The 13 Colonies in 1776 Delaware New Hampshire New Jersey Massachusetts Maryland Rhode Island Virginia Connecticut North Carolina New York South Carolina Pennsylvania Georgia
The American Revolution The American Colonies fought for Independence from Great Britain. The American Revolution lasted from 1775 to 1783.
America Grows after the Revolution After the American Revolution, new territories were added as part of the Treaty of Paris, 1783. Britain gave up its claim to all land south of Canada and east of the Mississippi River.
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains are a chain of several mountain ranges that run from the top of Georgia to New York and on to the bottom of Maine.
Crossing the Mountains In the 1700s the only ways to travel were by boat, wagon, on horseback or on foot. These mountains were too difficult to cross.
The Cumberland Gap In 1750 Dr. Thomas Walker and some friends found a trail though a valley. It is called the Cumberland Gap Later Daniel Boone and others would use the path to lead pioneers into the west.
The Port of New Orleans The Mississippi was like a water highway, connecting many rivers and communities. New Orleans was a port city that connected the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.
The Louisiana Purchase In 1801 Thomas Jefferson sent Robert Livingston to Paris in order to buy the city of New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase France offered to sell all of land it held along with the city. Livingston purchased the entire Louisiana Territory for $15,000,000.
Exploring the Country President Jefferson then sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the land. With the help of Sacagawea, they traveled to the Pacific Ocean and back.
Traveling the American Rivers As more people moved west, more goods and supplies needed to be sent west too. The best way was to send cargo on boats.
Portage: French word-to carry Not all rivers connect to each other. Some rivers have dangerous rapids too. Boats would have to be unloaded, then the goods and boats were walked across the land. Pioneers needed to travel across the Great Lakes too.
Building the Erie Canal A plan was made to create a canal, a man- made-river, to connect the city of Albany to Buffalo in New York. Flat-bottomed boats called barges, would be pulled along the canal by mules. The mules walked along a path next to the canal.
The Erie Canal The Erie Canal was completed in 1825. The Eastern states were now connected to the Great Lakes and the Northwest Territories.
Travel by Barge on the Erie Canal Boats filled with people and goods could travel across the Great Lakes and down rivers like the Wabash, Illinois, and Ohio then down to the Mississippi.
America in 1820 New States in the union: Indiana-1816 Mississippi-1817 Illinois-1818 Alabama-1819 Maine-1820 Missouri-1821
Missouri Missouri became the “Gateway” to the west. The city of St. Louis is on the Mississippi River. Settlers came down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and started the trip on land from St. Louis. Pioneers would follow the Missouri River out into the west.
The Wagon Train Pioneers could buy supplies in the town of Independence. It was much safer to travel in groups with other families in wagon trains. The wagon trains would follow a guide and the trails out into the west.
Oregon Territory Far in the west was the Oregon Territory. Few people were living there before the 1840s. Groups of people traveled together in wagon trains and began to move west. The path they followed was named the Oregon Trail.
The Changing Land The center of the country is covered in flat, grassy land called the Great Plains.
New Sights The land west of the Mississippi was very different for the pioneers. There were fewer trees and flat lands full of tall grasses.