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Teach the teacher motivation (unit one)
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Teach the teacher motivation (unit one)

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  • “This very real risk of losing our direction and failing to reach out desired destination should motivate us to be disciplined and deliberative when planning our action research, our planned exploration of a not-yet-visible destination (Sagor, 2011, p. 31).
  • It is important to remember the path we have traveled and where we still have to go. So far, we covered the concept of motivation and its’ impact on student persistence. Our training targets involve both performance targets and process targets. We are looking to improve postsecondary motivation, engagement, goal-setting, and achievement. The literature review conducted on postsecondary student attrition and early warning systems informed this project so that in the end an early warning system that detects dropout tendencies in applied into practice. Each week, I will engaged in the four stages of an action research process – “envisioning success, clarifying a theory, collecting data while implementing theory, and reflecting on results obtained” (Sagor, 2011, p. 61).
  • Motivation may be defined as “an internal state that arouses learners, steers them in a particular direction and keeps them engaged with certain activities” (Lei, 2010, p. 153). Another way to view motivation is in terms of ‘drive’. This specific approach to understanding motivation is categorized in terms of external drive versus internal drive (extrinsic versus intrinsic, respectively). Current data suggests that anything that interferes with one or both of these drives impacts learner persistence (Balduf, 2009; Laskey & Hetzel, 2010; Miller & Tanner, 2011; Morrow & Ackermann, 2012, Tinto, 1987). For example, Balduf (2009) found (within the context of their research) many students were not ready for the challenges encountered in college and thus lacked intrinsic motivation to succeed. This resulted in the incongruence between personally held beliefs and the reality of challenging college-level work.
  • Intrinsically motivated learners, however, are more likely to continue learning following the conclusion of a lesson, activity or term because of a self-driven connection to internal rewards. Intrinsic motivation works off of an internal reward mechanism that is significantly personal. As previously mentioned, one particular theory that helps to explain why the concept “motivation” is so important in the minds of students (and teachers) is the Attribution theory. Malone and Lepper (1987) have defined intrinsic motivation more simply in terms of what people will do without external inducement.
  • Motivation, as a broad topic within education, may be defined as “an internal state that arouses learners, steers them in a particular direction and keeps them engaged with certain activities” (Lei, 2010, p. 153). Extrinsic motivators (external rewards) within the classroom are controlled by the teacher. “Most educators would agree that their primary goal is to help students learn the material for their specific grade level and content area during the course of the term. A higher goal, however, consists of helping students not only learn the content for the term at hand, but motivating students to continue to learn once the term ends” (Taylor, 2012). The external rewards of learning are self-limiting and dependent on the learner’s interpretation.
  • There may be no easy answer where it comes to differentiating an impact of intrinsic versus extrinsic drive in the classroom. However, Morrow & Ackermann (2012) found that learners who are unable to form positive motivational “attitudes” towards goal fulfillment are at greater risk of dropping from program. Within the context of their research, “Students that reported being more motivated by instruments goals such as getting a job (following graduation) and succeeding in society were more likely to intend to persist; students without distinct goals or motivations were less likely to persist (Morrow & Ackermann, 2012, p. 483). Furthermore, Sparkman, Maulding & Roberts (2012) note parental education accomplishments as influential on learner motivation and persistence in college. Students who are unable to draw from learning experience of parents who have already attended (and completed) undergraduate programs are often left unsupported and lacking reliable examples of success to draw from (Lehmann, 2007; Sparkman et al, 2012). Knight and Mirza expanded on this statement by suggesting “…parental educational attainment has been shown to be the most important factor in determining university participation (as cited by Lehmann, 2007, p. 94). Success begets success and motivation begets motivation – there is no getting around the point that intrinsic drive to succeed is effected by extrinsic factors, beliefs and attitudes.
  • Susan is a new student who is attending classes at Bryman College – A for-profit organization. As a new enrollment to the school, Susan repeatedly misses assignment deadlines and submits work late. While in class, her instructor notices that Susan frequently avoids eye contact with others and she excludes herself from group discussions. Now, in her third week of a four week module, it doesn’t look good. The teacher is concerned that some of Susan’s behavior is an early indication of what’s about to come – another drop for the college; another failed attempt. So, in an effort to address the problem, the teacher presents what she knows of Susan to colleagues at the college. And, to her surprise, several of the other staff members are dealing with a ‘Susan’ of their own. What’s even more unsettling – the College attrition rate for students, immediately following the first few weeks of class, is extremely high

