grapple with facts in “Congress’s more “radical plan led by “Thaddeus Stevens” of Pennsylvania, a Republican leader and one of the most powerful members of the Defendant The (United States of America) United States House of Representatives for plans of refine “complete reconstruction” into the future “lives” of the “capture” and “conquer” dominated (Negro) race within the Defendant (The United States of America) herein.<br />411.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” with the “premature” Death of President (Lincoln) by the conspiring lead of Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson), <br />With the (CSS) Confederate Secrete Services, (Booth) and the other host of “plan along stupid pawns”, “supporting confederate cast” and Defendant (The United States of America) on inflicted “coup” over “bipartisan issues” of something simple as<br /> The (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein being legal, living in peace and “Free” The Issue of reconstruction remained unresolved.<br />412.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Co-Defendant (Johnson) now in the “helm” after the “coup” of “President Lincoln” <br />Now oddly enough (President Andrew Johnson) having “major clashes”, “scuffle”, “feisty fight of defiance”, “downright complete exertion” over the freedom of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants.<br />413.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress”, supporting federal guarantees for all (Negro) race full citizenship <br />While still now all of a sudden “oddly enough” after (President Lincoln) premature arranged death Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein insisted that the Defendant (The United States of America) Civil War “South States” be permitted to reestablish “White Supremacy”<br />414.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress” determined to crush the “Old Southern Ruling Class, extended the “Life of the Freedmen’s Bureau <br />And pass a “Civil Rights Bill into law granting “Equal benefit(s) and Protection to the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants. <br />415.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress” <br />Dread, panic, and fearing Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein would not enforce the “Civil Rights Act” Defendant (The United States of America) herein “Congress” passed the “Fourteenth Amendment.”<br />416.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson “vetoed the (two) reconstruction bills and the “Dirty South States” of the Defendant (The United States of America) “rejects” the “Fourteenth Amendment.”<br />417.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) herein Reconstruction began with passage of the first reconstruction act of 1867 over Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson veto, <br />In which Defendant (The United States of America) herein “Congress” temporarily place the “Dirty Southern States” under complete “Military rule” at this point (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants suffrage was legitimized assuming that “once” the (Negro) races could protect themselves by voting.<br />418.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” “However” Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein being serious in providing complete hostile anti-negro fashion, advancement of any kind, obstructed the plans implementation by the Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress”. <br />419.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress” retaliated with (2) attempts at “Impeachment of the Co-Defendant (Johnson) herein who avoided removal.<br />420.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants already fully demoralized, “chattel beaten down” from a time frame 1619-1865 through described defendant herein previous illegal hostile (RICO) “pattern and practices of “domination”, and “oppression” <br />Associated with complete facts of “coercion” by way of massive “wrongful death” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants herein associated with cause of “fear” by premeditated murder namely “Lynching’s” by the Defendant “White Supremacy ruling class”<br />421.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” To include but not limited to the added “Demoralization” of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein <br />Association with the total hostile “White Supremacy” religious prosecution by the Defendant (The United States of America) “Utah Mormon LDS Nation”, and their added “twisted oppression” and “religious convictions” also being wrongfully apply through the teaching of “The Church of Jesus Christ” of “Latter Day Saints” direct exclusive at the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans blood heritage being “Curse as Evil”.<br />422.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” even as the “human destruction factors” against all of the (Negro) race being supply, plan, and further intentions in blueprinted oppression, by “White Supremacy rule class” in denying “Civil Rights”, <br />423.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “descendants” continue attempting furtherance’s at making their “freedom” meaningful by becoming <br />“Land owners”, “professional business owners”, “acquiring education” for their “children”, and extreme desperation at the “rights” to vote in the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />424.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” “However” these two opposing goals between the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy ruling class” <br />And The (Negro) Freeman descendants experiments of having “peace and dignity” in civil rights, resulted in “major chaos”, massive premature premeditate deaths, and extreme acts and actions of “shocking violence” direct at even (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants “women & children”. <br />425.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) and Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) “Black Codes Laws” increasingly by ten folds acts of <br />Segregated, regulated, (Negro) races from (White Supremacy) races forcing (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants into a “share cropping contract labor” of “virtual peonage” into a system by which “debtors are bound” in “servitude” to their creditors until their debts are paid. <br />426.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” “However” Defendant (The United States of America) White Supremacy ruling class bent on corruption, control and straight out thievery trapped the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants in this “share cropping cycle of “poverty and dependence” and insure continue “White Supremacy” ruling class and privilege.<br />427.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) initiated significant progressive reforms, <br />Including establishing the “Dirty South States” with public schools systems, appropriating funds for an enormous expansion of public services, constructing internal improvements and fostering economic development.<br />428.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” “However” Co-Defendant Johnson) herein “Black Codes laws achieve school segregation, interracial segregation and the “main contribution” into the extreme hostility directed at the (Negro) race, <br />Any improvements, and brief economic developments (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) gain such as “Churches, political organizations, and community institutions were looted and completely bombed, burn down and destroyed through the Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson <br />Now disguised by the confederate secrete services (CSS) usage by the new now formed paramilitary Infamous Klu Klux Klan (KKK) among other “White Supremacy” groups. <br />430.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson “devilishly” implemented and provided “Defendant (The United States of America) “Government-sponsored “inflation control in aids of further poverty and dependence with a mixture cocktail of a “Reign of Terror” by wrongfully inflicted against the (Negro) races well into Defendant (The United States of America) <br />“President Grant” Administration for a continue intimidation of “Republican Government and prospective (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans voters to the point Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress” passed the “Force Acts” allowing usage of “Military force” to quell (KKK) insurrections.<br />431.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) herein assumed the Defendant (The United States of America) Presidency in trade for “ending Military protection of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants, <br />Complete withdrew Federal Troops protection effectively immediately, thus effectively abandoned all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants to their former “Slave Master” “White Supremacy control ruling class”, and the inflamed “Klu Klux Klan (KKK), <br />432.<br />To include but not limited to the same (RICO) pattern and practices of cutting back funding for (Negro) race education and other public services being Defendant (The United States of America) second time at “Government-sponsored inflation to aid in the continue cycle of providing “poverty and dependence for the (Negro) races and the “Poor white class” whom also were caught by the Defendant (RICO) poverty labor price fixing scheme of things in share cropping.<br />433.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” beginning in 1878 and culminating into the 1890s Defendant The United States of States of America) codifying the “de facto segregation, oppression, and discrimination of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants <br />Throughout the enactment of the “Infamous” Jim Crow System, providing further economic strife, physical coercion, including “thousands” of premeditate wrongful deaths associated with “Lynching’s by the paramilitary enforcing (KKK), effectively disfranchised all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans <br />434.<br />At the same time added by the Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” controlled “United States Supreme Court” having effectively through a series of court decisions, including “Plessey v. Fergusion” to affect and secure Defendant (The United States of America) herein 100% “White Supremacy ruling class” under the “White Supremacy imposed “Absolute Immunity Clause” the “White Supremacy ruling class Judges” fully bogus enjoyment in doing so.<br />435.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” all of the combine criminal (RICO) actions of the Defendant (The United States of America), Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson), Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes) <br />And the Infamous (KKK) having all inflicted such complete purgatory of “Absolutes Bitterness” upon all of the (Negro) races herein within the Defendant (The United States of America) throughout today 2011 time frame of failing to provided some holy understanding<br />436.