• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
The Official Report of the Games of the XXIII Olympiad Los Angeles, 1984
 

The Official Report of the Games of the XXIII Olympiad Los Angeles, 1984

on

  • 5,673 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
5,673
Views on SlideShare
5,673
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    The Official Report of the Games of the XXIII Olympiad Los Angeles, 1984 The Official Report of the Games of the XXIII Olympiad Los Angeles, 1984 Presentation Transcript

    • I f there must be one purpose for why I playlet it be thatI am given the chanceto be part of a concept that is bigger than myself,something that works accordingto the trusteach human element has in the other,an idea that is going after what will make of the whole bigger parts . . .
    • Official Report of theGames of theXXIIIrd OlympiadLos Angeles, 1984Volume 1Organization and Planning
    • Published by the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing CommitteePaul Ziffren, ChairmanPeter V. Ueberroth, PresidentHarry L. Usher, Executive Vice President/General ManagerRichard B. Perelman, Editor-in-ChiefCopyright © 1985 by the Los AngelesOlympic Organizing Committee. Star inMotion and Sam the Olympic Eaglecopyright © 1980 by the Los AngelesOlympic Organizing Committee.Pictograms copyright © 1981, 1984 bythe Los Angeles Olympic OrganizingCommittee. All rights reserved.Reproduction in any form prohibitedwithout written permission of thepublisher. International Standard BookNumber 0-9614512-0-3. Library ofCongress Catalog Card Number 85-50057. Printed in the United States ofAmerica.Readers should note the followingregarding the text of the OfficialReport:o Use of male pronouns in the text imply the female throughout as appropriate.o Measurements have been stated as actually made or used; thus, most measurements are stated using the U.S. Customary System. Interested readers should find little difficulty in converting the measurements presented to metric measurements if desired.o The editors followed a general policy of identifying individuals by function rather than by name. It was felt that this would provide a clearer understanding of the interaction between departments and organizations and more properly reflect the collective accomplish- ments made during the organizing and operational periods.
    • Table of Contents1 Reflections Page 12 2.01 Impact of the Games of the Xth Olympiad Award of the Games of the Page 5 2.02 Formation of the Southern XXlllrd Olympiad California Committee for the Olympic Games 2.03 Candidature as the United States city to bid for the Games from 1947–1972 2.04 Bid for the Games of the XXlst Olympiad 2.05 Bid for the Games of the XXllnd Olympiad 2.06 Bid for the Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad 2.07 Agreement of the IOC with the city of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee and the United States Olympic Committee 2.08 Reflections on the award to Los Angeles3 Formation and Management Page 13 3.01 Nature and status of the LAOOC of the LAOOC 3.02 Board of Directors 3.02.1 Members of the Board and their selection 3.02.2 The Executive Committee 3.02.3 LAOOC Chairman, Paul Ziffren 3.03 Citizens Advisory Commission 3.03.1 The subcommissions 3.03.2 Typical activities of the advisory commissions 3.03.3 Olympic orientation workshops 3.04 Management of the LAOOC 3.04.1 The LAOOC President, Peter V. Ueberroth 3.04.2 The Executive Vice President and General Manager, Harry L. Usher 3.04.3 The Executive Operations Committee 3.04.4 Organizational structure 3.05 Management in the pre-Games period: 1979–1980 3.05.1 Early development and planning 3.05.2 Early financial planning 3.05.3 The Games of the XXllnd Olympiad in Moscow—an opportunity missed 3.05.4 Revenue acquisition 3.05.5 Site acquisition 3.06 Management of the planning period: 1981–1982 3.06.1 Commissioner program 3.06.2 Development of a master plan 3.06.3 Integrated scheduling based on the master plan 3.06.4 Management planning sessions and retreats 3.06.5 Operating plans 3.07 Period of testing and refining 3.07.1 Explosive growth in the staff 3.07.2 Meetings of the IOC Executive Board and the NOCs in Los Angeles 3.07.3 Revised budgets 3.07.4 Sporting events in 1983 3.07.5 The venue development process 3.08 “Venuization” and implementation 3.08.1 Explosive growth in site management 3.08.2 Mandate of the commissioners 3.08.3 Recruitment of Games staff 3.08.4 Table top exercises 3.08.5 The Soviet withdrawal and Eastern Bloc boycott 3.08.6 Torchlight Ill 3.09 The Games 3.09.1 Commissioner’s Authority Memo 3.09.2 The Operations Center 3.09.3 Senior management during the Games 3.09.4 Site management 3.10 Post-Games close-out 3.11 The LAOOC legacy
    • Table of Contents4 Growth of the LAOOC and the Page 27 Organization of the Games: A Chronology5 Accreditation and Access Page 39 5.01 Accreditation concepts, goals Control and requirements 5.01.1 Need for accreditation 5.01.2 Separation of accreditation and access privileges 5.01.3 System tools: Badges and equipment 5.02 Accreditation and access privileges of Olympic Family members 5.02.1 Identification of Olympic Family members 5.02.2 Identification of Olympic Family privileges 5.02.3 Procedures for Olympic Family accreditation 5.02.4 Special cases: Nature and disposition 5.03 Accreditation and access coding of staff 5.03.1 Concept of the staff badging system: “K," "Ks" and "L" 5.03.2 Procedures for accreditation of LAOOC staff 5.03.3 Processing the LAOOC staff applicants 5.03.4 Issuance of captured or noncaptured badges 5.03.5 Procedures for accreditation of non-LAOOC staff 5.03.6 Processing of non-LAOOC staff applicants 5.03.7 Special procedures for security personnel 5.03.8 Staff accreditation requirements in the Games period 5.04 Access control 5.04.1 Nature of access control requirements 5.04.2 Relationship of access control to security 5.04.3 Recruitment of access control management and staff, 5.04.4 Training of access control staff 5.04.5 Operations of access control during the Games 5.05 Summary and recommendations6 Administration Page 57 6.01 Nature of services offered 6.02 Office environment: 1979–1981 in Century City 6.03 Office environment: 1981–1983 in Westwood 6.04 Office environment: 1983–1984 in Culver City 6.05 Role of the Administration Department during the Games period 6.06 Office environment: Post-Games period 6.07 Satellite offices and operations 6.08 Travel service 6.08.1 Formation and responsibilities 6.08.2 Air travel policies and procedures 6.08.3 Hotel and ground transport 6.08.4 Operations during the Games 6.08.5 Reflections on the performance of the Travel Department 6.09 Reflections on the LAOOC’s administrative services program7 Architecture and Page 65 7.01 Introduction and overview Construction 7.02 Construction of facilities for permanent use and their modification for the Olympic Games 7.02.1 Exposition Park 7.02.2 Special projects at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum 7.02.3 Athletics: Coliseum 7.02.4 Ceremonies: Coliseum 7.02.5 Cycling: Velodrome 7.02.6 Hockey: Weingart Stadium 7.02.7 Shooting: Prado Recreational Area 7.02.8 Swimming: Swim Stadium 7.02.9 UCLA: Administration building 7.02.10 USC: Dining Hall (King Olympic Hall) 7.02.11 Youth sports facilities
    • Architecture and 7.03 Construction of temporary facilities at existing Construction (continued) sites 7.03.1 Archery 7.03.2 Athletics: Marathons and race walks 7.03.3 Baseball 7.03.4 Basketball 7.03.5 Boxing 7.03.6 Canoeing and Rowing 7.03.7 Cycling: Mission Viejo and Artesia Freeway 7.03.8 Equestrian 7.03.9 Fencing and Volleyball 7.03.10 Football 7.03.11 Gymnastics 7.03.12 Handball 7.03.13 Judo 7.03.14 Modern Pentathlon 7.03.15 Tennis 7.03.16 Water Polo 7.03.17 Weightlifting 7.03.18 Wrestling 7.03.19 Yachting 7.03.20 Village: USC 7.03.21 Village: UCLA 7.03.22 Village: UC Santa Barbara 7.03.23 Biltmore Hotel 7.03.24 Main Press Center 7.03.25 Olympic Arrival Center 7.03.26 Olympic Arts Festival 7.03.27 Transportation sites 7.04 Decoration of the sites: Look items 7.05 Street banner program 7.05.1 Goals and parameters of the banner program 7.05.2 Los Angeles banner program 7.05.3 Non-Los Angeles city banner program 7.05.4 Design and fabrication 7.05.5 Results of the banner programs 7.06 Signage 7.06.1 Goals and parameters of the signage program 7.06.2 Responsibilities of the signage program staff 7.06.3 Development of the signage program 7.06.4 Fabrication of the signage 7.06.5 Installation, maintenance and repair of signage 7.06.6 Signage requirements developed in the Games period 7.06.7 Post-Games disposition8 Ceremonies Page 199 8.01 Mandate of the Ceremonies Department 8.02 Opening Ceremonies 8.02.1 Concept and early development 8.02.2 Development of the actual plan 8.02.3 Formation of the cast and gathering of the technical elements 8.02.4 Installation of the physical elements 8.02.5 Rehearsal and training 8.02.6 Staging and performance of the Opening Ceremonies 8.03 Closing Ceremonies 8.03.1 Concept and early development 8.03.2 Development of the actual plan 8.03.3 Formation of the cast and gathering of the technical elements 8.03.4 Rehearsal and training 8.03.5 Installation of the physical elements 8.03.6 Staging and performance of the Closing Ceremonies 8.04 Award Ceremonies 8.04.1 Awards protocol required by the Olympic Charter 8.04.2 Development of the awards program 8.04.3 Design of the physical elements of the Ceremonies 8.04.4 Fabrication of the medals 8.04.5 Other awards: Commemorative medals, certificates and diplomas 8.04.6 Recruitment and training of the awards staff 8.04.7 Responsibilities of the awards group during the Games 8.05 Summary and recommendations
    • Table of Contents9 Corporate Relations Page 231 9.01 Characteristics of the corporate marketing program 9.01.1 The sponsors 9.01.2 The suppliers 9.01.3 The licensees 9.02 Controls governing the use of Olympic symbols 9.03 The sponsorship program 9.03.1 Concept of the program 9.03.2 Identification of potential sponsors 9.03.3 Sponsor commitment to the LAOOC 9.03.4 LAOOC commitments to sponsors after signing 9.04 The supplier program 9.05 The licensee program 9.05.1 Nature and goals of the licensee program 9.05.2 Program for receipt of proposals 9.05.3 Selection process and procedures 9.05.4 Protection of the exclusivity granted to the licensee 9.06 Management of the Corporate Relations group 9.07 Summary10 Design and the Look of the Page 239 10.01 Concept and goals of the design Games program 10.02 Emblem: The Star in Motion 10.02.1 Concept of the emblem and its use 10.02.2 Development of the emblem 10.02.3 Graphic standards for use of the Games symbols 10.03 Mascot: Sam the Olympic Eagle 10.03.1 Concept of the mascot and its use 10.03.2 Development of the mascot 10.04 Pictograms and other symbols 10.04.1 Concept of the pictograms and their use 10.04.2 Development of the sports pictograms 10.04.3 Registration and copyright of the pictograms 10.04.4 Usage program for the pictograms 10.04.5 The official typeface and logotype 10.05 Development of the Look— environmental graphics 10.05.1 Evolution of the Look 10.05.2 Guidelines for the use of the Look elements 10.05.3 Physical applications of the colors and the kit of parts 10.05.4 Procurement and installation of the Look elements at Olympic sites 10.05.5 Installation and use of Look elements at non-Olympic sites 10.05.6 Applications of the Look to signs 10.06 Print graphics 10.06.1 LAOOC Design Department 10.06.2 Development of the print graphics program 10.07 Other Olympic design projects 10.07.1 Ernie Barnes Olympic Games sports posters 10.07.2 The Olympic medals and commemorative medallions 10.07.3 The Olympic torch 10.07.4 Olympic signature poster series 10.07.5 Post Olympic design programs Finance Page 30311 11.01 Acquisition of revenues 11.01.1 Analysis of past Olympic revenue sources 11.01.2 Concept of revenue generation 11.01.3 Sales of broadcasting rights 11.01.4 Sponsorship and suppliership programs 11.01.5 Sales of admission tickets 11.01.6 Sales of commemorative coins 11.01.7 Licensing program 11.01.8 Other revenue sources 11.01.9 Use of investment programs and effect of interest 11.01.10 Revenue and the operating surplus 11.02 Budgeting and control of expenses 11.02.1 Concept and goals 11.02.2 Initial budgeting 1979–1983 11.02.3 Final budget 1984 11.02.4 Pre-Games budget exercises 11.02.5 The budgeting system 11.02.6 Commitment reports 11.02.7 Budgeting staff 11.02.8 Expenses and the operating surplus
    • Finance (continued) 11.03 Economic impact of the Games 11.03.1 Overview 11.03.2 Primary impact 11.03.3 Induced impact 11.03.4 Displacement 11.03.5 Economic impact on government 11.03.6 Potential benefits t o the community 11.04 Government financial involvement 11.05 Procedures for financial control and operations 11.05.1 Accounts payable 11.05.2 Accounts receivable 11.05.3 Contract administration 11.05.4 Insurance 11.05.5 Payroll 11.05.6 Purchasing 11.05.7 In-processing 11.05.8 Internal audit 11.06 Venue finance procedures 11.06.1 Budgets 11.06.2 Contracts 11.06.3 Operations 11.07 Village finance 11.07.1 Budgets 11.07.2 Village administration office 11.07.3 NOC service Center 11.07.4 Accommodations satellites 11.08 Olympic Arts Festival finance 11.08.1 Budget 11.08.2 Contracts 11.08.3 Ticket sales 11.08.4 Parking and concessions 11.08.5 Payroll administration 11.08.6 Petty cash 11.08.7 Asset control and disposition 11.09 Report of LAOOC financial results 1979–198412 Food Services Page 321 12.01 Areas of responsibility for food service 12.02 Food service for athletes and team officials 12.02.1 Concept and goals 12.02.2 Food service sites 12.02.3 Preparation of food for village consumption 12.02.4 Preparation of food for out-of- village consumption 12.02.5 Provision of foodstuffs: Sources 12.02.6 Summary of menus 12.02.7 Summary of operations in food preparation areas 12.02.8 Summary of operations in food consumption areas 12.02.9 Analysis of athlete and team food service 12.03 Food services for dignitaries, sports officials and guests 12.03.1 Concept and goals 12.03.2 Food service support at the Biltmore Hotel 12.03.3 Food service support for guests not staying at the Biltmore Hotel 12.03.4 Food service at the competition and training sites 12.03.5 Hospitality arrangements in the villages 12.04 Food services for the press, radio and television 12.04.1 Concept and goals 12.04.2 Food service at the Main Press Center 12.04.3 Food service at the International Broadcast Center 12.04.4 Food service at the competition and training sites 12.05 Food services for the spectator 12.05.1 Concept and goals 12.05.2 Food service at the competition sites 12.05.3 Spectator food service at Exposition Park 12.05.4 Analysis of spectator food services 12.06 Food services for the staff 12.06.1 Concept and goals 12.06.2 Responsibility assumed by the LAOOC 12.06.3 Menus and provisions for staff food service 12.06.4 Staff food service operations 12.06.5 Reflections on the staff food service program
    • Table of Contents Government Relations Page 33913 13.01 Concept of the role of government relations 13.01.1 Composition of the department 13.01.2 Scope of liaison duties 13.01.3 Use of Washington, D.C. office 13.02 Liaison with the federal government 13.02.1 President of the United States 13.02.2 Congress of the United States 13.02.3 Agencies of the federal government 13.03 Liaison with the government of the state of California 13.03.1 Governor of the State 13.03.2 State legislature 13.03.3 State agencies 13.04 Liaison with local government entities 13.04.1 City of Los Angeles 13.04.2 County of Los Angeles 13.04.3 Independent government entities 13.05 Other areas of concentration 13.05.1 Coin sales programs 13.05.2 Customs regulations 13.05.3 Disposition of assets 13.05.4 Government funding matters 13.05.5 Permits for construction and use 13.05.6 Security matters 13.05.7 Stamps sales programs 13.05.8 Visa assistance 13.05.9 National Weather Service liaison 13.06 Reflections on the role of the Government Relations Department 13.07 Review of actions affecting participation of the NOCs 13.07.1 Early contacts with the NOC of the USSR 13.07.2 Formal visit of the USSR NOC to Los Angeles in December 1983 13.07.3 Government response to Soviet requests 13.07.4 Meeting between the IOC, LAOOC and USSR NOC in April 1984 13.07.5 Non-participation announced: 8 May 1984 13.07.6 Reaction following the boycott announcement 13.07.7 Response of the NOCs to the invitation to participate 13.07.8 Transport arrangements to assist NOCs14 Health Services and IOC Page 353 14.01 Areas of responsibility Medical Control 14.01.1 Role of the corporate sector 14.02 Doping control 14.02.1 Controls required by the Olympic Charter 14.02.2 Development of the laboratory facility 14.02.3 Development of the testing plan 14.02.4 Dissemination of the list of banned substances 14.02.5 Procedures for the collection of the samples 14.02.6 Procedures for testing of the samples 14.02.7 Role of the IOC Medical Commission during the Games 14.02.8 Test results of the doping control program 14.02.9 Doping control summary 14.03 Gender verification 14.03.1 Controls required by the Olympic Charter 14.03.2 Development of the collection and testing plan 14.03.3 Procedures used in collection and testing 14.03.4 Report of the results on the tests 14.04 Official hospital program 14.04.1 Concept 14.04.2 Characteristics of institutions chosen 14.04.3 Nature of the agreement for inclusion in the program 14.04.4 Results of the program during the Games
    • Health Services and IOC 14.05 Venue programs: Chief medical Medical Control (continued) officers 14.05.1 Concept and goals of the CMO program 14.05.2 Staffing and training of the venue teams 14.06 Venue programs: Spectator first aid and sports medicine program 14.06.1 Concept and design of the spectator medical program 14.06.2 Integration of the American Red Cross with the venue medical teams 14.06.3 Development of the sports medicine program for competitors, officials and the Olympic Family 14.06.4 Operations during the Games period 14.07 Venue programs: Medical command center 14.07.1 Concept of the medical command center 14.07.2 MCC location and staffing 14.07.3 Operations during the Games period 14.08 Village polyclinic programs 14.08.1 Concept of the polyclinics 14.08.2 Development of the polyclinics: Contract elements 14.08.3 Operations of the polyclinics during the Games 14.09 Summary Housing of Olympic Athletes Page 367 15.01 Concept of the villages15 and Team Officials (Villages) 15.02 Design of the campuses for village use 15.01.1 15.01.2 15.02.1 Need for three villages Use of existing campus facilities Determination of the physical alterations 15.02.2 Liaison with the campuses in the pre-Games period 15.03 Village administration and operations 15.03.1 Administrative organization 15.03.2 Mayor’s office 15.03.3 NOC relations 15.04 Village in-processing and registration 15.04.1 Pre-arrival communications 15.04.2 Arrival of cargo and freight in advance of the teams 15.04.3 In-processing at LAX: The Olympic Arrival Center 15.04.4 Village arrival and move in of the teams 15.04.5 Welcoming ceremonies 15.05 Village occupancy patterns: Move in and move out 15.05.1 Move in patterns of the teams 15.05.2 Occupancy after move in 15.05.3 Team move out patterns 15.06 Village operating programs 15.06.1 Access control 15.06.2 Language services 15.06.3 Maintenance 15.06.4 Material logistics 15.06.5 Press operations 15.07 Services available to the teams 15.07.1 Accommodations: Location and size 15.07.2 Health services 15.07.3 NOC support operations 15.07.4 Training facilities and sites 15.07.5 Transportation 15.08 Services available to village residents 15.08.1 Entertainment 15.08.2 Food services 15.08.3 Information and results 15.08.4 Main Street 15.08.5 Recreation facilities 15.08.6 Religious services 15.08.7 Tickets 15.08.8 Village newspaper 15.09 Housing at sites outside of the Los Angeles area 15.10 Summary and recommendations
    • Table of Contents16 Housing of Dignitaries, Page 389 16.0 1Accommodations concept Sponsors, Sports Officials and policies and Guests 16.02 Acquisition of accommodations (Accommodations) 16.02.1 Determining housing needs 16.02.2 Official hotel program 16.02.3 Campus housing program 16.03 Assignment of groups 16.03.1 Systems used to monitor and assign accommodations 16.03.2 Assignment dates and dissemination 16.03.3 Assumption of agreements by groups 16.03.4 Collection of deposits and closure of liability 16.03.5 Room returns and covering payments by the Organizing Committee 16.04 Liaison with hotels 16.05 Operations during the Games 16.05.1 Collection of payments due 16.05.2 Room shifts and changes in arrival/ departure dates 16.05.3 Sale of unused rooms and settlements with hotels 16.05.4 Use of the Biltmore Hotel for the IOC 16.06 Summary17 Human Resources Page 397 17.01 Permanent staff of the Organizing Committee 17.01.1 Growth of staffing 1979–1984 17.01.2 Recruitment of staff 17.01.3 Salaries and benefits for permanent staff 17.01.4 Structure of permanent staff 1979–1984 17.02 Staffing at the time of the Games 17.02.1 Early response to Games staffing interest 17.02.2 Procedure to identify required staff 17.02.3 Programs for the recruitment of staff 17.02.4 Role of the personnel coordinators 17.02.5 Staffing centers 17.02.6 Staffing sign-up procedures 17.02.7 Staffing selection procedures 17.02.8 Scheduling, training and orientation 17.02.9 Operations at sites 17.03 Post-Games job opportunities program 17.03.1 Concept and goals 17.03.2 Early operations 17.03.3 Post-Games effort 17.04 Summary18 International Olympic Page 409 18.01 Areas of liaison between the IOC Committee and LAOOC 18.02 LAOOC reports to the IOC Executive Board and the IOC Session 18.02.1 Report to the IOC Session: July 1980 18.02.2 Report to the lOC Executive Board: February 1981 18.02.3 Report to the IOC Executive Board: April 1981 18.02.4 Report to the lOC Session: October 1981 18.02.5 Report to the IOC Executive Board: February 1982 18.02.6 Report to the lOC Session: May 1982 18.02.7 Report to the IOC Executive Board: January 1983 18.02.8 Report to the IOC Session: March 1983 18.02.9 Reports to the IOC Executive Board: June, August and November 1983 18.02.10 Report to the IOC Session: February 1984 18.02.11 Special meeting of the IOC Executive Board: April 1984 18.02.12 Report to the IOC Executive Board: May 1984 18.02.13 Report to the IOC Session: July 1984
    • International Olympic 18.03 LAOOC reports to Commissions of Committee (continued) the IOC 18.03.1 Medical Commission 18.03.2 Press Commission 18.03.3 Television Commission 18.04 LAOOC responsibility during the meeting of the IOC Executive Board with the International Federations in February 1982 18.04.1 Administration and site 18.04.2 Meeting services 18.04.3 Program of the meetings 18.05 LAOOC responsibility during the meeting of the IOC Executive Board with the NOCs in January 1983 18.05.1 Administration and site 18.05.2 Meeting services 18.05.3 Program of the meetings 18.06 LAOOC responsibility during the meeting of the 88th Session of the IOC in Los Angeles in July 1984 18.06.1 Administration and site 18.06.2 Meeting services 18.06.3 Opening of the 88th Session of the IOC 18.06.4 Program of the 88th Session of the IOC 18.06.5 Reflections on the operation of the Session 18.07 Liaison with the IOC during the Games period19 In-Processing upon Arrival Page 425 19.01 Concept of the In-Processing Center 19.02 Determination of the In-Processing Center location 1 9 . 0 3 Development of the In-Processing Center plan 19.04 Liaison with the LAX 19.05 Liaison with the incoming officials and teams 19.05.1 Communications in the planning stage 19.05.2 Pre-arrival information and instructions 19.05.3 Scheduling 19.06 Games operation 19.06.1 Conversion and staffing of the LAX bubble 19.06.2 Early arrivals 19.06.3 Processing of Olympic Family 19.06.4 Processing of teams and accompanying officials 19.06.5 Review of arrival patterns and processing times 19.07 Out-Processing 19.08 Summary20 Language Services Page 437 20.01 Concept of language services 20.02 Determination of the level of service 20.03 Pre-Games translation service 20.04 Plan for language services at multiple sites 20.05 Recruitment of language resources 20.06 Training and orientation 20.06 1 Training language coordinators and assistants 20.06.2 Training interpreters 20.07 Games operations 20.07.1 Central command of operations 20.07.2 Conference interpretation 20.07.3 Language services at venues 20.07.4 Language services at villages 20.07.5 Use of the Flying Squad 20.07.6 Use of the translation pool 20.08 Summary
    • Table of Contents Materiel Acquisition and Page 44521 2 1 .01 Materiel acquisition Distribution 21.01.1 Conceptual plan for acquisition of assets and supplies 21.01.2 Staffing 21.01.3 Pre-order estimates and solicitation of vendors 21.01.4 Purchasing procedures 21.01.5 Results of the purchasing process 21.01.6 Timeline of the purchase date and delivery date of the goods ordered 21.01.7 Venue purchasing procedures during the move-out period 21.01.8 Venue purchasing procedures during the Games 21.02 Materiel distribution 21.02.1 Conceptual plan for storage and distribution 21.02.2 Supply plans for the 1983 events 21.02.3 Storage space: Estimation and acquisition 21.02.4 Storage warehouse operations in the pre-Games period 21.02.5 Storage warehouse operations in the move-out period 21.02.6 Venue equipment delivery and installation 21.02.7 Olympic cargo distribution 21.02.8 Venue resupply procedures and results 21.02.9 Storage warehouse operations in the move-back period 21.02.10 Final disposition of the assets after the Games period 2 1.03 Summary22 Meetings and Congresses Page 455 22.01 Role of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee 22.02 Meeting of the Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee with the National Olympic Committees 22.03 Congresses 22.03.1 Conceptual role of the LAOOC 22.03.2 Congress assistance given by the LAOOC 22.03.3 Organization of the congress staff 22.03.4 Recruitment and training 22.03.5 Review of the congresses 22.03.6 Summary of IF congresses 22.04 Summary23 News Relations and Press Page 463 23.01 Areas of responsibility for News Operations Relations and Press Operations 23.01.1 The conversity of tasks 23.01.2 Analysis and conclusions 23.02 Dissemination of LAOOC information to the news media 23.02.1 News releases, publications and other written material 23.02.2 Photography 23.02.3 News conferences 23.02.4 Radio and television 23.02.5 Tours 23.02.6 During the Games period 23.02.7 Analysis and conclusions 23.03 Interview policies and procedures 23.03.1 During the pre-Games period 23.03.2 During the Games 23.04 Spokes person function 23.04.1 Role of the news secretary and deputies 23.04.2 Role of Press Operations during the Games 23.05 Press Operations: Accreditation 23.05.1 Concept of the system 23.05.2 Distribution of the quotas 23.05.3 Procedures for accreditation 23.05.4 Processing of the applications and distribution of the Olympic identity cards 23.05.5 Processing of the journalists at the time of the Games 23.05.6 Results of the accreditation process
    • News Relations and Press 23.06 Press Operations: HousingOperations (continued) 23.06.1 Conceptual plan for housing of the press 23.06.2 Determination of the housing units designated for press 23.06.3 Procedures for the filing of deposits, assignment and confirmation of assignments 23.06.4 Processing for housing upon arrival 23.06.5 Results of the press housing process 23.07 Press Operations: Information services 23.07.1 Conceptual service plan 23.07.2 Distribution of operational information prior to the Games 23.07.3 Distribution of operational information at the Games 23.07.4 News conferences and interviews arranged for media during the time of the Games 23.07.5 Supplement to the entry data: Athlete biographical material for use on EMS 23.07.6 Supplement to results: Notes and quotes from the Main Press Center, venues and villages 23.07.7 Video viewing 23.07.8 Analysis of the Information Services sector 23.08 Press Operations: Main Press Center 23.08.1 Conceptual plan for central press services 23.08.2 Site selection and relations 23.08.3 Administrative requirements and operations 23.08.4 Agency requirements and operations 23.08.5 Common area requirements and operations 23.08.6 Other programs and services 23.08.7 Press entertainment, gifts and hospitality 23.08.8 Staff management, orientation and training 23.08.9 Reflections on the MPC experience 23.09 Press Operations: Photographic services 23.09.1 Conceptual plan of services 23.09.2 Nature of pool and non-pool photography at the Games 23.09.3 Operation of the IOPP and NOPP 23.09.4 Identification of photographers and the use of bibs 23.09.5 Photographers’ positions in the venues 23.09.6 Camera repair 23.09.7 Film processing 23.09.8 Transportation of film 23.09.9 Use of photographers for record purposes by the LAOOC 23.09.10 Analysis of photographic services 23.10 Press Operations: Transportation 23.10.1 Conceptual plan of service 23.10.2 Bus system 23.10.3 Car rental and usage 23.10.4 Parking 23.10.5 Analysis of press transportation 23.1 1 Press Operations: Venue press operations 23.11.1 Concept and goals 23.11.2 Determination of the equipment and service level 23.11.3 Development of venue press management 23.11.4 Formation of the venue press operations teams 23.11.5 Physical move-in and staff training 23.11.6 Venue operations and communications 23.11.7 Village operations 23.11.8 IOC Session and Olympic Arts Festival 23.11.9 Reflections on the venue operations
    • Table of Contents24 Numismatic and Philatelic Programs Page 519 24.01 24.02 Concept of the programs Commemorative coin program 24.02.1 24.02.2 History of programs in the United States Concept of the program 24.02.3 Original legislation and marketing proposal 24.02.4 Outcome of consideration by the Congress 24.02.5 Authorization and striking of the Olympic commemorative coins 24.02.6 Design and composition of the coins 24.02.7 Marketing of the coins 24.02.8 Results of the coin program 24.03 Commemorative stamp program 24.03.1 History of United States commemorative stamps 24.03.2 Concept and development of the program 24.04 Special programs 24.04.1 Joint efforts with the Sarajevo Organizing Committee 24.04.2 Other collectibles: Medals and pins 24.05 Summary25 Olympic Arts Festival Page 527 25.01 Concept of the Festival 25.01.1 Historical concept 25.01.2 Concept for 1984 25.01.3 Cultural Affairs Department 25.02 Development of the Festival program 25.02.1 Artist selection 25.02.2 Venue acquisition 25.02.3 Sponsorship and funding 25.03 Festival program elements and review 25.03.1 Dance 25.03.2 Theatre 25.03.3 Music and opera 25.03.4 Visual arts 25.04 Operational support 25.04.1 Housing 25.04.2 Materiel acquisition and handling 25.04.3 Press and publicity support 25.04.4 Protocol 25.04.5 Support services 25.04.6 Ticketing 25.04.7 Transportation26 Olympic Family Services Page 565 26.01 Concept and scope 26.02 Protocol responsibilities 26.02.1 Relationship with government 26.02.2 Delegation visits to Los Angeles in the pre-Games period 26.02.3 Games period: Arrival and departure assistance 26.02.4 Games period: VIP host/hostess program 26.02.5 Games period: Programs for guests 26.02.6 Games period: Special events 26.02.7 Observer delegations 26.02.8 Calligraphy 26.02.9 Use of gifts 26.03 Relationship with the IOC 26.03.1 Protocol responsibilities of the Organizing Committee at meetings of the IOC 26.03.2 Protocol responsibilities during the 88th Session of the IOC 26.03.3 Protocol responsibilities at IOC headquarters during the Games 26.04 Summary Publications Page 57327 27.01 Concept and goals 27.02 Review of LAOOC publications 27.02.1 Publications required by the Olympic Charter 27.02.2 Publications required by the LAOOC 27.02.3 Optional publications 27.03 Summary
    • Public Relations Page 583 28.01 Structure of LAOOC public28 relations 28.01.1 28.01.2 28.01.3 Public relations concept and goals Early public relations programs The expanding role of the News Department in public relations 2 8 . 0 2 Community relations 2 8 . 0 3 Public information 28.03.1 Area of responsibility 28.03.2 Public information telephone bank 28.03.3 Correspondence and informational materials 28.03.4 Remote ticketing and information centers 28.03.5 Venue information operations 28.03.6 Reflections on the public information program 28.04 Audio-visual, radio and television 28.04.1 Audio-visual: Film, photography and video 28.04.2 Public service announcements in the pre-Games period 28.04.3 Public service announcements during the Games period 28.04.4 Radio and television 28.05 Speaker’s Bureau 28.05.1 Formation of the bureau 28.05.2 Recruitment and training 28.06 Olympic Spirit Team 28.06.1 Concept of the team 28.06.2 Recruitment and training 28.06.3 Review of participation, procedures and effectiveness29 Security Page 597 2 9 . 0 1 Concept and goals 29.02 Explanation of the jurisdictional system 29.02.1 Conceptual plan 29.02.2 Jurisdictional agreements among federal and local agencies 29.03 Coordination between the Organizing Committee and the outside law enforcement agencies 29.03.1 Beginning concept 29.03.2 Development of Olympic Law Enforcement Coordinating Council 29.03.3 Role of the federal government 29.03.4 Role of local law enforcement authorities 29.03.5 Use of Organizing Committee funds for law enforcement 29.04 Security coordination within the Organizing Committee 29.04.1 Accreditation 29.04.2 Accommodations 29.04.3 Architecture/Construction 29.04.4 Ceremonies 29.04.5 Food Services 29.04.6 Technology 29.04.7 Transportation 29.05 Development of the private security forces 29.05.1 Role of private security 29.05.2 Plan for recruitment 29.05.3 Training procedures 29.06 Major areas of Games planning 29.06.1 Security at the venues 29.06.2 Security at the villages 29.06.3 Security at the training sites 29.06.4 In-transit security 29.06.5 Security at Organizing Committee facilities 29.06.6 Helicopter coordination 29.07 Games operations 29.07.1 Appearance of the President of the United States 29.07.2 Securing high-risk delegations 29.07.3 Deployment of law enforcement 29.07.4 Review of incidents during the Games 29.08 Summary
    • Table of Contents30 Sports Administration and Page 609 30.01 Areas of responsibility and Competition Management program for development 30.02 Commissioner program 30.02.1 Concept and goals 30.02.2 Development of the commissioner program 30.02.3 Relationship with the permanent staff 30.02.4 Relationship with the venue owner 30.02.5 Responsibility at the time of the Games 30.02.6 Summary 30.03 Competition management 30.03.1 Coordination with the International Federations 30.03.2 Formation of the competition secretariat 30.03.3 Provision of equipment 30.03.4 Technical officials and judges 30.04 Competition sites 30.04.1 Philosophy of rented versus new sites 30.04.2 Selection and acquisition program 30.04.3 Review of the building and rental agreements 30.05 Development of the program 30.05.1 Program development and new events 30.05.2 Schedule development 30.06 Registration of the athletes 30.06.1 Concept 30.06.2 General procedures 30.06.3 Organizational structure 30.06.4 Registration 30.06.5 Registration processing and distribution of information 30.06.6 Procedures for receipt of entries 30.06.7 Procedures for changes and updates 30.06.8 Information and statistics collected 30.06.9 Entry list publication: 28 July 1984 30.06.10 Competitor’s number assignment 30.06.11 Recommendations 30.07 Training Sites 30.07.1 Concept and general service level 30.07.2 Acquisition and development of the sites 30.07.3 Provision of personnel services, sports equipment and scheduling 30.07.4 Sports information centers 30.08 Use of pre-Olympic events 30.08.1 Concept and goals 30.08.2 Review of the events 30.08.3 Value of the pre-Olympic program 30.09 Review of the sports 30.09.1 Archery 30.09.2 Athletics 30.09.3 Baseball 30.09.4 Basketball 30.09.5 Boxing 30.09.6 Canoeing/Rowing 30.09.7 Cycling 30.09.8 Equestrian 30.09.9 Fencing 30.09.10 Football 30.09.11 Gymnastics 30.09.12 Handball 30.09.13 Hockey 30.09.14 Judo 30.09.15 Modern pentathlon 30.09.16 Shooting 30.09.17 Swimming 30.09.18 Tennis 30.09.19 Volleyball 30.09.20 Weightlifting 30.09.21 Wrestling 30.09.22 Yachting
    • 31 Technology Page 731 31.01 Area of responsibility 31.02 Development of requirements 31.03 Functional areas of operations 31.04 Review of systems used 31.04.1 Audio Distribution System (ADS) and Olympic Message System (OMS) 31.04.2 Data processing 31.04.3 Electronic Messaging System (EMS) 31.04.4 Paging services 31.04.5 Personal computers 31.04.6 Photocopying 31.04.7 Radio broadcasting 31.04.8 Radio communications 31.04.9 Registration and results 31.04.10 Results publications 31.04.11 Scoreboards 31.04.12 Sound reinforcement 31.04.13 Telecopiers 31.04.14 Telephones 31.04.15 Telex 31.04.16 Timing and measurement 31.04.17 Video 31.04.18 Word processing 31.05 Summary32 Television and Film Page 759 32.01 Concept and goals Operations 32.02 Sales of the television rights 32.02.1 Sales in the United States 32.02.2 Sales in Australia 32.02.3 Sales in Europe 32.02.4 Sales in Japan 32.02.5 Sales in North and South America 32.02.6 Sales to other areas 32.02.7 Reflections on the sales of broadcasting rights 32.03 Television operations by the host broadcaster 32.03.1 Areas of responsibility: Basic and unilateral 32.03.2 International Broadcast Center 32.03.3 Venue operations and production 32.03.4 Reflections on operations by the host broadcaster 32.04 Television Operations by the LAOOC 32.04.1 Concept and goals of world broadcaster liaison 32.04.2 Areas of responsibility 32.04.3 Accreditation 32.04.4 Housing 32.04.5 Transportation and parking 32.04.6 World broadcaster camera positions 32.04.7 World broadcaster liaison at the IBC 32.04.8 Other services provided by the LAOOC 32.04.9 Analysis of world broadcaster liaison 32.05 Television operations for non- rights holding broadcasters 32.06 Radio 32.06.1 Sales of exclusive rights 32.06.2 Special operations for radio broadcasters 32.06.3 Special regulations for non-rights holding radio broadcasters 32.07 Film operations 32.07.1 Concept and development of the official film project 32.07.2 Official film operations 32.07.3 Operations of other film concerns 32.07.4 Reflections on Olympic films and filmmakers
    • Table of Contents33 Ticketing Page 791 33.01 Concept and Goals 33.02 Development and overview of the ticketing system 33.03 Ticket marketing and sales 33.03.1 Marketing and pricing program 33.03.2 Public sales in the USA 33.03.3 Ticket sales late in the pre-Games period 33.03.4 Ticket sales during the Games period 33.03.5 Sales outside the United States 33.03.6 Sales to sponsors and others 33.03.7 Olympic Patron Program 33.03.8 Olympic Family ticketing 33.03.9 Olympic Arts Festival ticketing 33.04 Ticket printing and distribution 33.04.1 Overview of ticket printing 33.04.2 Determination of the venue manifests 33.04.3 Ticket design 33.04.4 Ticket distribution procedures 33.04.5 Ticket operations and types 33.05 Summary34 Torch Relay Page 805 34.01 Concept and goals 34.02 Development of the Youth Legacy Kilometer program 34.03 Development of the relay route 34.04 Equipment and logistics of the relay 34.05 Kindling of the Olympic flame at Olympia 3 4 . 0 6 Relay operations 34.07 Review of the results of the torch relay35 Transportation Page 819 35.01 Area of responsibility 3 5 . 0 2 Athlete transportation 35.02.1 Arrival/In-processing link 35.02.2 System design criteria 35.02.3 Vehicle allocations and rental 35.02.4 Routing and scheduling 35.02.5 The start-up period 35.02.6 The operating period 35.02.7 Passenger information 35.02.8 Summary 35.03 Fleet operations 35.03.1 Inventory control operations 35.03.2 Airport fleet operations 35.03.3 Motorpool operations 35.03.4 Olympic Family vehicle allocation 35.03.5 Maintenance operations 35.04 Media transportation 35.04.1 Arrival/In-processing link 35.04.2 Competition and training support 35.04.3 Broadcaster transport and parking 35.04.4 Vehicle rental 35.04.5 Parking for the media 35.05 Venue management 35.05.1 Village and venue operations 35.05.2 Parking pass design and distribution 35.05.3 Venue specific vehicles 35.06 Special services 35.06.1 Employee and spectator shuttles 35.06.2 Cover buses 35.06.3 Staff and Olympic Family moves 35.07 Transport services for the public 35.07.1 Cooperation and planning of traffic control 35.07.2 SCRTD Olympic programs 35.07.3 Traffic in Los Angeles during the Games 35.08 Transportation management 35.08.1 Recruitment and training of staff 35.08.2 Traffic Coordination Center 35.08.3 Transportation Operations Center 35.09 Summary