Transcript

  • 1. Louis Cabuhat, Academic Dean Managing Emotions and Improving Motivation
  • 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson, learners should be able to:  Create a personal definition of „motivation‟  Differentiate between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation  Verify whether your learner(s) are motivated  Accept the impact poor motivation has on student persistence
  • 3. “If you don‟t know where you are going, any road will get you there” - Richard S. Sagor Connecting Your Actions to the Target IMPROVED OUTCOMES
  • 4.  Performance Targets (INDIVIDUAL OUTCOMES) ◦ Ask yourself, “What are students expected to gain from our „actions”?  Improved motivation  Improved engagement  Realistic goal-setting  Improved achievement  Process Targets (TECHNIQUES or STRATEGIES)  Development of an Early Warning System Training Targets (Sagor, 2011)
  • 5. Defining Motivation How do you define motivation?  Think ‘emotionally-driven’ actions Motivation may be defined as “an internal state that arouses learners, steers them in a particular direction and keeps them engaged with certain activities” (Lei, 2010, p. 153). 1. Horse to water 2. Fly to honey 3. Human to affection What „drives‟ your students?
  • 6. Intrinsic Motivation ("Homer thinking," 2013)
  • 7. Extrinsic Motivation ("Engagement and motivation," n.d.)
  • 8. Which Type of Motivation is MORE useful to Higher Ed. professionals A B
  • 9. Motivation: Just the Facts  Many students are not ready for the challenges encountered in college (Balduf 2009)  Studies suggest that issues of time- management tasks and self-discipline “proved more challenging” than anticipated upon enrollment to college (Balduf, 2009).  Morrow & Ackermann (2012) found that learners who are unable to form positive motivational “attitudes” towards goal fulfillment are at greater risk of dropping from program.  Sparkman, Maulding & Roberts (2012) note parental education accomplishments as influential on learner motivation and persistence in college. Intrinsic Intrinsic Intrinsic Intrinsic
  • 10. Are you a teacher who underscores instrument goals (hard skills and soft skills)? Why? Hard Skills  Verbal/Written  Mathematic  Laboratory  Questioning  Computer Soft Skills  Attitude  Relationships  Empathy  Listening  Tact
  • 11. Question: What data is currently available in your class (or daily interactions) that can offer potential information on the presence or absence of motivation with your students? Put another way: How can you tell if motivation exists?
  • 12. Introducing Susan
  • 13. Student Scenario: Susan is a new student who is attending classes at Bryman College – A for-profit organization. As a new enrollment to the school, Susan repeatedly misses assignment deadlines and submits work late. While in class, her instructor notices that Susan frequently avoids eye contact with others and she excludes herself from group discussions. Now, in her third week of a four week module, it doesn’t look good. The teacher is concerned that some of Susan’s behavior is an early indication of what’s about to come – another drop for the college; another failed attempt. So, in an effort to address the problem, the teacher presents what she knows of Susan to colleagues at the college. And, to her surprise, several of the other staff members are dealing with a ‘Susan’ of their own. What’s even more unsettling – the College attrition rate for students, immediately following the first few weeks of class, is extremely high.
  • 14. Head on over to wwwEduOs.net to begin the online discussion and anchor your comments to our dynamic case involving „Susan‟.
  • 15. Reference List Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of advanced academics, 20(2), 274-294. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ849379.pdf Engagement and motivation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kumardeepak.wordpress.com/2012/06/01/engagement-motivation-and-learning/ Homer thinking. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.newgrounds.com/art/view/gamenovice19/homer-thinking Laskey, M. L., & Hetzel, C. J. (2010, August 30). Self-regulated learning, metacognition, and soft skills: the 21st century leaner. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED511589.pdf Lehmann, W. (2007). "I just didn't feel like I fit in": the role of habitus in university dropout decisions. Canadian journal of higher education, 37(2), 89-110. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e3520ca5-3840-4298-880a- ac8dfff6da1c@sessionmgr12&vid=5&hid=127
  • 16. Lei, S. (2010). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: evaluating benefits and drawbacks from college instructors' perspective. Journal of instructional psychology, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e7561ffa-953d-4b17-96a8- 061cc4704cbc@sessionmgr111&vid=8&hid=108 Millar, B., & Tanner, D. (2011, December 10). Student perceptions of their readiness for community college study. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ974348.pdf Morrow, J. A., & Ackermann, M. E. (2012). Intention to persist and retention of first-year students: The importance of motivation and sense of belonging. College student journal, 46(3), 483-491. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=efc82f3b-eac7-4d11-91da- acc4e88f76d0@sessionmgr15&vid=7&hid=113 Sparkman, L., Maulding, W. S., & Roberts, J. G. (2012). Non-cognitive predictors of student success in college. College student journal, 46(3), 642-652. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=efc82f3b-eac7-4d11-91da- acc4e88f76d0@sessionmgr15&vid=5&hid=12 Reference List
  • 17. Taylor, J. (2012). Students‟ perspective on intrinsic motivation to learn: a model to guide educators. ICCTE, 7(2), Retrieved from http://icctejournal.org/issues/v6i1/v6i1-wilson/ Tinto, V. (1987, November). The principles of effective retention. Fall conference of the Maryland college personnel association. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED301267.pdf Reference List