<br /> Into why all of the “wrongs criminally being committed” by the Defendant (The United States of America) and their “White Supremacy ruling class Races” would go to continue to providing disfranchisement, profiteering off domination and race applied oppression, with infliction of Defendant (The United States of America) Government control inflation to obtain the same effective objectives.<br />437. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” by the 1880s Defendant (The United States of America) herein full acts of any further reconstruction on all (Negro) races behalf were completely destroyed starting with the “Hostile Criminal legacy” of the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein,<br />338.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) “New World Nation” was “reunified” after the blueprint “civil laws” in the force exclusion all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendants peace, will, dignity and civil rights as described herein and the “Amend complaint” now respectfully being entertain before the “Honorable Justice” <br />389.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein continue to be sentence to a continual state of “domination”, “oppression”, and “complete” force “Genocide Statehood” <br />That would not be challenged for another almost 100 years to the moment during the time frame of the 1964s (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans attempt to effect again obtain another rightful “civil rights acts” movement;<br />390.<br />Being led by “Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.” which resulted in his also “Wrongful Death” associated with premature conspirer murder(s) by application of the same old assignation being committed, and continue against many countless “civil others” within the Defendant (The United States of America).<br />391.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert, declare, state, and summary before the “Honorable Justice” Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) <br />Once again doggedly extra floppy, flakey, and quite extreme anti-negro against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants having human existences within the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />And made every effort, and indifference to erode against all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants as described by the “veto” of the “Freedmen's Bureau”, and its actual intention, idea, principle, function and drive as described below in paragraph (392).<br />392.<br />The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was a federal agency that was formed during Reconstruction to aid distressed refugees of the American Civil War. It became primarily an agency to help the Freedmen (freed slaves) in the South, including issuing rations, clothing, and medicine. <br />The Bureau also assumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate States, Border States, District of Columbia, and Indian Territory. The Bureau was established by Congress. <br />It was part of the United States Department of War, and headed by Union General Oliver O. Howard. Fully operational from June 1865 through December 1868, it was disbanded by President Andrew Johnson.<br />The bureau was put into effect to protect the best interests of former slaves. Seventeen hundred dollars were spent to help establish 4,000 schools, 100 hospitals, and provide homes and food for past slaves. This bureau was also designed to help these former slaves find new jobs and improve their education and health. <br />Howard University was also established in Washington, in 1867, with the help of the Freeman’s Bureau.<br />The Freedman’s Bureau was named after General Oliver Howard, who was a civil war hero. General Howard was also the commissioner of the Bureau of the Refugees. Nearly a year after the bureau was put into effect, the Radical Republicans, who put commissioned the bureau, attempted to increase its powers. President Andrew Johnson vetoed this request in February 1866.<br />In 1865, the Freedmen's Bureau's primary role was providing emergency food, housing, and medical aid to refugees. It could also help reunite missing family members. By late 1865, it focused its work on helping the Freedmen adjust to new conditions. The agency provided employment opportunities and supervised labor contracts. It soon became, in effect, a military court that handled legal issues. <br />By 1866, it was providing a base for political mobilization; many officials became carpetbaggers and became involved in southern politics. Conservative whites resented the Bureau, which became a major issue in the election of 1866. The Radical Republicans won that election and blocked efforts of President Johnson to abolish the agency.<br />The majority of agents were northern whites. George T. Ruby, a northerner who served first with the Army in Louisiana and moved to Texas in 1866, was one of only a handful of African-American agents. His organizational experience and travels throughout Texas gave him the necessary skills to later become one of only two blacks to serve in the Texas legislature during Reconstruction. <br />As one biographer commenting on Oliver Otis Howard said, "Howard's loose way of interpreting the law to fit his needs. He frequently was too ready to follow the spirit rather than the letter of the law."<br />Howard's loose interpretation of the legislation creating the Bureau allowed it to help blacks in many creative ways. For example, in spending five million dollars for schools between 1865 and 1871, he used money that was supposed to go for repairs toward construction of new school buildings, and money allocated for rent was used to pay teachers. <br />The Bureau was attacked by former Confederate leaders for organizing Blacks against the ruling white classes of the South, including former slaveholders. Bureau agents sometimes falsely promised Blacks that the plantation lands of their former owners would be divided up and given to them if they voted Republican. At the state level, Bureau officials tried to be fair to both freedmen and employers. <br />Although some of their subordinate agents were unscrupulous or incompetent, the majority of local Bureau agents were hindered in carrying out their duties by the opposition of former Confederates, the lack of a military presence to enforce their authority, and an excessive amount of paperwork.<br />Achievements<br />Day-to-day duties<br />One of the more important—but rarely emphasized—motives of the Bureau was to help solve everyday problems of the refugees. They urgently needed clothing, food, medicine, communication with family members, and jobs. <br />The Bureau gave out about 15 million rations of food to blacks. Also, the Bureau set up a system where planters could borrow rations in order to feed freedmen they employed. Though the Bureau set aside $350,000 for this service, only $35,000 was borrowed.<br />The Bureau attempted to strengthen existing medical care facilities as well as expand services into rural areas through newly established clinics. The Bureau succeeded in giving medical care to over one million people.<br /> Medical assistance and supplies as well as food were in short supply, and civil authorities often were reluctant to cooperate with the Bureau in aiding the former slaves. Despite the good intentions, efforts, and limited success of the Bureau, medical treatment of the freedmen was severely deficient.<br />Gender roles<br />Freedmen's Bureau agents at first complained that freedwomen were not working as they should and were refusing to contract their labor. They attempted to make freedwomen work by insisting that their husbands sign contracts obligating the whole family to work on cotton farms, and by declaring that unemployed freedwomen should be treated as vagrants just as men were. <br />The Bureau did allow some exceptions, such as certain married women with employed husbands and some "worthy" women who had been widowed or abandoned and had large families of small children and thus could not work. "Unworthy" women, meaning the unruly and, especially, prostitutes, were the ones usually subjected to punishment for vagrancy.<br />Under slavery, marriages were informal; slavery disrupted many families, as did wartime chaos. Many Freedmen attempted to find their spouses and children, and the Bureau agents helped. The Bureau had an informal regional communications system that allowed agents to send inquiries and provide answers. It sometimes provided transportation to reunite families. Freedmen and freedwomen turned to the Bureau for assistance in resolving issues of abandonment and divorce.<br />Education<br />The most widely recognized among the achievements of the Freedmen’s Bureau are its accomplishments in the field of education. George Ruby, an African American, served as teacher and school administrator and as a traveling inspector for the bureau, observing local conditions, aiding in the establishment of black schools, and evaluating the performance of Bureau field officers.<br /> His efforts met with enthusiasm for education on the part of blacks and bitter opposition, including physical violence, from many planters and other whites.<br />Overall, the Bureau spent five million dollars to set up schools for blacks. By the end of 1865, more than 90,000 former slaves were enrolled as students in public schools. Attendance rates at the new schools for freedmen were between 79 and 82 percent. An important educator was Brigadier General Samuel Chapman Armstrong; as an agent of the Bureau he created and led Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute.<br />By 1870, there were more than 1,000 schools for freedmen in the South. J. W. Alvord, an inspector for the bureau, wrote that the freedmen "have the natural thirst for knowledge," aspire to "power and influence … coupled with learning," and are excited by "the special study of books." Among the former slaves, both children and adults indulged in this new opportunity to learn. <br />It helped African Americans find jobs and homes. About 150 schools were opened in Texas, and 4,300 schools in all were opened for African Americans. After the Bureau was abolished, its achievements collapsed under the weight of white violence against schools and teachers and the gutting of funds for all schools by Redeemer legislatures devoted to limited government.<br />Church establishment<br />The freedmen sought the Bureau's aid in establishing churches. After the war, control over existing churches was a highly contentious issue; Northern Methodists seized control of Southern Methodist buildings in some cities. Whereas whites and blacks had worshiped together before the war, now they mutually agreed to separate. <br />The Bureau, with close ties to Northern Methodist and other churches, facilitated new buildings, though it did not spend any government money on churches. Northern mission societies collected funds for land, buildings, teachers' salaries, and basic necessities such as books and furniture.