    • 36 Uniforms Page 839 36.01 Concept and goals 36.02 Development of the uniform program 36.03 Uniform styles 36.03.1 Uniform styles for general use 36.03.2 Uniforms developed for specific requirements and uses 36.04 Manufacture of the uniforms 36.05 Uniform Distribution Center 36.05.1 Facility requirements 36.05.2 Loading of the inventory 36.05.3 Procedure for obtaining a uniform 36.05.4 Operations of the UDC 36.05.5 Response to adjustments in the issuing period 36.06 Summary37 Venue Operations and Page 851 37.01 Concept of venue operations as Administration contrasted with sports competition management 37.02 Physical layout of the venues 37.02.1 Early development 37.02.2 Venue development process 37.02.3 Operations in the Games period 37.02.4 Role of venue management 37.03 Services in the venues 37.03.1 Administration and management 37.03.2 Concessions: Food and souvenirs 37.03.3 Medical services 37.03.4 Public information 37.03.5 Security 37.03.6 Spectator control 37.03.7 Parking and transportation 37.03.8 Waste management 37.04 Special projects 37.04.1 Exposition Park 37.04.2 Services for the physically challenged38 Youth Programs Page 867 38.01 Concept and goals 38.02 Development of the Youth Program scope 38.02.1 Patronage for existing programs 38.02.2 Sponsor support for new programs 38.03 Cultural programs 38.03.1 Art competitions and projects 38.03.2 Band and drill team competitions 38.04 Educational programs 38.04.1 Curriculum enrichment materials and workshops 38.04.2 Olympic Youth Handbook 38.04.3 Olympic Encounter Program 38.04.4 Academic decathlon competitions 38.05 Sports programs 38.06 Special projects 38.06.1 Area Beautification Program 38.06.2 Olympic Youth Liaison Council 38.06.3 Grow With the Olympics Student Program 38.07 Summary39 Staff Roster Page 879 39.01 Alphabetical roster of the 1,750 LAOOC permanent staff members as of 1 June 1984 39.02 Roster of the LAOOC staff by department as of 1 June 1984
    • PrefaceThe compilation, design and event, we have made liberal use of photography and special art were pro-publication of this “Official Report of photographs, specially-commissioned duced and selected over the samethe Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad” drawings and waves of statistics and period. Design and printing tookhas been a labor of love for the small summary tables. Most important roughly seven months. We hope thecorps of designers, editors, writers and among these are the venue architec- result will be judged worthy of theothers who worked to produce it. In tural drawings and accompanying Games that preceded it.view of the short time in which it was tables. They present in precise detail We owe thanks to many people whocompiled, written, designed and the physical elements provided for the gave their time long after their respon-printed, the “Official Report” is only a operation of each major competition sibilities to the Organizing Committeemere summary of the organizing, and support site. By reviewing the had ended. Those who have contrib-planning and staging done between physical provisions required to stage uted most directly are listed on the1979 and 1984 for the second Olympic our Games, future Olympic organizers staff page at the back of both volumes.Games held in Los Angeles. and other interested parties may be But the greatest thanks must be givenReaders looking for interesting anec- able to better determine the scope of to those who came to compete and,dotes, colorful stories and wistful their own endeavors. Because the most of all, to those who came to workrecollections will probably be disap- detailed architectural review extends in support of the Games of the XXlllrdpointed. We have tried to recreate the to all competition venues, organizers of Olympiad. Again, we must recognizestory of the LAOOC and the organizing major single-sport events, such as the unfailing support of the people ofeffort in a concise but instructive man- world or regional championships, may Southern California, who willingly gavener, concentrating on the actions and also find the data useful. of themselves to volunteer fordecisions rather than on the interplay Attention has also been paid to the thousands of positions which helped toof organizations and personalities. The organizational structure during the time make the Games successful.goal was to summarize the LAOOC’s of the Games. Those interested in the We have written of the agony of theprocedures in determining which facili- management structure of the LAOOC organizational process and theties to use and services to provide, and and its program to control the rejoicing in the success of the finalto describe the actual delivery of those development process are encouraged product. Our report recounts anservices during the time of the Games. to review Chapter3 in its entirety, extraordinary period of achievementOur approach was similar to that of an those sections of Chapter30 dealing and intensity culminated by the greathistorian or textbook writer, rather with the commissioner program and quadrennial festival of sport which isthan a novelist. Inevitably, individual the sections of Chapter37 dealing with the Olympic Games. The organizingcredit was overshadowed in the the venue development process. The effort was difficult but manageable,historical process of describing what difficult shift from organization by required both tenacity and vision andhappened and why. This was consis- central departments to a venue- was, in the end, frugal, but hardlytent with the underlying assumption specific structure was made possible “spartan.” In the following pages, youthat those who organized the Games by the strong commissioner program will find our story.did so for the collective good of the and the clear delegation of authority toevent, rather than for individual the commissioners through theattention and glory. Interested parties “Commissioner’s Mandate for thewill find the names of the LAOOC staff Preparatory Phase“ and the “Commis-members as at the end of the planning sioner’s Authority Memorandum." Richard B. Perelmanperiod listed in Chapter 39. Each chapter of the “Official Report” Editor-in-ChiefIn our quest for details to recount the reviews the work of the central Los Angeles, Californiacomplexity and enormity of the departments and their functions. To June 1985Olympic Games as an international create this report, raw data was gathered from each department, more than 20,000 pages of internal after- action reports were reviewed and finally the material was condensed into the final manuscript. Our staff of editors and writers worked diligently to produce the manuscript in a remark- ably short four months. Drawings,
    • Reflections1
    • ReflectionsThere was so much that was so good. The skeptics were many and they projections of most observers; devel- Angeles by those who wanted theNone of us who organized the Games would have laughed had they been opment of the sponsorship program Games to be more than a two-weekof the XXlllrd Olympiad can forget present when, on the first day of the was not far behind. sporting event. Each facility wasthe moments of power and wonder lease, the LAOOC’s office was closed Rather than allow a wide variety of conceived and constructed forcompacted into those 16 days of and locked because the Organizing sponsors, suppliers and licensees with permanent use. The velodrome is usedceremonies and competition that Committee had no credit rating. Yet six the attendant confusion and over- for training by cyclists from all over thewent by so swiftly. The brilliance of the months from that date, a $225 million commercialization, the LAOOC strictly country and competitive cycling isathletes combined with a great agreement for U.S. television rights limited the number of corporations and being introduced to an entire genera-outpouring of support from tens of was signed with the American firms which were granted “official” tion of Los Angeles residents. Thethousands of volunteers and paid staff Broadcasting Companies (ABC), sponsor or supplier status. Sponsors swimming facility, while not an archi-who came from all over the city of Los ensuring a firm financial base for the were required to make much larger tectural monument, is an excellentAngeles, the state of California, across Games and a windfall for the Olympic contributions to the Games—in money outdoor facility which can be usedthe USA and even from foreign nations Family which realized more than $33 and materiel—than in previous years year-round, thanks to the temperateto assist in a great undertaking, made million from that agreement alone. and, in return, their exclusivity and Southern California climate.the Games a greater success than The small group called the LAOOC prestige in association with the As the construction projects wereanybody could have imagined. began to grow slowly and as it did, Olympic movement was guaranteed. completed for those few facilities forWho did not feel a shiver of excitement preparations for the Games pro- Although 50 sponsors had been which existing arenas or stadiumswhen the trumpeters began the fanfare gressed. The triumphs and failures of planned for, the actual number totaled were not available, the planningto signal the beginning of Opening past organizers were examined and it just 29. The total number of sponsors, progressed to the testing stage. TheCeremonies? Who didn’t share the was clear that most had operating suppliers and licensees combined had LAOOC assumed that volunteers wouldsmile of the effervescent Mary Lou surpluses which turned into deficits exceeded 150 at both Montreal and be effective in the management andRetton as she jumped, tumbled and because of overwhelming construction Moscow, with more than 300 at Lake operation of the Games, but this wasvaulted her way through the individual costs. So the LAOOC set out to contract Placid for the Olympic Winter Games in not a certainty. The LAOOC furtherall-around competition? How many felt for the use of existing sports arenas 1980. The LAOOC had less than one assumed that the temporary nature ofthe pain of Gabriela Andersen-Schiess and stadiums all across Southern hundred. many of the support facilities wouldas she completed the women’s California. Already rich in sports The planning period in 1981 and 1982 not detract from the dignity and staturemarathon race? facilities, the Los Angeles area proved was difficult. With little contact be- of the Games, but few were really sure. capable of providing suitable venues tween the LAOOC and its predecessors The Games needed a shakedown; anAll of this and much more was the for the Games’ 21 competition sports for the Games of the XXllnd Olympiad, opportunity to check the reality of thefruition of an idea spawned by a small and two demonstration sports. Two the organizers were on their own. Staff planning which had transpired so far.group of dreamers who began to stadiums were available to seat 90,000imagine the return of the Games to Los was added to do concentrated work in The first trial came at the January 1983 or more spectators. Five major sports a specific area, then asked to perform meeting of the IOC Executive Board andAngeles back in 1939. Then, the halls—two in Los Angeles and onememory of the Games of the Xth completely unrelated tasks in another the NOCs, at which representatives of each in Anaheim, lnglewood and Long area because additional development 141 nations gathered to discuss theOlympiad in 1932 was fresh, as was Beach—joined the LAOOC to stage athe astonishing news that in the middle was needed. This flexibility in Games and see what the LAOOC had special Olympic event. One by one, assignment proved to be a hallmark of planned. Volunteer drivers, hosts andof a worldwide depression, the Games homes were found in which the com-had been concluded with a surplus of the LAOOC’s management strategy hostesses performed admirably and petitions could be carried out. over the next two years. experimental design concepts weremore than $1 million. But it was 52years between Olympic Games in Los Funding for the Games also required The most memorable feature of the well received; the meeting was aAngeles and the dreamers suffered new thinking. The primary sources of planning period was the completion of success. The next step was to testmany disappointments before an revenue—government funding and major tasks. The first world-class velo- sports events.agreement to again host the Games lotteries—were either unavailable or, drome in the western United States Perhaps the most over-managedwas signed in the Roosevelt Room of in the case of the lottery, illegal in the was completed on time and under sporting event in history began onthe White House on 20 October 1978. state of California. Commemorative budget in 1982, as a gift of one of the 7 May 1983. The III FINA World WaterThe task undertaken then was almost coin programs had provided large sponsors who wanted to leave a last- Polo Cup was held at Pepperdineas unbelievable as an Olympic Games sums to prior organizers, but the pos- ing legacy to the Southern California University before some modest audi-with a financial surplus in the middle of sibilities of introducing a successful area. The swimming pool at the ences and almost all of the LAOOC’sthe Depression: the Games of the program appeared remote in a country University of Southern California was department managers, each of whomXXlllrd Olympiad would be organized that had not minted a commemorative another sponsor gift. It, too, became had hands-on roles in areas they wouldentirely by a private corporation, coin since 1954. Thus, the previously part of the legacy of facilities left to Los manage 18 months later. Senior man-separate and apart from local or federal trivial revenue sources of television agers planned months for an operationgovernment. rights, ticket sales, sponsorships and that would cover a one week period. supplierships had to be investigated. Although the LAOOC discovered how The success of the agreement with much there was to learn, the competi- ABC paved the way for increased tion went relatively smoothly and the television revenue far beyond the volunteers worked well; another success.2
    • Imbued with confidence from the once the brightest and darkest day for Olympic. No one had to say so; no sym- under the Olympic rings. Welcome towater polo event, LAOOC next tested the LAOOC, but the boycott gathered bols were needed on the decorations the athletes! Welcome to our city!new facilities that had been built support only from nations already to signify the importance of what they Welcome to America!specifically for the Games. The 1983 aligned politically with the USSR, and represented. The vibrancy of the colors So much happened and so little canevents in cycling, swimming, diving their athletes suffered in silence. The flying freely in the breeze epitomized be described in words How manyand synchronized swimming were torch relay overwhelmed an entire the strength and vigor with which the cheered themselves hoarse as theboth exhilarating and frustrating. nation as it moved across the country host city had prepared itself for the athletes marched into the stadium,Exhilaration came from the flawless toward Los Angeles, drawing crowds visitors from foreign lands. Welcome! from Greece and China and Romaniaperformance of the physical facilities numbering in the hundreds of thou- and from the United States? How many Everyone was smiling on 14 July whenand a world record in the 800-meter sands in major cities and hundreds in the villages at UCLA, USC and UC Santa gasped in disbelief as Rafer Johnsonfreestyle by Soviet Olympic champion small towns whose total population Barbara opened. The first athlete to climbed a staircase that escalated withVladimir Salnikov on the first day of was only slightly larger than the num- register at the UCLA Village was Zou him to light the Olympic flame? Whoswimming competition. Frustration ber who turned out to see the Olympic Zhenxian, a triple jumper from the was not moved to tears when Vickicame from the lessons which were flame pass by. People’s Republic of China. His McClure and 11,000 athletes, per-learned through hard experience: Inevitably, it became clear that those presence marked a return to the city formers and spectators held hands,understaffed concessions on some who could come, would. By the entry where Chinese participation in the swayed and sang ”Reach Outdays, problems with parking on other deadline of 2 June, a record 141 Olympic Games had begun 52 years and Touch.”days and equipment and supplies that nations affirmed their participation in earlier. Print journalists poured into For the thousands of athletes, officialsdidn’t always arrive as planned. LAOOC Los Angeles. The large turnout of Los Angeles and found a home at the and spectators—joined by 2.5 billionstaff members learned while they nations spoke eloquently to the validity Main Press Center, a huge complex television viewers around the world—worked. All through these events, of the professed fears of those who which spanned across an entire city the Games could not have openedhowever, the volunteers proved their said they must stay away for reasons block. Those who wore LAOOC’s staff more brilliantly. Then, the competitionsworth again and again and began to of security and confirmed the desire to uniforms looked at each other with began. Basketball, boxing, cycling,assume management roles at some of celebrate the festival of man and sport considerable amazement: the time had equestrian and eight more sportsthe events. which is the Olympic Games. actually come! began on 29 July and continued non-With the experience already gained The pace quickened daily in the The pace was frantic at all of the sites stop through the gathering darknessand a growing desire to test new ideas, Olympic city and people turned out by as the preparations concluded and the on the 12th of August when a wearythe LAOOC planned a 1983 event in the thousands to sign up for Games competition management began. Final Carlos Lopes crossed the finish line ofgymnastics—the most complex of the positions from management to food training was underway and the Open- the men’s marathon in an Olympicsports to be staged at indoor arenas. service worker. Each had his or her ing Ceremonies loomed just ahead. record 2:09:21. There is so much weThe vibrant Look which had developed own reason to want to play a part in want to remember. It was a bright, warm day on 28 Julyslowly through the cycling and swim- history, but each recognized the spe- 1984. The anticipation and excitement The grace and power of Romania’sming events blossomed inside Pauley cial nature of the event. It happened in was almost unbearable. For Los Ecaterina Szabo. The powerfulPavilion in an explosion of color which their city only once in the lives of their Angeles, it was a day unlike any other exhilaration of the USA’s Jeffreylent a festive atmosphere to the grandparents and parents; it might not before it. For the spectators, it was an Blatnick, who overcame Hodgkinscompetitions. Two more events were happen in Los Angeles again, ever. It opportunity to attend the hottest show disease, then burst into tears afterheld and by the end of the year, the was a chance to be part of something in town—even though it hadn’t opened winning a gold medal in Greco-Romanorganizers were sufficiently confident that was bigger than themselves, yet and was for one performance only. wrestling. The victory of shooter Xuthat their major assumptions were bigger than the athletes and venues For the athletes, it was their moment to Haifeng, whose gold medal in the freecorrect and that the final stage of and villages put together and more shine—they were all winners on this pistol competition was China’s first-planning could proceed. than all the words that were written day. For the organizers, it was the ever Olympic medal and the first medalSince the next six months were spent about the Games. It was going to be realization of a dream which few had awarded at the Games. The glowingin the revision and finalization of special and they wanted to make it believed just five years before and smile of FRG high jumper Ulrike Mey-detailed plans for each site, the time that way. which now seemed impossibly ready farth, who won a gold medal in thepassed quickly. After the Olympic The theme changed from playing a part to come true. same event a dozen years before inWinter Games in February 1984, at in history to making history. The visible Munich as a girl of 16 and repeated her Then, it began. The chill of emotion stillSarajevo, the focus turned to Los signs of the Games increased and with victory as a woman in Los Angeles at overtakes those who remember theAngeles. The planning was complete it the excitement within the city. The the age of 28. church bell which signaled the start, theand the procurement of people and colorful flags and banners that deco- Rocket Man who welcomed the worldmateriel began in earnest. rated the streets of Los Angeles and from the skies and the beginning of theOn 8 May, the Organizing Committee many surrounding communities were "Fanfare Olympique.“ In a wonderfullywatched the beginning of the unprece- stunning moment, 88,000 spectatorsdented 82-day, 15,000-kilometer torch welcomed the athletes, guests andrelay and was informed of the end to officials of 140 nations with a cardany possibility for participation by the stunt that transformed the ColiseumSoviet Union in the Games. It was at into a collage of national flags united 3
    • ReflectionsWho can forget the brilliance of Carl It was a dream and, like all dreams, itLewis, who stormed to four gold had to end. The Games drew to a closemedals like his predecessor, Jesse with Lopes and his fellow competitors.Owens, some48 years earlier? Or the The Closing Ceremonies flickeredgrace of diver Greg Louganis off both brilliantly, then concluded, as did thethe springboard and platform? Or the Olympic flame. On the morning after,emotional victory of marathoner Joan construction crews began dismantlingBenoit, who overcame not only her the physical elements of the Games tocompetition, but the many who said return Los Angeles to its pre-Gameswomen could not or should not appearance. Soon gone were thecompete in the event. athletes, the banners, the massiveFor the LAOOC, it was a time of tension. magenta gateways and the light traffic.The planning was over and although The Olympic holiday was over.the Games ran smoothly, day after day, But the dreamers had their day, and,it was the waiting that was difficult. best of all, they were able to share itWhat might go wrong? What else can with so many of us. We laughed andbe done to make things better? As it cried and screamed for our favoritesturned out, the efforts were more than for more than two weeks and never feltgood enough. sorry. We were part of something soPeople wanted to be part of the event. much bigger than ourselves and wereEven if they had no tickets, they came so much better for it. We played ourfor an afternoon of sun and pin-trading part in history. The dreamers, thein Exposition Park. Those who wore organizers, Los Angeles, the Unitedthe colorful uniforms of the LAOOC, by States and 140 nations proved theand large, were volunteers taking relevance of the Olympic movementvacations or just quitting their jobs to in today’s world and validated thework tirelessly to stage the Games. difficult work of the InternationalThe competition took place over an Olympic Committee, the Internationalarea of thousands of square miles—in Federations and the National Olympicsmall high schools used for training Committees.sites and in giant stadiums like the Good luck to our brothers in Seoul andRose Bowl, where more than 100,000 Calgary, where the next Games will bepeople gathered to watch France and staged. Good luck to the IOC and itsBrazil duel for the football gold medal. partners in the Olympic movement.There was an intensity, a strength of Congratulations to the athletes whowill, an esprit de corps, which ensured came, the staff who endured and thethe successful outcome of the Games. volunteers who gave so joyously of themselves to make so many proud of Los Angeles. Only a few can understand the true depth of your gift to a city, a country and a movement which means so much to our troubled world today. Thanks.4
    • Award of the Gamesof the XXIIIrd Olympiad2
    • Award of the Gamesof the XXIIIrd OlympiadPrior to 1984, only two cities had ever arts competitions at nine different activity. The city did acquire a number Olympic Games (SCCOG). In the follow-hosted the Olympic Games twice— venues. A total of 1,247,580 spec- of international-quality sports facilities, ing decades, the leaders of the SCCOGParis in 1904 and 1924 and London in tators bought $1,246,580 worth of including the refurbished Coliseum, the continually campaigned for a return of1908 and 1948. Los Angeles thus tickets, which ensured that the Games Los Angeles Swim Stadium, Long the Olympic Games to Los Angeles.became the third city to enjoy this would raise enough money to pay back Beach Marine Stadium and a renovated Despite a long series of setbacks, thehonor. That the Games returned to Los the state of California for the one Olympic Auditorium. The Games of the SCCOG leadership maintained its ardorAngeles was not an accident nor was it million dollar bond issue approved in Xth Olympiad, most importantly, and eventually achieved the originalthe result of a sudden inspiration on the 1928 to finance the Games. inspired many youngsters to become goal of hosting a second Olympicpart of civic and sports leaders in Los The Games of the Xth Olympiad involved in sports competition and Games in Los Angeles,Angeles. Instead, the return of the continue to be remembered for its large numbers later competed in the The original proposal to organize aGames was the result of a half century innovations. The Organizing Commit- Olympic Games themselves. Finally, group to bid for the Olympic Games inof planning, hard work and continuous tee of the Xth Olympiad (known as the the Games of the Xth Olympiad Los Angeles a second time was theeffort by a large number of determined XOC) constructed the first Olympic inspired many business, civic and indirect result of correspondenceindividuals and organizations in the village in Baldwin Hills at a cost of sports leaders to dream of bringing the dispatched by Avery Brundage, atcity. Civic, business, labor and sports $500,000. The women had their own Olympic Games back to Los Angeles. the time president of the Americanleaders all contributed to the return of village nearby in the Chapman Park Thus 1932 was both a beginning and Olympic Association and a member ofthe Games to Los Angeles in 1984. Hotel. The Organizing Committee also an end of an era, one upon which the IOC. In his letter, which he wrote 202.01 introduced simplified entry forms and Angelenos built their Olympic dreams November 1938, Brundage suggestedImpact of the Games instantaneous transmission of results and plans. that the Southern Pacific Associationof the Xth Olympiad over telex lines to radio stations and 2.02 of the Amateur Athletic Union might newswire services. Formation of the Southern be of assistance to the OlympicThe most amazing fact about the 1932 California Committee The economic impact of the Games of movement. In the final paragraph, heOlympic Games was that they were for the Olympic Games the Xth Olympiad was considerable, recommended the formation of aextremely successful despite the particularly in light of the economic Southern California Committee for theworldwide economic depression. With the dissolution of the XOC in problems of the era. With the monies Olympic Games. The initial organiza-Thirty-seven nations sent a total of 1933, a six year period passed before raised through the sale of tickets and tional meeting was held late in 1939.1,408 athletes to compete in the Angelenos seriously thought about the salvage of the Olympic village and As incorporated, the SCCOG had threeGames. The competitors competed bringing the Olympic Games back to sale of its bungalows, the XOC retired purposes—to sponsor athletic eventsin 135 events in 14 sports, two Los Angeles. Then in 1939, Angelenos the California State Bond and distrib- in the Los Angeles area in order to raisedemonstration sports and cultural and created a new organization, the uted the remaining surplus to the city funds for amateur athletics; to contrib- Southern California Committee for the and county of Los Angeles. ute to the United States Olympic Fund; and to maintain contacts with the IOC The Games resulted in a tremendous for the purpose of soliciting the IOC’s rise in prestige for the city of Los approval of holding the Olympic Games Angeles as the city successfully in Los Angeles again. hosted its first major international 1 Opening Ceremonies of the 1932 Olympic Games were held in the newly built Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. 16
    • In September 1939, this new 2.04 results of the second ballot awarded voters of Los Angeles expressed acommittee wired Avery Brundage Bid for the Games the Games to Montreal, although Mos- great interest in the Games and theirand proposed that Los Angeles be of the XXlst Olympiad cow had received the most votes on input helped Olympic organizers focusconsidered as the site of the 1940 the first ballot. While the Los Angeles on a new, previously untried direction. In late 1967, Los Angeles Mayor SamGames. Following the cancellation of delegation was very disappointed, the The IOC, under great pressure, agreed Yorty asked noted industrialist (andthe 1940 Olympic Games by the IOC, efforts of the LA76 Committee did to take on the risks of organizing the yachtsman) John Kilroy to chair athe SCCOG turned its attention to contribute to keeping the idea of Olympic Games in an entirely new committee which would bid for thepromoting sports events and raising another Olympic Games alive in Los fashion. 1976 Olympic Games. The mayor’sfunds for its campaign to return the Angeles. Valuable work had been The core of the Los Angeles proposals committee promptly began the mostGames to Los Angeles. The SCCOG done, both in developing a proposal always had been to use existing sports serious attempt yet to win the Gamesstaged the highly successful Los and in soliciting international support. facilities in order to minimize capital for Los Angeles. Known as the LosAngeles Coliseum Relays in track and Angeles 1976 Olympic Committee 2.05 construction costs. This idea remainedfield from 1940–1968, which continued (LA76), the group had a mixed public- Bid for the Games the central point in the 1978 Losas the Compton Relays from 1969– private composition. of the XXllnd Olympiad Angeles bid. Given the runaway costs1972. At its peak, the meet drew 61,762 which plagued the organizing commit-spectators and helped maintain local One important contribution of the 1970 The importance of the 1974 bid lay in tee in Montreal, this position becameinterest in a major Olympic sport. bid was that it introduced two novel the fact that it kept the Los Angeles even more important as it became clear ideas to the international sports option before the IOC and demon-2.03 that those cities which needed to build community. The proponents of the Los strated that Los Angeles continued toCandidature as the Angeles bid floated the idea of private be interested in hosting the Games. extensive new sports facilities couldUnited States city to bid for financing for the Games. While relying Attorney John Argue stepped forward not hope to balance their budgetsthe Games from 1947-1972 without extensive governmental fund- on public funds in the official proposal, in 1972 to become president of the ing. Taxpayer resistance to increasedThe Southern California Committee for Kilroy was willing to resort to private SCCOG and along with the new mayor governmental expenditures at everythe Olympic Games continued to work funding if government monies proved of Los Angeles, Tom Bradley, level—local, state and national—to bring the Olympic Games back to to be unavailable. This idea repre- organized a new attempt to win the reinforced this position.Los Angeles throughout the late sented a revolutionary departure from Games. When the United States1940s, the 1950s and the 1960s. In traditional Olympic practice, whereby Olympic Committee (USOC) sent its The basic Los Angeles Olympic1947, the SCCOG organized a delega- government subsidies formed most, routine letter to many U.S. mayors proposal had developed over a numbertion led by Mayor Fletcher Bowron as and sometimes all, of the funding for asking them if their city would be of years. It had slowly come to includechief spokesperson. This group both Games preparations and interested in hosting the Games, only the idea that the Olympic Gamestraveled to Stockholm for the 1947 IOC operations. Los Angeles responded favorably. should not cost the taxpayers anySession and presented a proposal to money. Voters wanted absolute, Negotiations by the LA76 Committee Argue and Mayor Bradley traveled tohost the 1952 Games. However, the binding legal safeguards which would also led to the establishment of an IOC Vienna in 1974 with a delegation of LosIOC awarded the 1952 Games to ensure that they and their children television policy for the first time. The Angeles political and business leadersHelsinki. The SCCOG sent a delegation would not be taxed to hold the Games. ability of local sports organizers to sign to again present a proposal to the IOCto London for the 1948 Olympic Games In 1970, such an idea may have been a three million dollar television contract at its annual session. However, the IOCand campaigned hard for the right to too revolutionary, but by 1978, for the Rose Bowl American football passed over Los Angeles in favor oforganize the 1956 Olympic Games, but following the fiscal problems of game on New Year’s Day convinced Moscow. Argue was not deterred, forthe IOC chose Melbourne. Since several Montreal, the idea could no longer be committee members that a contract he believed that a strong bid attempt inU.S. cities had bid for the 1956 Games, easily dismissed. well in excess of ten million dollars was 1974 would strengthen the SCCOG’sthe United States Olympic Committee realistic. bid for the 1984 Olympic Games even if The bid for the 1984 Olympic Games(USOC) passed legislation which estab- Los Angeles did not win the rights to began as a joint civic-private endeavor, In addition to its forecast of greaterlished a screening process and gave host the 1980 Olympic Games. The as had been the case with the previous television revenues, the LA76the USOC the right to designate one city final vote was extremely close, despite bids. The political structure of Los Committee built its carefully budgetedto make an official presentation. the fact that the IOC had never assigned Angeles city government dictated that proposal around the concept of usingFor the next four Olympiads, the two consecutive Olympic Games to the any city endeavor would involve strong television revenues to finance theUSOC chose Detroit over Los Angeles North American continent. City Council involvement, which meant Games—a rather radical approach atand other cities as the official U.S. in turn that the Council exercised an that time. The LA76 Committee also The failure to win approval in 1974representative. Yet these bids by the important role in the outcome of the forecast a profit of 12 million dollars. ended an intermediate period of Olym-Southern California Committee for the Olympic bid. The IOC Charter required For the first time, Los Angeles was able pic history for Los Angeles. LeadersOlympic Games were not totally in that a contract to host the Games be to defeat Detroit in balloting by the from Los Angeles had not only hostedvain, for they kept alive the idea of signed with a city government, so USOC to select the U.S. representative. but also had aggressively pursued thebringing the Olympic Games back Council support was crucial to the bid At the USOC meeting at Chicago, San Games and had spent time and energyto Los Angeles. The constant bids process. Francisco actually turned out to be the on their crusade. They believed thatallowed proponents of the Games in closest domestic competitor, as they were closer to their goal than ever On 24 October 1975, the Los AngelesLos Angeles to continually update Detroit lost its iron grip on the USOC before and redoubled their efforts. City Council moved that the Cityplans and budgets in case the USOC and nomination. Their bid attempt in 1978 might have Administrative Officer (CAO) bethe IOC accepted a proposal from the been routine, except for some major instructed to update the 1980 Olympic A large group of individuals headedSCCOG. Internationally, these efforts changes in the environment which Games cost-revenue study in anticipa- by Kilroy and Mayor Yorty visiteddid not go unrecognized. The IOC radically altered several factors in tion that Los Angeles would seek the Dubrovnic, Yugoslavia, in Octoberawarded the distinguished Olympic the Olympic bidding formula. 1984 Olympic Games. 1969 to make the official presentation. Cup Award to the SCCOG in 1965, in The Los Angeles campaign for the Surveys at the time indicated that Los 2.06 recognition of its contributions to 1984 Games officially started on 14 Angeles was the probable, even Bid for the Games Olympism. of the XXlllrd Olympiad April 1977. On that date, John Argue, inevitable, winner. Other cities biddingWhile active in pursuing the Olympic for the Games included Montreal and president of the SCCOG, sent a letter toGames, the SCCOG also worked to Success once again crowned the Mayor Bradley requesting his support Moscow.bring the Olympic Winter Games to efforts of Los Angeles in this third of the SCCOG application to the IOC to In the voting, however, Los Angeles period, but not before a great numberCalifornia. The SCCOG helped to host the 1984 Games in Los Angeles. was eliminated on the first ballot. The of major and potentially far-reachingorganize the California Olympic Argue’s letter advocated that aCommission, which successfully changes had been made by both the “spartan” Olympic Games be staged.sought and acquired the 1960 Olympic leaders of Los Angeles and the IOC. While the early emphasis of OlympicWinter Games for Squaw Valley. The bid for the 1984 Games was a supporters was on the term “spartan,” complicated affair, with many different it required time and the emergence groups and factions contending for influence in determining the exact nature and financial responsibilities of the 1984 Games. The taxpayers and 7
