Workshop Trade-off Analysis - CGIAR_19 Feb 2013_CRP 3.?_Bruno Gerard


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Workshop Trade-off Analysis - CGIAR_19 Feb 2013_CRP 3.?_Bruno Gerard

  1. 1. 1. Participatory problem analysis •Food insecurity •Increasing poverty •Degrading natural environments •Policy constraints 2. INRM Research (research on alternative solutions) 3a. Production functions 3b. Human well-being 3c. Ecosystem functions •Quantity of food and fibre •Risk management •Nutrient cycling •Quality •Participation of resource users •Carbon sequestration •Genetic x Environment in decisions •Biodiversity matching efficiency •Water balance 4. Tradeoffs and Options •Analysis of tradeoffs and competing interests •Identification of ranges of flexible adaptative options 5. Outcomes 6. Feedback •ExtrapolationModel of the INRM Research ProcessFrom: A brief report on the INRM CGIAR •Disseminationworkshop held in Penang, Malaysia •Policy implementation21- 25 August 2000 •Wide-scale adoption
  2. 2. Scales matter and research at different levels needs to be integrated• Need to adopt/develop novel research methods and widen our range of skills• Time scale: understanding the dynamics, trajectories, shocks, drivers. Innovation. Theory of change…• Spatial scale/level • Field (data gaps, GxExM, weed resistance, adaptation, mech., mitigation, P mobilization, …) • Farm (resource allocation, gender, nutrient cycling…) • Landscape (communal res., social cap) • Country, region• Multi-scale prospective/ex-ante analysis, targeting and recommendation domains
  3. 3. Adoptability/constraints to adoption CAin a broader context• Knowledge intensive (not a single technology)• Biomass tradeoff in mixed crop livestock systems• Change in resource allocation and need for investment (machinery, herbicides and other inputs)• Access to mechanization options• Weeds• Farm size?• For some systems, performance in early years• Adoptability limit regarding aridity
  4. 4. Source: Herrero et al. 2010
  5. 5. Benefits and costs Incidence of CA at various scales Regional Farm Global National BenefitsReduction in on-farm costs: savings in time, labour and mechanized xmachineryIncrease in soil fertility and moisture retention, resulting in long-term yield x xincrease, decreasing yield variations and greater food securityStabilization of soil and protection from erosion leading to reduced xdownstream sedimentationReduction in toxic contamination of surface water and groundwater xMore regular river flows, reduced flooding and the re-emergence of dried xwellsRecharge of aquifers as a result of better infiltration xReduction in air pollution resulting from soil tillage machinery xReduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (carbon sequestration) xConservation of terrestrial and soil-based biodiversity x CostsPurchase of specialized planting equipment xShort-term pest problems due to the change in crop management xAcquiring of new management skills xApplication of additional herbicides x xFormation and operation of farmers’ groups x xHigh perceived risk to farmers because of technological uncertainty x xDevelopment of appropriate technical packages and training programs x xSource: Adapted from Knowler and Bradshaw (2007)
  6. 6. • My TO, your TO, their TO: Perception, values, ethics, gender, weight, uncertainties, present vs. future!• What is our core development model?• Is global food security vs. poverty reduction in small scale farming systems a TO?• The optimistic Win-Win, Best Bet, SMART etc…• Harmonization and implementation of quantitative and qualitative indicators across scales…