<br />Opposition<br />Most of the assistant commissioners, realizing that blacks would not receive fair trials in the civil courts, tried to handle black cases in their own Bureau courts. Whites objected loudly and said this was unconstitutional. <br />In Alabama, state and county judges were commissioned as Bureau agents. They were to try cases involving blacks with no distinctions on racial grounds. If a judge refused, martial law could be instituted in his district. All but three judges accepted their unwanted commissions, and the governor urged compliance.<br />Perhaps the most difficult region was Louisiana's Caddo-Bossier district. It had not experienced wartime devastation or Union occupation. Understaffed and weakly supported by federal troops, well-meaning Bureau agents found their investigations blocked and authority undermined at every turn by recalcitrant planters. Murders of freedmen were common, and suspects in these cases generally went unprosecuted. <br />Bureau agents did manage to negotiate labor contracts, build schools and hospitals, and provide the freedmen a sense of their own humanity through the agents' willingness to help.<br />The Ku Klux Klan and various other similar groups had been created by that time.<br />President Andrew Johnson returned abandoned lands to pardoned Southerners and Congress would not consider to consider land redistribution. Congress eventually dissolved the Freedman's Bureau in July 1872.<br />393.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, status, circumstances and position of the (Negro) descendants respectful before the “Honorable Justice” having force upon “oppression” in the “full elimination of (AMONG ALL NEGRO DESCENDANTS INFRATUSTURE BEING FULLY IMPORTANT OTHER THINGS)<br /> Primarily the extreme hostile attacking of the “negro children schools” in 1865 By Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and “His Paramilitary (KKK) band of brothers federation from providing <br />“necessitate reconstruction education” being essential in development to include but not limited to (Education) was well indeed fully funded enough and or provision being all allocated for by said described Defendant herein (The United States of America) “Federal Funding” program under the testify, Bookkeeping, Records, and “Affidavits” of the “Freedman’s Bureau”. As described above in paragraph (393)<br />394.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein state, status, circumstances and position of the (Negro) descendants herein of having to undergo continue control of acts and actions by device of profiteering in “Oppression”& “Tyrannies”<br /> From the uneventful time frame of 1865-1964 “Civil Rights” movement into the continual none “vote” right denial application being fulfillment, conformity, compliance, fall in line, submission conspirer submitted by the Defendant (The United States of America) Via Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson <br />Full “Legalization” Government blueprint obedience enforce “Black Codes Laws” imply a complete compliance in total race segregation resulting in more earth-shattering cataclysmic devastation(s) of all domestic types as described fully<br />By Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein more “formal written slavery application” herein A/k/a the “Black Code Laws” refer in their entirely do portray, show, represent, illustrate, depict, give a picture of being self described before the “Honorable Justice”<br />395.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans assert, declare, and summary respectful before the “Honorable Justice” all Criminal (RICO) “White Supremacy” collusion conduct being primarily for a well devise labor price fixing racketeering enterprise scam as described and Direct herein was fully on “target” at the expense of all the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein<br />Especially their past generation of (Negro youth) with “Health and Education(s)” being crudely being “absolute in being destroyed and withheld” from any normal development into “the simple chance” of the (Negro youth) having equality in health & education mostly with a future of bright prosperity, liberty, peace & dignity in a humane growth fashion,<br />To include but not limited to especially all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans experiencing “longevities of a simple survival rate” life of the (Negro) god giving right “blood heritage” race <br />Being passage on ward in “absolute Safety” within the Defendant (The United States of America) without wrongful abuse, and fulfillment through extermination of “voting rights” through Defendant (The United States of America) sanctions inflict imposed “lynching’s.<br />396.<br />Before the “Honorable Justice” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) African Americans position is very quite clear the pre-Lincoln assassination actions <br />The “White Supremacy” ruling class cotton speculators feared an end to their big profits. <br />Cotton traders saw the price of $1.41 per pound in November 1864 fall to $.85 by February and below $.40 by early April 1864. <br />Greedy Profit Disaffection Firstly grew; President Lincoln had to go by the (CSS) Confederate Secret Services.<br />397.<br />The post-Lincoln assassination actions of both Secretary of State Seward and Co-Defendant herein President-by-Assassination default Andrew Johnson<br /> Indicates their complete desire to “obstruct investigations” into the real plot to prevent the depths of their combine involvement from becoming public knowledge.<br />398.<br />The little book was “alleged to be taken off” (Booth's) body by Colonel Everton Conger. He took it to Washington and gave it to Lafayette C. Baker, chief of the War Department's National Detective Police.<br /> Baker in turn gave it to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton.<br /> The book (oddly) was not produced as evidence in the “1865 Conspiracy Trial”. <br />In 1867 the diary was "re-discovered" in a "forgotten" War Department file with 18 pages missing.<br />399.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) “White Supremacy” ruling class races and Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson in aid of his paramilitary Ku Klux Klan and various other similar groups eventually destroyed everything progressive from the Freedman’s Bureau on the behalf of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants namely<br />(Schools, Hospitals, business, churches, social aid, and the likes), furtherance’s in collusion by such criminal (RICO) conduct by all described defendant herein and their aiding band of “Confederates” and The Confederate Secret Service (CSS).<br />400. <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans, herein declare, assert, and summary respectful before the “Honorable Justice” on their own behalf and of the descendants<br />Untimely Defendant (The United States of America) herein “Congress” dissolved the Freedman's Bureau in July 1872 leaving behind more extreme chaos of the “infamous “Klu Klux Klan (KKK) among other “rising star” entail hate groups with “Killer hostile aggression” <br />In aiding Defendant (The United States of America) and their “White Supremacy” hell bent on profiteering off labor control domination devices directed at the expense of all of the (Negro) human race, complete progression on “Coercion”, “Cruelty” “Oppression”, “Tyranny” <br />Into a legacy now in 2011 of a “sorry state” of being a “Absolute Genocide Statehood” for all of the (Negro American) blood heritage” after the supposedly freedom from past imposed “Slavery” in “1865” after the Defendant (The United States of America) “Civil War”.<br />401.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein request, apply for, and make a application demand the “Honorable Justice” to take extreme “Judicial Notice” and confer in that the abolition of slavery had historically been associated with the time frame of 1865 after the Civil War of the United States of America ended.<br />402.<br />“However”.... Defendant (The United States of America) stupid sad sorry slow state namely “Mississippi in March 16, 1995, some (146) flipping years later” after the original abolition of slavery was to be enforce and declared illegal <br />“Mississippi” finally having some calls of attempts at getting a real clue at coming to clasp in command of their very own prescribed foolish “Evil slavery grips” to take some legal legislative action(s) of actual movement for abolition of slavery their after having rejected the Defendant (The United States of America) fully on December 5, 1865<br />403.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendant herein submit “honest”, “true-life”, “factual”, “truthful”, and very “extremely accurate” that all (Negro Black African Americans) complete “Blood Heritage” races <br />Subsequent to the “kidnapping”, “snatch”, “hijack”, “abduction”, “capture”, “conquer” and “taken complete hostage” to the described defendant herein “New World starting back during the eventful time frame in 1619.<br />404.<br /> All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans having “only” survive, endure, continue to exist, go on, stay alive, <br />And carry on being under the “full heaven bliss freedom enjoyment” from the Defendant (The United States of America) past “Enforce Slavery Legacy Laws” just well within the last past only (16) “slow years”…….Duh”. <br /> 405.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(S) Black African Americans herein declare, state, and summary very respectful before the “Honorable Justice”<br />Defendant (The United States of America) “Congress” passed the Force Acts of 1870 and 1871 in response to the massive wrongful death associated with premeditated murders the Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson and his paramilitary Klu Klux Klan had committed in pursue of “White Domination”.  <br />406.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) enabled Federal troops to try and aid to stop some of the atrocities of the Co- Defendant President Andrew Johnson herein with his rouge design association(s) with (CSS) confederate secrete services, and the “new” established confederate form “paramilitary army” A/k/a “Ku Klux Klan”. <br />407. <br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, state, very factual before the “Honorable Justice” the Force Acts of 1870 and 1871 Acts came under the circumstances being very “gross negligent” by the Defendant (The United States of America) too late, though, after the full presentation of intimidation, and massive deaths of the Co-Defendant President Andrew Johnson via the “Klan” had already been accomplished.<br />408.