    • Award of the Gamesof the XXlllrd Olympiadof other interest groups to define Both committees recommended that as well as Los Angeles. New York City these arguments on a printed card and“spartan” as a no-cost-to-taxpayers the Council authorize the mayor to was the only candidate to ultimately asked the recipient to read theapproach. Bradley relayed Argue’s pursue the Olympic bid. On 12 May mount a serious challenge to Los arguments. In order to control forletter to the City Council along with an 1977 the Council voted 12-O to accept Angeles. The answer which the USOC sequence bias, the FRC rotated theadditional note of his own personal these recommendations. Mayor expected about public opinion in Los order of presentation for the pro andsupport. In his note, Bradley stressed Bradley formally petitioned the USOC Angeles was soon forthcoming. The con arguments. After exposure to boththat he hoped that a way could be on May 18 to designate Los Angeles as Field Research Corporation (FRC) arguments, respondents again werefound for the Olympic Games to pay for the U.S. candidate city for the 1984 conducted its survey 2-10 August and asked the same favor or opposethemselves. On 2 May 1977, the City Olympic Games. This procedure had polled 1200 city and county adult question. The intention was toAdministrative Office released the become more complicated since 1974. residents (18 or older). discover to what extent, and in whatlong-awaited cost-revenue study in The rejection by voters in Colorado of Field designed the questionnaire to direction, opinion had shifted.response to the City Council request. Denver’s bid to host the 1976 Winter simulate a referendum on the Olympic Following this question, interviewersThe report pointed out the various Olympic Games had been an embar- Games issue. Interviewers first asked asked a number of short questions indifficulties which potentially threat- rassment to the USOC, since the IOC respondents whether they had read, order to determine why a respondentened to plague an Olympic Games in had already voted to award the Games heard or seen anything recently on Los opposed or favored the Games. ALos Angeles. The CAO, after a series of to Denver. The resultant loss of Angeles and the 1984 Olympic Games, series of questions on financial optionsmeetings with the Montreal Olympic prestige by the USOC in the inter- Then interviewers read a brief for the Games followed and theOrganizing Committee, estimated that national sports community led the statement explaining that the city had session ended with questions whichLos Angeles would face a deficit of USOC to tighten its application require- made an offer to host the 1984 Games focused on whether or not the respon-between $200.5 and $336.5 million ments for host cities. As a result, the and that the purpose of the survey was dent would attend any of the events.should the city attempt to organize the USOC now wanted firm proof that the to determine whether people in Los The FRC survey released on 31 AugustGames. The CAO assumed that no residents in any area of the United Angeles favored or opposed hostingfederal or state subsidies, lottery funds 1977, indicated that 70 percent of the States that was bidding to host the the Games. Respondents then 1,200 people surveyed in Los Angelesor funds from the sale of commemora- Games actually favored holding the answered a question on whether they supported the bid for the 1984 Olympictive coins would be forthcoming. The Olympic Games in their area. favored or opposed holding the Games, however, only 35 percent wereCAO’s figures differed substantially Games. In order to ensure that the Mayor Bradley received the USOC supportive if city or county tax fundsfrom the budget which the SCCOG had survey respondents would have equal request in a letter, and promptly would be required. The results alsopresented and which had forecast a opportunities to be informed about the recommended on 3 1 May 1977 that a indicated that 44.6 percent favored thesurplus of $750,000. issue, a set of arguments for and public opinion poll be conducted by an Games if state tax funds were used andNevertheless, On 6 May 1977, two independent public opinion survey against the city’s sponsorship of the 59.5 percent favored them if federalcommittees of the City Council, heard firm. While the USOC would have Games was prepared from available funds were needed. Without consider-an official Olympic proposal by the preferred a referendum, it was decided sources, including newspaper ing the financial issues, 30.4 percent ofSCCOG, and testimony from city that a poll would be just as accurate accounts and city materials. the respondents were very strongly inofficials including Anton Calleia, chief and much more cost-effective from the Interviewers handed the respondents favor of the Games, 19.4 percent wereadministrative assistant to the mayor. taxpayers’ point of view. At the time, strongly in favor and 20.2 percent were six U.S. cities had indicated to the USOC moderately in favor for a total of 70 that they were interested in holding the percent. The poll reinforced the opinion Olympic Games-Atlanta, Boston, that no public funds should be used to Chicago, New Orleans and New York finance the Games. 2 On 25 September 1977, the "Los Angeles Times" reports the USOCs choice for the 1984 Olympic bid. 3 After returning from the USOCs home in Colorado Springs, Colorado, with news of the Olympic bid, members of the Southern California Committee for the Olympic Games (SCCOG) celebrate at the Los Ange- les International Airport. They are (from left) Anton Calleia, John Argue, Robert Selleck, Larry Houston, Dr. Ernest Vande- VOL. XCVI FIVE PARTS-PART ONE 96 PAGES MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1977 MORNING * FINAL DAlLY 15c weghe, Kenneth Hahn, Ramona Hahn, John Ferraro, Peggy Stevenson, James Hardy, L.A. Picked for Olympic Bid Henrietta Hardy and Michael Portanova. 4 A record $225-million television rights agreement is signed by ABC representa- tives (from left) Charles Stanford and John Martin, LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberroth, then President of the IOC Lord Killanin and IOC Director Monique Berlioux in Nagoya, Japan, 26 September 1979. Errant Judges: Wins Over New York; 5 Members of the USOC, LAOOC and Los An- ‘Spartan’ Event Stressed geles city officials met with IOC officials in Way Sought to June 1978 and included (from left) F. Don Miller, Robert Kane, Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, then IOC President Ease Them Out Lord Killanin, John Argue, Anton Calleia and John Ferraro. Israel Reverses Stand, OKs 8 2
    • The USOC sent a nine-member 75–0 in the Assembly and 33–0 in the However, when Tehran dropped its bid the final authority on all questionsdelegation to Los Angeles to inspect State Senate. It became law on 16 in 1977, the field of cities seriously concerning the Games, and that the IOCthe proposed Olympic facilities in September 1977. Also introduced was interested in hosting the Games shrunk would insist that Los Angeles assumemid-September. It toured the various Senate Concurrent Resolution 48, a to only one. total financial responsibility for hostingproposed Olympic venues, concentrat- resolution in support of the Games in On31 October 1977, IOC President the Games.ing on the proposed Olympic village Los Angeles. Introduced 21 June 1977, Lord Killanin announced that Los As the months rolled by and the IOCsites at USC and UCLA. The tour the Assembly adopted it the next day Angeles was the only candidate for the continued to hold fast to its positionconvinced the USOC delegation that the as did the State Senate. While the state 1984 Olympic Games. The IOC Session that Los Angeles would be financiallytwo Olympic village option indeed was of California remained hesitant about scheduled for May 1978, would con- responsible for the Games, oppositiona viable concept. Los Angeles won committing funds, it did provide the sider the Los Angeles proposal, which within the City Council continued toofficial USOC approval at Colorado necessary political support at a time gave Los Angeles several months to stiffen. Springs on 25 September 1977 by a when positive signs of support were refine its plans. Killanin visited Los The public debate in Southernvote of 55–39. Atlanta, Chicago, necessary to keep the bid preparations Angeles early in November and held California over the funding options and Boston and New Orleans had dropped moving forward. two days of talks 5–6 November 1977 potential cost of the Olympic Gamesout of the bidding following their initial Meanwhile, the IOC, in light of the with Los Angeles Olympic leaders. He prompted the Los Angeles City Council expressions of interest in June 1977, financial problems suffered at Montreal also met individually with members of to vote 11–1 on 6 April 1978 to place leaving New York as Los Angeles’ only and the resulting judicial inquiry into the the City Council. an Olympics cost-control measure on rival. The Los Angeles delegation financial affairs of the Montreal On 13 January 1978, the SCCOG and the the November 1978 ballot. The stressed the need for a “spartan” Olympic Organizing Committee by mayor’s office jointly presented to the passage of this amendment to the city Olympic Games conducted on a finan- provincial and federal Canadian City Council a 149-page official reply to charter was extremely important for cially-sound basis. In the end, Los officials, voted at its 1977 session the IOC questionnaire. This proposal the future direction and structure of the Angeles became the official U.S. candi- meeting in Prague to require that future was spartan, both by name and in Olympic organizational efforts since it date city for the third straight time. city and federal governments both comparison to the bids of other cities in prohibited the expenditure of city fundsThe SCCOG had focused its resources contractually commit themselves to the past. It pledged that the city of Los without a legally-binding guarantee ofon gaining the approval of the U.S. assume all financial liability arising out Angeles would run the Games in a reimbursement.Congress and the California State of their organization of an Olympic “prudent, businesslike fashion.” The The voters in Los Angeles over-Legislature. Federal support was Games so that the IOC would not be proposal also set the Athens IOC whelmingly approved the Olympicsforthcoming through House Con- responsible for any potential cost meeting as a deadline, after which the cost-control charter measure incurrent Resolution 368, which overruns. However, the IOC found itself city’s interest in the Games would November 1978–74 percent votedunanimously passed the House of in a difficult position that limited its lapse should the IOC fail to reach an yes. After 7 November 1978, otherRepresentatives on 6 October 1977 ability to maneuver. The IOC had agreement acceptable to Los Angeles. sources of financing had to be sought,and the Senate on 7 October 1977. become accustomed to choosing one The city then submitted responses to since it was obvious that the city wouldIn California, an amendment to an city from among a group of applicants, the official IOC and International Sports not spend any of its tax revenues toexisting bill was introduced which each of which tried to outdo the others Federations questionnaires in February organize the Olympic Games. Theexempted the Olympic bidding in offering facilities and services. 1978 under a cover letter from Mayor approval of Charter Amendment ”N”procedures from the environmental Bradley dated 25 January 1978. served to officially guarantee that theimpact reports required by the The reaction by the IOC and President Olympic Games would not be financedCalifornia Environmental Quality Killanin was not encouraging to LosAct. The original bill failed, but the Angeles Olympic supporters. Onamendment was passed by a vote of 10 March 1978, Killanin wrote a letter that emphasized that the IOC would be 3 5 4 9
    • Award of the Gamesof the XXlllrd Olympiadby government funds. Neither the state Without the efforts of the SCCOG, the The IOC also agreed to waive Rule 21, By 18 May 1978, an agreement still hadnor the federal governments had bid might well have evaporated at this which assigned all proceeds from the not been reached. Therefore, the IOCresponded to a variety of overtures point, given increasing public Games to the IOC. However, the IOC did voted to conditionally award thefrom Mayor Bradley regarding possible resistance to the expenditure of any not agree to alter its stance on Rule 4— Games to Los Angeles. The IOC addeduse of state and federal funds. By public funds on the Olympic effort. that the Games were to be awarded to a provision that the city had until 31November, it was also quite clear that The period from April to August 1978 a city and that the city would be finan- July 1978 to sign a final agreement andunder the existing state and federal was one of constant negotiation to cially responsible for the organization abide by IOC terms or else the IOCleadership, no funds would be forth- amend the bid. Mayor Bradley had of the Games. Nonetheless, significant would withdraw its provisional awardcoming from state sources and indicated in his 25 January letter that progress had been made in the Mexico and seek new bids. Progress, howeverprobably not from federal sources Los Angeles would be glad to meet City meeting and the parties involved slight, had been made and for thatfor support of the Olympic Games. with the IOC in order to clarify any signed a protocol which listed the reason Athens was a milestone. LosThe only available option was private questions the IOC might have regarding decisions which had been reached. The Angeles at least had the Games. Thefinancing, although the IOC had to be the Games. The first session between lack of any explicit IOC commitment to IOC could still take them away andconvinced that this solution was both the IOC and Los Angeles delegations surrender control over the cost issue many items still needed to be workedpossible and necessary. The passage following the submission of the IOC by renouncing Rule 4 fueled the public out, but Los Angeles had a provisionalof the cost-control charter amendment questionnaire by Los Angeles officials and City Council debate in Los Angeles. franchise.by the voters strengthened the hands took place at the Fiesta Palace Hotel in Athens, Greece, was the next stop in 2.07of negotiators from Los Angeles in the Mexico City from 9–11 April. the negotiation circuit. The IOC had Agreement of the IOC withdiscussions over financial responsi- scheduled its annual session for the city of Los Angeles, the For the first time, it began to appear as Greece and expected to select thebility by giving them a legal basis from if the IOC and Los Angeles might be Los Angeles Olympic Organizingwhich to resist the IOC’s demands. sites for both the 1984 Olympic Winter Committee and the United States able to agree on some major points. It Games and 1984 Olympic Games at its Olympic CommitteeThe SCCOG continued to play a leading was agreed that the Organizing meeting.role but the honor also brought Committee would be selected by Los The IOC’s continued insistence on Ruleadditional burdens. It became evident Angeles, in consultation with the USOC. In Athens, the IOC continued to hold 4 unnerved city councilmen, many localthat additional funds would be required The USOC would be entitled to place fast to Rule4 and to demand that the media representatives and much of thein order to finance the bid by Los the two IOC members in the United city unilaterally accept city and tax- general public in Los Angeles. ThisAngeles and make a formal presenta- States, its president and its secretary- payer liability. Searching for a way out continuing controversy in Los Angelestion to the IOC and avoid relying on general on the Organizing Committee. of the impasse, the IOC recommended over the bid led bid supporter and localpublic tax revenues. A fund-raising The Organizing Committee would that Los Angeles seek an insurance public relations executive Hank Riegerluncheon was held that netted $40,000 receive all revenue generated by the policy that would protect the city to enlist support. After a telephoneand a follow-up letter brought in Games, except for one-third of the against a possible deficit. Some of the conversation with John Argue, whoanother $160,000. These funds television rights fees. In addition, the Los Angeles delegation present in was still in Europe following the con-allowed the bid to proceed without future Organizing Committee was Athens had reservations about the clusion of the Athens meeting, Riegerpublic expense. These funds helped given the right to conduct its own possible success of such a venture but coauthored a letter with David Wolper,pay the fares of those city officials who contract negotiations with the U.S. were eventually convinced that it was a television and movie producer, andtraveled to meetings with the IOC on television networks. The IOC could essential to obtain the award of the Rodney Rood, vice president of thebehalf of the bid. The SCCOG had also observe the negotiations at any time Olympic Games, even if only on a SCCOG, and sent it to Mayor Bradleyfunded the $38,620 deposit to the IOC and had the right of final approval. The conditional basis. and the media. The letter of 25 Maywhen the initial bid was submitted. Los Angeles delegation was able to 1978, proposed the idea of a private convince the IOC that because of the negotiating committee. With the IOC television expertise available in Los deadline drawing near, Bradley named Angeles that it should handle the an elite, seven-man private blue-ribbon television negotiations.6 7 10
    • committee to pursue the bid on 1 June The LAOOC met with USOC leaders in bring the Olympic Games to Los Reaching an agreement with the IOC1978. The committee named itself the New York on 18 June 1978 to discuss Angeles would have to be abandoned. depended on the resolution of theseLos Angeles Olympic Organizing the bid. The organizers negotiated a Lord Killanin’s cable to Bradley which financial issues, but there were also aCommittee, although it was commonly memorandum of agreement which rejected the proposed changes to Rule number of other issues. The financialreferred to as the Committee of Seven stated that the LAOOC would conduct 4 increased opposition within the issue was actually a double one ofor the Blue-Ribbon Committee. the 1984 Olympic Olympic Games Council, caused continued public fiscal control and liability—who wouldThe change in strategy proved to have without financial liability to the debate and finally led Bradley to deliver be in charge and who would beprofound consequences. With one taxpayers of Los Angeles. The USOC a letter withdrawing the city from the responsible in the case that a deficitstroke, Mayor Bradley removed agreed to be jointly and severally liable bid process to the City Council. While resulted. Two secondary issues werehimself from the Los Angeles team and with the LAOOC for all commitments Council President John Ferraro those of the selection of an Olympiccreated a new, private sector group to entered into by the latter which related deferred the withdrawal to the village or villages and the choice of thehandle further discussions and to to the organization and performance Council’s Ad Hoc Committee on the individual sports venues.investigate if the 1984 Games could be of the Olympic Games. A further Olympic Games, Bradley advised the In the aftermath of Mayor Bradley’sbrought to Los Angeles on a financially agreement stipulated that the profits IOC that the bid could not be continued withdrawal letter, the IOC extended theacceptable basis. Selecting seven from the Games would be split three unless the IOC changed its direction. deadline for agreement from 31 July toactive proponents of Los Angeles’ bid, ways, with 40 percent going to the Within one day, Lord Killanin offered to 21 August 1978. A meeting of thethe mayor gave a fresh start to the USOC, 20 percent to the national sports reopen negotiations and proposed that LAOOC with Bradley on 24 July 1978,negotiations while at the same time governing bodies and40 percent the deadline for signing a final agree- reaffirmed the position that the bidstressing that Los Angeles was amateur sports in Southern California. ment be extended past the rapidly effort would continue on the basiscommitted to a private sector Olympic A meeting was then held with the IOC in approaching end of July. Those few that the city taxpayers would not beGames which would not use taxpayer Montreal on 19 June 1978, the purpose hours in mid-July 1978 were as close financially liable.dollars. The new diplomatic team of which was to convince the IOC that a to a turning point in the campaign as By late August, the IOC was slowlyconsisted of John Argue, Rodney private group could organize the Olym- there ever was, since it briefly coming to the conclusion that a privateRood, David Wolper, Howard Allen, pic Games and that such a solution appeared that the bid by Los Angeles committee could and would organize aJustin Dart, William Robertson and represented the only possible option was finally dead. The mayor’s Blue- successful Olympic Games in LosPaul Ziffren. for Los Angeles. The LAOOC and USOC Ribbon Committee, meanwhile, Angeles. That new position wasThe Committee of Seven quickly representatives presented the IOC the continued to search for a partner which reflected in the IOC Executive Boardconvened on 5 June and again on memorandum of agreement which had would guarantee to cover any potential vote on 31 August 1978 in Lausanne12 June to develop an acceptable been agreed upon in New York. The deficit. The USOC was an attractive when it agreed to recognize the Loscontract with the IOC. Unanimously, LAOOC delegation informed the IOC that partner, since its long-standing Angeles team and accept the termsthe new group declared that if a the city of Los Angeles would not be a relationship would tend to boost the offered by Los Angeles, subject to acontract could not be obtained which party to the contract and that the IOC’s confidence in its negotiating postal vote of the IOC members. Theguaranteed that the city would have no LAOOC would have full responsibility partners. A final agreement with the IOC agreed to drop its insistence onliability, then it would recommend that and financial liability for the organiza- USOC required a series of meetings, but Rule 4. Finally, on 8 October 1978, thethe Games not be held in Los Angeles. tion and operation of the 1984 Games. ultimately the USOC agreed to IOC announced that its membershipOn 15 June the insurance committee of Unconvinced of the abilities of the guarantee the Los Angeles position. had approved the position of thethe Committee of Seven concluded private sector, the IOC’s leaders still Without that guarantee by the USOC, Executive Board by a vote of 75–3that neither insurance nor surety continued to insist in early July that the the Games might well never have come with seven abstentions.offered a feasible alternative to the city of Los Angeles assume financial to Los Angeles. Four days later, on 12 October 1978,problem posed by Rule 4. liability for the Olympic Games. This the Los Angeles City Council ratified position finally led Mayor Bradley to the pact by a vote of 8–4. Three decide that unless the city had no members of the City Council were financial responsibility, the effort to6 July of 1978 is a difficult time for Olympic planners as (from left) Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, City Council President John Ferraro and ‘Blue Ribbon “committee members Howard Allen and John Argue discuss the Olympic bid with City Council members.7 USOC President Robert Kane (left) and White House aide Jack Watkins look on as Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley and lOC President Lord Killanin (right) perform the ceremonial signing of the Olympic contract at the White House on20 October 1978.8 The final contract is signed at IOC head- quarters in Lausanne, Switzerland, in March 1979 and participants include (from left) IOC Director Monique Berlioux, USOC President Robert Kane, IOC Executive Board member Comte Jean de Beaumont and SCCOG Vice Chairman Rodney Rood. 8 11
    • Award of the Gamesof the XXIIIrd Olympiadabsent. The vote was extremely close, national governing bodies and 40 Executive Board of the LAOOC met at finally ratified and accepted by thesince eight was the minimum number percent to the LAOOC for the develop- the offices of the Citizens Savings and parties involved—the IOC and the cityneeded for passage, with the mayor ment of youth sports programs in the Loan Association near the Los Angeles of Los Angeles, it was clear thatadding key support during periodic Southern California area. Soon after, International Airport, where the Board Olympic history would be made—thatdiscussions among council members. the seven members of the LAOOC voted to select Peter V. Ueberroth as the Olympic Games would be entirelyOnce the IOC membership and the Los named 52 additional individuals to the the chief executive of the LAOOC. financed by private sources and wouldAngeles City Council had approved the Board of Directors of the Organizing After considering a number of be totally organized by a private, non-contract, the parties arranged a formal Committee after consulting with Mayor candidates, the Executive Board, which governmental committee.ceremony in Washington, D.C., IOC Bradley and others. This group met for included representatives of the USOC, The leadership of the SouthernPresident Lord Killanin and Los An- the first time on 15 February 1979 and elected Paul Ziffren as chairman of the California Committee for the Olympicgeles Mayor Bradley officially signed the 6 1 members elected John Argue as LAOOC. He thus succeeded Argue, who Games played a key role in bringing thethe contract on 20 October 1978, in the initial chairman and Paul Ziffren as returned on a full-time basis to his law Games to Los Angeles, as did theRoosevelt Room of the White House. In initial secretary. practice. The organizing effort officially seven members of the Blue-RibbonLos Angeles, members of the LAOOC The parties signed the final contract on began on 26 March 1979. This was Committee—John Argue, Howardand Los Angeles civic officials 1 March 1979. Signatories included exactly 1,951 days prior to the opening Allen, Justin Dart, William Robertson,gathered at 1000 at the Los Angeles Comte de Beaumont of France, head of of the Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad Rodney Rood, David Wolper andMemorial Coliseum to light the the IOC’s Finance Commission, and IOC on 28 July 1984. Paul Ziffren. Mayor Bradley and hisstadium’s torch. Director Monique Berlioux for the IOC, administrative assistant Anton Calleia, 2.08The decision by the Blue Ribbon USOC President Robert Kane and Reflections on the a ward to members of the City Council, theCommittee to bring the USOC into the Executive Director F. Don Miller for the Los Angeles United States Olympic Committee andnegotiations as a full partner was made USOC and Rodney Rood for the city of the voters of Los Angeles all contrib-in June 1978. However, a basic Los Angeles. Argue, while not present The process which resulted in the uted to the final shape of the contractagreement was not consummated until in Lausanne for the ceremony, later acquisition of the Olympic Games for which enabled the Games to return to10 December 1978 at Colorado added his signature as required. Los Angeles for the second time was a Los Angeles.Springs. The parties agreed that 75 long, complicated and difficult one. The The LAOOC retained an executive The specific peculiarities of the politicalpercent of the Organizing Committee dynamics involved in obtaining the bid, search firm in November 1978 to find and socio-economic structures of Losand its Executive Board would be the environment in Los Angeles, qualified candidates to be the execu- Angeles and the United States maynominated by the original committee changes in the Olympic movement, the tive director of the 1984 Olympic well mean that many of the lessons ofmembers and 25 percent by the USOC. impact of the Montreal Games and a effort. The nationwide talent search for Los Angeles are not applicable to otherAlong with procedural safeguards for changing international situation all a chief executive produced a number of societies and cities. However, Losthe financial protection of both parties, created a scenario whereby traditional candidates and at a breakfast meeting Angeles can serve as an example ofan agreement on the division of any sources of funding were not available. at the Hyatt Airport Hotel on 26 March how creative thinking and flexibility bysurplus was concluded with40 percent As a consequence, when the bid was the Committee of Seven debated the Olympic officials and potential orga-to go to the USOC, 20 percent to U.S. choices. Ultimately, it was felt that nizers offer the best way to meet the what was needed was an entrepre- complex challenges posed by an ever neur—a person who had experience in changing world environment and thus starting with very little and building a to preserve the Olympic movement. major organization. That afternoon, the 9 Newly appointed LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberroth (left) discusses some initial plans at a May 1979 breakfast with SCCOG President John Argue (center) and Gwynn Wilson, assistant manager of the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic Committee. 9 12
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOC3
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOC3.01 The by-laws further noted the structure * Stephen R. Reinhardt Bureau of Internal Revenue in Chicago,Nature and status of the LAOOC of the LAOOC staff, including a Robert O. Reynolds and became U.S. Attorney in charge of president, executive vice president/ *†William R. Robertson the tax division. Upon moving to Cali-The LAOOC was created on 15 June * Douglas F. Roby fornia, Ziffren became deeply involved general manager and other vice1978 as a non-profit, private corpo- J. J. Rodriguez in the Democratic National Committee, presidents and a chief financial officer.ration under the laws of the state of *†Rodney W. Rood serving as a member from 1953–1960California. The LAOOC was the formal, 3.02 Board of Directors * Julian K. Roosevelt and on the executive committee fromcorporate version of the “Committee Peter Schnugg 1956–1960. From 1957–1960, he wasof Seven” appointed by Los Angeles The LAOOC Board of Directors was Robert D. Selleck a member of the Democratic NationalMayor Tom Bradley, which helped to announced on 26 January 1979. This * William E. Simon Advisory Committee.negotiate the city’s successful bid with group represented the guiding force Willie Stennisthe International Olympic Committee. A dedicated civic leader, Ziffren is a behind the LAOOC. The board * Peter V. Ueberroth trustee of Brandeis University, Wal-The LAOOC was unique among organ- consisted of a number of Olympic * Harry L. Usher tham, Massachusetts, and is a memberizing committees in two fundamental medalists, the two IOC members in the * Gilbert R. Vasquez of the board of directors of Communityareas. First, the LAOOC was entirely United States, leaders of the United Fred lsamu Wada Television of Southern Californiaindependent of all governmental agen- States Olympic Committee, and a Jeffry S. Wald (KCET), the Music Center Foundation,cies and, second, there were no broad representation of civic lead- * E. Cardon Walker Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Co., andelected officials on LAOOC’s Board of ership from almost every field of * Lew Wasserman, Pacific Bell and Pacific Telesis Group.Directors. endeavor within Southern California. Barbi Weinberg He was recently named to the IOC’sThis allowed the LAOOC the indepen- 3.02.7 *†David L. Wolper International Court of Arbitration.dence it needed to address its second Members of the Board Dr. Charles E. Young Richard D. Zanuck 3.03major difference: no governmental and their selection Citizens Advisory Commissionfunding. On 7 November 1978, the The board of directors was the highest *†Paul Ziffrenvoters of the city of Los Angeles authority of the LAOOC. Its members Dr. James Zumberge In early 1979, it became obvious thatpassed a charter amendment which met four times each year and were *Member of the Executive Committee citizen support and involvement wouldprohibited any capital expenditures of responsible for approving the annual †Charter Member of LAOOC and member of be needed to facilitate staging of the “Committee of Seven” XXlllrd Olympiad. It was for this reasonthe city of Los Angeles on the Games budget, accepting recommendationsthat would not, by binding legal of the executive committee and The LAOOC had a total of 30 meetings that the Los Angeles Olympic Citizenscommitment, be paid back. This reviewing progress in the various of its board of directors between Advisory Commission was establishedcharter amendment was passed 18 facets of organizing the Games. The November 1978 and December 1984. by Chairman Ziffren. The LAOOC coulddays after the signing of the contract enthusiasm of the board members, Decisions of the board were taken by a take advantage of the knowledge andbetween the IOC and the city of Los their strong support of the manage- simple majority. Reflecting the spirit of skills of the numerous and varied cul-Angeles. As a consequence of this ment of the LAOOC, and their efforts volunteerism within the LAOOC, the tural, ethnic and other diversities of thevoter-approved amendment, the toward resolving difficulties for the members served without compensa- Los Angeles residents.LAOOC had to be self-financing and LAOOC were essential to the success of tion. In general, the meetings of the Initially, recommendations forcould not rely upon local government the Games. The LAOOC Board of board of directors were open to the membership were sought from thefor grants or loans. For the first time in Directors consisted of the following: public and members of the press. LAOOC Board of Directors and theOlympic history, an Olympic Games *†Howard P. Allen 3.02.2 mayor of Los Angeles’ office. Even-organizing committee resembled a *†John C. Argue The Executive Committee tually people from all over Southern private corporation rather than a public * Roy L. Ash The board of directors appointed the California, of all age groups and of all agency. Alex Baum executive committee from its member- backgrounds were represented. The The United States Olympic Committee Samuel S. Bretzfield ship, with a mandate to review policies support was tremendous and member- (USOC)—in the absence of financial * Yvonne Brathwaite Burke and issues in depth, and to make ship was halted at a workable 3,000. guarantees by the city of Los Hannah Carter recommendations to the full board. It 3.03.1 Angeles—pledged to cover the *†Justin Dart was composed of 22 members. Their The subcommissions LAOOC’s deficits, if any. Any surplus Willie Davis names are indicated by an asterisk on Most of the members of the Citizens was to be allocated as follows: 40 Dr. Evie G. Dennis the board of directors list above. Advisory Commission chose to serve percent to the United States Olympic Gene Edwards The LAOOC Executive Committee met on one of 25 subcommissions, which Committee, 20 percent to the National Leonard Firestone 30 times between 26 January 1979 were created to focus on the many Governing Bodies of sports within the J. Robert Fluor and 31 December 1984. Its meetings aspects of the Games, as follows: United States and 40 percent for M. J. “Mike” Frankovich were generally held immediately prior Awards amateur youth sports in Southern Camilla Frost to those of the full board of directors. California. Bill Schroeder, chairman Walter B. Gerken Upon his retirement as executive Monsignor Louis Gutierrez Beverly HillsThe Articles of Incorporation stated director of the United States Olympic Frank G. Hathaway George Fenimore, chairmanclearly that the “specific and primary Committee, Robert Kane resignedpurposes of the corporation are Philip M. Hawley from the LAOOC Board of Directors and Businesscharitable and educational purposes to * Robert H. Helmick Executive Committee to become a Edward Carter, chairmanpromote international goodwill Harold W. Henning vice president of the LAOOC. He was Ceremoniesthrough the sponsorship of the XXIllrd Bob Hope replaced by William Simon, the new Jerry Weintraub, chairmanOlympiad and other amateur sports * Lawrence Hough Executive Director of the USOC. Upon Sidney Poitier, vice chairmanand cultural activities. “By-laws to the * Rafer Johnson the deaths of Justin Dart and John * John B. Kelly, Jr. City and County GovernmentArticles of Incorporation defined the MacFaden, LAOOC President Peter Yvonne Brathwaite Burke,details of the operations of the LAOOC. * Maureen Kindel Ueberroth and Executive Vice Pres- Christopher Knepp chairwomanThe format of the membership of the ident Harry Usher were elected to the Siun Park, co-vice chairmanboard of directors included member- John R. MacFaden executive committee and board of David Maggard John Lovell, co-vice chairmanship by both national members directors respectively. Patricia McCormick Cultural and Fine Artsnominated by the United States 3.02.3Olympic Committee and local Charles D. Miller Dorothy Chandler, honorary * Col. F. Don Miller LAOOC Chairman, Paul Ziffren chairwomanmembers nominated by the original Appointed 26 March 1979 as chairmanmembers of the corporation. The Jerry Moss Maureen Kindel, chairwoman R. J. Munzer of the LAOOC, Paul Ziffren brought a Olive Behrendt, vice chairwomanstated responsibility of the board was long record of success and civic leader- John Naber for performing artsto set broad policy and to assist in ship to his position. A senior partner insecuring widespread cooperation and William H. Nicholas Camilla Frost, co-vice chairwoman Parry O’Brien the prestigious Los Angeles firm of Gib- for visual artssupport necessary to achieve its goals. son, Dunn & Crutcher, Ziffren is one of Peter O’Malley Richard Sherwood, co-vice chairmanAn executive committee of not more the area’s most prominent attorneys.than 20 members was formed with Wilber Peck for visual artsspecific responsibility to “administer, He graduated from Northwestern organize and conduct the XXlllrd University in 1935 and from the Olympiad under the broad policies Northwestern University School of established by the board of directors.” Law in 1938. He was later special assistant to the chief counsel of the 14
    • Demonstration Sports 3.03.2 John R. Hubbard, chairman Typical activities of the advisory commissionsDisabled Persons By becoming involved in an area of Max Strauss, chairman Victoria Richart, co-vice chairwoman their choosing, the LAOOC Advisory Sam Overton, co-vice chairman Commission members provided Organizing Committee staff withFinance invaluable advice and resources. Roy L. Ash, chairman For example, the Business AdvisoryGovernmental Liaison Commission and the Labor Advisory Lew Wasserman, chairman Commission provided LAOOC with the Rodney Rood, vice chairman resources of top caliber business andHotels and Housing community leaders and experienced William Edwards, co-chairman representatives from the many labor Joseph Woodard, co-chairman unions which could in some wayInternational Relations impact the Games. Warren Christopher, chairman The Finance Advisory CommissionLabor was subdivided into three areas— Andy Anderson, co-chairman audit, investment and planning—all of Bud Mathis, co-chairman which members assisted on a regular basis in lending support andLicensing and Merchandising suggestions to the LAOOC Finance Card Walker, chairman Department and advising the board ofMedical directors of the LAOOC’s financial Anthony F. Daly, Jr., M.D., chairman condition including projections ofOlympians income and expenses. Rafer Johnson, chairman Two Government Advisory Commis- Pat McCormick, co-vice chairwoman sions were established, one dealing Wally Wolf, co-vice chairman with federal and state agencies,Physical Facilities the other with city and county John C. Argue, chairman government. Both these commissionsPublicity, Public Relations and utilized the members as liaisons to allPublications levels of government. Barry Diller, co-chairman Many of the members of the Medical 1 Walter Gerken, co-chairman Advisory Commission later volun- teered their professional services in the 1 After a nationwide search, Peter V.Religious Activities Ueberroth (left) is named President of the Monsignor Louis Gutierrez, chairman areas of personnel, emergency medical LAOOC on 26 March 1979. The dual an- services, polyclinics, doping control, nouncement includes the naming of PaulSanta Barbara/Ventura County equipment and supplies. As many as Ziffren (center) as LAOOC chairman. On Barry Berkus, vice chairman 300 Los Angeles area physicians were 1 February 1980, Harry L. Usher (right) is Ron Hertel, vice chairman hired as executive vice president/generaI responsible for overseeing medical manager. Tom Horton, vice chairman needs at each of the competition andSports Federations training sites and participated in the Elvin “Ducky” Drake, honorary selection of additional medical chairman volunteers at each of those facilities. Richard D. Zanuck, chairman Early on, subcommissions were set up M. J. Frankovich, co-vice chairman representing several medical areas: Phil Gersh, co-vice chairman dental, eye care, orthopedics, athleticTelevision training, physical therapy, and so on. David L. Wolper, chairman The members of the Liaison AdvisoryVisitor Relations Commission for Disabled Persons Esther Wachtell, co-chairwoman assisted the LAOOC by identifying three Dr. Charles E. Young, co-chairman major areas of concern where they felt the LAOOC could best benefit the handi-Youth Activities capped: accessibility, employment/job Phil Bardos, co-chairman opportunities and transportation. With Charles Ducommun, co-chairman regard to transportation andThe caliber of the people involved in employment/job opportunities,the Advisory Commissions was members of the commission identifiedextremely high. It seemed everyone potential resources from within thewanted to become involved, including disabled community.physicians, attorneys, teachers, With regard to accessibility, a grouphousewives, entertainers and political was formed by the Liaison Advisoryleaders. The enthusiasm and support Commission for Disabled Persons thatfrom commission members was kept the LAOOC advised on projectsoverwhelming. under construction. The commission toured many of the venue facilities to make sure all venues and training sites were accessible to the handicapped. 15
