Sources or factors of demographic change socio report


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Sources and factors of demographic change

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Sources or factors of demographic change socio report

  1. 1. SOURCES OR FACTORS OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE1. FERTILITY World Fertility Study: many African and Middle Eastern countries give birth to seven or more children Philippines: six children Great Britain, US and Canada more or less 2 children Fertility - is the natural human capability of producing offspring Fertility Rate - is the number of children born per couple, person or population Source:
  2. 2. crude birth rate = The number of children born to urban women is about 15 to 20 percent lower than rural women fertility rates tend to be highest in Mindanao And lowest??
  3. 3. Urban Families Few opportunities for children to work Net economic contribution is negative Family Planning
  4. 4. Many children Contributors to the economic well-being of the family By helping the farm and by taking care of the parents in their old age No need of family planning RURAL FAMILIES
  5. 5. FERTILITY DETERMINANTS ( factors affecting fertility levels) Proximate Determinants • Includes woman’s fecundity (biological ability to bear a child) • Age at first menstruation • Age at marriage • Age at first sexual intercourse • Current marital Status • Use of family planning (abstinence and insusceptability of pregnancy) • Menopause - The termination of a woman’s fecundity or the cessation of the menstrual period
  6. 6. Better-educated Philippine women bear fewer children than those who have attended school only a few years. This differential is attributed to the tendency of highly educated women to marry at a later age. As a result, these women have fewer child-bearing years as compared to those who marry in their early 20’s. Women employed outside the home tended to bear fewer children than those who work at home. Presumably due to the reconciling occupational and domestic roles.
  7. 7. 2. MORTALITY Mortality - is the state of being mortal, or state of susceptible (likely to be affected) to death Mortality rate is a measure of the number of death in a population A mortality rate is the same with death rate Death rates are influenced by social and economic factors as well as by the biological realities of germs, viruses and the physiology of the human body Mortality rates are higher in the less-developed regions of the country maybe because there is a higher standard of living in cities and the fact that urban areas have greater access to health services This shows the need for an integrated population program in which mutually reinforcing efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality levels are made simultaneously.
  8. 8. Types of Mortality Rates Infant Mortality Rate a measure of the mortality among children who have not reached their first birthday Fetal Mortality rate The ratio of fetal deaths to the sum of the births in that year. Maternal Mortality rate The number of maternal births during childbirth in that year Source:
  9. 9. Life expectancy serves as a measure of the general health of the population, which depends on the satisfaction of many basic human needs such as adequate nutrition, clean water and sanitation, as well as access to medical services like vaccinations.
  10. 10. 3. MIGRATION refers to the process of geographic mobility, that is the change of a person’s residence from one community to another. 3 TYPES OF MOBILITY International Migration Refers to the relatively permanent transfer of residence from one sovereign nation to another. Internal Migration Permanent change of residence within a country (NCR) Circulation Temporary moves, move to another community to work or study for awhile then return later to live in their home community - Maybe either international or internal in nature.
  11. 11. On the positive side, it can provide needed labor (both skilled and unskilled). For source countries, however, immigration may drain away valuable talent, especially since educated and motivated people are most likely to migrate in search of opportunities. Migration is a function of two kinds of factors: • pushes people out of the country, resulting in what is generally known as emigration Push Factor • attracts people into the country, resulting in what is called immigrationPull Factor
  12. 12. Some of the factors that influence either of the push and pull factors: i) The prospect of better jobs or working conditions outside the country and vice versa; similar prospect in the home country may attract people from outside ii) Climate iii) Religious or political persecution/freedom in a country iv)Law may influence migration directly social-changes.html
  13. 13. ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING POPULATION GROWTH There has been active prosecution of population control programs (recently RH Bill) 98 million (14th most populous in the world) WORLD POPULATION RANKING : 1. China 2. India 3. US 4. Indonesia 5. Brazil 14th to 12th - Philippines Source:
  14. 14. Former Philippine First Lady Amelita Ramos said Cardinal Jaime Sin should stop criticizing her husband’s (FVR) family-planning program. She said Sin should visit rural provinces and slums around the capital to see the growing number of children living in poverty. “I wish he would do more, instead of telling the people to multiply some more.”
  15. 15. Because of Church opposition, most population control programs have incorporated five basic criteria: Coercion (forcing) will not be used to induce couples to use family planning. The program should be funded locally, rather than just by international donors. Surgical abortion is considered an unacceptable means of population control. The population program should be integrated with other developmental efforts in the country. All members of the Philippine population, even school-age youth, are to be served by the program.
  16. 16. Source: Strategies for Reducing Population Growth: Contraception/ Birth Control - methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy Sexual Abstinence – voluntarily restraining from sexual contact Abortion - the termination of pregnancy by the removal of fetus Infanticide – intentional killing of infants Rights of Women - War - conflict by states and nations Emigration - leaving one's country or region to settle in another Immigration – reducing the entry of foreigners to a country Sterilization - medical techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to reproduce. Euthanasia - intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering.
  17. 17. Sources: 1. s 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.{d4720f30-636d-4d46- bfa3- a39b5fb96558}&mid=b1ce9142e65547d0bd3fd1681cf333f1- 6c39977832fce733eb73a1c1100a026dc8a5d6e6&ds=AVG&v= 07%2011%3A11%3A35&sap=ku&q=abstinence