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, state, very factual before the “Honorable Justice” All rebel (Confederate) leaders were pardoned by Co-Defendant “President Andrew Johnson throughout 1868 and distribute to being high ranking official paramilitary army “Ku Klux Klansmen”. <br />.<br /> To include but not limited to the expert attentive (RICO) criminal “Money Laundry” scheme of things “hatched up” by the Defendant (The United States of America) from the significant source of revenue from the... “Infamous” Jim Crow” era “poll taxes”, elaborate registration systems coupled with many other of the Defendant (The United States of America) racially discriminatory laws preventing, funding and providing easy “White Supremacy” voting disfranchisement intimidation tactic.<br />409.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, state, very “extreme accurately hostile fashion” before the “Honorable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) herein “Jim Crow Laws” elaborate “Poll Taxes” registration systems <br />Illegally being imposed upon all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in the recent past and their “descendants” herein<br />Was “negro poll taxes” collection funding being solely reroute, focus, supply, diverted, distributed, trade in, a fully hoard reserve stock directly to the “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK) organization (Among others) to commit the “massive wrongful death” associated with premeditated execution by way of hanging, bombing, firing squads, mutilations, drowning, and other acts of this sort. <br />410.<br />Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein state simple before the “Honorable Justice” with the complete “Death” of the Freedman's Bureau in July 1872 throughout the time frame of 1964 <br />And the growing poll taxes money laundering scheme of things for funding reserve stock for the directly usage to the “Klu Klux Klan” (KKK) organization among (others rising star hate groups)<br /> Deadly set to committing the massive wrongful death associated with premeditated execution of hanging, bombing, firing squads, mutilations, drowning, of this sort of scheme of things from the “Klan” 1865-1968 era of hostile “White Supremacy” domination, serving up a “blue plate” special of “Oppression” mixing with “Tyranny” within the Defendant (The United State of America).<br />411.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” by 1914 the start of World War I; even places of employment within the Defendant (The United States of America) were segregated from the (Negro Black American Races),<br /> Furtherance’s before the “Honorable Justice” entertainment not until after World War II that an actual civil assault occurred on the described defendant herein “Jim Crow Laws” in the South began to even steam in making headway. <br />412.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, state, very “extreme accurately” before the “Honorable Justice” In 1950 the Defendant (The United States of America) their “Supreme Court” ruled that the Univ. of Texas must admit a (Negro) Plaintiff(s) black descendant, Herman Sweatt, to the law school, <br />On the grounds that the state did not provide equal education for him. This was followed (1954) by the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., declaring separate facilities by race to be unconstitutional. <br />413.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans in the Defendant (The United States of America) complete South used legal suits, mass sit-ins, and boycotts to hasten continue desegregation. <br />A march on Washington DC by over 200,000 (Negro races) in 1963 dramatized the civil movement to end Defendant (The United States of America) Jim Crow Laws.<br />414.<br />“However” (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein simply state with access to actual public records before the “Honorable Justice” providing Defendant “White Supremacy” and the encouraging (KKK) growing infestation over (4) Million<br />Often added with their responding by typical extreme actions of massive violence, Deaths, and lynching’s, and Defendant (The United States of America) “U.S. Federal Troops” were needed to preserve order and protect (Negro) Black African Americans and their descendants herein, notably at Little Rock, Ark. (1957), Oxford, Miss. (1962), and Selma, Ala. (1965). <br />415.<br />The Defendant (The United States of America) Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 finally in official form ended the “legal imposed hostile sanctions” to the Defendant (The United States of America) Jim Crow Laws domination era<br /> Bringing about a real current (Federal cause of action) described completely herein in additionally to other civil charges raised to be fully entertain before a “Jury Trial” before the “Honorable Justice in regards to all of the (RICO) criminal acts & actions of the Defendant (The United States of America), Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson), and Co-Defendant (President Rutherford B. Hayes)herein from 1865-1968 being done, directed well after Defendant (The United States of America) “claimed Slavery ended” in 1865, however “Slavery ended in 1995 while past;<br />416.<br />Additional civil shocking massive violence’s, pestering (KKK) voting disfranchisement aggravation, complete theft of goods, cattle, land, stock, and services, force labor camps,<br /> “Wrongful Deaths” associated with total disregard for human life in the serious destruction of the (Negro Plaintiffs) and their family present within Schools, churches, hospital, small business, community organizations, homes, farms also included on the raided, looting, pillaging and completely burn down fest to the foundation(s) leaving littering of killing in the wake <br />417.<br />While all of this past criminal (RICO) racketeering in “absolute white domination” profiteering in oppression and (KKK) killing prowling of sorts being still waged up to 1968, and fully committed as “Slavery” is actually declare being official and over in Defendant (The United States of America) state namely Mississippi in 1995.<br />418. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff “himself” herein supply his assert respectful before the “Honorable Justice” having continue declaratory judgment being made entry into the records of this cause of action as outline in the Amend Complaint, <br />In regards to accusations, contention as charge in all allegations made against Former Vice President Dick Cheney, <br />419.<br />filed herein supporting Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) position exhibit (C) request for admission, production of documents, and interrogatories, <br />420.<br />Requiring Defendant (The United States of America) simple “admitting or deny” any such accusations, and contention having occurred as charge in all allegations made against Former Vice President Dick Cheney, <br />In the Amend Complaint giving the “Honorable Court” solid weight and Plaintiff further position in light of all of the Defendant (The United States of America) accusations, and own contention in their reply to such any and all claims made in support of or fully negative response thereof.<br />421.<br />And to include but not limited as fully claim, charge out, line in full assertion all contentions, allegations made against Sarah Palin in regards to all incident being the “ill host” contribution factor that arose to a fatal result in “wrongful lost of lives” and “serious” body injury to (Gifford) in Arizona. <br />420.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, assert, and request respectful before the “Honorable Justice” having continue “declaratory judgment” being made entry into the records of this cause of action for<br />Defendant (The United States of America) “gross medical Negligence” against the peace will, civil rights and dignity of (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants as outline in the Amend Complaint, and herein fully to wit:<br />421.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants were transported under inhumane conditions as depicted herein for the “Honorable Justice” to fully understand in full accounts the<br /> “Gross Medical negligence” and complete “extreme mental harm” on part of the Defendant (The United States of America) herein imposed, exact, wreak and inflicted long before the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants herein making arrival into the “New World” being a forever inheriting legacy.<br />422.<br /> Aboard a Slave Ship, 1829<br /> Interception at Sea <br />Conditions aboard the slave ships were wretched. Men, women and children crammed into every available space, denied adequate room, food or breathing space. <br />The stench was appalling - the atmosphere inhumane to say the least. The Reverend Robert Walsh served aboard one of the ships assigned to intercept the slavers off the African coast. On the morning of May 22, 1829, a suspected slaver was sighted and the naval vessel gave chase. <br />The next day, a favorable wind allowed the interceptor to gain on its quarry and approach close enough to fire two shots across her bow. The slaver heaved to and an armed party from the interceptor scrambled aboard her. We join Reverend Walsh's account as he boards the slave ship: <br /> <br />"The first object that struck us was an enormous gun, turning on a swivel, on deck - the constant appendage of a pirate; and the next were large kettles for cooking, on the bows - the usual apparatus of a slaver. Our boat was now hoisted out, and I went on board with the officers. When we mounted her decks we found her full of slaves. She was called the Feloz, commanded by Captain Jose' Barbosa, bound to Bahia. <br />She was a very broad-decked ship, with a mainmast, schooner rigged, and behind her foremast was that large, formidable gun, which turned on a broad circle of iron, on deck, and which enabled her to act as a pirate if her slaving speculation failed. She had taken in, on the coast of Africa, 336 males and 226 females, making in all 562, and had been out seventeen days, during which she had thrown overboard 55. The slaves were all inclosed under grated hatchways between decks. <br />The space was so low that they sat between each other's legs and [were] stowed so close together that there was no possibility of their lying down or at all changing their position by night or day. As they belonged to and were shipped on account of different individuals, they were all branded like sheep with the owner's marks of different forms. These were impressed under their breasts or on their arms, and, as the mate informed me with perfect indifference 'burnt with the red-hot iron.'<br /> Over the hatchway stood a ferocious-looking fellow with a scourge of many twisted thongs in his hand, who was the slave driver of the ship, and whenever he heard the slightest noise below, he shook it over them and seemed eager to exercise it.