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOCAssistance was received from Daniel o To offer them the opportunity to Ueberroth’s quiet efficiency and drive The membership of the group changedFreeman Hospital in putting together meet and discuss the Olympic for success stamped the LAOOC as an over time, but in the months just priora brochure to be distributed to all Games with prominent Olympians organization bound for success. His to the Games included the executivedisabled persons who purchased who relayed their personal Olympic background would suggest nothing vice president/general manager, grouptickets to the Games. This guide experiences less; he founded a small travel concern vice presidents for construction,provided the disabled community with o To generate new areas of thought 20 years ago and turned it into a external affairs, human resources,information on transportation, parking, and broaden their knowledge of 1,500-employee giant, the second Olympic Family operations, planningtoilets, seating, etc. matters relating to the Olympic largest travel company in the nation. and control, sports and support opera-LAOOC took special pride in its movement by providing a wide range Olympic innovation became an LAOOC tions and vice presidents for GamesOlympians Advisory Commission of information covering every aspect trademark under Peter Ueberroth’s staffing, security, ticketing and trans-because Olympic athletes were able to of the Olympic world administration. He, John Argue and portation. One or more commissionersbecome involved again in the Games in The ultimate goal of this workshop was television producer David Wolper was also present as representatives ofa variety of ways. They participated in to make the members of the advisory played a primary role in negotiating the the entire commissioner group. Thethe Spirit Team program, and at the commission Olympic experts and largest television rights contract in planning director served as the generalOlympic orientation workshop related qualified representatives of the LAOOC Olympic history, a $225 million dollar secretary for the entire group andtheir special feelings about being during the Games in Los Angeles. deal with the American Broadcasting formulated agendas and lists of itemsOlympians. They participated in the Companies. for immediate action. Minutes were This group of knowledgeable commis-speakers bureau and selflessly and confidential, but were distributed to sion members became the core for the Under Ueberroth’s direction, theenthusiastically escorted disadvan- non-group members including depart- tens of thousands of volunteers who Organizing Committee turned to exist-taged youth, senior citizens and dis- ment heads for finance, government became the staff of the Games. Thus, ing expertise in the private sector,abled to Olympic events during the relations, legal, news, Olympic Arts the ultimate aims of the advisory rather than go into business for itself inGames. Festival and youth. commission were achieved: to give the many areas. The number of corporateThe members of the Sports Federation community the opportunity to become sponsors was drastically reduced with 3.04.4Advisory Commission were divided involved with the Olympic Games an emphasis on a few, very outstand- Organizational structureinto23 sports. Each subcommittee and to serve as ambassadors and ing companies. Sports commissioners, The LAOOC found that because of thefunctioned directly under its respective representatives of the LAOOC in a radically new concept in sports man- changing nature of tasks requiredsports commissioner and provided the educating the public on the universal agement, were introduced. during its years of preparation for thebasis for the volunteer support at each theme that is the Olympics. Ueberroth himself tried out for the Games, its organizational structureof the venues. The workshops were begun on U.S. Olympic water polo team in 1956. needed to evolve.The members of the Youth Advisory 2 1 October 1981 and continued He still enjoys golf, tennis and body Accordingly, the management ethicsCommission were asked to assist the through a series of ten sessions, given surfing. He became a patron of amateur of the LAOOC stressed flexibility andLAOOC staff in working with over one repetitively to accommodate the large sports history and, as he said, “a stu- continual change. The staff understoodmillion children involved in the many number of advisory commission dent of the Olympic Games.” the need for shifting and narrowing ofyouth sports programs, which began in members. Each session consisted of 3.04.2 responsibilities as the organizing com-1982. Not only were thousands of three to four presentations in different The Executive Vice President and mittee grew.youth given the opportunity to parti- areas over a 90-minute period. In General Manager, Harry L. Usher To reinforce this flexibility, the LAOOCcipate in all of the Olympic sports, but addition to the segments regarding A prominent Los Angeles attorney, never published an organization chartthey also became involved in the technical preparations in sports and Harry Usher was charged with overall after early 1981. By not drawing boxescultural and academic aspects of the other areas, a former Olympian was operating responsibilities for the around staff members, people wereGames. Also, approximately 100,000 usually asked to speak about his Games on 1 February 1980. Usher not organizationally limited in whatdisadvantaged youngsters were given experiences in previous Games. came to LAOOC from his legal practice, they could do and were more open tothe opportunity to see the Olympic Advisory commission members thus with a specialty in entertainment law. change. The key managers and theirGames as beneficiaries of the LAOOC had an opportunity to learn first-hand That background served him well, as areas of responsibility are shown inPatrons Program. about the nature of the Games and the most of the LAOOC’s venues, Chapter 39, as they existed in the3.03.3 special events and qualities that each sponsorships and licensing agree- months immediately preceding theOlympic orientation workshops prior host city brought to the ments were negotiated and signed Games. organizing task. during his tenure.The LAOOC felt that it was important Department managers and staff werefor the members of the Citizen Ten workshops in all were presented, After his graduation from Stanford Law encouraged to recruit people theyAdvisory Commission working with with four in 1982, five in 1983 and one School, Usher joined a private law firm were familiar with to work for theand representing the LAOOC to be in February 1984. Certificates of com- in Los Angeles. His successful legal Organizing Committee. The challengeknowledgeable about the Olympic pletion were distributed to advisory career included a term as president of and prestige of the Games helped toGames and the Olympic family. commission members who attended the Beverly Hills Bar Association and attract staff members, even thoughTherefore, the Olympic orientation all ten sessions. he joined the LAOOC from his own firm, the employment term was limited.workshop was created—an Olympic 3.04 Litz & Usher. As the LAOOC grew, the sharing oflearning experience designed to Management of the LAOOC relevant information became a 3.04.3broaden the knowledge of people problem. Departments which could The management of any Olympic The Executive Operationsassisting in all facets of staging the Committee combine with others on commonGames. Games requires a special staff to undertake the enormous project in- The Executive Operations Committee activities, sometimes regarding theThe objects of the workshop were volved in staging an Olympic Games. was composed of the senior operating same site, had no information aboutmany: The LAOOC’s staff was small by com- managers of LAOOC. Its mandate was the work of other groups. A series ofo To provide a vehicle for each Citizens parison to other organizers, but to oversee the day-to-day operations weekly status reports was begun Advisory Commission member to performed well above the expectations of the Organizing Committee, ensure in November 1982 and continued become involved in the 1984 of most observers. the integration of departments, and through late June 1984. These reports Olympic Games and the LAOOC manage the preparations for the Games. summarized the activities of each 3.04.1 department within the previous weeko To provide an interesting and educa- The LAOOC President, From its inception in November 1982, it met twice a week until the Games, and the projected activities for the tional experience which would be Peter V. Ueberroth coming week. Reports were due each useful in their LAOOC activities during when its meetings became daily. In order to fulfill the goal of self- Friday by noon and were distributed to the 1984 Games financing, the Los Angeles Olympico To provide knowledge of the each department head approximately Organizing Committee needed an four hours later. In November 1983, a Olympic Games which would aid in efficient and innovative manager to better understanding their roles as once-per-month “projected activities find new ways to deal with problems report” summarized the accomplish- advisors to the LAOOC that had plagued the Olympic commu- ments of the past month and the nity for years. projected areas of endeavor in the next The Board of Directors, after a nationwide search that took several months, appointed Peter V. Ueberroth as president on 26 March 1979.16
    • one to three months. This report was 3.05 serve as host broadcaster and pro- o A small number of sponsorssubstituted for one of the weekly Management in the vide appropriate facilities at its pledging significant revenue wouldstatus reports and helped to focus the pre-Games period: 1979-1980 expense. be better than a lot of companieslong-range activities and goals of each o The LAOOC would focus on arranging each giving a much smaller amount. 3.05.1 for the competition portion of the This principle was in direct contrastdepartment-as well as point out Early development and planningobvious omissions and areas which events and, where possible, contract to the philosophies at prior games In 1979, LAOOC President Peter V. to appropriate on-going businesses and was therefore considered a riskywere not being addressed. Status and Ueberroth developed a broad strategy the support functions, such as food concept.projected activity reports were also a for approaching the preparations for service or transportation. o A new management concept wasleading contributor of agenda items for the Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad. o All members of the Olympic Family necessary to operate the venues.the executive operations committee, The key strategies were those involv- would pay their own way to the Prior games had shown that sportas senior management was made ing the financial sources, the public Games in every regard, unless later experts were not always good siteaware of individual department act- image approach, and the timing of the financial income allowed the LAOOC managers, and had shown thativities through these reports. LAOOC’s growth. to subsidize some of these costs. shifting from centralized planning toLess frequent but equally important In developing these strategies, o Financial and security matters would decentralized operations was verywere meetings of the departmentheads which were held on a regular Ueberroth was guided by the thoughts be kept private to the LAOOC to the difficult. Therefore, LAOOC decidedbasis in 1982 and early 1983, then of LAOOC Chairman Paul Ziffren and extent possible. The public’s right to to utilize a long-term but part-timecancelled until late in 1983. These John Argue, one of the chief negoti- know about the LAOOC’s internal position called “commissioner” to ators in the acquisition of the Games operation and problems would be run each site. Commissioners weremeetings continued until mid-June1984 and served as a clearing point for from the IOC. Ziffren was experienced considered similar to that of any successful businessmen, but notinformation which affected all depart- in the public image area from a long private, not-for-profit agency. Thus necessarily sport experts. Theyments and an opportunity to ask career as a political adviser, and Argue the public right to information was were part-time for several yearsquestions of senior management re- had had dealings with the chief orga- significantly less than that of a public before joining as full-time staffgarding various issues. These sessions izers of several prior Olympic Games. agency or prior organizing LAOOC; members for the last six months.were very worthwhile and proved to be Among the guiding principles they but not as limited as that of a private o There would be no governmentala good forum for discussion of issues established were: company within the United States. funding of any type. The LAOOCamong the entire management staff. It o Spending and staff size should be as would pay for everything it ordered o Based upon the Montreal experiencewas also a secure way to disseminate constrained as possible for as long but not for items a governmental of significant construction costconfidential or sensitive information as practical during the early years of agency provided as part of its normal overruns, the LAOOC would try towithout the production of a written the LAOOC. This principle allowed the responsibilities to the public. avoid the building of any sportsmemorandum. Commissioners held LAOOC to understand both its fiscal o Generally, the LAOOC would use an facilities. Those that were absolutelyweekly meetings with the senior resources and the job to be entrepreneurial approach, rather necessary would be built early andmanagement to discuss mutual issues accomplished prior to committing than a big business or governmental with someone other than the LAOOCand items of interest during the period funds to any non-essential items. approach in conducting its affairs responsible for cost overruns.when they were part-time employees. and would look for key executives o Also based upon the experience ofCommissioners were included in the with that background. prior organizers, the LAOOC wouldall-management staff meetings as they not get into the “host broadcaster” Most of the above guidelines werejoined the LAOOC on a full-time basis. business with its attendant consid- formulated in 1979, although they erable expense ($50 million in continued to evolve as the organization Montreal). Rather, the successful experienced success in some of its bidder for the United States tele- efforts and frustration in others. vision rights would be required to22 Kevin Lewis (left) and Russell Derek dis- cuss plans to aid the physically challenged during the Games competitions.3 Former Olympians employed by the LAOOC include (front row, from left) Andrew Strenk, Hugo Salcedo, Jan Palchikoff, Jan Romary and Ronald Tomsic; (middle) Michael O’Hara, John Pennel, William Schmidt, Steve Gay and John Carlos; (back) Anita DeFrantz, Stephen Pickell and Wayne Collett. 3 17
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOCNotable by its absence from this list of conformity with the wishes of Unitedoperating strategies was a nationalistic States President Jimmy Carter, the Losor even a local political focus. Although Angeles delegation left Moscoweveryone associated with the LAOOC before the Games began, thus denyingwanted Los Angeles and the United itself the opportunity to see the innerStates to look good during the Olym- workings of an Olympic Games prior topics, the overriding goal in the first conducting its own.three-year period of planning was for 3.05.4the LAOOC to stage a modest but Revenue acquisitionsuccessful Games without losing A quick review of Moscow, Montrealmoney or requiring taxpayer funding. and Munich Olympic financing revealed3.05.2 that 90 percent of each organizingEarly financial planning committee’s revenues was derivedIn June 1979, the LAOOC engaged two from governmental sources. Thismajor accounting firms, Arthur Young represented a bleak picture for a& Co. and Peat, Marwick and Mitchell, committee dedicated to the principleto conduct a financial study covering of staging the Games without govern-both revenue and expenses for the ment funding. Moreover, lotteries wereperiod June 1978 to September 1984. illegal in the state of California andThe firms were to prepare a workable could not even be considered as aplan based on a spartan service level. revenue source. A program for sellingThe result of the study was a financial commemorative coins was eventuallyplan that served the LAOOC as a approved by the United States Govern- 4guideline in all of its future planning ment, but the approved program was aphases. It concluded that a reasonable watered-down version of the onealthough modest Games would gen- originally envisioned and promisederate a surplus of $21 million. The only a fraction of the revenues.summary of this financial plan was The LAOOC looked at its availablereleased to the public and media in resources and concluded that it mustSeptember 1979. It formed the basis substantially boost the value of non-for the public’s image of the LAOOC’s governmental revenue over all priorfinances for several years. Games. The three strongest possi-The plan proved amazingly prophetic bilities were broadcast rights sales,despite some noticeable oversights. sponsor and supplier payments andPerhaps the largest was that no funds ticket revenue. To finance a Gameswere allocated for normal police pro- with a $500 million budget wouldtection, whereas the various public require an eight-fold increase in theseagencies eventually were paid over revenues from the last three Olympics.$30 million by the LAOOC. A second Because the IOC prohibited anymajor item not contemplated at the sponsor contracts from being con-time was the creation of the Olympic cluded prior to the conclusion of theLook, known as “festive federalism.” 1980 Olympics, the LAOOC spent 1979The Look cost $15 million. It was also and the first half of 1980 laying thetrue that as revenues exceeded groundwork and arranging for interimexpectations, the LAOOC allowed funding. Television rights sales biddingexpenditures across the board to rise procedures were used to solve thisin a similar fashion. interim funding problem by the creative approach of requiring a refundable 53.05.3The Games of the XXllnd deposit for the right to bid on the 4 Roone Arledge, president of ABC news andOlympiad in Moscow—an United States television rights. sports (standing), announces ABC’s $225 million television rights purchase.opportunity missed These initial activities paid off hand- 5 In early 1980, the fledgling LAOOC staffThough each organizing committee somely as the Organizing Committee meets to initiate plans and programs.must ultimately prepare its Games was able to announce, right after theconsistent with its own goals, objec- conclusion of the Moscow Games,tives and resources, past committees nine sponsorship agreements totalinghave relied heavily in their formative $30 million in cash, plus millions more instages upon the experiences of the in-kind commitments. Also announcedorganizers of the previous Games. For was the sale of U.S. television rightsthe LAOOC, this would have been the to the American Broadcasting Compa-1980 Olympic Games in Moscow. nies for $225 million. These earlySenior representatives of the LAOOC agreements provided a revenue to thedid attend the 83rd Session of the LAOOC that was six times the amountInternational Olympic Committee in Montreal had collected from allMoscow in July 1980. However, in television and sponsor/supplier contracts. The Los Angeles Olympic Games began to look financially feasible, even to hardened skeptics. The LAOOC decided to postpone exploring the third major revenue source, ticketing, until the Games drew closer. Tickets were made available for sale in June 1983.18
    • The overall result of the approach hockey, shooting, swimming and the International Sport Federations and After working with this schedule fortaken by the LAOOC to secure its endurance portion of the equestrian officials and to become true experts in several months, the LAOOC discoveredfinancial base was extremely positive. competition. Of these, canoeing/ their respective sports. Commis- that it was not a useful managementBy the end of the Games, the Los rowing, cycling and swimming were sioners attended world championships tool. There were many different waysAngeles organizers had raised almost expected to be the most expensive. or world cups and regularly reported to for a department to execute its man-$628 million from non-governmental their respective federations during date. The approach selected would The LAOOC actively pursued itssources compared with $72 million congresses or other meetings. depend upon the style of the planned program of identifyingraised by the Montreal organizers in sponsors to fund the construction of Commissioners also used these department manager and upon the1976. the major facilities and was shortly able opportunities to distribute technical circumstances presented as various to announce the sponsors for cycling literature and to answer general alternatives were tried. To develop the3.05.5 questions about the organization of the PERT network, a specific approach hadSite acquisition and swimming Games, in addition to observing the been selected; when this was rejectedThe third major activity for the LAOOC Following these actions, the LAOOC conduct of the event at which they by the department, the usefulness ofduring the early years, after the devel- was able to announce nine venue were present. the network was diminished.opment of the strategic plan and the contracts completed in 1980, fourrevenue acquisition, was securing sites years before the Games; ten contracts During the early period of planning, However, the PERT exercise hadand facilities to be used during the for venues in 1981; three in 1982; and the LAOOC worked to identify these identified many of the key tasks andGames. These included not only major five in 1983. commissioners and to provide them helped to acquaint each departmentsporting facilities throughout Southern basic orientation. Thus when the time with its own responsibilities and how 3.06 approached for the Games and the they affected other departments orCalifornia, but also the villages, a main Management of thepress center facility, office space and commissioners became full-time groups. This interrelationship of the planning period: 1981–1982 managers, they were already intima-other ancillary buildings. tasks defined by the PERT exercise With its strategic goals established, tely familiar with the various details of helped to impress upon each depart-The Organizing Committee found itself its revenue base secured through the organizing their sport and in many ment manager the need for inter-in two distinctly different situations, initial sponsorships and the ABC tele- cases had their sport management departmental communication anddepending upon how the city had listed vision agreement and a site acquisition team already assembled. information; these needs werea particular facility in its proposal to theIOC. A few facilities were named in the process under way, the LAOOC began 3.06.2 eventually met by the period staffproposal as certain to be used. These to focus on the hiring of key staff and Development of a master plan meetings and weekly status reportincluded UCLA and USC as the two the development of its departmental In June 1981, a planning department summaries.villages and the Coliseum for the main structure. Mandates, budgets, time was created and given a mandate to By January 1983, the LAOOC hadstadium. Fortunately, most facilities lines and basic policies for each develop a master operating plan for dropped the massive PERT networkwere named in the proposal as pos- department involved in organizing the each department, specifying the task and switched to a simpler mastersibilities, with no commitment on the Games then developed. to be undertaken, the personnel re- schedule that consisted of only 600part of the organizers, thereby 3.06.1 quired, key milestone deadlines and a key dates for all departments andreserving the right to change a facility Commissioner program rough budget. Planners worked with sports combined. This master sched-should it be necessary. An innovation in Olympic management each existing department to identify ule did not attempt to interrelate theWhere the facility was promised in the was introduced on 25 November 1980 the major responsibilities and tasks key dates as had been the case in theinitial proposal, a monopolistic position when the LAOOC announced that the that lay ahead and noted areas which PERT network; rather, it was smallwas created where the facility owner management of individual sports at the were not covered or were felt to be enough for each department to famil-or operator had considerable leverage Games would be handled by sports outside the scope of the departments iarize itself with the key dates of otherover the Organizing Committee. After a commissioners. One of the major interviewed. For areas in which no staff departments with which it wasfew discussions with each of these problems experienced by organizers at had yet been assigned, the planning involved. In addition to the masteragencies, the LAOOC elected to past Games and by the International group reviewed reports from past schedule, many departments had theircontract first with the other facility Sports Federations which are respon- organizers and spoke with knowledge- own detailed schedules to trackowners. sible for managing the sports able people in the local area about internal progress. competitions was the continuous shift the specific tasks. This master schedule approach wasConsequently, the first facility in personnel working with each IF. As This master plan was developed by a used by all departments through theagreements announced were those past organizing committees grew, small group of planners over a ten- end of 1983 and as a senior manage-for basketball and yachting. As an different people were placed into a month period. At the conclusion of ment aid until May 1984.example of how this process worked, liaison role with the IFS until the Games- their efforts, the plan became the basicLos Angeles has two very successful 3.06.4 time manager for that sport was mandate for the departments as eachbasketball teams, each with its own Management planning named, usually about one year prior to was created. sessions and retreatsmajor indoor arena. Both sites wanted the Games. Each new person who dealtOlympic basketball played in their 3.06.3 During 1981, 1982 and early 1983, the with an IF had to spend a lengthy periodfacility. The LAOOC used the competi- Integrated scheduling basic policies, goals and departmental to indoctrinate himself with the based on the master plantion between the two sites to obtain a plans were extensively discussed at a nuances of the sport(s) concerned andcontract for the use of The Forum that One outcome of the master plan was a series of management retreats. with the appropriate IF officials. Thefeatured reasonable terms. The Organ- computer-generated task network (or Through this process, senior manage- LAOOC determined that it would beizing Committee intended to use this Program Evaluation and Review ment defined its plans for the Games more efficient to establish a permanentcontract to set the general pattern for Technique, PERT) involving 20,000 and developed an understanding of point of contact with each IF early andsuch items as the facilities’ share of items, carefully interrelated in time other departments’ goals and activ- continue with that person as theconcessions, parking, and novelties for sequence. As was the experience with ities This shared vision was critical as responsible manager for each sportall future venue contracts. prior organizing committees, the first the growth of the LAOOC exploded throughout the planning period and,While the LAOOC was negotiating to complete run of the PERT network both in terms of manpower and ultimately, through the Games. Duringacquire its early facilities, it also showed the Games being ready several complexity as the Games approached. the early years, the commissionersfocused on those facilities that would years after the announced time for The retreat program was designed to were paid a small retainer each year.require construction. These were opening ceremonies. By juggling and assist senior management define the Then, six months prior to the Games,archery, canoeing/rowing, cycling, realigning the plan, everything was LAOOC’s direction and views in broad each took a leave of absence from scheduled to be ready by 28 July 1984. terms by gathering senior managers other employment to take active control of a sport. Between their and planners in a relaxed environment appointment dates and their times of outside of the LAOOC’s offices. Repre- assumption of full-time staff positions, sentatives of all major departments the commissioners traveled widely to were present: only a handful in 1981, familiarize themselves with the 13 in 1982 and 19 in 1983. 19
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOC The general agenda was defined by former helicopter design and engi- the executive vice president/general neering facility to allow all its staff to manager during all three sessions, each be under one roof. of which lasted one day for approx- This tremendous growth in staff imately eight hours. Participants were occurred just as the organization had asked to prepare long-range planning mapped its overall strategy, giving papers for review by other partici- each new staff member a relatively pants, usually defining the six-month specific set of responsibilities to and one-year goals for their respective execute. departments. For the 1983 meeting, each department manager, whether or 3.07.2 Meetings of the not asked to participate, prepared a IOC Executive Board and vision paper of up to 10 pages which the NOCs in Los Angeles defined the goals, operating assump- The LAOOC departments had their first tions, service levels, workplan and opportunity to test their plans at the unresolved issues facing that depart- IOC Executive Board meeting attended ment. This forced each department to by over 140 NOCs in January 1983 at present its scope as it understood it the Biltmore Hotel. More countries and to forecast the major remaining were represented at this meeting than tasks in its area. These papers helped at any prior event in the history of Los other departments understand the Angeles. areas of activity for each department and emphasized those activities that The LAOOC departments turned out in6 were not being undertaken by any force, arranging such diverse areas as department and required attention. accreditation, government relations, materiel supply, medical services, 3.06.5 Operating plans press operations and travel. The meet- ings also provided an opportunity to Beginning in fall 1982, each commis- evaluate staff members on their sioner prepared an operating plan for planning ability, operational flexibility his particular sport. The first drafts of and resiliency under pressure. Each these plans focused on the compe- department that participated in the tition aspects of the sport. These plans preparations for and operations of the usually contained detailed information meeting were required to file detailed on the architectural and construction operating plans and budgets and were requirements for the field of play, to train volunteer staff members. needs for competition staffing, scheduling and training facilities and One of the most notable outcomes of special items expected to be provided the meeting was the success enjoyed by support departments. Drafts were by the many volunteers who assisted circulated to all affected operating the permanent staff in various duties. departments. These led to meetings Many of the volunteers who partici- between commissioners and in-house pated in the meeting became group sports staff to resolve numerous leaders for other 1983 events as well issues. This effort was very beneficial as for the Games. as sports-specific support services Having so many NOCs represented in management reviewed a common plan Los Angeles also provided the LAOOC for the first time at many sites. The with a unique opportunity to survey7 support departments prepared brief, each NOC’s plans and needs for the generic operating plans that outlined Games. The resulting information the service programs for all sites in presented the LAOOC with a valuable early 1983 which were then presented base of information which was exten- to the commissioners. These docu- sively used in determining the Games ments were integrated into what needs of the delegations. became the preliminary operating Through extensive discussions with manuals for each site. key IOC and NOC representatives, many 3.07 LAOOC policies were refined during the Period of testing and refining meetings. In 1983 and early 1984, LAOOC’s plans 3.07.3 coalesced. This period saw rapid staff Revised budgets growth coupled with staging of a series In spring 1983, the LAOOC completed a of events that provided the new staff major and last revision of its Games with direct experience and built con- operating budgets. By this time, most fidence. At the end of this period, the of the key management staff was LAOOC understood how it wanted to hired, operating plans were drafted and stage the Games and had the key play- initial tests had been completed at the ers in place to achieve that objective. IOC/NOC meeting in January. Finally, the basic policies had been set and 3.07.1 operating plans determined so that the Explosive growth in the staff LAOOC was able to make an accurate Few organizations grow with the vigor estimate of its Games expenditures. of an Olympic Games organizing committee. Between January 19838 and April 1984, the LAOOC grew seven-6 Scale models of the Olympic venues, such fold, from 200 to 1,400 staff members. as The Forum (basketball) shown here, are In summer 1983, to accommodate this on display at the IOC Executive Board growth, the Organizing Committee meeting in Los Angeles. moved into an 180,000 square foot7 As the LAOOC staff grows rapidly in 1983 and 1984, so do the size of general staff meetings.8 The Technology Department displays nu- merous Games systems at the 1983 IOC Executive Board meeting.20
    • ln the following months, there was a In addition to validating the LAOOC-continual refining of the budget as new constructed facilities, the LAOOCneeds surfaced. However, no new benefited from its 1983 events inmajor budget cycles were instituted. several areas. The summer competi- tions provided the first comprehensiveEach department was required to test of the LAOOC’s plan to extensivelypresent carefully compiled sets of recruit, train and employ volunteers inservice-level assumptions, a summary venue positions. The LAOOC wasof staffing and equipment line items, a generally pleased with the results.list of equipment and services whichwould be provided at no cost by Additionally, various LAOOC depart-sponsors or suppliers and a list of ments experimented with differentpotential cuts which could be made approaches to providing services atfrom the list of line items. the 1983 competitions. Through thisBased on this budget review, the actual testing, departments refined theirGames budgets were drawn up and a plans for the Olympic Games.reporting system against the budgeted The 1983 sporting competitionsamounts was begun. forced the organization to select an approach, and to become operational.3.07.4Sporting events in 1983 As a result of the test events, the LAOOC developed confidence at allThe LAOOC hosted a series of inter- levels of planning, and gained valuablenational sporting events during operational experience. In fact, thesummer and fall of 1983. Where the LAOOC gained so much from the eventsJanuary IOC/NOC meeting provided the that future organizers may wish toinitial opportunity for the LAOOC to test explore the possibility of conductingits management plans, the summer one or two events two years prior tosporting events provided a strenuous, the Games, rather than just one year.in-depth sports-specific rehearsal. Itwas felt that the use of individual 3.07.5events would be more appropriate for The venue development processtesting purposes than a single, large- The final months of the testing andscale event which would simulate the refining period were devoted to theGames’ environment. By focusing on a venue development process. After thesingle sport and venue, each could be 1983 events, departments understoodtested thoroughly on a department-by- how they wished to conduct theirdepartment basis, and any problems or affairs during the Games. There were,questions could be solved quickly however, conflicts between depart-within the context of a one-venue ments and conflicts between depart-location or an event of short duration. ments and site managers. There alsoAlthough major systems such as venue was a series of alternative approachescommunications and transport could to various sites which requirednot be tested, any shortcomings resolution.exhibited by individual departments To resolve these issues and towere apparent. generate solid site plans, includingThe program of events included architectural requirements and staffingarchery, canoeing, cycling, gym- levels, teams composed of staff fromnastics, rowing and swimming all departments of the Organizing(including separate events for all four Committee were created.disciplines}. This program was devised 9 Each venue development team createdso that each of the sites built specifi- a definitive report, setting forth thecally for the Olympic Games—the new responsibilities of each department atswimming pool and velodrome—were that site, the site manpower plans,included. Intensive testing of new space needs and space program andvenues under rigorous standards of blueprints describing how space wouldinternational competition was be used. Through an extensive processconsidered essential by LAOOC to of consulting and cajoling, resolutioncertify that the sites would work was achieved on all but a few issuesproperly for the Games. Gymnastics which were then referred to seniorwas included in the program so the management. At the conclusion of thisLAOOC could test its procedures for an intensive six-month practice, LAOOCindoor event and because gymnastics, senior management, including the exe-with its specialized apparatus, was the cutive vice president/general manager,most complicated. approved the plans for each venue,An international-class shooting village and each of the other key sites.competition was held at the Prado In the approved venue developmentRecreational area following the plans, changes were made onlycompletion of the ranges in the spring through a formalized review process.of 1984. In addition to these LAOOC- With the completion of these detailedmanaged and sponsored events, there reports, the fabrication and procure-were additional competitions during ment of needed items and the recruit-1983 at Olympic sites in athletics, ment of staff could begin in earnest,equestrian, hockey, judo, modern since a detailed plan of the require-pentathlon, volleyball, wrestling and ments for both people and things was 10yachting. LAOOC commissioners and in existence. 9 The LA83 Gymnastics competition is heldstaff from other departments partici- in UCLA‘s Pauley Pavilion as a dresspated in most of these events and rehearsal for venue staffers in preparationgained additional experience in the for the Olympic Games.operation of their sport. 10 LA83 is the theme of a series of pre-Olym- pic events at selected venues in the year prior to the Games. The XXXllnd World Archery Championships is held from 19– 22 October and is the last such event in 1983. 21