<br /> I was quite pleased to take this hateful badge out of his hand, and I have kept it ever since as a horrid memorial of reality, should I ever be disposed to forget the scene I witnessed. <br />As soon as the poor creatures saw us looking down at them, their dark and melancholy visages brightened up. They perceived some- thing of sympathy and kindness in our looks which they had not been accustomed to, and, feeling instinctively that we were friends, they immediately began to shout and clap their hands. One or two had picked up a few Portuguese words, and cried out, "Viva! Viva!" <br />The women were particularly excited. They all held up their arms, and when we bent down and shook hands with them, they could not contain their delight; they endeavored to scramble up on their knees, stretching up to kiss our hands, and we understood that they knew we were come to liberate them. Some, however, hung down their heads in apparently hopeless dejection; some were greatly emaciated, and some, particularly children, seemed dying. <br />But the circumstance which struck us most forcibly was how it was possible for such a number of human beings to exist, packed up and wedged together as tight as they could cram, in low cells three feet high, the greater part of which, except that immediately under the grated hatchways, was shut out from light or air, and this when the thermometer, exposed to the open sky, was standing in the shade, on our deck, at 89'. <br />The space between decks was divided into two compartments 3 feet 3 inches high; the size of one was 16 feet by 18 and of the other 40 by 21; into the first were crammed the women and girls, into the second the men and boys: 226 fellow creatures were thus thrust into one space 288 feet square and 336 into another space 800 feet square, giving to the whole an average Of 23 inches and to each of the women not more than 13 inches. We also found manacles and fetters of different kinds, but it appears that they had all been taken off before we boarded. <br /> <br />The heat of these horrid places was so great and the odor so offensive that it was quite impossible to enter them, even had there been room. They were measured as above when the slaves had left them. The officers insisted that the poor suffering creatures should be admitted on deck to get air and water. This was opposed by the mate of the slaver, who, from a feeling that they deserved it, declared they would murder them all. The officers, however, persisted, and the poor beings were all turned up together. <br />It is impossible to conceive the effect of this eruption - 517 fellow creatures of all ages and sexes, some children, some adults, some old men and women, all in a state of total nudity, scrambling out together to taste the luxury of a little fresh air and water. <br />They came swarming up like bees from the aperture of a hive till the whole deck was crowded to suffocation front stem to stern, so that it was impossible to imagine where they could all have come from or how they could have been stowed away. On looking into the places where they had been crammed, <br />There were found some children next the sides of the ship, in the places most remote from light and air; they were lying nearly in a torpid state after the rest had turned out. The little creatures seemed indifferent as to life or death, and when they were carried on deck, many of them could not stand. <br />After enjoying for a short time the unusual luxury of air, some water was brought; it was then that the extent of their sufferings was exposed in a fearful manner. They all rushed like maniacs towards it.<br /> No entreaties or threats or blows could restrain them; they shrieked and struggled and fought with one another for a drop of this precious liquid, as if they grew rabid at the sight of it. <br />It was not surprising that they should have endured much sickness and loss of life in their short passage. They had sailed from the coast of Africa on the 7th of May and had been out but seventeen days, and they had thrown overboard no less than fifty-five, who had died of dysentery and other complaints in that space of time, though they had left the coast in good health. <br />Indeed, many of the survivors were seen lying about the decks in the last stage of emaciation and in a state of filth and misery not to be looked at. Even-handed justice had visited the effects of this unholy traffic on the crew who were engaged in it. Eight or nine had died, and at that moment six were in hammocks on board, in different stages of fever. <br />This mortality did not arise from want of medicine. There was a large stock ostentatiously displayed in the cabin, with a manuscript book containing directions as to the quantities; but the only medical man on board to prescribe it was a black, who was as ignorant as his patients. <br /> <br />While expressing my horror at what I saw and exclaiming against the state of this vessel for conveying human beings, I was informed by my friends, who had passed so long a time on the coast of Africa and visited so many ships, that this was one of the best they had seen. <br />The height sometimes between decks was only eighteen inches, so that the unfortunate beings could not turn round or even on their sides, the elevation being less than the breadth of their shoulders; and here they are usually chained to the decks by the neck and legs. In such a place the sense of misery and suffocation is so great that the Negroes, like the English in the Black Hole at Calcutta, are driven to a frenzy.<br /> They had on one occasion taken a slave vessel in the river Bonny; the slaves were stowed in the narrow space between decks and chained together. They heard a horrible din and tumult among them and could not imagine from what cause it proceeded. They opened the hatches and turned them up on deck. <br />They were manacled together in twos and threes. Their horror may be well conceived when they found a number of them in different stages of suffocation; many of them were foaming at the mouth and in the last agonies-many were dead. <br />A living man was sometimes dragged up, and his companion was a dead body; sometimes of the three attached to the same chain, one was dying and another dead. <br />The tumult they had heard was the frenzy of those suffocating wretches in the last stage of fury and desperation, struggling to extricate themselves. When they were all dragged up, nineteen were irrecoverably dead. <br />Many destroyed one another in the hopes of procuring room to breathe; men strangled those next them, and women drove nails into each other's brains. <br />Many unfortunate creatures on other occasions took the first opportunity of “leaping overboard” and getting rid, in this way, of an “intolerable life." <br />References:    Walsh, Robert, Notices of Brazil in 1828 and 1829 (1831). <br />423.<br />Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) herein show before the “Honorable Justice continues cause of action for gross medical negligent by the Defendant (The United States of America) as slaves living in the United States of America…<br />Degrading Tasks<br />Slaves were not allowed to better themselves or to strive for their own goals. For many of them, their days consisted of slaughtering animals, digging ditches, cutting wood and bringing it back to the house, planting and harvesting crops, and performing any repairs that needed to be done on the plantation or home. <br />424.<br />Women often performed tasks such as cooking and sewing. Furthermore, they frequently had to take care of the children of the house, as opposed to looking after and raising their own children.<br />Perhaps these tasks do not seem dreadful at first glance. Many present day farmers engage in the same labors.<br /> However, imagine the “Honor himself of” having working in a hot field in the south from sunrise to sunset without being allowed to stop for a drink of water or a bathroom break when needed. <br />From that perspective, the situation is awful and totally dehumanizing. <br />Furthermore, those who worked in the home were forever under the eyes of their masters, and had absolutely no privacy.<br />425.<br />Food<br />Slaves absolutely did not receive proper nutrition, particularly for the physically straining tasks that they worked. <br />Since they worked all day and into the night without receiving wholesome and well-rounded meals, their immune systems suffered. They also became part of a vicious cycle. <br />Without the proper nutrients and energy, people cannot work under such intense conditions. However, if they did not follow their master's orders exactly, they were whipped and beaten.<br />Slaves who worked inside the home sometimes received better meals since they had more access to food. Still, they were operating on someone else's clock. <br />Even if they were eating with the family, they were most likely attending to one of the family member's needs.<br />426.<br />Health<br />Closely associated with their inadequate diets were problems with their health. The high temperatures and rates of humidity were dangerous for everyone living in the south,<br /> but particularly the blacks because they performed back-breaking labor in the conditions. When a slave got sick, he or she was not treated immediately, if at all.<br />427.<br />On rice plantations, slaves were forced to stand in water in the burning sun for hours at a time, and malaria was often the consequence. Children suffered immensely, and child mortality rates on rice plantations were around 66%.<br />Sexual health was also a serious problem for women. Slave masters often raped the slave woman. No protection was used, and they did not have access to medical care.<br /> Therefore, in addition to the emotional scars, the slave women were at high risks for contracting diseases from these slave masters.<br />428.<br />The Sale of Slaves<br />When slaves misbehaved, or when the owners were going through a time of economic hardship, the slaves were threatened with being sold. Being sold was horrible for them because they were often separated from their families. <br />Slave masters allegedly tried to keep mothers and their children together; however, that practice was not always put into play. <br />Once a slave was sold, they lost much of their hope that they would ever see any of their family ever again. <br />The psychological impact was immense because of the loss of family, and because masters used the threat of sale as a tool of manipulation.<br /> 429.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” while the “slave trade” was still operating, “Defendant the United States of America and “White Supremacy” economists races found it was better to work slaves to death and buy new ones than treat them humanely. After that, when the supply of new slaves dried up, (yes), some of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein descendants would be in a better position to be lucky enough to get medical treatment.<br />430. <br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” Slavery completely disrupted the notion of the black family because family members could be sold away from one another at any time. Mothers could be torn away from their infants; husbands could be sold away from their wives without warning. <br />431.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” Slavery made blacks into work animals, or beasts of burden, who were expected to work from sun up to sundown without stopping, and who were sometimes actually bred like cattle or horses to make better, stronger slaves. <br />432.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” Slavery also made black men, women and children extremely vulnerable to brutal violence, the likes of rape, murder, torture, lynching’s, tar and feathering, whipping, etc. <br />433.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” Slavery also caused severe emotional and psychological trauma, which resulted in oftentimes in self-hatred<br /> Because (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans were taught that everything “black” was bad and everything white was good. <br />Some (Negro) blacks learned to hate the color of their own skin, their physical features, and the texture of their hair because they were told over and over that they were ugly because they weren't European. <br />434.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” Slavery kept blacks from being educated in large numbers because it was illegal for slaves to learn to read and write. <br />Slave owners were afraid that “educated slaves” would find a way to organize themselves and begin a revolution that would end slavery. <br />435.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, state, speak out respectful before the “Honourable Justice” From the “inception of slavery” through modern times, those (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendants <br />Who grew old in the Defendant (The United States of America) having had to withstand a variety of psychologically, physically, and socially degrading experiences <br />Resulting factor from the (400) plus ongoing controlling years of “conquering domination” by the Defendant (The United States of America),<br /> In collusion with “White Supremacy” controlling interest in all state through imposed political oppression for a profiteering economy at the expense of all the (Negro) “Blood Heritage” race relations within the defendant (The United States of America).<br />436.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, state, speak out respectful before the “Honourable Justice” Among the determinants in negligence contribution in “health factor” is of the treatment of elderly (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American and their descendants <br />In the social history of the Defendant (The United States of America), economic factors have had a significant bearing. <br />For example, the economic interests of “hostile slave owners” during the Defendant (The United States of America) “antebellum period” of enforcement of slavery in (America) made the situation of elderly (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans <br />Disabled slaves especially, shaky, tenuous and bad for “business investments”.<br />437.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” after the described Defendant (The United States of America) claims in the eliminate of 400 years of captivity, oppression, the Defendant fail to equate that <br />The "Black Code" being the next oppressive domination method that white slave masters used to keep blacks from having unity.<br />438.<br /> Things like taking children from (Negro) mothers at birth, beatings, overworking, not allowing (Negro) blacks to converse in large groups, not allowing (Negro) blacks to read, marry, have a personal opinion, and the list goes on and on. <br />Defendant (The United States of America) controlling “Whites Supremacy” fully set in continue dehumanized the (Negro) race from centuries past beyond 1619 throughout the “Jim Crow Laws” era of 1968.<br />439.<br /> (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans suffering is still post traumatic, those mentalities won't leave back up<br />And current (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American current inflicted race problems like high crime, extreme poverty, single family homes, , massive wrongful abortion, drugs infestation, merge and mixed in with “health issues” adult race-based health disparities in diseases like hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and coronary heart disease.<br />440.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare fully before the “Honourable Justice” All Slaves Descendants herein had extreme poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the extreme gross neglected by the Defendant (The United States of America) in collusion with “White Supremacy” wanting gross neglected,<br /> In real provisions of enough food supply for all enforce slaves, thus being the direct cause of all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “inadequate dietary intake” extreme poor health legacy”, accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases.<br />441.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, furtherance’s respectful before fully before the “Honourable Justice” Unsanitary conditions, inadequate nutrition and unrelenting hard labor made slaves highly susceptible to disease. <br />Illnesses were generally not treated adequately by the Defendant (The United States of America) and their partners “White Supremacy” races”,<br />Slaves were often forced to work even when sick or else.<br />442.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, furtherance’s respectful before fully before the “Honourable Justice” it was not until the exact time frame within the Defendant (The United States of America) “Slave Control History 1619-1865 the Freedmen's Bureau, <br /> A federal agency of the described defendant herein (The United States of America) that was formed during Reconstruction to aid distressed (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “refugees” of the American Civil War. <br />443.<br />It became “Fully operational” from June 1865 through December 1868, It became primarily an agency to help the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American Freedmen (freed slaves) descendants in the Defendant (The United States of America) South, <br />Including missions in issuing rations, of needed “food”, “clothing”, and “medicine(s)” to the (Negro) from the “Unprecedented Gross Negligent by the Defendant (The United States of America) and there collusion with “White Supremacy Billionaires Industrialist”, Billionaires Agricultures, and Billionaires Infrastructures, <br />Providing 100% absolute profiteering in repression through mutable racketeering (RICO) Price Fixing labor control schemes of domination(s) through (among other things) causing direct “depravation”, “oppression”, and complete “famine” <br />Against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein descendant and being directly the main culprit cause of future (Negro) descendant unhealthy inheritances from such an unhealthy tyranny legacy pass on by the Defendant (The United States of America) <br />444.<br /> Having complete now grown grossly evolve into an 2011 (American) “eye sore” of “disgusting”, “unpleasant”, “crass”, “vulgar”, “uncouth”, “blatant” criminal actions committed by Defendant (The United States of America) in the past, in collusion with their Confederate “white races” past ruling class described herein <br />Being the exact directly responsible driving force for the growing “killer epidemic” wrongfully becoming extremely now “apparent” in all mode, legal written devices, all ill gotten gain actions obtain under acts of complete violence’s to gain more through causing among other things extreme inflicted emotional duress, <br />Full in “assistant” control by acts of whole sale horrors in simple “destructive mass murder”, theft of goods, banking saving, land, farm stock, homes, schools, medicinal hospitals, add destruction of professional (Negro) business services, all surly obtain by threat in force “among special tactic” in unhealthy lynching extortions <br />445.<br />Led primarily by “The Co-Defendant herein acting “Double Mole Infiltrator Agent” Confederate Secrete Service Southern Specialist “President Andrew Johnson”, being also one in the same “Union Army of the United States of America “Commander in Chief” <br />And His fully operational Former Confederate Army, Now the Cloak Secret Service paramilitary organization of the “Klu Klux Klan”<br /> Infliction of “depravation”, “oppression”, “Tyrannies” and complete “famine”<br /> Upon “Millions” of innocent now future displacement descendant (Negro) African American Black being in a extra sorry official state of “abandon homeless Negro American Refugees”.<br />446.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before fully before the “Honourable Justice” Seventeen hundred dollars were spent to help establish 4,000 schools, 100 hospitals, and provide homes and food for past (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American slave descendants. <br />447.<br />This bureau was also designed to help these former slaves in finding “new jobs” and improve, develop and enhance their lives in “education and health” from the “Destructive cause by Acts of Slavery”, and the “Hostile Abductions” <br />“Brutal”, “heartless”, detail(s) of “harsh gross neglect” and “cruel”, very nasty “malicious mode” in “travel” to arrive at the Defendant (The United States of America) for furtherance’s illegal placement of All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants races into required slavery free labor system from 1619-1865 as described and detail above in “Paragraph (421-434) “Life of Slaves”.<br />448.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful fully before the “Honourable Justice” the (RICO) “criminal additional conduct” in the disbanded of the “Freedmen agency” by Co-Defendant “President Andrew Johnson” with his paramilitary (KKK) whole sale destruction of all of these resources<br /> After only (3) whole years the needed operation(s) in “Government” Control Fair Disbursement of issuing “extreme” needed food, water rations, accessing with clothing, medicine and providing actual homes,<br />449.<br /> Compile, accumulate, and assemble with Co-Defendant “President Andrew Johnson” herein And His fully operational “Former Confederate Army”, now the endless Cloaked “Confederate Secret Service” paramilitary organization namely the “Klu Klux Klan” further action(s) of malicious, spiteful destroying <br />All recent obtain establish 4,000 schools, 100 hospitals, and the ever so ruthless never ending story of “bombing and burning down “New provided homes” with some (Negro) occupant causality <br />Thus being still trap inside in this expression of domination in callous acts of forbidding (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American descendant in having desire enjoyment in “peaceful existences” living in “civil order” in said peaceful existences, being all in a unit safe early on in everyday normal life(s) in a well established humane home family environment status, <br />450.