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOC3.08 3.08.2 o The approved venue development o All major decisions should be made“Venuization” Mandate of the commissioners plan provides a group of constraints during this phase so that duringand implementation The LAOOC’s executive operations which are similar to a budget in a subsequent phases the staff areInitially, all past Olympic organizing committee spent several weeks in normal organization. simply and smoothly executing the December 1983 defining the authority o The commissioner may not exceed plan.committees began with a few staffmembers organized along depart- to be delegated to the commissioners the staffing numbers in the approved o Move-in—Beginning with the accessmental lines. As these committees during the coming six-month period, venue development plan without to the site, this is the period ofgrew, additional staff were added to the roles of the various operating approval of Games staffing control. installing the equipment, testing it departments and how the reorgan- o The commissioner may not change and training the staff.the departments. These new membersdeveloped loyalties to their depart- ization to venuization should occur. the physical layout of the venue as o Operations—Athlete training and the The result of these deliberations was reflected in the venue schematic actual competition.ments, such as food services, health the “Commissioners ‘Mandate for the drawing without the approval of o Close-out—Managing the take-services, technology, and so on. Preparatory Phase,“ a document venue review committee and the down of the venue, the safe removalDuring past Games, however, each departments affected by the change. of all goods and equipment tovenue became a self-contained unit which was widely distributed among o Some things are simply not available LAOOC’s warehouse and thewith its own technology, human the management staff. It served to guide major transition in the delegation at the last minute. These will prob- rehabilitation of the site.resources, health services, compe- ably include uniforms and shoestition management, food service and of authority to the operating site Key tasks managers. and will clearly include newsecurity staff. To switch from the “The commissioner is responsible accreditations.departmental organization of the early This document was distributed on for ensuring that all necessary o Changes in the level of service ordays to the venue organization at the 16 January 1984 and defined clearly preparations are made during the scope of operations provided by thetime of the Games required a major the place of each sport within the preparatory period by each depart- support departments should beadjustment which each organizing integrated whole of the Games: ment to ensure the smooth functioning jointly negotiated by the commis-committee had to accomplish between of the venues. A list of generic tasks Summary (Overview) sioner and the support department.three and twelve months prior to their which each venue team should address “The commissioner has overall Services at the venue should beGames. The LAOOC called this tumul- during its preparatory days will be responsibility for the operation of the consistent with the plans at othertuous process “venuization.” distributed later. The key activities are: venue prior to, during and after the sites and LAOOC overall policies.During this period, as venuization o The commissioner must manage o Building a venue management team Games;developed, the commissioners the venue within LAOOC policies. o Becoming intimately familiar with the “ln some specific areas, the venue and its operationsfocused on putting together manage- Existing policies are attached, commissioner has direct responsibility o Understanding what role is to bement teams, acquiring a Games staff for providing services at the venue; others are in the process of beingand training it properly. developed. played by the venue owner/operator “ln other areas, the commissioner o One of the commissioner’s early and incorporating them in to the3.08.1 coordinates services provided by venue teamExplosive growth tasks will be to develop a budget for support departments; the areas directly under her/his o Integrating the services delivered byin site management “One of the commissioner’s prime control. The assumptions for such each of the functional areasIn early 1984, the sports commis- o Preparing an operating manualsioners became full-time. Among their focuses is to blend together in to an preparation will be given to the organic whole services provided by commissioner shortly together with including a detailed schedule ofinitial activities, the commissioners activities from move-in through each of the departments at the a statement of the commissionersassembled key management teams close-out, and detailed job dutiesand brought them into the organiza- competition site; budgetary authority. for each venue staff positiontion. With the senior management of “The commissioner is encouraged to Resources o Obtaining, orienting and training theeach site in place, the Organizing question anything and everything “The commissioner will have a variety management and Games’ staff”Committee began its growth from planned by the staff at the site. The of resources available to assist in800 staff members in January 1984 commissioner should feel free to pro- preparing and operating the venue. Following this general overview,to almost 70,000 in July. pose changes and achieve consensus Primary among these are: specific guidelines regarding with departments impacted by the 31 separate departments and theirAs the site management staffs were The existing LAOOC support authorities and responsibilities changes. If the departments will notidentified, group meetings and semi- departments will assign managers, were attached. agree with the commissioner, thenars were held to bring an even finer with the commissioner’s concur- commissioner’s VP and the depart- 3.08.3level of operating detail to the plans rence, to the venue team. These ments VP will decide; Recruitment of Games staffcompiled during the venue develop- support departments generally bringment process. More importantly, each “The commissioner should strive to extensive knowledge regarding their With the management team in place forof the staff members grew accus- prepare and operate the venue in a specialty area which should be built each venue, including representativestomed to working together and within manner consistent with overall LAOOC upon in planning the venue. of each of the key departments provi-the LAOOC’s overall structure, so that policy. The commissioner is not The commissioner should assemble ding services at that site, the processthe staff would adjust immediately staging a world championship. Rather the venue key management team. of Games staffing began in earnest.upon “going operational” at the venue. the LAOOC is staging 23 sports which If these members, such as a venue This involved identifying, processing create an integrated event perceived director, have not yet been assigned and training the tens of thousands ofAlso, training programs regarding by the world as a unified whole. to the venue, the commissioner volunteers and paid staff who wouldspecific responsibilities for site man- Consequently, deviations between should recruit them. Candidates assist during the Olympics.agers of central service functions were sports as to services which will be must be approved by the commis- Though ultimately each site wouldheld for groups such as venue press recognized as different by anyone sioner’s VP and Harry Usher. become responsible for its ownchiefs, venue technology managers other than the IF are not appropriate. staffing, a central department (Gamesand so on. Weekly meetings of the Responsible for all four phasesvenue directors were held, even Commissioner’s objectives Staffing) assisted in processing nearly “The commissioner is responsible forthough many of these managers were “The primary objective is to make the 100,000 names received by LAOOC all four phases of operation at thenot members of the full-time LAOOC Games work. Whatever emergencies prior to 1984. This central group then venue. The commissioner or her/hisstaff, much as the commissioners had occur, the show must go on. The monitored the progress made by each chief operating officer must have anot been in the years (rather than public’s perception of the commis- of the areas. Each commissioner and detailed understanding of all activitiesmonths now) prior to the Games. sioners venue and the overall Games his management team worked to planned at the venue and a deepThese meetings provided a forum to should be of a smooth, functioning and attract other individuals among their involvement in assuring that they willdiscuss and disseminate policies integrated event. acquaintances, associates and friends. work. These four phases are.and regulations relevant to all LAOOC The interest shown by these groups “The commissioner’s second goal is to o Preparatory—The activities was dramatic, and some sites weredepartments. Central operating de- make the venue function for each of the between now and move-in to thepartments were asked to make presen- able to attract almost all of their staff audiences. These are: Competitors, TV venue. The preparation and approval by word-of-mouth advertising. In ad-tations summarizing their areas of Public, IFS, NOCs, Spectators, Press of operating plans are among the dition to staffing assistance lent by theresponsibility and to highlight specific (written and photo) and Staff major tasks during this phase. Theareas of concern for the venue directors Games Staffing Department and the “Finally, the events at the venue should commissioner should force the recruitment by the commissioners andto deal with during the Games period. development of plans for each of the be staged at a reasonable cost, not a other site managers, some centralized minimal cost, not a spartan cost, not groups providing services at the departments took responsibility for a lavish cost, but at a cost which venue and integrate these plans recruitment of staff for their roles in provides for a reasonable show. together. each venue. An example of this was in Constraints Press Operations, which procured all of “There are several constraints within its staff members independently of the which the commissioner must manage: Games Staffing Department or the site management groups.22
    • 3.08.4 The LAOOC and Olympic fans around injected at irregular intervals for each was distributed on 17 June 1984, oneTable top exercises the world regretted that the strong site, each requiring an immediate month prior to the opening of six majorIn May, three months prior to the teams represented by the USSR and response. sites: the IOC headquarters at theGames, each venue and other sites a few other countries would not com- While each of the sites was working Biltmore Hotel, the Main Press Center,conducted a simulation of the site’s pete, but, overall, the impact upon the with the various scenarios indepen- the Olympic Arrival Center at the LOSoperation. The site management team, Games was minimal. With 141 nations dently, the LAOOC also activated an Angeles International Airport and thegenerally about 20 members, sim- meeting the 2 June deadline to an- Operations Center for centralized three villages at UCLA, UCSB and USC.ulated the operation of the site nounce their intention to compete, the reporting of significant problems and This document defined formally theutilizing architectural drawings and LAOOC was assured of hosting the resolution of questions requiring extent of the commissioner’s authorityblueprints. They examined every largest number of nations ever to decision-making by the senior manage- at his site over various areas which hadaspect of the operation of the site, compete in an Olympic Games—well ment. While this center worked as been touched on previously in thefrom the arrival of the first security ahead of the previous high of 122 planned, it was overwhelmed by the January 1984 directive.guards until the completion of the nations that attended the Games of the simultaneous bombardment of major The general mandate remained exactlyclose-out, During these discussions, XXth Olympiad in Munich in 1972. incidents at the sites. Since each site the same. The “show” had to go onthe site management team searched Although adjustments were made in needed significant and interesting and it had to be a good one, within thefor overlooked items, identified individual sports, little overall impact problems scenarios to work with, the framework of an overall event, theconflicting areas and verified that the was felt by the absence of boycotting avalanche of bombs, collapsing Olympic Games. Now into the actualpeople flows within the sites were athletes from a logistical and bleachers, floods, food poisoning, operational phase, however, thesatisfactory. Also included was a vast operational standpoint. electrical storms, high winds and commissioner was able to (andseries of “what if” questions designed 3.08.6 terrorist activities was more than could required to) utilize new powers andto probe and test the site’s contin- Torchlight III be handled and was not a realistic responsibilities:gency plans. A day-long exercise involving the top simulation of what to expect at the o Budget; each commissioner had aAlthough the exercise was only with six managers at each site and the Games. Simulation exercises involving budget against which expendituresblueprints and drawings, the questions LAOOC Operations Center was con- an operations center held by future could be authorized. All commis-and situations posed by the commis- ducted one month before the opening organizers should probably be more sioners had an upper spending limitsioner or site manager probed the of the Olympic villages. realistic and involve only a few sites of $20,000 per transaction with anknowledge of the participants and at a time. aggregate limit equal to their “Torchlight I” was a law enforcementforced responsible parties to think command post exercise conducted Several venue sites continued to use remaining budget. Central depart-about situations they could encounter in late 1983 and involved the senior these kinds of exercises in their training ments retained control of their ownduring the Games. Further, key service operating officers from each of the periods to sharpen the skills of their budgets including those portions ofmanagers began to associate names law enforcement agencies in Games’ department managers. that department’s budget allocatedand faces with actual authority and law enforcement activities. Typical to the venues. However, theresponsibility for key areas which they 3.09 problems were posed and the agencies The Games commissioner could request releasewould have to rely on during the were responsible for stating the of such funds from the OperationsGames. It became clear that interaction resources they would use and notifying As always in the organization of Center.among venue department managers other offices of their standard proce- Olympic Games, the last months o Food services; the commissionerincreased substantially after the “table dures. The LAOOC participated in this before opening ceremonies are the was responsible for all food services,top” meetings, and that the venuization exercise as observers and as occasion- most hectic. It is during this time that including the disposal of unusedprocess was boosted considerably. al responders to direct questions from the movement to the venues occurs, food; distribution of such food to3.08.5 law enforcement. “Torchlight Ill” was the final construction details are charitable or other such concernsThe Soviet withdrawal a similar though substantially larger completed and the bulk of the staff was encouraged. The commissionerand Eastern Bloc boycott exercise conducted on 15 June 1984, commences work and training. For the also had complete authority over allAs the time of the Games rapidly and the LAOOC was a full participant. LAOOC, this period was no exception. venue-related hospitality and partyapproached, a contingency for which In fact, for the Games of the XXlllrd functions. For the “Torchlight Ill” simulationthe LAOOC had prepared occurred. On Olympiad, the last months were o Housing; commissioners could exercise, a series of problem scenariosMay 8, the Soviet Union announced it particularly hectic. Under its contracts authorize rooms at the LAOOC’s had been developed. These problemswould not participate in the Games of with the venues, the LAOOC generally expense for venue staff members as were presented to the various sitesthe XXlllrd Olympiad. Over the next did not take exclusive possession of a long as charged to the venue budget. and departments at pre-determinedtwo weeks, they were joined by 14 site until—on average—two weeks o Language services; the commis- intervals. The sites attempted toother countries. before the commencement of competi- sioner had the complete authority to resolve the problems, not by deploying tion. This meant that in large part the determine the priorities for the use ofThe LAOOC’s response to this situation staff and moving resources, but rather LAOOC had to concentrate all the mod- the language services staff assignedwas swift and immediate. The LAOOC by stating the resources they would ifications required to bring a venue up to the venue.quietly but thoroughly contacted each use and notifying other offices accor- to Olympic standards into that two- o Materiel supply; the commissionerof the NOCs to urge them to participate ding to their standard procedures. week window. Obviously, wherever was able to order all supply needs forin the Games. Valuable support in The “Torchlight Ill” exercise provided possible, the LAOOC negotiated earlier his venue and could procure suppliesmaking these calls was received from a comprehensive test of each of the access. from any source, if the materielseveral members of the Olympic site management teams and the This also meant that whereas other supply group was unable to delivermovement. systems connecting the sites. organizing committees had moved them. Commissioners could alsoSimultaneously, the LAOOC began Most of the exercise was carried out reallocate supplies from one depart-implementing its contingency plans to their key management staff to the via telephone as the site commissioner sites six or seven months prior to the mental function to another on thecut back services where appropriate, and managers responded to serious site, at his discretion.reflecting the potential reduction in the opening ceremonies, in general the and non-serious incidents involving o Personnel; with reasonable cause,number of competitors. LAOOC staff did not move until less their site. Some uses of EMS, paging than a month before the Games. a commissioner could suspend orThe required adjustments to the fields and radio communications were have terminated any LAOOC Gamesin appropriate sports were made in carried out as well. The exercise 3.09.1 staff member at the venue. Theconcert with the International Federa- required some quick judgments and Commissioner’s Authority Memo Games staff member, whether paidtions concerned and with the IOC at the serious consideration of worst-case As a follow-up to the widely- or volunteer, should have explainedmeeting of the IOC with the IFS in possibilities involving architectural distributed “Commissioner’s Mandate to him the reason for the disciplinaryLausanne in late May. The LAOOC was disasters (collapse of a grandstand), for the Preparatory Phase,“ a final action and have a chance to respond.pleased to note that a full schedule of competition problems (a team walks “Commissioner’s Authority Memo” While the commissioner had com-competitions was planned and that off the field in protest), security plete authority to authorize overtimemany NOCs had asked permission to concerns (terrorist attack) and venue for any staff, as long as he staysbring additional competitors to replace service questions (a panic develops within his budget, only the Opera-those athletes from the boycotting after a spectator faints following the tions Center could authorize changesnations. consumption of a hot dog) which were in a staff member’s rate of pay. unlikely, as well as common occur- rences for which a procedure had to be developed at each site (lost child). The exercise was especially effective because it continued throughout the day and new facts and situations were 23
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOCo Press operations; commissioners successfully, although the multiple The Commissioner’s Authority Memo- o Bomb scares or bomb threats of had the right to admit non-accredited calamities introduced into the exercise randum listed the services to be provid- various types written press and photographers overwhelmed the ability of the ed by the Operations Center that were o Electrical outages (whether from into public areas only, using their Operations Center to react properly. of key interest to the site managers: overloaded circuits or destroyed limited number of venue passes. The Operations Center plan was o Approval to spend over $20,000 for electrical lines) These persons were not allowed to finalized in late June 1984. It consisted any single transaction o Games staffing payroll problems, go into zones open only to accred- of five duty officers, each of whom was o A contingency budget which could particularly involving transportation ited members of the media. either a group vice president or vice be used if the commissioner’s o Installations of or demands foro Venue access privileges; commis- president. Each individual’s duty budget was exhausted additional technology equipment sioners had the power to change the o Resolution of disputes between a o Village staff requests for additional officer shift was four hours per day access privileges of any venue staff with the remaining time spent admin- commissioner and a central electric “golf-cart”-type vehicles member by increasing or decreasing istering their on-going operations. department The use of the Operations Center as a the zones which that staff member On each shift, there was also an o Reallocation of scarce resources communications point for decisions was allowed to enter. Decreases, information officer who was a middle between sites and information was very effective. however, should also have involved manager in the LAOOC and was rela- o Collection of issues, problems and The duty officers were well chosen consultation with the venue manager tively familiar with all operations. “for your information” notices for because of their wide background for the functional department in transmission to senior management within the LAOOC and broad under- Departments and sites were distri- which the staff member worked. and the dissemination of senior standing of the various departments. buted among five desks, based onCommissioners were not authorized to logical groupings of the departments management decisions to the However, they were more useful in theissue new Olympic Family accredi- and regional groupings of the sites. departments and sites as necessary field than at the Operations Center.tations (“A’", “B", “C", “D", "E", Each desk had its own telephone o A clearinghouse for problems of The ability to see what was actually "F”, “G”, “I”, “O”), or to make major number and was staffed by one or two various types, especially those happening as against what had beenchanges in the architecture or con- desk officers per shift, depending on requiring communications through planned was much more valuable thanstruction of the venue. Competition the time of day. the Operations Center with a waiting for problems to be communi-starting and ending times were noted responsible department or agency cated by telephone and provided an The Operations Center also included and follow-upto be especially sensitive for the inter- additional dimension of the Operations several administrative and supportnational broadcasters, and session The Operations Center began partial Center information base. personnel who assisted in the mainten-start times were only to be changed ance of the running logs and reference operations from 9–13 July from 0600 The Operations Center was essentiallywith the concurrence of the IF con- to 2000. During this time, a flood of organized to handle major incidents manuals. Adjacent desks in the samecerned and the host broadcaster. The telephone calls was received for the which could not be resolved by the physical area were available for staffOperations Center was notified if the previous occupants of the office space sites themselves. After years of con- from the news, security and transpor-session start time varied by more than used by the Operations Center, Lan- trolled, centralized planning and tation departments. A special officefive minutes from the prepared sche- guage Services and Press Operations. direction, the Games provided the area was created for the LAOOC’sdule. Other specific cases were dealt Two telephone receptionists had to be entrepreneurial commissioners in executive vice president/generalwith by specific directives distributed hired to take messages to inform charge at each site to be on their own. manager in the middle of theafter the “Commissioner’s Authority callers of the new numbers for those Not surprisingly, the sites operated Operations Center area located in a Memo” was completed. departments. On the evening of 13 July, relatively autonomously during the section of the LAOOC’s administrativeIn general, this document helped to headquarters. the Operations Center commenced24 Games. They prided themselves onclarify the role of the commissioners as hour operations and did not close until their ability to solve as many problems Staff selection and training wasthe chief executive officer at each site 12 August at 1500. as possible without outside assis- especially important. Operationsand established their lines of authority One of the most important activities tance. They did not want to report their Center staff had to have extensiveover certain areas, and the requirement was the continual updating of the lists operating status on a regular basis and knowledge of and experience withinthat they seek the approval of the of telephone numbers. One person was wanted to be left alone to run their own the LAOOC in order to be effective inOperations Center or LAOOC senior assigned to this project on a full-time venues as desired—within the overall working with all departments and sites.management on other issues. basis. The need for accurate telephone framework that had been previously Since most of the LAOOC’s staff had3.09.2 been assigned to sites already, the numbers was important, and the lists agreed to through the venue develop-The Operations Center Operations Center staff was assem- proved to be of extreme value. More ment process and the commissioner’sAs the competition and site manage- bled by reassigning key staff which, in routine was the use of a three-part authority memoranda.ment moved to the venues during June some cases, was to the detriment of “incident form,” which was used to Fortunately, no major incidentsand July 1984, the complexities the site managers. But, it was record any significant incidents or occurred which could not be effectivelyinvolved in communicating and necessary. problems reported to the Operations handled at the sites. As a result, themanaging increased geometrically with Center. Once a specific incident was main role of the Operations Center was All Operations Center staff underwent resolved, the form was recorded in thethe number of sites activated. To meet a two-week training program including to facilitate communications betweenthis need, the LAOOC activated its daily logbooks and then filed chrono- departments and sites and to dissem- 20 hours of classroom training logically, by department and by theOperations Center in early July with a that consisted of a departmental inate decisions of the senior manage-carefully selected and trained staff. Operations Center desk. Approxi- ment and general instructions, such as review of general plans and staffing mately 1,000 incidents were recordedAfter much internal debate as to what for the Games period, and the types of procedures for site close-out. With in this matter. excellent communications tools suchthe nature of the Operations Center problems that could involve theshould be, it was determined that its Operations Center. The second section Typical incidents which were handled as EMS, pagers, radios and variousprimary function would be to serve as a of training required desk officers to included: types of telephones available,communications and information cen- take tours of the venues, villages and o Access problems due to non- decisions or information could beter, providing services on behalf of other sites. By actually seeing the sites completion of construction activities reliably passed to the responsiblesites to senior management and on involved, the desk personnel had a at sites when the requirement for senior managers without difficulty.behalf of central departments and better idea of the physical nature of accreditation badges was activated The Operations Center worked wellsenior management to the sites. This problems reported. The final phase of (the Operations Center helped to enough as planned, although someconcept was tried during the “Torch- training required the desk teams to develop procedures to allow the modifications would have been useful.light Ill” exercise and worked assemble reference notebooks for admittance of necessary construc- In future Games, organizers using a each of the departments and sites for tion personnel) decentralized management scheme which the desk was responsible. The with a central Operations Center most important ingredients of these should require that each site designate materials were the names, telephone a person responsible for communica- numbers (home, site and mobile, if ting routinely with the Operations available) and organizational structure Center. Further, the desk concept of key staff at each of the departments would have worked far better had the or sites involved. sites been better informed as to the24
    • structure and reporting requirements Because the commissioner programof the center. Finally, the knowledge placed talented entrepreneurial man-gained by the duty officers in the field agers in charge of each venue, thewas extremely valuable and a program Games ran very smoothly. Thoughof roving scouts to report independ- there were a myriad of small problems,ently on overall operations at the sites few major problems were encoun-might be valuable for operations as tered; these were easily handled. Fromwidely spread as in Los Angeles. the public’s perception, the Olympics flowed very smoothly.3.09.3Senior management 3.09.4during the Games Site managementTo effectively govern this far-flung Site management was entrusted to thenetwork of sites, the executive commissioners, village mayors and tooperations committee met daily, department managers who had theirreviewing problems identified in the own sites, such as the Biltmore Hotelprior day and anticipating events and for Protocol and the Main Press Centerdifficulties forthcoming. Represented for Press Operations. Frequent visitsat these meetings were the LAOOC were made to many of the sites bypresident and executive vice president, senior management and by roving dutythe group vice presidents responsible officers from the Operations Center.for each of the departments and venue It wasn’t until after the Games thatmanagement and key managers for the significance of the “venuization”selected departments, such as secur- process and the clear definitions of 11ity, transportation, news and the policies and procedures that it gen-Operations Center. erated was realized and appreciated. 11 During the Games, daily problems are iden- tified and reviewed by the executiveThe management of the games was The tumultuous reorganization of the operations committee at the LAOOC’s Op-greatly enhanced by the sophisticated Organizing Committee’s structure and erations Center.technology employed in the communi- reassembly into venue teams whilecations network. Several thousand continuing to operate out of the Marinapagers were distributed among key Center was well worth the effort andmanagers and staff, most with digital allowed the teams the ability to begindisplays. Messages could be sent to functioning immediately upon openingthese displays from any of the 1,700 operations at the sites. This wasElectronic Messaging System (EMS) greatly aided by the new communi-terminals, conveniently located at cations devices, especially the EMSevery Olympic site, including hotels. network and the handheld radios usedLonger messages could also be sent by many venue management staff.via the EMS terminals to any accredited Long-standing policies regarding areaperson, who would then recover the access by accreditation only andmessage from any other electronic authorization of expenditures weremail terminal. Finally, an extensive closely followed. Late-arriving instruc-telephone network was established tions such as reporting responsibilitiesconnecting each of the sites, key to the Operations Center, close-outexecutive cars with mobile phones and procedures and distribution of giftsa selected number of executives with were either lightly regarded or ignoredhand-held portable phones which because of the crush of last-momentallowed them to be reached wherever preparations.they might be. In general, policies and proceduresThis extensive communication were complied with that werenetwork meant that senior manage- distributed by the end of May, whilement was never out of touch. Thus, all many of the directives issued after thecritical problems could immediately be middle of June (when the “Commis-communicated to the appropriate sioner’s Authority Memorandum” was managers via paging, telephone, or distributed) got lost in the tumult and radio for appropriate action as they excitement of the Games. developed. 3.10This allowed the management of the Post-Games close-out LAOOC to be relatively mobile andspend the bulk of their time observing With the conclusion of the first sport, and correcting operations in the field, modern pentathlon, eleven days prior rather than requiring them to be glued to closing ceremonies, the LAOOCto the telephone in an office. Manage- began a new phase: close-out. Secur- ment was thus constantly involved in ing the site after the conclusion of comparing what was actually occurring competition, returning materials to theto what had been planned and making warehouse and returning the facility to adjustments where necessary. its original state was the beginning of the end. The post-Games period, as would be expected, had an entirely different emphasis from the preparations. The focus was on demobilizing the venues, disposing of assets, discharging of staff, reconciling financial accounts and beginning the official report. 25
    • Formation and Managementof the LAOOCWithin a week after closing ceremo- The LAOOC did not cause all of this to workshop series became very o Attention must be paid to thenies, the LAOOC had returned most of happen, but did contribute much to familiar with specific details of the organizational processes and re-the sites to the venue owners. Within make the Olympic experience in Los LAOOC’s overall program for putting quirements after the Games hadtwo weeks, all of the venues and vil- Angeles special. It was the people who on the 1984 Games. begun. Instructions for the Opera-lages had been returned. To facilitate grabbed hold of the LAOOC’s message o The commissioner program was a tions Center and the procedures forthis process, a special close-out team to “play a part in history” and em- tremendous success. In addition to venue close-out following thesupervised operations as the sites, one braced the athletes of 140 nations who bringing in proven management to completion of the competitionsby one, completed competitions, were represented most of the countries of each sport in the Games, the com- should have been finished andsealed and then deactivated. the world by marching in the Opening missioner system placed each disseminated well in advance of the Ceremonies. International Federation in flight of centralized staff to the sitesThe physical assets of the LAOOC were permanent touch with the senior for their Games-period assignments.consolidated at the Main Distribution It was the Organizing Committee, executive for the sport three to four o The impact on the community mustCenter, a large warehouse. The items however, that marshaled the forces years prior to the Games. This gave not be forgotten. Although techni-collected there represented the necessary to stage the Games and each IF a chance to educate the cally only one of the many sectors ofcomplexity of the Games: beds, presented the spectacle to the world. commissioner in the nuances (rather endeavor for an Olympic organizingrefrigerators, televisions and video In retrospect, it can be seen that many than just the broad outlines) of the committee, the means by which therecorders, flashlights, computer tapes, of the overall policies adopted for Los sport and to allow the commissioner attention and interest of the host citydesks, uniforms and a potpourri of Angeles played a significant role in the to see enough world and regional and country become fixed upon theother items, The bulk of these items success of the Games: championship competitions to Games must be developed in orderwere sold back to the original manufac- o Existing facilities proved more than develop his own ideas for improve- to assure its overall success. Theturers or given to governmental and satisfactory and were already ment at Los Angeles. During the banners and flags in vibrant colorsother agencies, Those items of consid- equipped with operating personnel, Games, the management ability of which draped the city in May anderable memento value, such as procedures and support facilities. the commissioners ensured that June, the daring Olympic Artsposters, uniforms and festive feder- The endless worries over construc- the sports themselves would run Festival beginning on 1 June and thealism Look items were sold to the pub- tion completion were never a factor immense impact of the torch relay smoothly.lic at a retail sale and then an auction. and the resulting surplus was o Competitions and other events were the primary means for theThe drop in staffing was perhaps the properly predicted by those who had staged by the organizers in the pre- LAOOC to rally the local communitiesmost dramatic. One week after the noted Montreal’s excess of opera- Games period proved very useful. in Southern California and AmericansGames, the LAOOC staff had dropped ting revenues over operating Not only did the organizers get to all across the nation and generate afrom almost 70,000 to 2,000 people. expenditures. work directly with the sports and great outpouring of support whichThree weeks later, there were450 o Financing was challenging, but personalities that would later be completed the ingredients for thepeople on staff. Two months after the LAOOC creativity and effective present at the Games, these actual success of the Games of the XXlllrdGames, there were 150 people en- private sector fund raising made it events sharpened the skills and Olympiad.gaged in purging files, paying bills and work as never before in Olympic presented the issues and problems The LAOOC also had a vast impact onclosing accounting records and history. The outpouring of support that larger-sized events such as the the Olympic movement. In the latedrafting the official report. By the end for the Games, in both money Games would pose. In retrospect, 1970s, when Los Angeles made itsof 1984, the LAOOC staff totaled 75 and materiel, from the sponsors, there was no substitute for these successful bid, it accepted a challengepeople. suppliers and television rights- hands-on experiences. to host the Games in an Olympic world3.11 holders was beyond the original o The venue development process, rocked by terrorism, enormous costThe LAOOC legacy expectations of all Los Angeles though extremely difficult, was overruns and resulting debt and an organizers. The concept of a limited extremely important and very useful. about-to-occur boycott of the 1980The Los Angeles Olympic Games were number of corporate partners—far Complete manpower, site and Games. With these burdens, Losfinancially successful beyond the less than for any previous Games— transport plans came out of this Angeles faced enormous challenges;dreams of its original advocates. A provided the impetus for each of the process. Although unanimity was the future of the Olympic movement$215 million surplus was realized by selected companies to put forward not always achieved in the compil-the Organizing Committee. The surplus was at stake. And Los Angeles suc- their best efforts to make the Games ation of the plans, the process ceeded in every area. The Games of thewas greater than that of all prior Olym- successful. provided an opportunity for every XXlllrd Olympiad had more Nationalpic organizing committees combined. o The growth of support in Los involved department to plan for its Olympic Committees represented than But the success of the Olympic Games Angeles and throughout much of own responsibilities and observe the ever before, were completely self- cannot be measured by the amount of the USA via the Citizen’s Advisory effect of the planned operations of funding and were incident-free. surplus alone. The impact of the Games Commission was an important factor others at the site. in the early life of the Organizing The LAOOC had taken to heart Pierre de upon Los Angeles transcended the o The arduous process of changing Committee. Many people who Coubertin’s 1908 dictate that “the event. For two magical weeks, the city from a centrally-controlled wanted to get involved at an early games must be kept more purely was united and enchanted. The eyes of organization based mainly at one stage became members of the com- athletic; they must be more dignified; the world focused on Los Angeles and facility to a decentralized operating mission and through their support more discreet; more in accord with saw not smog, not traffic jams, not strategy—known as “venuization” and dissemination of information classic and artistic requirements; more crime, rather a city rejoicing. They saw at the LAOOC—was made easier by within the communities, the LAOOC intimate, and, above all, less expen- a city that was warm, vibrant and the important step of recruiting and drew widespread support in its sive” and demonstrated that the friendly and they saw a transportation training the venue management formative years. Those who com- Olympic movement was still valid in system that actually worked. The personnel well in advance of any pleted the Olympic orientation this modern world. citizens of Los Angeles as well as all move to the sites. The ability of each Americans discovered a new pride in site to function in the crucial first themselves, their city and their country. days of the LAOOC’s exclusive The international guests who had access to that site was a direct traveled to Los Angeles found them- reflection of the amount of time selves at home in a city of many lan- which had been spent by the venue guages, many people and much management team as a unit prior to hospitality. the move. 26
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronology 4