<br />Further herein giving a direct cause of civil action before the “Honorable Justice” being truly entertainment for the Defendant (The United States of America) acts and actions in collusion with the “white ruling class” in the pointless, quite barren deployment of gross neglecting acts and action(s) of malicious, “clear out spiteful” in destroying (Among other things)<br />All recent obtain extreme needed “Medical Services” in the time frame 1865- 1868 after it was never in existences for the (Negro) Plaintiff continuation in life survival from the time frame of 1619-1865.<br />451<br />Rendering before the “Honorable Justice” that such cruelty is to be fully examine, scrutinize, scan, investigate from the time frame of 1868- 1968 under the Defendant (The United States of America) having control in their non-reality setting in providing obsolete “Medical Services” <br />Now being at a state under Defendant (The United States of America) “Jim Crow Laws” era in complete meaningless unhealthy fair objective(s) making another enduring wrongful losses to the (Negro) races in having to commit to a continue legacy of having unhealthy lives in the time frame of the past lost (100) plus years 1868-1968 <br />452.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants living under the same conditions of “gross medical neglect” by the Defendant (The United States of America) in the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans descendants every day existences being absolutely wrongfully evacuated from having absolute access to real primarily humane professional medical health, <br />453.<br />Supply together with the Defendant (The United States of America) “gross neglect” collusion and direct involvement in such hostile domination tactic as described fully in the Amend Complaint and further herein, <br />To include but not limited all that such fully being also criminally coercion by the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein deliberate destructive detonation of all (Negro) races from having meaningful education in 1865-1868 in this government sponsor control tyranny cycle<br />454.<br />Of addition (100) years 1868-1968 the Defendant (The United States of America) and there “White Supremacy”, there “Jim Crow Laws, and there paramilitary organization “Klu Klux Klan continue rule controlling time frame in supplying the same faith, objectives and aim <br />Directed exclusive now at all (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein descendants to continue in suffer, oppression, control domination, repression from having any acquired educations for any type of future prosperity placement within the Defendant (The United States of America) up to 1968 “Civil Rights Movement within the Defendant (The United States of America). <br />455.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before fully before the “Honourable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) complicity, knowledge, consent, approval, in collusion with the “white controlling ruling classes” <br />Racketeering criminal enterprise (RICO) involvement in a illegal host of complex control pattern and practices of supply “oppression”, “control domination”, “repression”, deprivation of normal humane existences to effectuate extreme gross neglects acts and actions<br />456.<br /> Well into the time frame of 2011 within the Defendant (The United States of America) as submitted, show, portray, represent and depicted in the following Report: <br />African-Americans fall in equality index<br />SOCIAL JUSTICE<br />Share this on:<br />March 31, 2011|By the CNN Wire Staff”<br />African-Americans are faring slightly worse relative to their white counterparts than they did last year, according to an index released Thursday by the National Urban League.<br />The group's 2011 Equality Index stands at 71.5%, compared to a revised index last year of 72.1%, the league said as it released its annual report, called The State of Black America.<br />An equality index of less than 100% suggests blacks are doing worse relative to whites, while an index greater than 100% suggests blacks are doing better.<br />The league attributed the 2011 drop to a decline in the economics index, driven by housing and wealth factors, and to a decline in the health index, driven by children's health.<br />Economics and social justice continue to be the areas in which blacks trail whites the most, with ratings of 56.9% and 58% respectively. Those are followed by health at 75% and education at 78.9%.<br />Since the Equality Index was introduced in 2005, researchers have found growing equality between blacks and whites in the unemployment rate, the percentage of uninsured, the incarceration rate, and prisoners as a percentage of arrests, the league said.<br />The index has also charted growing inequality over that period in rates of poverty, home ownership, school enrollment (both "preprimary" and college), and the level of educational attainment (both high school diplomas and bachelor's degrees).<br />The index of median household income has remained unchanged, the league said.<br />In 2010, the index measured Hispanics in America for the first time. This year's index finds them faring slightly better than last year compared to their white counterparts, at 76.8% compared to a revised 2010 index of 76.6%, the league said.<br />It attributed the rise to improvements in health and social justice indices, but said those were offset by declines in economics and education.<br />In the past year, the league said it has observed growing gaps in the relative status of blacks and whites in the areas of loan access, wealth and children's health.<br />For Hispanics, there have been growing gaps in the areas of loan access and college enrollment, it said.<br />The 2011 State of Black America report includes essays from a variety of authors including League President Marc Morial and Democratic strategist Donna Brazile.<br />457.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before fully before the “Honourable Justice” the exact moment any (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans “National Health overall improvement” is in extreme well over do prescribed paging all Defendant herein (The United States of America) Doctors<br />458.<br /> Code Red USDA XXX Px. need’s for mostly all of the entire (Negro) races and such civil adults adjourn in attempting dialogue of congressional order with the special dire need in heath being offer’s as described deem “hot topic” after over (500) plus neglectful sorry for your (poor) medical problems years<br />459.<br />Upon the legislative majority “White ruling” congressional branch “controlling classes” in deciding all of the Defendant (The United States of America) poor (Negro) Humane future faith surrounding among other things having “absolute Heath fairness” & with a growing future fully faith secure dependent thereof <br />Being decides @ the voting table in the Defendant (The United States of America) 2010 hostile political climate, and what do you get next “Extreme Extra Loud “White Supremacy Political 100 % Billionaire controlling “Bloodthirsty” Lobbying politician Tyrant <br />460.<br />Opponent Rich Billionaire “Fat Cat”, extra slow “mouth piece” leading scream(s) of “Medical Oppression” and “tyrannies” against the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans among the other then (Negro) at the bottom of competing “Low Class in being Poor” races........<br />Add in the extreme spark of a “poison mind” from a Few “fast load clips” imported into a “Glock 19 9MM pistol <br />“Very quick and fast flying hostile “shell casing later”........ shooting at up to 30 people leaving (6) dead and 13 or more wounded,<br />461.<br />”Hello” to you “Mr. Tyrannies” <br /> (No more Poor Negro Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein “poor mouthing us for medical health issues” in the 2012 election era) <br />See ya poor (Negros) suckers asses in another (100) plus good luck for you at voting too in the described defendant herein “New World (America) XXX ($$$) profiteering oppression continue domination “white ruling controlling class” too in 3012 New World years....Duh”.<br />462.<br />All (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before the “Honourable Justice” Not only have the Defendant (The United States of America) and the confederate “white ruling classes” <br />Having absolutely absolved themselves from connection to any of the atrocities, slaughter, carnage, killing, murder, oppression, tyrannies and mayhem of Defendant (The United States of America) imposed “slavery codes”, “black codes”, and Jim Crow Laws and the continued system of procuring “white supremacy” herein<br />463.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before the “Honourable Justice” Defendant (The United States of America) and there confederates “white supremacy” ruling classes hallucination, mirage, delusion, extreme denial fantasy <br />That the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans races and descendants were never wronged, mistreated, maltreated, offended, persecuted, domination over, being force into oppression or victimized <br />464. <br />And were further created with some type of early “alien life” environmental “Armor safeguard defense shield” of sorts with strong shielding of feeling any type of “mental and physical” disorder by the built in from suffering special screen buffering device <br />That makes the everyday past and present oppression life style of all (Negro) Plaintiff(s) races endurance herein lasting forever, being fully immune to the full effects of past slavery, black codes laws, “Jim crow Laws era”, <br />465.<br />And the Defendant (The United States of America) blueprint, fully protected installed system of “white supremacy” still having no direct cause or bearing on actions for the continue cause to (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans races in the “mental possession” of sever inner physiological experience suffering effect(s).<br />466.<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before fully before the “Honourable Justice” Germany, Hitler and the Nazis responsible for the torture and genocide of the “Jews”<br />The Jews and the Defendant (The United States of America) both say Germany, Hitler, the Nazis and whoever else was involved in the Holocaust, were guilty of every "evil" act they subjected the Jews to. “End of story”.<br />467.<br />Then before the “Honorable Justice” the Defendant (The United States of America) can be called out before a Jury on the cause of action fully describing massive torture, oppression, civil rights violations <br />And genocide statehood (among other things) committed against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein and their descendants.