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronology25 September 1977 Approval is 11 June 1980 An agreement is 19 December 1980 Ooh La La, Inc., 13 July 1981 LAOOC officials Petergiven by the USOC for Los Angeles to signed with the Los Angeles Coliseum a manufacturer of cloisonne jewelry, is Ueberroth, Harry Usher and Glennbe the candidate city from the United Commission for use of the Los Angeles named as the third LAOOC licensee. Wilson meet with President RonaldStates to host the Games of the XXlllrd Memorial Sports Arena as the boxing 15 January 1981 Announcement of Reagan at the White House inOlympiad. The Southern California venue in 1984. agreements for three more competi- Washington, D.C.Committee for the Olympic Games 10 July 1980 An announcement is tion venues is made: judo at California Deputy Chief of Staff Michael Deaver is(SCCOG) wins the USOC vote in a meet- made of agreement between the State University at Los Angeles; appointed White House liaison to theing at Colorado Springs, Colorado. LAOOC and the city of Long Beach for weightlifting at Loyola Marymount 1984 Olympic Games.31 October 1977 IOC President Lord use of the Long Beach Arena for University’s new Albert Gersten 14 July 1981 Peter Ueberroth, HarryKillanin announces the closure of the Olympic volleyball and the Long Beach Pavilion; and wrestling at the Anaheim Usher, USOC President William Simonapplication period to host the Games, Convention Center Exhibition Hall for Convention Center. and Executive Director F. Don Millerwith Los Angeles the sole bidder. fencing. Sponsorships are announced with testify before a hearing of the Senate18 May 1978 During the 80th 15 July 1980 A license agreement is Sports Illustrated and the American Banking Committee on the proposedSession of the IOC in Athens, Greece, signed by the LAOOC with the city of Express Co. Olympic commemorative coins.a provisional award of the Games is Pasadena for use of the Rose Bowl for 19 January 1981 The LAOOC names 30 July 1981 Moochie’s Team Out-made to Los Angeles, conditioned on Olympic football in 1984. its first “Official Supplier,” Brother fitting Co. of Los Angeles is announcedthe signing of a contract between the 16 July 1980 The First Official Industries, Ltd., which will supply the as the LAOOC’s fourth licensee. TheIOC and the city of Los Angeles. Report of the LAOOC is presented to LAOOC with typewriters for the Games. company will manufacture stadium31 August 1978 The IOC Executive the International Olympic Committee at 5 February 1981 California State seat cushions.Board approves a contract between the 83rd Olympic Session in Moscow, University at Dominguez Hills is 10 August 1981 An agreement isthe IOC and Los Angeles, subject to USSR. selected as the site for the to-be- announced between the LAOOC and theapproval by the IOC membership. 4 August 1980 The official opening constructed Olympic velodrome. city of Los Angeles for use of the Los7 October 1978 Overwhelming of the four-year quadrennial for the 20–25 February 1981 A meeting Angeles Convention Center as theapproval of the IOC-Los Angeles con- XXlllrd Olympiad takes place. Cere- of the IOC Executive Board is held in Main Press Center during the Games.tract is made by the IOC members: 75 in monies in Los Angeles and New York Los Angeles. 18 August 7987 The LAOOC andfavor, three against, six abstentions highlight the event, along with the in- General Motors announce a newand one null vote. troduction of the official Olympic sym- 25 February 1981 An agreement on basic terms is signed by the LAOOC and sponsorship agreement with the Buick12 October 1978 Los Angeles City bol, the Star in Motion and the Olympic Motor Division, which will supply the mascot, Sam the Olympic Eagle. the University of California, Los Angeles.Council approval is given to the IOC- UCLA’s Pauley Pavilion is named as the “Official Automobile” of the Games.approved contract. The Organizing Committee’s first nine site of Olympic gymnastics. 2 September 1981 Levi Strauss sponsors are announced, ushering in a joins the LAOOC’s sponsorship family20 October 1978 Signing of the 12 March 1981 A sponsorship new era in Olympic financing. Named as the “Official Outfitter” of thecontract between the IOC and Los agreement is announced with the are: Coca-Cola Co., Anheuser-Busch, Games.Angeles takes place, allowing Los Coca-Cola Company/Foods Division, Inc., McDonald’s Corp., ArrowheadAngeles to host the Games of the makers of Minute Maid Orange Juice 15 September 1981 An agreement Puritas Waters, Inc., Canon USA, Inc.,XXlllrd Olympiad from 28 July to 12 and other products. is announced between the Los Angeles Southland Corp., United Airlines, FirstAugust 1984. The signing is held at the Dodgers, Inc. and the LAOOC, placing Interstate Bank and Dentsu, Inc. 26 March 1981 An agreement isWhite House in Washington, D.C. the 1984 Olympic baseball tournament The first LAOOC licensee, Cervantes signed by the LAOOC and California7 November 1978 Los Angeles City State University at Fullerton for use of in Dodger Stadium. Neckwear, Inc., is also named.Charter Amendment N is passed by Titan Gymnasium as a site for Olympic 16 September 1981 The LAOOCvoters, prohibiting any capital expendi- 7 August 1980 A new world-class handball. announces that the Converse Rubbertures by the city of Los Angeles on the swimming and diving stadium at the Co./Allied Corporation will be a University of Southern California is 30 March 1981 The LAOOC officesOlympics that would not, by binding sponsor of the 1984 Games and will announced as the site of Olympic will move onto the campus of UCLA inlegal commitment, be paid back. provide the “Official Athletic Shoe.” swimming in 1984. The facility will be the summer of 198 1. A new, three-26 January 1979 The LAOOC Board story office building will be con- 23 September–1 October 1981 underwritten by the McDonald’s Corp.of Directors, consisting of 59 commun- structed on the campus and will house The 11th Olympic Congress and 84thity leaders and activists, is named. 28 August 1980 The building of a the LAOOC from mid-l 982 through the IOC Session are held at Baden-Baden, new world-class velodrome to serve Olympic Games. Federal Republic of Germany.1 March 1979 A contract among the as the site of Olympic cycling isIOC, USOC and the LAOOC is signed at 9 April 1981 A report is made by the The LAOOC presents its Second Official announced. The velodrome will beIOC Headquarters in Lausanne, LAOOC to the IOC Executive Board. Report to the IOC on 1 October. underwritten by the Southland Corp.Switzerland. An LAOOC recommendation to include 13 October 1981 ABC Publishing is 19 November 1980 The LAOOC and tennis and baseball as demonstration26 March 1979 Paul Ziffren is granted rights to publish the “Official Los Angeles Coliseum Commission sports is accepted.selected as chairman and Peter V. Olympic Guide to Los Angeles.” announce that the Los Angeles Memo-Ueberroth as president of the LAOOC. 23 April 1981 Santa Anita Park is rial Coliseum, site of the 1932 Games, 1 November 1981 LAOOC marks26 September 1979 A record will again host the Opening and Closing announced as the site for Olympic 1,000 days to go before Opening$225-million television rights Ceremonies in 1984, as well as the equestrian events. Ceremonies.agreement is signed by the American athletics competition. 30 April 1981 The LAOOC and USOC 9 November 1981 An agreement isBroadcasting Company and the LAOOC join to seek legislation in the United 25 November 1980 A new man- announced with the California Museumin Nagoya, Japan. States Congress to authorize minting agement concept for Olympic sports is of Science and Industry, providing the1 February 1980 Harry L. Usher is announced: the commissioner system. of Olympic commemorative coins. LAOOC with additional parking spacesnamed executive vice president/ In each sport, experienced business 18 May 1981 The LAOOC and COPAN- in the Coliseum and Exposition Parkgeneral manager, assuming overall managers will be invited to manage 83, the organizing committee of the area. The Organizing Committee alsooperating responsibilities for the Olympic events, working part-time into 1983 Pan American Games, sign an announced it will spend $800,000 toGames. 1983, then joining the Organizing Com- agreement of mutual support. repair and renovate existing areas in24 March 1980 An agreement is mittee full-time 6–12 months prior to 24 June 1981 Bright and Associates Exposition Park.signed by the LAOOC, city of Long the Games. is selected to design pictograms for 18 November 1981 An announce-Beach and the Southern California 4 December 1980 The Atlantic- the Olympic Games. ment is made of a sponsorshipYachting Association for use of the Richfield Company becomes the agreement with the Westinghouse 29 June 1981 An agreement isLong Beach Marina as the yachting newest LAOOC sponsor. ARCO will Electric Corp. Westinghouse will pro- reached to use Lake Casitas as the sitevenue in 1984. finance seven international-class vide the “Official Office Furniture” of of Olympic rowing and canoeing.30 April 1980 An agreement is tracks in the Los Angeles area and help the Games, while affiliated companies with refurbishment of the Los Angeles 9 July 1981 Construction begins on Longines-Wittnauer/Swiss Timing willsigned with California Sports, Inc. for Memorial Coliseum. the Olympic velodrome. The open-air be the “Official Watches and Clocks”use of The Forum as the basketball site. facility is slated for completion in mid- and “Official Timekeepers;” and29 May 1980 An agreement is 6–12 December 1980 IOC 1982. President Juan Antonio Samaranch Perrier will be the “Official Mineralsigned with the city of Long Beach and Director Monique Berlioux tour LOS Water” of the 1984 Games.securing El Dorado Park as the site ofarchery in 1984. Angeles sports facilities and meet with local leaders and Olympic officials.28
    • 1 3 1 At a 28 August 1980 news conference, it is announced that an Olympic velodrome is to be built at California State University at Dominguez Hills. 2 The LAOOC symbol, the Star in Motion and mascot Sam the Olympic Eagle are intro- duced on 4 August 1980. 3 The announcement of the construction of a new world-class swimming and diving sta- dium at USC is made 17 August 1980. Funding was provided by the McDonald’s Corporation. 4 LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberroth (center), IOC Director Monique Berlioux (right) and lOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch take a venue tour in December 1980, including this stop at the Coliseum. 2 4 29
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronology 75 8 9 5 President of the FEI, H. R. H. Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, tours the equestri- an sites on 25 September 1982. 6 Ground breaking ceremonies for Coliseum improvements are held on the 59th birth- day of the stadium on 17 April 1982. 7 Representatives of he International Feder- ations meet with the IOC Executive Board on 17 February 1982 in Pasadena, California. 8 Ronald Reagan, president of the United States (left), accepts IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch’s invitation to open the Games in 1984. With them in the 29 January 1982 meeting is LAOOC Presi- dent Peter V. Ueberroth (right).6 9 Olympian John Naber (right), McDonald’s mascot Ronald McDonald and LAOOC mas- cot Sam the Olympic Eagle he/p break ground for the new Olympic Swim Stadium on the campus of USC on 30 December 1987.30
    • 1 December 1981 First-time radio 1 February 1982 A joint announce- 30 April 1982 Edgar N. Best is ap- 9 August 1982 The LAOOC movesrights are granted for the Olympic ment by the IOC, LAOOC and Network pointed LAOOC’s Director of Security. into its new offices at 10945 LeConteGames, ABC Radio acquires exclusive Ten/Australia details a television rights 14 May 1982 A working group from Avenue on the southern edge of theU.S. rights (excepting Spanish agreement of $10.6 million for exclu- the Association of National Olympic UCLA campus. The three-story buildinglanguage rights) and will serve as host sive TV rights to the Games for Committees (ANOC) visits the LAOOC to was completed on time as a joint effortcoordinating broadcaster for world- Australia. examine preparations. An announce- of the University and the Organizingwide radio. Committee. 1-7 February 1982 Week-long ment of the first nine Olympic attaches3 December 1981 An announce- meetings of the IOC Executive Board, is also made. 13 August 1982 Xerox Corporationment is made of the sale of television IOC Commissions and International 20 May 1982 The US. House of is announced as an “Official Sponsor”rights to the 32-nation European Federations are held in Los Angeles Representatives passes a commemo- of the Games. Xerox will supplyBroadcasting Union for approximately at Pasadena’s Huntington-Sheraton rative coin program for the 1984 photocopiers and telecopiers for use in$19.8 million. Hotel. At the final news conference, Games by a 302-44 margin. The 1984. IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch program calls for three coins to be 8 September 1982 The LAOOC’s8 December 1981 An announce- states that he is convinced that the issued, one in 1983 and two in 1984. Envoy Program, modeled after thement of official Olympic hotels, with Games will be “impeccably organ- Sports Commissioner Program, ismore than 15,000 rooms committed 21-23 May 1982 The initial ized.” Included in the program are announced. Envoys will be selected byfor LAOOC use in 1984 to house Olympic Youth Sports Festival is held meetings of the IOC Executive Board, the LAOOC from qualified U.S. citizensOlympic Family members (IOC, NOCs, at California State University at LosIFs, press, sponsor representatives) IOC Medical and Press Commissions, in the Southern California area to serve a meeting of the International Angeles (CSULA). Competition foris made. youth takes place in archery, athletics, as liaisons with Olympic attaches and Federations and a meeting between National Olympic Committees around9 December 1981 The United the IOC Executive Board and the gymnastics and synchronizedStates Senate approves the Olympic swimming. the world. International Federations.Coin Program by voice vote. The bill The athletics competition is held on the 13 September 1982 Jointhad previously been voted out of the 2 February 1982 Pepperdine’s announcement is made that the Raleigh Runnels Memorial Pool is new training track installed at CSULA.Senate Banking Committee by a Dedication ceremonies are held internationally-known film exposition14-O vote on 15 October. announced as the site for water polo FILMEX will present a special sports film for the 1984 Games. The announce- immediately prior to the competition, 11 December 1981 Fuji Photo Film a regional championship of the ARC0 festival in 1984, just prior to the ment, made at Pepperdine, is attended beginning of the Games. The festivalCo., Ltd. becomes the LAOOC’s by FINA President Ante Lambasa. Jesse Owens Games.sponsor for “Official Photographic will feature a 50-hour marathon of 2 March 1982 Olympic venues for 26 May 1982 It is announced that features and shorts using sport as aProducts.” Fuji will also service the University of California, Santacredentialled photographers in regard modern pentathlon and shooting are metaphor for the human condition and announced at Coto de Caza and Coal Barbara will serve as satellite housing a complete retrospective on pastto development of film in 1984. during the Games for the expected Canyon, respectively. Shooting events official Olympic films.30 December 1981 Ground- will be held on a to-be-constructed 1,200 rowing and canoeingbreaking ceremonies for the Olympic competitors. 15 September 1982 The LAOOC $18-million facility to be financedSwim Stadium are held at the Univer- exercises its option and terminates privately. 27 May 1982 The LAOOC gives its its agreement with Coal Canyon andsity of Southern California, site of the Third Official Report to the Internation-new facility. 9 March 1982 Analytical drug begins examination of possible sites testing facilities will be installed at the al Olympic Committee at the 85th IOC for the shooting competition in 1984.4 January 1982 Molten Rubber University of California, Los Angeles. Session in Rome, Italy. The LAOOC an-Industry Co., Ltd. is announced as the nounces that it would accept inclusion An LAOOC team attends a meeting of The complete analytical laboratory secretaries-general from Europeansupplier of the “Official Basketball” of needs of the Games will be handled of the K-4 canoeing event for women inthe Games. 1984, as well as an agreement with National Olympic Committees in there under the supervision of the UCLA Moscow, USSR, and comments upon6 January 1982 A sponsorship Medical School and Department of FIFA to play preliminary football competitions on four separate fields. the Association of National Olympicagreement with the Sanyo Electric Pharmacology. The main lab facilities Committees’ working group reportCorporation is announced at Caesar’s will be located in the Louis Factor In Rome, the LAOOC also reports to the compiled in May.Palace Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. Health Sciences Building in the UCLA Medical and Press Commissions.Sanyo will manufacture the “Official Center for the Health Sciences. 22-25 September 1982 The Fed- 23 June 1982 The Times Mirror eration Equestrian lnternationale (FEI)Video Products of the Games.” 5 April 1982 Campagnolo-USA, Company becomes the sponsor of the Bureau meets in Los Angeles and tours8 January 1982, Dedication Inc. is named “Official Supplier of 1984 Olympic Arts Festival, the cul- the sites for equestrian competitionceremonies are held for the newly- Technical Assistance” for the 1984 tural component of the Games of the during the Games. Led by its president,completed Albert Gersten Pavilion on cycling events. The Houston-based XXlllrd Olympiad. H.R.H. Prince Philip, Duke ofthe campus of Loyola Marymount company and Italian parent will supply 1 July 1982 The U.S. Senate Edinburgh, the bureau examines SantaUniversity, site of weightlifting in 1984. equipment, parts, tools and tech- approves the Coin Program Bill passed Anita Park and Fairbanks Ranch (a22 January 1982 Easton Aluminum, nicians to assist competitors in 1984. by the House of Representatives. possible site for the speed and endur-a world leader in the manufacture of 7 April 1982 A combination 8 July 1982 The newly-completed ance competition of the three-dayarrow shafts for competitive archery, is groundbreaking and 59th birthday Olympic velodrome at California State event). During the bureau meeting, it isannounced as an LAOOC licensee. party are held at and for the Los University at Dominguez Hills is dedi- agreed that the final day of jumping willEaston’s commitment includes funding Angeles Memorial Coliseum. LAOOC cated. USA Olympic gold medalists Eric be held at Santa Anita Park, where afor youth archery ranges and develop- improvement programs, funded by Heiden and Sheila Young Ochowicz single-ring stadium will bement programs in excess of $325,000. ARCO, including public address, take the first official lap in the new constructed.The site for the first range will be the dressing room, electrical and sewer facility. 29 September 1982 ARA Services,Cheviot Hills Recreation Center. improvements are also detailed. The Inc., one of the world’s largest service LAOOC will install a new Hi-Play 9-10 July 1982 The first event in29 January 1982 A White House the velodrome, the 7-Eleven/Bicycling management companies, is announcedmeeting among U.S. President Ronald systems grass field as well as a new as an LAOOC sponsor. ARA will plan and world-class running track. Magazine Grand Prix, takes placeReagan, IOC President Juan Antonio before overflow crowds of 3,000 and implement the massive food serviceSamaranch and LAOOC President Peter 14 April 1982 An announcement is 4,000. program required for Olympic athletesV. Ueberroth is held. Reagan accepts made that names East Los Angeles and team officials in 1984, as well as 12 July 1982 Television rights sales carry out all facets of athlete and teamSamaranch’s invitation to open the Community College as the site of are announced to TV New Zealand offical transportation.Games in 1984. hockey in 1984. The announcement ($500,000) and to the Kanlaon Broad-Groundbreaking ceremonies are held includes a demonstration of the sport. The American Telephone &Telegraph casting System for the Philippinesat California State University at Los 24 April 1982 The first of two new ($400,000). Company and Pacific Telephone &Angeles for the first of six Olympic junior archery ranges, at the Cheviot Telegraph are announced as LAOOCtraining tracks to be installed prior to Hills Recreation Center, is dedicated. 22 July 1982 U.S. President Ronald sponsors and “Official Sponsor of thethe 1984 Games. Present was IAAF Reagan signs into law the congres- 1984 Olympic Torch Relay.” IncludedPresident Primo Nebiolo. A “Reclaflex- sionally-approved Olympic Commem-S” surface will be installed by the orative Coin Program. Public Law No.Rekortan Sports Corporation. 97-220 authorized the minting of up to 52 million coins: 50 million in silver dollars and two million 10-dollar gold pieces. 31
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronologyin the agreement are AT&T, PT&T, AT&T Transamerica’s insurance and Budget 2 March 1983 An agreement is 21-28 March 1983 The 86thDirectory Services, AT&T Long Lines Rent-A-Car subsidiaries will provide announced among the LAOOC, Los session of the International OlympicDivision and Western Electric services to help support the staging of Angeles Raiders professional Ameri- Committee is held in New Delhi, India.Company. State-of-the art Bell System the 1984 Games. can football club and the Los Angeles The LAOOC makes its Fourth Officialtechnology will be on display during the 11 January 1983 The 15 official fine Coliseum Commission regarding use of Report to the IOC on 26 March.Games to provide new dimensions in arts posters are unveiled during a gala the Raiders’ proposed “luxury boxes” During the session, it is agreed thatcommunications for the worldwide reception at the Los Angeles Municipal in the Los Angeles Coliseum. Under the boardsailing will be included in thenews media and Olympic staff. Art Gallery in Barnsdall Park. Thirteen agreement, if the boxes are built the Games, that six teams will participate4 October 1982 An announcement of the 16 artists who produced posters LAOOC will occupy 166 of the 174 in the demonstration sport of baseballis made that the LAOOC has commis- attended the event, along with arts and boxes during the Games in return for a and that the demonstration tennissioned a new piece of sculpture by Los community leaders. rental fee of $3 million. events would consist of 32-playerAngeles artist Robert Graham to M & M/Mars is designated an official 4 March 1983 LAOOC President singles competitions for men anddecorate the peristyle area of the Los sponsor and producer of the “Official Peter V. Ueberroth states clearly the women, open to all players 20 yearsAngeles Memorial Coliseum. Installa- Snack Foods” of the Games. Organizing Committee’s policy and younger, regardless of status. IOCtion is expected in June 1984. concerning government monies and President Juan Antonio Samaranch 14-21 January 1983 Five hundred the 1984 Games: “Any government agrees to exhibit his collection of28 October 1982 An agreement sixty delegates from 141 nationsis signed between the city of Los services we request, we will pay for, Olympic philately as a part of the gather in Los Angeles for the 22nd but we will not pay for services we do Olympic Arts Festival.Angeles and the LAOOC, guaranteeing meeting between the IOC Executivethat local taxpayers will not have to not order." Additionally, the FIFA gives final Board and the National Olympicbear Olympic-related city costs. Committees. Included in the program Ueberroth notes the positive aspects approval to the LAOOC’s preliminaryA private study commissioned by the were meetings of the IOC’s Olympic of the Games, which include $3.3 football sites at Annapolis, Boston andLAOOC reveals that the 1984 Olympic Movement, Press and Television billion in economic benefits to the Stanford.Games will pump more than $3.3 billion commissions, as well as the Second Southern California area, the most 24 March 1983 An announcementinto the Southern California economy. General Assembly of the Association comprehensive arts festival ever is made that the world-renowned LesEconomic Research Associates, an of National Olympic Committees. staged in the United States, numerous Ballets Africains dance troupe from theindependent research and consulting physical facilities and improvements People’s Revolutionary Republic of The IOC and the LAOOC agree on a and a strong youth program.firm, estimates a direct impact of $949 villages’ pricing structure that will Guinea will perform during the Olympicmillion in the local area and an induced charge delegates $35 per day, and IOC 5-6 March 1983 Eighty-four Arts Festival. The five scheduled Losimpact of $2.37 billion. approval (subject to FIFA confirmation) members of the LAOOC’s Olympic Angeles performances will be the first29 October 1982 The International is given to preliminary football sites in Spirit Team gather for initial meetings for Les Ballets Africains in the UnitedFestival of Masks will take place on Annapolis, Maryland, Boston, Massa- in Los Angeles. Ranging in age from 23 States in 13 years.20-22 July 1984 as part of the Olympic chusetts and Stanford, California. The to 91, the group attends orientation 14 April 1983 The First InterstateArts Festival. The exhibition of inter- LAOOC also organizes a demonstration meetings, tours venue sites and is Bank Olympic Youth Art Contest fornational masks will run from 20 July to of rhythmic gymnastics and synchro- involved in community youth events. students in grades 7-l 2 opens.12 August at the Craft and Folk Art nized swimming at the Beverly Hills 15 March 1983 The Olympic Torch Students in 12 western states willMuseum. High School Swim-Gym and entertains is lit at the Los Angeles Memorial compete in two divisions for district,6 December 1982 Refurbishment of 431 delegates with “in-home” dinners Coliseum in tribute to the late county, state and grand prizes.the East Los Angeles College (ELAC) at 53 Southern California residences. Hungarian sports leader Dr. Arpad Scholarship awards will be given to theStadium through a grant from the Among the highlights is the presenta- Csanadi, who died on 7 March. Csanadi grand prize winner, runner-up and tion of medals to the family of 1912 was the Secretary General of the Hun- third-place finisher.Weingart Foundation is announced.The Weingart Foundation, a non-profit Olympic pentathlon and decathlon garian NOC, the IOC member in Hungary 22 April 1983 An announcement isphilanthropic corporation, commits winner Jim Thorpe on 18 January, and the Honorary Sports Director of the made of television rights sales to the$3.2 million to the project which will following an October 1982 IOC Execu- IOC. The LAOOC is represented at 43-nation Union of Radio and Tele-ready the ELAC Stadium for hockey tive Board decision to reinstate his Csanadi’s 16 March funeral in Buda- vision Organizations of Africa (URTNA). amateur status. pest by Vice President/Sports Charlesduring the 1984 Games as well as 26 April 1983 An agreement isimprove the ELAC auditorium. G. Cale. 26 January 1983 Exclusive tele- reached between the LAOOC and the vision rights are awarded to the Los Southern Pacific Company is named an Ventura County Board of SupervisorsMotorola Communications & Elec- Angeles Olympic Japan Pool (LAOJP) official sponsor in a joint announce- for reimbursement of Olympic-relatedtronics, Inc. is named as an official for $18.5 million. The LAOJP is ment in Los Angeles. Southern Pacific costs for services requested andsponsor in the area of radio communi- composed of the National Japanese will provide financial support for the provided by the county.cations equipment. Network (NHK) and the National Games and for a special civic project. 15 December 1982 Details of the 29 April 1983 The LAOOC, along Association of Commercial Broad- 16 March 1983 It is announced that with the United States OlympicLAOOC’s ticket distribution plan are casters, representing more than 100 the LAOOC will stage seven 1983 Committee, files suit in the U.S. Districtmade public. Under the program, public broadcast organizations. events at Olympic venues. Events will Court in Los Angeles against localorders will be filled on a first-come, 2 February 1983 The Levi’s Olympic include the Ill FINA World Water Polo ticket broker Murray’s Tickets forfirst-served basis, with ticketholders Children’s Art Project is unveiled, with Cup in May, an international cycling unauthorized use of Olympic symbols.for oversubscribed events selected more than 300,000 youngsters in invitational in July, an international The action also seeks to have the courtthrough a computer-controlled random grades kindergarten-sixth expected to swimming competition in July, the stop Murray’s from falsely represent-draw. A special Olympic Patron participate. An awards fund of $70,000 II American Cup of Synchronized ing that it has Olympic tickets.Program, designed to bring 100,000 to bolster school art programs will be Swimming in August and regattas fordisadvantaged youth, handicapped 3 May 1983 An announcement is distributed based on participation in rowing and canoeing at Lake Casitas inand senior citizens to the Games while made that a major international loan the program. September.offering premium seating, is also exhibition of 120 French Impressionistannounced. 19 February 1983 LAOOC Chair- 21 March 1983 The Los Angeles landscape paintings, including 45 from man Paul Ziffren announces that the Beautiful-LAOOC Olympic Youth the Louvre, will be one of the majorTwo major exhibitions, “The Auto- LAOOC’s Citizens Advisory Com- Beautification Program is launched at cultural components of the 1984mobile and Culture” and “In Context," mission has reached the overall Roosevelt High School. The program Olympic Arts Festival. The exhibition,are announced as features of the will be funded by royalties and other entitled A Day in the Country: Impres-Olympic Arts Festival. They will be pre- membership goal of 3,000. Persons proceeds from sales of Armstrong sionism and the French Landscape, willsented by the Museum of Contempo- still interested in assisting in the Games Nurseries’ “Olympiad,” the official be on view at the Los Angeles Countyrary Arts in partnership with the are urged to apply for volunteer staff- rose of the 1984 Olympic Games. Museum of Art on 28 June 1984LAOOC. ing positions. 28 February 1983 It is announced through 16 September 1984.16 December 1982 TransamericaCorporation is named in San Francisco, that the first United States appearance 7 May 1983 The first of the LAOOC’sCalifornia as an official sponsor in the of the Royal Opera of London’s Royal LA83 summer sports events, the Illareas of insurance and rental cars. Opera House, Covent Garden will be FINA World Water Polo Cup, begins at made during the Olympic Arts Festival. Pepperdine University. Continuing The Royal Opera will give 11 perform- through 14 May, the round-robin ances in Los Angeles, all at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion.32
    • 10 12 13 10 On 21 January 1983, 560 delegates from 141 nations gather in Los Angeles for the 22nd meeting between the IOC Executive Board and the National Olympic Committees. 11 A highlight of the meetings between the IOC Executive Board and the NOCs in Janu- ary 1983 is the return of Olympic medals to the family of Jim Thorpe, 1912 Olympic pentathlon and decathlon winner. 12 NOC delegates tour the UCLA village on 21 January 7983. 13 Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley helps 11 launch the LAOOC Youth Beautification Program at Roosevelt High School on 12 March 1983. 33
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronology1414 A ceremonial lighting of a flame starts the Olympic Torch Relay in New York.15 A five-kilometer run begin the ceremonies for dedication of a new training track, fund- ed by ARC0, at Birmingham High School.16 It is announced on 25 November 1983 that for the first time in Olympic history, the or- ganizing committees for the 1984 Winter and summer Olympic Games will join forces and resources to produce a medal- lion commemorating both Games and the friendship between the people of the host cities.17 A limited, signed edition of Olympic fine arts posters are presented to U.S. Presi- dent Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan (left) on 7 May 1983, by LAOOC Olympic Arts Festival Director Robert J. Fitzpatrick and Vice President of Communi- cations Michael O’Hara (right). 15 16 1734
    • tournament brings the world’s top 14 June 1983 More than 5.5 million Details of the 1984 Olympic Torch 19-22 October 1983 The besteight teams to the site of the 1984 tickets to the 1984 Olympic Games go Relay are revealed in simultaneous archers in the world converge on ElOlympic water polo competition. on sale throughout the United States. press conferences in New York and Dorado Park in Long Beach for the Ticket mail order forms are available at Los Angeles. The journey will last XXXllnd Archery World Champion-A new training track, funded by ARCO, Sears, Roebuck and Co. stores nation- approximately 80 days, covering ships. The event is the last of theis dedicated at Birmingham High ally, First Interstate Bank branches in thousands of kilometers between New LAOOC-hosted LA83 competition.School. Ceremonies include a five- Southern California and Manufacturers York City and Los Angeles, and is 24 October 1983 The LAOOC hostskilometer run and the renaming of the Hanover Trust branches in the greater expected to raise millions of dollars its Olympic sponsors at the Sheratonschool’s athletic facility as Tom New York metropolitan area. for youth sports in America. Grande Hotel in downtown LosBradley Stadium. The dedication alsoculminates Birmingham High School’s 20 June 1983 Initial processing of 5-7 August 1983 The LA83 Sunkist Angeles. The three-day meeting, with“Olympic Awareness Week.” the 1984 Olympic ticket orders begins American Cup II Synchronized Swim- more than 300 representatives of 30The “Olympic Neighbor” community at a First Interstate Bank facility. On this ming Championship begins at the Olympic sponsors and 59 licensees inof Long Beach holds a membership day, the LAOOC had received approxi- Olympic Swim Stadium. attendance, focuses on the solidifi-kickoff meeting, with Olympic gold mately 100,000 orders and 40,000 16 August 1983 Groundbreaking cation of Olympic corporate sponsorsmedalists Pat McCormick (diving, 1952 telephone calls to the information ceremonies for the 1984 Olympic plans for 1984.and 1956) and Tommie Smith (athle- number listed in the ticket brochure. shooting site at the Prado Recreational It is announced that a federal courttics, 1968) participating. Long Beach is Between 1.2 million and 1.5 million of Area are held. judge has entered a stipulated finalthe first community to officially join the the seven million brochures available in judgment that precludes Mervyn’s, a the United States had been distributed. 18 August 1983 David L. Wolper, anLAOOC’s new Olympic Neighbor internationally renowned filmmaker Northern California-based departmentProgram. 21 June 1983 The Prado Recreation who brought Roots to television store chain, from selling its recently- Area in San Bernardino County is screens throughout the world and pro- developed line of Olympic-themed18 May 1983 Exclusive television merchandise. named shooting site for the Games. duced the 1972 documentary Visionsbroadcasting agreements are signed The 50-acre site near Chino is chosen of Eight, is named commissioner and 5 November 1983 The Los Angelesbetween the LAOOC and the Canadian because of its location, about an hour’s executive producer of ceremonies for Raiders professional American footballBroadcasting Corporation (CBC) and drive east of Los Angeles, and on the the Games. team announces it is postponingthe Latin American Broadcasting prospect of a permanent shooting construction of luxury boxes on theOrganization (OTI). The agreements facility for Southern California. 27 August 1983 Action begins inprovide that the CBC and OTI will the 1983 McDonald’s International Coliseum rim until after the Olympics.purchase the exclusive over-the-air 30 June 1983 It is announced that Gymnastics Championships at Pauley As reasons, team officials cite courtrights to the Games for $3 million and the LAOOC will move its operations Pavilion, as gymnasts from 13 coun- delays in ruling on appeals of the legal$2.15 million, respectively, one third of headquarters to a 180,000-square-foot tries, including the top U.S. Olympic decisions allowing the teams’ move towhich will be paid to the IOC. facility in Culver City by late summer. hopefuls, start competition. Los Angeles and uncertainties as to 1 July 1983 Official invitations from whether they could complete20 May 1983 An agreement in 12 September 1983 The Southern the LAOOC to the recognized National construction in time for the Games.principle is reached between the California Rapid Transit District (RTD)LAOOC and Orange County for reim- Olympic Committees in 151 countries and the LAOOC announce that sales of 10 November 1983 The U.S. Housebursement for all Orange County costs, are hand-canceled and mailed at the bus tokens bearing the Olympic sym- of Representatives unanimously ap-including security. Worldway Postal Center in Los bols will enable the RTD to fully fund proves a resolution recognizing “the Angeles. U.S. Olympic medalists Anita special bus lines for spectators attend- right of every individual eligible underWindsurfing International, Inc. and DeFrantz and Bob Seagren join U.S. ing the Games. Sales are expected to the rules of the International Olympicthe LAOOC announce the signing of alicense agreement between Wind- Postal Service officials for the mailing. generate at least $3 million, allowing Committee to participate in the (Lossurfing International and Windglider, 8 July 1983 Cyclists from around the the addition of 475 buses. Angeles Games).”guaranteeing inclusion of two world compete in the Murray/7-Eleven An agreement is reached between the 18 November 1983 LAOOCboardsailing events in the Games. International Cycling Invitational at the LAOOC and the city of Monterey Park President Peter V. Ueberroth31 May 1983 At a meeting of the IOC Olympic velodrome. The event, on 8-9 on payment for Olympic-related announces that Soviet sports leadersExecutive Board and the General July, is the second of the LA83 events. security costs. are planning to visit Los Angeles duringAssembly of International Sport Fed- 14 July 1983 Some of the world’s the first week of December to make 22-25 September 1983 Lakeerations in Lausanne, Switzerland, the top swimmers match skills at the LA83 final preparations for the Soviet team Casitas in Ventura County is the site ofLAOOC reports on preparations for McDonald’s International Swimming to compete in the Games. the Foster Farms Lake Casitas Interna-congresses, accommodations and Meet. The four-day event includes tional Regatta. More than400 rowers 25 November 1983 An announce-transportation of the International swimmers from 20 countries and is the and canoeists participate in the event. ment is made that for the first time inFederations. first competitive use of the new Olympic history the organizing 27 September 1983 After2 June 1983 IBM is announced as the Olympic Swim Stadium at USC. committees for the 1984 Winter and meetings in Washington, D.C., withofficial personal computer and office 15 July 1983 Announcement is Summer Olympic Games will join congressional leaders and Assistantsystems sponsor for the Games. The made that the Chengdu Acrobatic and forces and resources to produce a to the President Michael K. Deaver oncompany is providing IBM personal Magic Troupe from the People’s medallion commemorating both preparations for the upcoming Games,computers, IBM multi-function word Republic of China will travel to the Games and the friendship between LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberrothprocessor Display writer systems, an United States for the first time to the people of the host cities. states: “The exclusion of any invitedIBM Sytem/38 general purpose compu- perform in the 1984 Olympic Arts nation from the 1984 Olympic Games in 28 November 1983 The LAOOC’ster and other equipment. Festival. The troupe, based in Sichuan Los Angeles is clearly not an option of request to include two events for4 June 1983 The second Olympic Province, features acrobats, magicians the host country. The Games were wheelchair-bound competitors in theYouth Sports Festival is held at and clowns. awarded to Los Angeles on condition 1984 Games wins preliminary approvalCalifornia State University of Los 19 July 1983 Olympic Arts Festival that all eligible nations would be from the IOC and the InternationalAngeles, with 3,000 Southern Califor- officials announce that up to eight Los welcome in our country. It is important Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF).nia boys and girls in attendance. Sports Angeles theater productions will be to remember that the Games do not 29 November 1983 LAOOCinclude archery, judo, synchronized presented during the summer of 1984 belong to the United States just Chairman of the Board Paul Ziffren isswimming and athletics. as a central part of the Festival. The because they are taking place on our appointed to the Court of Arbitration Olympic Arts Festival will provide soil. The Games belong to the world.” for Sport by IOC President Juan8 June 1983 The LAOOC, LosAngeles Turf Club, Inc., and Watt $100,000 that will be divided among 2 October 1983 Dedication cere- Antonio Samaranch.Industries/San Diego Inc. announce the the theaters selected by recommenda- monies for the new world-class track in 1 December 1983 The Los AngelesFairbanks Ranch Country Club in San tion of a panel. the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Olympic Committee-UCLA AnalyticalDiego County will host the middle day 21 July 1983 More than 60 Olym- are held with LAOOC and ARC0 officials Laboratory becomes only the eighthof the three-day endurance event in the pians gather at a press reception at presiding. The ceremonies are laboratory in the world, the first in theGames. LAOOC Headquarters in Westwood to preceded by the completion of the United States to receive accreditation officially introduce the Olympic Spirit Coliseum Invitational 10-kilometer run. from the IOC. The laboratory will be Team to members of the media. used for doping control tests at the 28 July 1983 LAOOC marks one year Games. to go before Opening Ceremonies. 35
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronology7 December 1983 LAOOC con- 28 February 1984 The unique Look 2 April 1984 The LAOOC opens its Republic of China, Malaysia, Southcludes a week-long visit by 13 Soviet of the 1984 Olympic Games was community relations office in Exposi- Korea, Chinese Taipei and nationsOlympic officials. USSR NOC President unveiled as an alliance of designers, tion Park, serving the south-central Los represented by the Asian BroadcastingMarat Gramov states that the Soviets artists and architects presented a Angeles area. Designed to serve as a Union and the Caribbean Broadcastingwill announce their decision whether to festive montage of vibrant colors and center for Olympic-related information Union.attend the Games no later than 2 June bold forms which will reflect the and coordination of programs, the 24 April 1984 A special LAOOC1984, in accordance with the Olympic cultural diversity of Los Angeles as Exposition Park office will serve to delegation led by President Peter V.Charter. well as the international spirit of the enhance community involvement in Ueberroth met with the leadership of 12 January 1984 The program and Games. Fabric structures and scaf- the Games. the IOC and of the NOC of the USSR toticket brochure for the 10-week, 400- folding will be combined with painted 4 April 1984 A supplemental resolve remaining difficulties whichevent Olympic Arts Festival was cylindrical columns, miles of fence security agreement for $1.825 million might prevent the attendance of theannounced in Los Angeles. Beginning fabric and ceremonial backdrops in hot with the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s USSR at the Games. The parties agreed1 June and continuing through the end colors such as magenta, vermillion and office was announced by the LAOOC. on a resolution which noted theof the Games on 12 August, 76 com- chrome yellow in a playful pattern to The sheriff’s office will coordinate measures to be taken to satisfy thepanies will comprise one of the largest inspire a look called “festive security aspects of athlete transporta- Soviet requests.arts undertakings of all time. A total federalism.” tion during the Games. 2 May 1984 The draw for teamof 1,200,000 ticket brochures are 1 March 1984 The LAOOC received IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch pairings in the Olympic football tourn-scheduled to be distributed, with the notification from the United States and LAOOC President Peter Ueberroth ament took place at the Huntington-average ticket price set at $16. Department of State of the denial of the concluded a two-day meeting in San Sheraton Hotel in Pasadena under the24 January 1984 The Los Angeles visa application of Oleg Yermishkin, Juan, Puerto Rico. It was announced auspices of the FederationCounty Board of Supervisors approved nominated by the USSR NOC to serve that the Association of African NOCs International de Football Associationan agreement involving security costs as Olympic attache. LAOOC President would hold its pre-Olympic meeting in (FIFA). FIFA Secretary-General Seppincurred by the county sheriff’s office Peter Ueberroth communicated the Los Angeles and that the Closing Blatter supervised the draw in theregarding the Games. In addition to the visa denial to the USSR NOC via telex Ceremonies of the 1984 Games, rather presence of LAOOC Football$2.3 million payment for basic security and expressed his hope that another than the Opening Ceremonies of the Commissioner Alan Rothenberg andservices by the sheriff, the LAOOC person would be nominated as soon 1988 Games, would include the trans- Vice President/Sports Chuck Cale.agreed to improvements in Exposition as possible. fer of the 1920 Antwerp flag to the 4 May 1984 LAOOC Senior VicePark totaling $1.8 million. New irriga- 6 March 1984 The official sports mayor of Seoul, Korea, site of the 1988 President Philip N. Brubaker andtion, landscaping, lawns, lighting artist of the 1984 Olympic Games, Olympic Games. Archery Commissioner Jim Eastonsystems, recreational equipment, rest- Ernie Barnes, previewed five sports 10 April 1983 Competition begins are named as mayors of the Olympicrooms and signs will be installed, along posters commissioned by the LAOOC at the newly-constructed Prado Villages at the University of Southernwith parking lot and roadway and the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Recreational Area Shooting Range California (USC) and University ofimprovements and repairs. Commerce. Posters depicting athletes near Chino, California. More than 500 California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Each25 January 1984 A seven-person in athletics, basketball, boxing, athletes from 50 countries registered man is an alumnus of the universitydelegation from the NOC of the gymnastics and “The Neighborhood for competition on five new ranges in which will be the site of his mayoralPeople’s Republic of China concluded Game” were shown and will be distrib- 11 Olympic events. The range worked responsibilities.a lengthy visit to Los Angeles and uted through retail outlets in signed well throughout the seven-day event and unsigned editions. Barnes’ associ- 8 May 1984 The longest Olympicmeetings with the LAOOC. A team of and proved itself ready for Olympic Torch Relay in history began in Newmore than 300 Chinese will come to ation with the Games will include a shooting competitions in the summer. York City at the United Nations PlazaLos Angeles, a stark contrast to the series of talks with students at local The LAOOC also announced a $200,000 with the granddaughter of Jessetwo-person delegation to the Games of schools. contribution to the beautification of Owens, Gina Hemphill, and the grand-the Xth Olympiad in 1932. Chen Xian, 10 March 1984 The Angelita, a Pershing Square, across the street son of Jim Thorpe, Bill Thorpe Jr.,vice president of the Chinese NOC gold-medal winning yacht from the from the Biltmore Hotel-site of the carrying the torch together for the firstnoted that “wherever we visited, we 1932 Olympic Games will lead all boats 88th Session of the International kilometer. The second kilometer waswere showered with warm welcomes into the Olympic harbor as flagship for Olympic Committee later in 1984. The run by 91-year-old Abel Kiviat,All this convinces us that the XXlllrd the 1984 Olympic yachting competi- contribution was made to the Pershing roommate of Jim Thorpe at the 1912Olympiad will be a great success.” tion. Owen Churchill, who skippered Square Redevelopment Project, a pri- Olympic Games in Stockholm. The6 February 1984 The Fifth Official the yacht to the victory in 1932 was vately sponsored fund, and was used brief opening program featured 1960Report to the International Olympic present at the announcement, along to complete first-phase landscaping in Olympic decathlon champion RaferCommittee is presented by the LAOOC. with crew members John E. Biby, Jr. time for enjoyment by visitors to Los Johnson, IOC President Juan AntonioThe report was made during the course and Richard F. Moore. Angeles during the Games period. Samaranch, LAOOC President Peter V.of the 87th Session of the IOC at 20 March 1984 Accord on the 14 April 1984 The first of five Ueberroth, Los Angeles Mayor TomSarajevo, Yugoslavia. The LAOOC also transfer of the Olympic flame from the Olympic Youth Jamborees was held at Bradley and New York Mayor Ed Koch.reported to the Press and Television National Olympic Committee of Greece Manual Arts High School with 1,500 The National Olympic Committee of thecommissions. to the LAOOC was announced. The young participants competing in seven USSR announced that it will decline the LAOOC agreed to end the acceptance events. The opening ceremony invitation of the LAOOC to participate in9 February 1984 Final approval was of contributions for participation in the featured the lighting of a jamboree the Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad.given by the International Amateur Youth Legacy Kilometer program on 10 flame which burned throughout the The announcement was made publicAthletic Federation (IAAF) to hold two April and the Hellenic Olympic Commit- day. Four subsequent jamborees were in a statement released by Tass, theevents for wheelchair-bound athletes tee will transfer the flame to the LAOOC held in the South Bay area, the San official Soviet news agency.as exhibition events on 11 August, in early May at Olympia, Greece. Fernando Valley, Ventura County andduring the final full day of athletics 10 May 1984 Hundreds of hotels,competition at the Games. Since IOC 28 March 1984 The final route of the East Los Angeles. restaurants, transport services andapproval had already been given, the Olympic flame was unveiled, including Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley other businesses joined the Olympicapproval by the international federa- passage through 33 states and the declared 14 April as “Olympic Spirit Hospitality Program and pledged totion for athletics completed the District of Columbia. The 15,000 Team Day” in the city and presented maintain price levels charged to theprocedures necessary for inclusion of kilometer route (9,000 miles) will pass commendations to Spirit Team mem- public during the first six months ofan 800-meter race for women and through41 of the USA’s largest cities bers in recognition of their support of 1984. The program was presented by1,500-meter race for men. and more than 1,000 smaller communi- the Olympic movement and their the Greater Los Angeles Visitors and23 February 1984 Distribution of ties. Contributors to the Youth Legacy promotion of Olympic ideals among Convention Bureau in cooperation withmore than 500,000 handbooks for Kilometer program will run or youth. the LAOOC.youths began in grades four to eight at designate the runner for nearly 4,000 kilometers with cadre runners selected 19 April 1984 Additional sales ofBeethoven Elementary School in Ven- exclusive television rights to nations inice, California. The 176-page books by Olympic Torch Relay sponsor AT&T Asia and the Caribbean brought thedocument the history and tradition of carrying it the rest of the way. record total of nations with viewingthe Games and will be distributed to rights to 146. Included in the latestlibraries and to youngsters in Los round of rights sales were the People’sAngeles, Orange and Ventura countyschools. The handbooks are a jointeffort of the LAOOC and the JuniorLeague of Los Angeles, Inc.36
    • 18 The UCLA Olympic Village is opened 14 July 1984. Present at the ribbon cutting ceremony are (from left) UCLA Chancellor Charles Young, LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberroth, UCLA Village Mayor Jim Eas- ton, Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley and Los Angeles City Councilman Zev Yaroslavsky. 19 Symbolic torch run kicks off Youth Jamboree at Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles. 20 The Robert Graham sculpture at the Colise- um unveiled on 1 June 1984 to begin the Olympic Arts Festival.1819 20 37
    • Growth of the LAOOC and theOrganization of the Games: A Chronology 12 May 1984 The People’s Repub- The California Department of Trans- ident of the United States Olympic 28 August 1984 Equipment andlic of China formally accepted the portation, Los Angeles Department of Committee and by Juan Antonio supplies worth approximatelyinvitation to attend the Games of the Transportation, Los Angeles Police Samaranch, president of the Inter- $702,000 were donated to the CountyXXlllrd Olympiad. Formal acceptance Department and California Highway national Olympic Committee. Sama- of Los Angeles for use in adult andwas communicated to LAOOC envoy Patrol all participated in the exercise. ranch presented an Olympic flag to Los juvenile detention facilities, hospitalsCharles Lee, in Beijing with an LAOOC 7 June 1984 Nine Olympic Ticket Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, to be and other health care facilities anddelegation for meetings with the and Information Centers open for sale placed in the City Hall of Los Angeles programs for the homeless.Chinese NOC. of Games tickets and to provide “as a mark of recognition to the city 4 September 1984 The LAOOC18 May 1984 A special LAOOC Olympic information for residents and and citizens of Los Angeles in thanks announced the distribution of $10.9delegation headed by President Peter visitors. Approximately one million for all they have done for the Games million to the beneficiaries of the 1984V. Ueberroth traveled to Lausanne, Games tickets in 16 sports were avail- and for the Olympic movement.” Olympic Torch Relay. The YMCAs,Switzerland to meet with international able for sale at the seven Los Angeles 25 July 1984 The LAOOC makes its Special Olympics, the Boys Clubs ofsports officials including representa- County offices as well as at single loca- Sixth Official Report to the Interna- America and the Girls Clubs of Americatives of the NOC of the USSR. The tions in Orange and Ventura counties, tional Olympic Committee and its final were the primary recipients of the 82-Soviets continued to decline the 11 June 1984 The LAOOC Com- pre-Games review of the preparations. day torch run funds raised by the saleinvitation to attend the Games, but the munity Relations office in East Los The report is presented in the Crystal of Youth Legacy Kilometers.LAOOC left the possibility of Angeles opened at East Los Angeles Ballroom of the Biltmore Hotel, 11 September 1984 An estimatedacceptance open until 2 June in Community College in Monterey Park. site of the 31st Session of the IOC 52 surplus of approximately $150 millionaccordance with the Olympic Charter. The office will assist in coordination years prior. The IOC session in 1932 was announced by the LAOOC,23 May 1984 Highly successful and operation of four LAOOC-spon- had 18 members present; in 1984, concluding the most financiallyticket sales for both the Olympic sored community projects in the area, there were 83. successful Olympic Games ever. TheGames and Olympic Arts Festival were including two area beautification 28 July 1984 With 92,655 larger-than-expected surplus came asannounced. More than a third of the projects, an exhibit honoring Latino spectators present in the Los Angeles a result of heavy ticket sales just priorOlympic Arts Festival’s427 perform- Olympians and the installation of a Memorial Coliseum and a television to and during the Games as well asances sold out with the opening events sculpture in front of the Monterey Park audience estimated at more than two excellent United States televisionstill nine days away. Of the368 event Civic Center. billion, the Games of the XXlllrd ratings which required no return ofsessions for the Games, 186 are sell- 12 June 1984 The LAOOC announc- Olympiad open with magnificent rights fees to the American Broad-outs with tickets remaining to 182. ed that Uhlmann fencing scoring equip- Opening Ceremonies. President Ronald casting Companies, holders of USANearly 3.4 million tickets have been ment will be used at the Games in place Regan of the United States declared television rights,purchased through the U.S. mail-order of VISTI equipment from the USSR. the Games open and the Olympic flame In all, revenues totaled $619 millionsystem with almost 1.4 million tickets was carried into the stadium by Gina against $469 million in expenses. The The LAOOC also announced that the Hemphill, granddaughter of the greatavailable to the U.S. general public in largest single revenue source was the Olympic boardsailing exhibition fea- Jesse Owens and, with Bill Thorpe, Jr.,17 different sports. sale of television broadcast rights at turing freestyle, long distance and the initial torchbearer82 days pre-28-30 May 1984 LAOOC officials slalom events will take place in the $239 million, followed by ticket sales vious. Hemphill passed the flame to at $151 million and licensing/spon-met with representatives of the Inter- waters off East Beach in Santa Barbara 1960 Olympic decathlon champion andnational Federations and the IOC on 10-11 August. sorship agreements at $121 million.Executive Board in Lausanne, LAOOC board of directors member Personnel costs topped the expense 20 June 1984 Peter C. Jordano is Rafer Johnson, who lit the ColiseumSwitzerland. Plans were made for the list at $99.5 million, followed closely by announced as mayor of the Olympic torch, signifying the return of thereplacement of teams not participating construction expenses at $91.7 million village for canoeing and rowing Games to Los Angeles 52 years afterin Los Angeles and the solo event in and security at $42.4 million. athletes at the University of California, the close of the Games of the Xthsynchronized swimming was added, 10 October 1984 The LAOOC Santa Barbara. Athletes from 35 Olympiad. The oath for the athletesbringing the total number of events in presented a gift of more than $1 million nations will be housed at UCSB. was taken by 1976 Olympic 400-meterLos Angeles to 221. in communications and transportation 11 July 1984 After a rousing tour hurdles champion Edwin Moses of the1 June 1984 The Olympic Arts USA and the judges’ oath was recited equipment to the Los Angeles Police across the United States in whichFestival began its 73-day program of by Sharon Weber, a gymnastics official Department. The gift included more millions of Americans turned out for aperformances and exhibitions with the from the USA. than 225 pieces of security communi- glimpse of the Olympic flame, the torchunveiling of the monumental archway cations equipment and 162 motor- relay entered the state of California, 4 August 1984 Following comple- cycles used during the Games.in front of the peristyle entrance to the host state for the Games of the XXlllrd tion of the shooting competition, theLos Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The 12 October 1984 The LAOOC Olympiad. The flame was carried to the LAOOC announced the gift of the Pradowork of Robert Graham was high- donated approximately $400,000 in Oregon border by 11-year old Ethan Recreational Area Shooting Range tolighted by the two headless, nude Olympic apparatus and equipment Halpern, a student from Northridge, the San Bernardino County Departmentsculptures-male and female-which used at Lake Casitas for the canoeing California, and passed to Betty Bickart, of Parks and Recreation for continuingadorn the top of the gateway. The and rowing competitions and the flags a registered nurse from San Jose, use as a world-class competitionFestival’s initial performance, Pina and poles representing the nations California. facility.Bausch’s Wuppertaler Tanztheater’s residing at the UCSB Village to the UCSBperformance of “Cafe Muller” and 14 July 1984 The three Olympic 12 August 1984 Spectacular Foundation, a non-profit corporation “Rite of Spring,” took place at the villages and Main Press Center open for Closing Ceremonies marked the end of which administers gifts to thePasadena Civic Auditorium. business two weeks prior to the the Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad in university. Distribution or sale of the Games. Welcoming ceremonies are Los Angeles. Preceded by the victory items will be used to benefit amateur2 June 1984 As the deadline for held at all three villages and journalists of Portugal’s Carlos Lopes in the men’s canoeing, kayaking and rowing clubs inacceptance of the invitation to partici- began their Olympic coverage with marathon in Olympic record time Ventura and Santa Barbara counties.pate in the Games passed, 141 accreditation procedures at the Main (2:09:21), the ceremonies included theNational Olympic Committees signaled 15-21 October 1984 The LAOOC Press Center, located at the Los award of the Olympic order in gold totheir acceptance. The total sets an all- sells its remaining equipment and Angeles Convention Center in down- LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberrothtime record for participation in the merchandise at a public retail sale and town Los Angeles. and the extinguishing of the OlympicGames, well ahead of the previous high open auction. Sales of Games 24 July 1984 The 88th Session of flame.of 122 set in Munich in 1972. Two days uniforms, Look items and office equip-later, the NOC of Angola overcame the International Olympic Committee During the 16 days of the Games, 7,078 ment grossed almost $1 million duringcommunications difficulties and opens in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion athletes from 140 nations took part in the five days of retail sales and twoaccepted the invitation, upping the of the Los Angeles Music Center. competitions in 21 medal sports and days of auction. The proceeds will betotal to 142. Governor George Deukmejian of two demonstration sports, competing used to fund a permanent museum California delivers the keynote address in 221 events. In all, 80 Olympic exhibit in Los Angeles commemoratingAn exercise to test the traffic at the session, the first held in Los records were set and another eight the Olympic Games.management plan for the Exposition Angeles since 1932. Addresses were equaled: 12 world records were setPark area was successfully carried out also made by William E. Simon, pres- and one was equaled. A record spec-by the LAOOC and five state and local tator turnout totaling almost 5.8 millionpublic agencies. The Southern Califor- saw the Games in person and a hugenia Rapid Transit District utilized 170 television audience in the billionsbuses and the LAOOC employed 200 enjoyed the view from Los Angeles.additional school buses to simulatepublic ingress to the area and athlete,employee and media shuttle systems.38
    • Accreditation andAccess Control5
    • Accreditation andAccess Control5.01 controlling the access of these persons tions. It showed at a very early stage o Pictogram (sport/ticket requirement)Accreditation concepts, to villages, competition and training that a computer-supported system o Bar codegoals and requirements venues and other controlled areas. To could work for the Games, but that o Insurance information accomplish this, the Accreditation considerable work in planning and o Color stock (color differed for each5.01.7 Department determined the access operations would be required. badge category)Need for accreditation and site privileges for each member of To begin the planning and testing of the o Preprinted stock with Star in Motion,The sole purpose of accreditation was the Olympic Family, including 8,700 Games of the XXlllrd Olympiadto provide a system of identification for computer system, the Accreditation press, 11,000 athletes and officials and Department hired a full-time director in o Signature of accredited individualsindividuals participating in any aspect over 90,000 support personnel. It thenof the Games. This system was de- March 1983. The director was respon- The following security features were produced the identification badges and sible for the development of the also incorporated into the fabricationsigned to discern their function and developed the computer supporttherefore, the privileges to which they system for the LA83 events held that of every accreditation badge: systems. summer. Because the director waswere entitled. The accreditation sys- o Badge serial numbertem developed by the LAOOC not only The first development and testing of hired late, the systems were developed o LAOOC trademarkidentified each individual by name, an accreditation system began in late quickly and were not adequately tested o Security sealcountry and function but detailed each 1982 in preparation for the January during the LA83 events. o Corporate sealvenue that could be entered and when 1983 IOC Executive Board meetings in Accreditation badge elements During the pre-Olympic competitions,and where the individual was entitled Los Angeles. Design work began on a Several important elements went into the Accreditation Departmentto be seated in a venue. The system computer-supported accreditation the fabrication of every accreditation developed operating plans, identifiedfurther identified an individual’s access system that would print badges on badge, including: and trained volunteer staff andto special transportation, food, hospi- demand on various colors of paper o Personal Identification (PID) number, implemented the actual accreditationtality or accommodations services. stock. Accreditation at the meeting badge number and Identity Card (ID) and badging process. These LA83 went well, despite frequent malfunc-The Accreditation Department was number events provided valuable planning andformed to organize and implement o General information (name, function, operational experience to the depart-efficient procedures for the identifica- country and organization) ment and formed the basis of thetion and registration of all persons o C a t e g o r y (“A,” “B,” “C,” “D,” Olympic operation.involved in the Olympic Games and for “E,” “F,” “Fo,” “Fx,” “G,” “J,” “K,” “L,” “O”) o Access zone privileges o Photograph 1 An athlete and his accreditation badge are rarely parted. 40
    • 5.01.2 o “G”; Distinguished guests of the were 47 different pictograms: 25 Separation of accreditation LAOOC. sports venues; five regions or group- and access privileges Two additional badge categories were ings of sport venues in close proximity In accordance with the Olympic Charter created by the LAOOC in response to to each other; three villages; one for all (1978 Provisional Edition), the LAOOC specific accreditation needs. They training sites; seven support sites in- was required to issue accreditation were: cluding the Biltmore Hotel and the Los cards to individuals participating in the o “J”; IF special, sport-specific Angeles International Airport Olympic Games. The charter specified only the accreditations for executive board Arrival Center; three conditional entry categories “A” — “G” and vaguely members. pictograms for individuals requiring identified privileges that were to be o “O”; Observers from cities bidding limited entry; one ticket pictogram and granted to persons in these categories. for future Olympic Games. one pictogram-an infinity symbol- At previous Games, the accreditation which allowed access to all venues. 5.01.3 badge not only provided identification The letter category (“A”—“G,” “J” or System tools: as required by the charter but provided Badges and equipment “O”) was located on the badge access to seating and other privileges. adjacent to the name, function and Badges for both the Olympic Family The LAOOC decided to separate and support personnel served to country information. privileges and access and developed a provide positive identification and The other side of the badge contained revolutionary concept that divided the indicate the access privileges of the a line for the badge holder’s signature, functions of the accreditation badge bearer. These criteria influenced the a line indicating if the individual was into two areas: one for identification information layout on the badge and covered by the Olympic Family insur- and one for access. In doing so, the ultimately led to the creation of a two- ance program and a line for a personal LAOOC fulfilled the charter mandate to part badge for support personnel. identification number (PID). A PID num- provide accreditation, but reserved the ber was assigned to each participant, The badges were large and easy to right to determine access privileges. Olympic Family member and staff read with oversized access zone num- A ticket system was developed in sup- member. In the case of the Olympic bers which were generated by compu- port of the accreditation and access Family member, the PID number ter and individually assigned. There control system whereby eligible matched the Olympic identity card were seven zone numbers at each Olympic Family members had to obtain number. sport venue (1-6,9) and an eighth zone complimentary tickets for selected number (Ø) that allowed access to all Several elements of the badge were high-demand events. This helped to zones. Functions within each zone designed to thwart counterfeiting or reduce the need for Olympic Family were grouped according to common duplication. These elements included seating at some venues, allowing a background security pattern on the activities. The individual’s function de- greater use by the spectating public. termined which zones were assigned. badge stock, a security seal on the The ticketing system was operated by photograph portion of the badge, an To maintain system consistency, the LAOOC Ticketing Department. It LAOOC corporate seal, a serial number common areas in the villages were required that all members of the for control of blank unprinted badges assigned access zone 7, and the Olympic Family (accredited “A”—“G”) and a bar code. Badges were printed on athlete living quarters within the vil- use a ticket to attend the Opening and colored paper stock that varied for lages were defined as access zone 8. Closing Ceremonies. For most sports each letter category as required in the events, tickets were not required for The pictogram further defined access Olympic Charter: ivory for “A” Olympic Family members, except for and was grouped on the badge with the badges; purple for “B” badges; green athletes (“F”) and team officials access zone information. Sport picto- for “C” badges; orange for “D”Key elements of accreditation badge (“Fo”) who were required to use grams utilized stick figures to repre- badges; yellow for “E” badges; blue tickets when attending events at sent access availability to individual for all “F” badges; pink for “G” 1 ldentification (in English and French) of the Games in Los Angeles venues other than their own. For pre- sport sites. Other pictograms which badges; magenta for “J” badges;2 Star in Motion symbol selected high-demand events, tickets used two or three letter codes repre- gray for “O” badges. were generally required for Olympic sented villages, training sites or groups3 Photograph of badge holder Family members, except for category of venues called regions. In all there4 Letter designating accreditation-type “A” (IOC members and guests).5 Name, function and country of badge holder Categories of badges Access zones6 Access zone privileges The following accreditation badge Zone 7 Pictogram for site access categories are mandated by the number Name Area defined Olympic Charter (1978 Provisional 1 Field of play The competition field or court.8 Bar code of Personal Identification Number (PID) of badge holder Edition): 2 Team preparation area Venue warm-up area, team locker room, feeding9 Personal Identification Number (PID) of o “A”; IOC members and honorary area, training rooms, rest areas, passage to field badge holder members, IOC director and one of play.10 Signature of badge holder guest each. 3 Venue operations Offices, trailers, storage, work areas, pertaining11 Designation of insurance status of badge o “B”; IOC commissions, IOC secretar- to the facility. holder iat, IF presidents, IF secretaries- Seating, sub center, commentator area, camera 4 Press operations12 Badge stock serial number general, and 12 transferable badges. positions, mixed zone, formal interview area.13 Seal and copyright designation of the IF presidents and secretaries-general 5 Olympic Family lounge Area for hosting entertainment of VIPs and LAOOC allowed one guest each. OCOG Olympic Family. presidents and secretaries-general 6 Competition administration Offices, trailers, work areas for IF and LAOOC of Sarejevo, Calgary and Seoul. competition offices. o “C”; NOC chefs de mission, 7 Village common area All village areas except the residential halls and assistant chefs de mission, Olympic suites. attaches, transferable badges given 8 Village housing area All village areas including athlete housing areas. to the chef de mission of each 9 Public areas All areas coincident with spectator access by eligible NOC, and to the president of ticket. each IF. OCOG delegations (up to six 0 All venue zones All of the above non-village areas. persons) from Calgary, Sarejevo and Seoul reporting to the IOC Session. o “D”; IF jury members, technical officials (sports-specific referees, judges, umpires, timekeepers). o “E”; Media (newspaper, radio, TV and support and auxiliary personnel). o “F”; Athletes, coaches, adminis- trative, technical personnel, or other officials of each NOC (“Fo”); extra team officials (“Fx”). 41
    • Accreditation andAccess Control 2 3 4 51Accreditation badges 1 “L” accreditation badge generated for LAOOC permanent staff and Games staff.2 “A” accreditation badge generated for lOC directors, members, honorary members and guests.3 “B” accreditation badge generated for IF presidents, IF secretaries-general, IF tech- 6 7 8 9 nical delegates, IOC commission members, IOC secretariat, NOC presidents, NOC sec- retaries-general, executive members of OCOGs and guests.4 “C” accreditation badge generated for NOC chefs de mission, assistant chefs, Olympic attaches, OCOG members, special NOC members, guests and transferable passes for multiple individuals’ use.5 “D” accreditation badge generated for IF officials and juries.6 “E” accreditation badge generated for me- dia. Subletters designated specific types of media. 7 “F” accreditation badge generated for competing athletes. Subletters designated athletic function (“F” —athlete, “Fo” —offi- cial, “Fx” —extra official). 11 12 108 “G” accreditation badge generated for distinguished guests of the LAOOC. 9 “J” accreditation badge generated for members of IF executive boards.10 “K” accreditation badge generated for contractor personnel functioning within controlled zones at Olympic sites.11 “Ks” accreditation badge generated for law enforcement personnel functioning within controlled zones at Olympic sites.12 “O” accreditation badge generated for observers from organizing committees and “bidding cities” for 1992. 2 Bar code readers detect deauthorized badges at venue entry points. 2 42
    • Bar codes, a series of lines of uniform The four basic steps in the badge pro- 5.02height and varying width, were printed duction sequence included: Accreditation andwith particularly dense ink to be read access privileges of o Identification of individual Olympic Family membersby an electronic scanner or wand. The o Determination of site accessbar code graphically represented o Determination of zone access 5.02.1information on the identification of o Badge issuance ldentification ofevery accredited individual. It provided A letter category (“A”—“G,” “J”—“L” Olympic Family membersadditional security and discouraged and “O”) was assigned based upon Rule 38 of the 1978 Provisional Editioncounterfeiting or duplication of the individual’s function. A pictogram of the Olympic Charter specified thatbadges. It also provided easy repeal of was then assigned to indicate the sites the Organizing Committee (OCOG)a badge if necessary. In most cases, that could be accessed. The zones the establish an identity card for thebadges were revoked because they purpose of identification of the holder individual could enter were thenwere lost or stolen or because of the assigned and finally the badge was and for entry into the host country:termination of an LAOOC staff member. produced. The highest level badge “The Olympic identity card establishesA badge presented at a venue or village issued had an infinity pictogram, with the identity of its holder and consti-was electronically scanned or ‘read’ by “0” and “8” access zones. These tutes the document authorizing entry 3a bar code reader (BCR). As a lightpen symbols accessed an individual to all into the country in which the cityattached to the BCR was run over the venues and all zones (0) and to all areas organizing the Games is situated. Itbar code, the BCR registered an audible in the villages (8). For high-demand allows the holder to stay and to carrytone and a visual display indicating events or locations, even an appropri- out his Olympic duties there for theeither an authentic or deauthorized ately accredited individual—including duration of the Games and for a periodbadge. BCRs were 2.9 by 6.3 by 10.7 those with infinity pictograms and all- not exceeding one month before andinches, weighed 3.5 pounds, and zone access codes—were required to one month after the Games.required 110 volts and five amperes of be on an access list. This applied to the “The Olympic identity card also allowspower. Each BCR was coded to Coliseum press box, certain hosting free entry to the Olympic villages and itrecognize up to 684 invalid six-digit facilities and finals in high-demand authorizes access to the sites wherebadge numbers. sessions at sports venues. the competitions, ceremonies andA network of 300 BCRs at 46 sites were Once all the elements of the indi- demonstrations connected with theprogrammed for one of two uses: 1) at viduals’ identity and access were Games are held, and also to the re-external venue access points to check identified, badge production was served seats in the stands, unless thefor deauthorized badges, and 2) at initiated. The process for badging OCOG shall decide to issue an additionalcredential centers, badges were Olympic Family members and LAOOC identity card for these two purposes.wanded as final step in issuing and support staff differed slightly (see “With the agreement of the IOC, and inactivating a badge. sections 5.02.3 and 5.03.3). special cases, the OCOG may requestThe bar code system was highly suc- The computer systems developed for that the Olympic identity card be 4cessful. More than 200 carriers of the LAOOC accreditation system, while countersigned on behalf of the gov-deauthorized badges were identified revolutionary, were troublesome. The ernment of the country of the holder 3 The LAOOC’s accreditation computersprior to entering various venues. store information and a personal identifica- system stored information on the confirming the holders nationality and tion number for each job applicant andCertain difficulties with the system did applicant, linked that to a personal his right to travel to the country of the ultimately print a badge with the name,arise, however. Originally, the bar code identification number (PID) and ulti- Games and to return to his own number, the appropriate access informa-was to be printed straight and squarely mately printed a badge with the name tion and a bar code. country. In the absence of such aon the lower front side of the badge. and number, the appropriate access countersignature, the holder of an 4 Color and letter-coded badges differenti-Printing errors on approximately 7,000 ate staff, athletes and Olympic Family information and a bar code. In no other Olympic identity card must have in his members at a glance. A background secu- “E” badges—the bar code was not Olympic Games had this entire process possession an official document con- rity pattern on the badge stock discouragesproperly or fully aligned on the badge— been automated. As a precautionary firming his identity and nationality. counterfeiting or duplication.precluded proper reading by the BCR. measure a backup system utilizing a “The Olympic identity card shall beTherefore, “E” badges were not personal computer (PC) was utilized. made available by the OCOG forscanned at venue entry points. Fortun- Only 50 of 70,000 badges were printed use by the persons as indicated inately, this did not prove to be a prob- by this backup system as the IBMlem. Also, original plans called for an the by-law. . ." System 38 computer performed reli-invisible bar code to prevent duplica- ably and nearly flawlessly and met all During the accreditation system designtion. An error in the printing specifica- requirements of the LAOOC. Additional phase, it was decided that the identitytions prohibited this and, as a result, processing capacity was needed to card would not be used for anythingthe bar code was visible and discern- support the accreditation operation, but entry into the U.S. in place of a visa.ible. This error did not cause significant since several LAOOC departments Instead, an accreditation badge wouldproblems as no counterfeit badges utilized the computer time available. As be issued to provide identification andwere ever discovered. a result, the badge printing process access privileges for Olympic Family was often extremely slow causing personnel. Since the identity card wasThe bar code system was well delays and long waits for staff. for a single purpose, there were fewconceived and well managed and constraints placed on its design. Sincedeveloped into a significant psycho- In addition, system development and the U.S. government agreed to acceptlogical deterrent to individuals who programming was started very late the identity card instead of a visa forsought access to venues or secured (March 1983), was never completed entry to the U.S., the U.S. State Depart-areas where they did not belong. and the system was not fully tested. ment was interested in incorporating The system was operated from the Data entry for Olympic Family mem- security features to avoid counter- 14th of July through the 12th of August bers did not begin until 20 June 1984. feiting or transfer to unauthorized 1984 by volunteer access control staff As a result, there was a significant level persons. Thus, a security pattern was and paid security guards. In the final of data entry error and the verification printed on the inside of the card. analysis, the bar code reader was a procedures were inadequate. It is essential that future organizers In connection with the identity card, very effective mechanism and added a develop the accreditation computer the State Department needed lists of new and simple dimension to access system at least six months to a year in persons to whom cards were issued, control during the Games of the XXlllrd Olympiad. advance of the Games and adequately test its operation. 43