<br />468<br />(Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans herein declare, assert, summary furtherance’s respectful before the “Honourable Justice” the foundation principal focal point giving further rise in a extreme concern for a cause of action being fully entertain in “Justice” before the Honourable Court <br /> “Historically Proven Public Documents, records, providing extreme concrete proven examples of direct strong evidence in serious “ill-intent”, acts and actions well into 1968 “Jim Crow Laws” era of the Defendant (The United States of America)<br />469.<br />“Government sponsor” Blue print plan oppression design, for well into a future main stay plight “long road” of hardship against all of the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African Americans and their descendant races from having equal “civil rights, secure in liberty & peace.<br />470.<br /> Culprit being and guilty parties is all of the described Defendant(s) listed herein as actual offender(s) and their (KKK) confederate agents, among a long list of “white ruling class” conspire, collusion, perpetrator fully complex meshing together in a primarily focal point attack on the (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American herein and their descendants<br />471.<br /> “Education” and “Economic balance” survival in having ever equality with the “white ruling class” in “Economic standing” within the Defendant (The United States of America) well into 2011 <br />“Slave Codes Enforcement”, “Black Codes Laws, And “Jim Crow Laws” of the Defendant (The United States of America) herein continue providing the same oppression, tyrannies, and separation <br />472.<br />“As example” by the total destruction and complete attack by the Co-Defendant (President Andrew Johnson) herein on the Defendant (The United States of America) own Federal Government “Freedmen Bureau” and all fiancé assets obtain thereof especially in lieu of (Education for All Negro future well established self supporting system) <br />In the massive destruction (RICO) Criminal run into this current “cause of action” for the wrongful losses of over (4000) school with a “White ruling legacy being content on continue destroying all “Negro” blood heritage races “Education”. <br />473.<br />As (Negro) Plaintiff and Plaintiff(s) Black African American further depict, provide, and submit by: A Governor Bitterly Opposes Negro Education<br /> Governor James K. Vardaman, Governor of Mississippi <br />The race question is one of the most serious problems which confront the civilization of the present century. The entire republic is interested in it; but the South, where the nigger lives in such large numbers, is of course more widely affected and therefore more materially and vitally interested. The election in Maryland, and the interest manifested by the people of the whole republic, bids me hope that a way may be discovered whereby destructive attrition will be avoided—for many years at least. The first thing to be done to bring about the beginning of the process which works matters to a satisfactory issue is to bring our statesmen, philanthropists, sociologists, conservative business men, and misinformed preachers to a sane consideration of the real, inbred, God-planted, and time fixed moral and mental qualities of the nigger. <br />In the solution of this problem we must recognize in the very outset what Thomas Jefferson recognized a hundred years ago and what Abraham Lincoln indorsed fifty years later, that the nigger cannot live in the same country with the white man on terms of social or political equality. It is one of the impossible things. One of the other of the races will rule. They will not mix. Another thing must be done—the truth must be told about these matters and the nigger given to understand just what is expected of him and what will be done for him.<br /> I am very much in favor of protecting the nigger in the pursuit of happiness and the full enjoyment of the products of his labor. I believe in being honest in all business dealing with him as I believe in being candid in the discussion of his political and civil rights. <br />I am opposed to the nigger's voting, it matters not what his advertised moral and mental qualifications may be. I am just as much opposed to Booker Washington as I am to voting by the cocoanut-headed, chocolate colored typical little coon, Andy Dotson, who blacks my shoes every morning. Neither one is fit to perform the supreme functions of citizenship.<br /> Some people may say that that is prejudice. It may be. But it is a wise prejudice founded upon the experience of all the ages. Did you ever think what we are indebted to this prejudice for? It is to this prejudice we are indebted for the purity of the Anglo-Saxon race—the master race of the world. We are indebted to it for the literature of the English-speaking people, for all the great discoveries in science, for the incomparable original plan of the government under which we live—in a word, all the glories which crown and glorify the civilization of the twentieth century. But it matters little what I may think or others may say, that prejudice will live as long as the Anglo-Saxon race retains its virility, its genius for government, and its unconquerable will to rule. When it shall cease to exist, then, indeed, will the scepter of world-rulership pass to other hands, and the glorious achievements of the "heir of all the ages" shall crumble and fall, and over it all will drift the Sahara sands of oblivion. <br />The absolute domination by the white race means race purity. It means order, good government, progress, and general prosperity both for the nigger and white man. But when the nigger is taken into partnership in the government of the country, demoralization, retrogression, and decay ensue—just as surely as the night follows the day <br />I want to do what is best for both races. I am the nigger's best friend. But I am friendly to him as a nigger whom I expect to live, act, and die as a nigger. A great deal of money, more than $250,000,000, has been spent since the years 1861-65 by the white people of the North and the South in a foolish endeavor to make more of the nigger than God Almighty every intended. How well these efforts have succeeded, this extract from an address by a Northern man attests.<br /> I want to call attention to the fact that these statistics are entirely free from the suspicion of "race prejudice," for they were collected by Professor Wilcox, of Cornell University, a native of Massachusetts, and Dr. Winston, president of the North Carolina Agricultural College. These are the conclusions. <br />The negro element is the most criminal in our population. <br />The negro is much more criminal as a free man than he was as a slave. <br />The negro is increasing in criminality with fearful rapidity being one-third more criminal in 1890 than 1880. <br />The negroes who can read and write are more criminal than the illiterate, which is true of no other element of our population. <br />The negro is nearly three times as criminal in the Northeast, where he has not been a slave for a hundred years, and three and a half times as criminal in the Northwest, where he has never been a slave, as in the South, where he was a slave until 1865. <br />The negro is three times as criminal as a native white, and once and a half as criminal as the foreign white, consisting in many cases of the scum of Europe. <br />More than seven-tenths of the negro criminals are under thirty years of age.<br />But Dr. Wilcox is not the only man who has demonstrated the fallacy of the contention of the superficial student who sees in the school-house and booklearning the panacea for the ills which render the nigger unfit to perform any other function in the economy of the world than that of a servant or menial. Read this clipping from the New Orleans Times-Democrat: <br />"These conclusions are sustained by an article by Professor J. R. Stratton printed in the North American Review for June 1900. Professor Stratton points out that, according to the census of 1890, the minimum illiteracy of the negro is found in New England, where it is 21.7 per cent.; and the maximum illiteracy of the negro is to be found in the so-called 'black belt' of South Carolina, Mississippi, and Alabama, where it is 65.7 per cent. And yet the negro is four and a half times more criminal in New England, hundred for hundred of the population, than he is in the 'black belt.' You cannot deny or question the correctness of the conclusions reached by these gentlemen. They are irrefragable and stand a Gibraltar against the waves of ignorance, fanaticism, sectional hatred, and Rooseveltian stupidity. We squander money on their education and make criminals of what should be efficient laborers." <br />It is a grave question and should be handled with consummate skill. The services of the wise, fearless, and patriotic statesman are demanded. We must be just to the nigger, and we must at the same time be true to the white man and true to the civilization of the age. A long way toward the solution of this question would be effected by repealing the amendments to the Federal Constitution which gave the nigger the right to pollute politics. Congress should submit that question to the people, or rather to the States. <br />A mistake was made and it should be corrected. It is urged by some men that it is "too early to discuss that matter." I do not think it is ever too early to tell the truth, correct a mistake, or explode a lie. The people of some of the Southern States have already in effect repealed those amendments. They have eliminated the nigger from politics, and I think and hope they will be able to keep him eliminated; but I prefer doing it in a different way. It would be infinitely better botch for the nigger and the white man if it could be done. <br />I do not know what will be done along the line we have been discussing by the Legislature of Mississippi. I should like to see Section 206 of the State constitution so amended as to put the public schools entirely in the hands of the Legislature. I am exceedingly desirous of improving the educational facilities of our rural white population. I want the white country boys and girls who are to rule Mississippi in the future equipped, in so far as the school can equip them, for the services, serious duties, and responsibilities which must soon devolve upon them. <br />The hope of the republic, the Ark of the Covenant of American ideals, is in the keeping of the great common people, more especially those who live in the rural districts. In these days of sordid materialism and greed for gain, when the dollar has almost become the god, it is pleasant to contemplate the superb qualities of <br />"The old-fashioned people— The hale, hard-working people, The kindly country people, 'At uncle used to know."<br />Germany, Hitler and the Nazis to own the torture and genocide of the Jews then the U.S. can be called out on the torture and genocide of AAs.<br />Fnfnnfmm <br />Justice Hugo Black was also an admitted member. <br />