    • Accreditation andAccess ControlOlympic Family accreditation privileges Entry privileges Village Venues/seating Venue TrainingCategory Who Pictogram Opening/Closing ceremony zones access zones sites Other privilegesA IOC directors, members and Infinity With complimentary ticket 7, 8 Access to all venues and 0 All sites Food: Privileges in honorary members and one seating in A stand. seating in A stand for all Olympic villages. accompanying guest each. events Transportation: shuttle to Coliseum from Biltmore Hotel. Car and driver for each director, member and honorary member. Access to press bus system. Insurance: provided by the IOC.B IF president and secretary Sport With complimentary ticket 7 Access to all venues and 0 Only sites in Food: Privileges in general. Demonstration specific seating in B stand. seating in B stand. In own their own sport. Olympic villages. sport IF presidents and sport, IF accredited B will Transportation: shuttle secretaries-general. IF not need a ticket. For to Coliseum from technical delegates. One selected high-demand Biltmore Hotel. Car and accompanying guest for events, access to the driver for each president each. venue and seating and secretary-general. require a ticket. Access to press and public bus system. Insurance: provided by the IOC.B IOC press and athlete Infinity With complimentary ticket 7 Access to all venues and 4,5 None Food: privileges in commissions. seating in B stand. seating in B stand on ‘as Olympic villages. available’ basis. For Transportation: access selected high-demand to press and public bus events, access to venue system and pool- and seating require a vehicles. Insurance: complimentary ticket. provided by the IOC.B IOC Medical Commission Infinity With complimentary ticket 7 Access to all venues and 1,2,3,5 All sites Food: privileges in Olym- seating in B stand. seating in B stand on ‘as pic villages. Transporta- available’ basis. For tion: access to press bus selected high-demand system and public bus events, access and system. Insurance: seating require a ticket. provided by the IOC.B IOC recognized IF presidents Ticket With complimentary ticket 7 Access to all venues and 5 None Food: privileges in and secretaries-general of seating in B stand. seating in B stand on ‘as Olympic villages. sports not on the Olympic available’ basis. For Transportation: access program. selected high-demand to press bus system. events, access to venue Insurance: provided by and seating will require the IOC. tickets.B IOC secretariat Ticket With complimentary ticket 7,8 Access to all venues and 0 None Food: privileges in Olym- seating in B stand. seating in B stand on ‘as pic villages. Transporta- available’ basis. For tion: access to press and selected high-demand public bus system. Pool events, access and of two vehicles. Insur- seating require a ticket. ance: provided by the NOC.B LAOOC chairman, president, Infinity With complimentary ticket 7,8 Access to all venues and 0 All sites executive vice president and seating in B stand. seating in B stand on an accompanying guest. ‘as available’ basis.B NOC president and secretary Ticket With complimentary ticket 7,8 Access to all venues and 2,5 All sites Food: privileges in Olym- general and one seating in B stand. seating in B stand in ‘as pic villages. Transporta- accompanying guest each. available’ basis. For tion: cars and drivers selected high-demand allocated based on team events, access to venue size for use by all and seating will require a members of the delega- ticket. tion. Access to the athlete, press and public bus systems. Insurance: provided by the IOC.B Organizing Committee for Ticket With complimentary ticket Guest pass Access to all venues and 5 None B accredited persons cities of Sarajevo, Calgary seating in B stand. only seating in B stand on as from NOCs not and Seoul; their president available basis. For participating in and secretary-general and selected high-demand competition will not have one accompanying guest for events, access to venue access to zone 2, team each. and seating will require a preparation areas. Food: ticket. privileges at Olympic villages. Transportation: access to press and public bus system. Insurance: provided by the IOC.B Transferable passes, IOC Ticket With complimentary ticket On guest Access to all venues and 5 None Food: privileges at guests. seating in B stand. pass only seating in B stand on as Olympic venues. available basis. For Transportation: access selected high-demand to press and public bus events, access to venue system. and seating will require a ticket.C Chefs and assistant chefs de Ticket T With complimentary ticket 7,8 Access to all venues and 2,3,5 All sites Food: privileges at mission (team) seating in C stand. seating in C stand on ‘as Olympic villages. available’ basis. For Transportation: cars and selected high-demand drivers will be allocated events, access to venue based on team size for and seating will require use by all members of the complimentary ticket, delegation. Access to Access through athlete’s athlete, press and public entrance to venue where bus system. Insurance: team is competing and provided by the LAOOC. do not require tickets.44
    • Entry privileges Village Venues/seating Venue TrainingCategory Who Pictogram Opening/Closing ceremony zones access zones sites Other privilegesC Olympic attache Ticket With complimentary ticket 7,8 Access to all venues and 2, 3, 5 All sites Food: privileges at seating in C stand. seating in C stand on ‘as Olympic villages. available’ basis. For Transportation: cars and selected high-demand drivers will be allocated events, access to venue based on team size for and seating will require a use by all members of the ticket. delegation. Access to athlete, press and public bus system. Insurance: provided by the LAOOC.C OCOGs (6 for each reporting Ticket With complimentary ticket 7 Access to all venues and 3, 5 Village sites Food: privileges at delegation i.e. Sarajevo, seating in C stand. seating in C stand on ‘as only. Olympic villages. Calgary, Seoul) available’ basis. For Transportation: access selected high-demand to press and public bus events, access to venue system. Insurance: and seating will require a available for purchase. ticketC Transferable passes, Ticket None None Access to all venues and 5 None Transportation: Access international federations seating in C stand on ‘as to press and public bus available’ basis except system. baseball and tennis IF which may only access their respective sport venue. For selected high- demand events, access to venue and seating will require a ticket.C NOCs Ticket With complimentary ticket None Access to all venues and 5 None Transportation: access seating in C stand. seating in C stand on ‘as to press and public bus available’ basis. For system. selected high-demand events, access to venues and seating will require a ticket.D International federation Sport With complimentary ticket None Access to own sport 1, 5, 6 zones Own sport sites Transportation: access officials and juries specific seating in D stand. venue only. No ticket varied by only. No access to press and public bus required. Not eligible for venue. to village system. Access to high-demand tickets. training sites. system transporting from ‘D’ living accommo- dation to respective venue. Insurance: provided by the IOC.E Media Infinity With complimentary ticket Restricted Access to all venues in E 4 All sites Transportation: access seating in E stand. access. stand and photo to press and public bus With village positions. For selected system. Insurance: press pass high-demand events, available for purchase. only. access to the venue and seating will require a ticket.F Athletes Sport Closing Ceremony seating in 7, 8 Access to own sport 1, 2 Own sport sites Food: privileges at specific F stand with complimentary venue. Access to F stand only. Olympic villages. ticket. Not entitled to at all other venues only Transportation: access Opening Ceremony ticket. with a ticket. to athlete, press and public bus system. Cars and drivers will be allocated based on team size for use by all members of the delegation. Insurance: provided by the LAOOC.Fo Team officials Ticket T Closing Ceremony seating in 7, 8 Access to own sport 1, 2 Own sport sites Food: privileges at (team) or F stand with complimentary venue. Access to F stand only. Olympic villages. sport ticket. Not entitled to at all other venues only Transportation: access specific Opening Ceremony ticket. with a ticket. to athlete, press and public bus system. Cars and drivers will be allocated based on team size for use by all mem- bers of the delegation. Insurance: provided by the LAOOC.Fx Extra team officials Sport None 7 Permitted to access only 2 Own sport sites Transportation: access specific the venue in their only. to athlete, press and respective sport. No public bus system. Cars seating provided. Not and drivers will be eligible for high-demand allocated based on team tickets. size for use by all mem- bers of the delegation.G Distinguished guests of the Ticket With complementary ticket None Permitted to access all 5 None Transportation: access LAOOC seating in G stand. venues and seating in the to press and public bus. G-stand. For selected Insurance: available for events, access to the purchase. venue and seating will require a ticket.J International federation, Sport None None Access to B stand in their 5 varied to Own sport sites Transportation: access executive board specific respective sport only, no some only. No access to press and public bus. ticket required. Not degree by to village Insurance: provided by eligible for high-demand venue. training sites. the IOC. tickets.0 Observers from organizing Infinity None 7 Permitted access to all 3, 4, 5 None Transportation: access committees and ‘bidding venues and seating in C to press and public bus. cities’ for 1992. stand, if available. Insurance: available for purchase. 45
    • Accreditation andAccess Controlsimilar to their standard “crew lists.” Nevertheless, the data entry processThese lists were required six weeks was completed by 6 July. Approxi-before arrival of individuals in the U.S. mately 45 NOCs were able to reviewTo satisfy this request, an Olympic and correct the computerized OlympicFamily list was designed, sent with the Family list prior to their arrivals in Loscards, and returned to the State Angeles. The result for those whoDepartment with the names of those to properly completed the lists was anwhom cards were issued. A copy of accreditation operation that ran morethe family list was also required to be smoothly and minimized delays causedreturned to the LAOOC by 2 June 1984 by the need to reprint badge inserts.to be used as a verification of those 5.02.2coming to the Games, and as a means Identification ofof entering names so that badges could Olympic Family privilegesbe printed. Certain Olympic Family member privi-The IOC also required that an identity leges are mandated by the Olympiccard manual be prepared by the LAOOC Charter, such as venue access and freethat would explain the types and use of seats in the main stadium. In addition tothe identity cards and provide instruc- these privileges, the LAOOC offeredtions for their preparation. The manual additional privileges to Olympic Familyalso contained general instructions for members to make their stays moreobtaining accreditation badges. comfortable. These privileges rangedApprovals were required on all from free medical insurance to fooddocuments related to identity cards, and transportation. 5including the cards, lists and manual, The accreditation badge of eachnot only from LAOOC management, but individual indicated the privilegesalso from the IOC and the U.S. State available to the badgeholder. TheseDepartment. The most sensitive point were defined by the letter category,was the requirement to return the lists the pictogram which identified theby 2 June 1984. Most of the NOCs venues that could be entered; and theobjected to this date on the ground that access zones, identifying the intra-it was too early to identify their team venue zones that could be accessed.members. However, the IOC endorsed For the 1984 Olympic Games, the IOCthis date, since a time frame of eight requested that privileges be granted toweeks before the start of the Games the following additional groups notwas established at the 1980 Moscow specified in the 1978 Olympic Charter:Games. team officials in excess of thoseIn February, 1984, Olympic Family lists allowed under Rule 40 of the charter,and identity cards were mailed to the observers and executive board mem-IOC, International Federations and the bers of the International Federations.more than 150 National Olympic In the development of its accreditationCommittees. The number of identity policies for the Olympic Family, thecards sent to the NOCs was based on LAOOC determined that these addi-estimated delegation size as provided tional groups would be accredited withby the group concerned. The cards the following conditions:were sent in numerical sequence with o They would be accredited in finitespecific numbers assigned to each numbers so that the establishedNOC. A total of 22,319 identity cards systems would not be unduly over-and the necessary Olympic Family lists loaded.were sent with 19,470 cards going tothe NOCs, 418 cards to the IOC and o Venue access would be limited so as2,431 cards to the International not to interfere or overload workingFederations. places for the press, the field of play 6 or Olympic Family hosting areas,On 2 June 1984, all completed lists 5 Olympic Family members are mailed o The accreditation of these additionalwere to be returned to the LAOOC. One Olympic identity cards, which serve as vi- groups would be on a cost-recovery sas, for presentation upon entry into thecopy of the list was to be sent to the basis so that the LAOOC would not United States.U.S. embassy in the respective country incur added expense by accrediting 6 The busy Olympic Arrival Center at the Losof the applicant; for the IF, the respec- Angeles International Airport assists them.tive embassy was in the country of the Olympic Family members as they clear U.S.IF’s headquarters. However, only 57 In negotiations with the IOC, the follow- Customs.NOCs returned their lists on time. ing accreditation agreements were 7 At the OAC, a pre-printed, unlaminatedTherefore, the LAOOC initiated telex reached and then implemented for the badge insert is pulled and compared to an Games. individual’s Olympic identity card. If cor-and telephone messages to urge NOCs rect, the insert is signed by the individualto send them. A complete set of lists IF Executive Boards before proceeding to the camera opera-did not reach the LAOOC until mid-July. tions position. The LAOOC agreed in May, 1984 toThe data from these lists was utilized accredit a maximum of 20 additionalto create the badge themselves with people from each IF, ostensibly fromthe name, Olympic function, sport and each IF’s Executive Board. A new letterorganization of the various Olympic category (“J”) was given to this group.Family members. These lists were also The IF was financially responsible forused as the basis of data entry. Many the accommodations of the individuals.problems were encountered with Access was limited to their respective 7coding and data entry of the Olympic sport site and to one or two zonesFamily lists due to incomplete informa- within the venue.tion, incorrect spelling of names,difficulty in distinguishing between firstand last names and omissions ofcritical information.46
    • Observers to one individual only whose name and division reflected the separate clientele At the conclusion of the badging pro- photo would be printed on the badge; of each function and the desire to sig- cess the Olympic Family membersThe IOC requested that six people be in effect, making it an additional full nificantly improve communications were transported to their accommoda-accredited from cities bidding on the “C” for Games accreditation. Should with those client groups. tions free of charge by the LAOOC.1992 Olympic Games. Organizers ofinternational amateur competitions the NOC or IF be unable to assign the Olympic Family members arriving inalso fit into this group. The letter pass to one person, the pass had to be Los Angeles went through the creden- Number of Olympic Familycategory “O” was given to this group. issued to individuals already accredited tial process at either the Olympic accreditations issued per dayThis group was allowed access to all as an Olympic Family member. The Arrival Center (OAC), at Los Angeles Biltmore OAC Totalvenues and seating in the “C” stand, if pass then served as an upgrade of an International Airport, the Biltmore existing accreditation. The pass was 10 July 0 73 73available. Hotel or the Main Press Center for made highly visible by the placement of media only (see chapter 23). Rebadging 11 July 0 10 10Extra officials a red dot which was affixed to the centers were also established to 12 July 0 129 129The number of team officials allowed badge prior to lamination. With this replace lost badges or reissue incor- 13 July 0 95 95for each NOC was specified by Rule40 system, the LAOOC was able to provide rect badges. 14 July 0 787 787of the 1978 charter. The expenses of the flexibility required of a transferablethese officials were heavily subsidized Olympic Arrival Center 15 July 0 54 54 “C” and did not compromise theby the LAOOC for village housing, hence security need to clearly establish the The OAC was open from 10 July to 16 July 0 827 827the Rule 40 formula for accrediting identity of the carrier. 11 August 1984. On arrival, Olympic 17 July 43 415 458team officials was closely observed by Family members cleared customs and 18 July 34 394 428the LAOOC. Numerous NOCs, however, “O” and “J” badges were transported to their specific in- The LAOOC created two other categor- 19 July 59 668 727wanted additional team officials to processing centers. All “A” and a ies of badges. The “O” badge was 20 July 69 606 675fulfill their needs for more coaches, majority of the “B” and “G” Olympictrainers and technicians. These NOCs allocated to individuals affiliated with identity card-holders were driven to 21 July 73 597 670debated this point at length with the other OCOGs, bidding cities or similar the Biltmore for in-processing. “D,” 22 July 100 1,115 1,215LAOOC for over three years and ulti- organizations. The “O” (for observer) “J” and the remainder of the “B” and 23 July 117 1,379 1,496mately the LAOOC agreed to accept accreditation allowed access to all “G” card-holders were processed at 24 July 87 1,499 1,586extra team officials, but at the expense venues via an infinity pictogram. the OAC. 25 July 79 1,352 1,431of each NOC and under the condition Access zones 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 on each After receiving the Olympic Family lists 26 July 130 1,098 1,228they not be housed in the Olympic badge allowed access to venue and on 2 June 1984, all information was 27 July 166 940 1,106villages. press operations and the Olympic Family Lounge and non-residential input into the accreditation computer 28 July 97 386 483The LAOOC negotiated the number of system according to Olympic Family areas in the village. 29 July 29 104 133extra officials with each NOC. The letter category (IOC, IF, NOC). From this, over “Fx” (subletter “x” for extra) was The “J” badge category was 13,000 (unlaminated) individual badges 30 July 47 159 206chosen to identify extra coaches, developed to include IF members who (“inserts”) were pre-printed and filed 31 July 36 147 183doctors and support help on the badge. served on an executive council or at the OAC in boxes called the “insert 1 August 19 159 178Extra officials were given the same committee but had no official bank.” The badge numbers matched 2 August 23 173 196privileges as other team officials competition function during the the number on the Olympic Identity Games. Each IF was allowed twenty 3 August 0 119 119(except village residency), including Card held by each individual. “J” badges. The “J” badge-holder 4 August 32 95 127access to team preparation areas and On arrival at the OAC, Olympic Familytransportation. The NOC bore all food had access to B-stand seating in his 5 August 32 60 92 respective sport, only. All expenses of members or guests were escorted toand housing costs for each extra 6 August 21 77 98 the LAOOC Accommodations/Financeofficial. The access of “Fx” badge the “J” card holder were paid by the IF 7 August 26 38 64 desk to settle their account or out-holders to venues was limited to the or the individual. 8 August 13 9 22 standing fees. When the account wasrespective sport in which they settled, the individual was issued a 9 August 6 19 25participated or coached and only Olympic Family accreditation credentials issued “zero balance” receipt and proceeded 10 August 7 16 23access to the team preparation area to the credential area. After arriving at 11 August 4 2 6(zone 2) within the venue. With this “A” 192 one of the two accreditation terminals,approach, the LAOOC minimized “B” 886 Total 1,349 13,601 14,950 the Olympic Family members or guestsconcerns that the extra officials would “C” 1,057 presented the Accommodations/ Biltmore Hotelinterfere with venue operations and the Finance receipt, their identity card and/ The badging center at the Biltmore was “D” 1,415field of play, yet the “Fx” -accredited or passport to the terminal clerk. The designed to handle fewer individualsofficial was still able to fulfill a “E” 8,700 receipt was stamped “accreditation than the OAC, but essentially the pro-legitimate role. “F” 7,432 received” and returned to the indivi- cess worked in the same manner. All Transferable “C” “Fo” 3,379 pre-printed badge inserts of persons dual. The pre-printed badge was pulledBy charter rule, one transferable “C” “Fx” 309 from the insert bank and compared to scheduled to reside at the Biltmorebadge is to be allocated to each NOC for “G” 246 the identity card or passport to assure were transferred to that location. Inevery 20 athletes, and 12 transferable “J” 295 that all information was correct. If addition, the Biltmore accreditation “C” badges to each International “O” 162 correct, the insert was signed by the center issued badges for special ac-Federation. This badge represents a individual, the passport and identity creditations, such as observers from Total 24,073valuable tool by which venues are card were returned and the individual bidding cities and individual requestsaccessed and privileges dispensed, With the development of a simple yet proceeded to the camera operations for accreditation by persons not other-and in previous Games the transferable flexible accreditation system the position. wise entitled to accreditation by the “C” could be indiscriminately LAOOC was able to accommodate the Olympic Charter. needs of individual NOCs and sport If the pre-printed insert did notdistributed and redistributed to any correspond to the identity card, a new The Biltmore accreditation center was individual whether they were federations, yet not complicate the insert was printed with the correct located in a large room adjacent toaccredited or not. The badges bore no management or operation of the information and the computer file was LAOOC service departments, such asnames or pictures and the OCOG had no system or compromise the safety of corrected. After signing the new insert, Accommodations/Finance and Ticket-way of knowing the identity of the Games’ participants. the subject proceeded to the camera ing. Approximately seven staff mem-person receiving the badge. Therefore, 5.02.3 stand. Once the photograph was taken bers per shift operated the center and if lost or stolen, the badges presented a Procedures for it was glued to the insert, placed in a its two computer terminals, three print- potential security risk. To curtail abuse Olympic Family accreditation plastic pouch and the entire pouch was ers and backup personal computer. of the transferable “C” badge, Accreditation of Olympic Family mem- laminated, creating a physically- The accreditation center was opera- restrictions were developed by the bers was conducted by two separate complete badge. The badge was then tional from 14 July to 12 August 1984. LAOOC. Each NOC and IF was encour- LAOOC departments. The Accredita- wanded by the BCR, thereby activating Each Biltmore Hotel resident seeking aged to issue a transferable “C” pass tion Department accredited all mem- the badge. Finally the photograph was accreditation was required to present a bers except the media. The LAOOC imprinted with the LAOOC seal, com- “zero balance” receipt from Accom- Press Operations Department took pleting the badging process. modations/Finance. The badging operational responsibility for accredit- process at the Biltmore was identical ing the media in January 1982. This to that at the OAC. 47
    • Accreditation andAccess ControlAt the Biltmore, the pre-printed badge Because all voided badges were hand- writing to accreditation staff and also In total, almost400 gift accreditationsinserts were filed by letter category for led by the OAC, good communication through the Protocol office. The were issued, far in excess of originalthe persons scheduled to reside there, was essential between the rebadging requests took all forms, e.g., on scraps LAOOC estimates.Difficulties arose when more NOC “B” centers and the OAC. There were no of paper, on formal letterhead, 5.03badge holders than anticipated arrived significant problems with this facet of handwritten, typed, some with Accreditation andat the Biltmore for accreditation. This accreditation. complete information and some with access coding of staffwas caused by the appearance of “B”- 5.02.4 no information other than a name.accredited NOC members who were Persons making a request were told by 5.03.1 Special cases: Concept of the staff badgingnot scheduled to be housed at the Nature and disposition were told by the accreditation staffBiltmore. that a decision would take system: “K,” “Ks” and “L” The Biltmore Hotel was the location The concept of badging supportThe most current resource files of NOC where special requests for accredita- 24 to 48 hours. Nevertheless, those persons often returned two or three personnel was developed in Januaryfamily lists were kept at the OAC and tion were determined. Special requests times a day to inquire about the status 1984. It was decided that the 44,000the Biltmore lists did not always reflect fell into two categories: “G” accredita- of the request. estimated LAOOC paid and volunteerthe changes or additions made at the tion by invitation and “gift” staff would receive a two-part “L”OAC. Therefore, it was often necessary accreditation. In responding to the large volume of badge (for LAOOC) regardless of theirfor the Biltmore accreditation center to requests, new procedures were “G” badge accreditations job function or access requirements.telephone the delegation registration developed. All persons requesting The grant of “G” accreditations for Only Olympic Arts Festival staff anddesk at the OAC before the individual at accreditation through their IOC distinguished guests was considered some marathon road course marshalsthe Biltmore could be verified and affiliation were required to present a by the LAOOC for the head of state, would not be included. For non-LAOOCaccredited. This sometimes resulted in letter signed by the director of the IOC. chief of government and/or minister of personnel-referred to as contrac-long delays for guests. Similarly, Inter- All persons seeking accreditation sports of participating countries. The tors—the “K” badge (also two-part)national Federation “B” cardholders through IOC President Juan Antonio number of “G” accreditations granted was assigned. There were fourcould not be accredited at the Biltmore Samaranch were required to present to each country was determined by the categories of “K” personnel, three ofuntil the payment had been received at a letter signed by him. All persons LAOOC. A letter was sent to each NOC which were eliminated from theeither the OAC or the hotel. While requesting accreditation through their on 29 July 1983 asking each to specify complete badging process. They were:accreditation at the Biltmore proceed- NOC affiliation were required to present their “G” accreditation requests. Only a letter signed by the president of their o Those requiring access only to publiced smoothly, operations could have 60 NOCs had responded to this letter by NOC. Persons requesting a change in areasbeen streamlined by installing an auto- February 1984. Each individual with a accreditation category or in access o Those whose access requirementsmated (on-line) verification procedure “G” accreditation was also entitled to privileges were required to present were infrequent or for emergenciesidentical to that at the OAC. a “G” accreditation for an accompany- reasons for the change. onlyThe Biltmore Hotel accreditation ing person. o Law enforcement personnel whosecenter accredited 1,349 persons. The requests for gift accreditation fell In April 1984, the LAOOC responded to uniforms and badges were sufficientApproximately 90 percent of the into the following categories: requests submitted by the NOCs. A when accompanied by a generic non-inserts which had been pre-printed o Spouses, children, relatives of Char- personalized badge issued at a site telex was sent to the NOC outliningwere printed correctly. The most ter-mandated accredited persons which “G” badge had been approved, To handle these contractors, thecommon corrections were misspelled o Friends and associates of IOC followed by a letter and a form for the LAOOC developed the public area-onlynames, changes in access (granted officials NOC to complete and return prior to a badge, the construction pass, theafter a special request had been made o Family and friends of IF officials specified date. Less than 50 percent of emergency service pass, and theand approved), failure to locate a pre- o Former Olympians the NOCs returned the form by the temporary work pass and the “Ks”printed insert because it had been o Members of U.S. national governing stated deadline. generic law enforcement badges.misfiled and changes to the Olympic bodiesFamily list. As noted above, more “B” During the week prior to the Opening These proved to be essential to the o Observers from bidding citiescardholders arrived at the Biltmore for Ceremonies, as well as throughout the eventual success of the on-line badge o Ambassadors from foreign nationsaccreditation than were originally Games, there were numerous requests print program by eliminating more than and members of local consulatesanticipated, and therefore a substantial for “G” accreditations which were 18,000 individual applications and o Press requests, which were referredamount of time was spent voiding the considered on an individual basis by badges. to the Main Press Centerinserts at the OAC and then reissuing the LAOOC. There were also numerous More importantly, by creating different changes in the names of holders of Grants of gift accreditations were allthem at the Biltmore. There were categories of badges the LAOOC could “G” accreditations. As a consequence approved or disapproved by the presi-relatively few remakes or reissues of differentiate the services and perqui- of the many changes and new approv- dent of the LAOOC. If a gift accredita-(IOC) “A” cardholders because the sites available to support personnel. als, the Biltmore did a heavy volume of tion was granted it generally fell intofamily lists were accurate. The Bilt- For example, all “L” -badged on-line printing and persons receiving one of three categories:more also accredited IOC “B” badges. employees were entitled to a free boxAmong these, virtually all of the IOC new accreditations often experienced o “B” accreditation; had standard NOC lunch for every eight hours worked,secretariat badges had to be reissued a delay in receiving their badges. or IF access. These were granted at insurance coverage and a uniform atbecause of a special request to have Gift badges the request of various people in LAOOC expense. The LAOOC did notthe access zones changed. unusual circumstances. A maximum wish to be in a position where it would The LAOOC anticipated that many of 50 of these were granted. have to feed thousands of contractorsRebadging centers requests for gift or non-charter- o “C” accreditations; had a ticket pic- or security personnel, at an expenseOlympic Family rebadging centers mandated accreditations would be togram and zone 5. No function was which would have run into millions ofwere located at the UCLA, USC and made at the Biltmore. One LAOOC put on the badge, just an organiza- dollars. In order to participate in theUCSB Villages. UCSB was also an initial executive was designated as the tion affiliation. There were more than box lunch program “K” badge holdersaccreditation center for competitors person to whom the requests for 150 of these, primarily for children or or their employers were required toresiding at the village. accreditation should be addressed. family members of “A” and “ B ” purchase the meal coupons from the Initially it was believed that all requestsRebadging centers were utilized by the cardholders. LAOOC. It was felt that it was not would be made to that executiveOlympic Family when a badge was lost o “O” accreditation; had infinity picto- necessary to provide perquisites to personally. However, the number ofor was in error and needed to be cor- gram and zones 3, 4, 5, 7. These individuals or companies from which requests was so great, particularlyrected and reissued. Transferable “C” people were not entitled to seating. the LAOOC was purchasing services. from 20-22 July, that it was impossibleexchanges (replacement badges) were This type of accreditation was for for one person to handle them. The people affiliated with other OCOGs,also printed and issued at these cen- requests were made orally and in bidding cities or similar organiza-ters. No initial data entry was anticipat-ed at the rebadging centers, although a tions. There were a total of 162few badges were printed and issued granted.for the first time. 48
    • 5.03.2Procedures for accreditationof LAOOC staffThe LAOOC staff accreditation badgehad two parts. The upper portion of thebadge contained information on theidentity of the person, including name,letter category (“L”), PID number andbar code. The lower portion of thebadge contained the access informa-tion including the site pictogram,access zones, job title, location andbadge capture or non-capture indica-tor. By separating the badge into twoparts the LAOOC had the ability tocreate the two badge portions at dif-ferent times. More importantly, thetwo-part badge provided the flexibilityto change an individual’s accessprivileges without remaking the entirebadge and especially without the re-taking of photographs.The accreditation procedure for LAOOCstaff took place in six distinct stages.First, it was necessary to identify theindividual applicant and match him to aparticular job function. For each jobfunction the LAOOC assigned a uniquenumber, called a requisition number.When an application was submittedand assigned to a requisition number,the applicant was automaticallyprocessed for a security clearance.Fingerprints of each applicant weretaken to complete the security checkprocess. The Security Department 8entered the results of the police agencyreview into the accreditation computer 8 Non-LAOOC support personnel, or contrac-system, and if the clearance was tors, are assigned one of four categories of “K” badges.negative, the individual was deletedfrom the requisition and the system 9 Games staffing applicants are photo- graphed at accreditation centers aroundblocked any Games assignment for Los Angeles in the months preceding thethat person. Games.The second part of the accreditation 10 Games staffing photos are glued to a pre-procedure required the applicant to be printed insert containing the applicant’s name and placed in a plastic pouch andphotographed at an accreditation cen- laminated.ter. Once a photo was taken, it wasglued onto a pre-printed insert contain-ing the applicant’s name and wasplaced in a plastic pouch and laminat-ed. The badge was filed at the accred-itation center. This completed theupper portion of the two-part badge.The third step was for the staff mem-ber to be assigned site and accessprivileges, which were placed on thelower half of the badge. It was theresponsibility of a venue managementteam, composed of the commissioner,the venue director, the venue access 9control manager, the venue securitymanager, competition director and anaccreditation/access control staffmember to determine access assign-ments. Where access to multiple siteswas necessary, the application wasreviewed by the Accreditation Depart-ment. The site and access privilegesassigned were input into the accredita-tion system and later matched to theindividual’s application number.Next was for the generation of thelower portion of the badge. Theseaccess credentials were prepared formass printing from 24 June to 15 July.An average of 5,000 badges per daywere run. 10 49
    • Accreditation andAccess ControlThe fifth step in badge production was o Step 5; the now-developed photo-matching and assembling the two graphic sheet was cropped and each Two-part badge processingbadge parts; the upper portion of the four subject photos was Personnel Equipment Estimated(identification) and the lower portion detached from the strip and glued to Activity resources needs time Unit ratecontaining the access information. a corresponding place on the badge. Access credential Data staff Computer printer 21 hours Three secondsThe final step was distribution. o Step 6; the badge was laminated. printed o Step 7; the badge was wanded with5.03.3 the bar code reader. Separate stock 10 clerks 4 laminators 14 hours 200 laminatedProcessing the LAOOC and badges in 13.5 minutesstaff applicants At the conclusion of each day, the with 5 personsMost applicants for Games positions identification credentials were counted Match badge 3 assembly lines, 3 rivet guns 23 hours 10 seconds percame to the LAOOC in two different against the number of badge forms that parts and rivet 3 persons per badgeways: as a direct referral from were actually printed, not including line, 4 sorterssomeone already employed by the misprints. Security stamp 1 person per Security imprinter 550 hoursLAOOC or by drop-in to one of the four The identification badges were then assemblystaffing and recruitment centers. The taken to the LAOOC’s administrative headquarters (the Marina Center) and remaining 20 percent were not printed 5.03.4process of issuing a Games credential since those individual PID numbers Issuance of captured orto LAOOC support personnel began by placed in a locked box daily to be col- were not assigned to a requisition at all non-captured badgescompleting a Games staffing applica- lated and stored until final distribution. or were assigned to a requisition which LAOOC management was concernedtion. All existing LAOOC personnel Three mobile accreditation units had not been assigned access zones. that support personnel might misusewere also required to complete this (MAUs) were established to credentialapplication. The information from this The mass print runs were usually done their badges to observe events during large groups of people unable to get to times they were not working, or toform was filed into the computer an accreditation center. These units overnight and took about three hourssystem and the applicant’s name and and batches were ready for fabrication negotiate their way into sites and were set up in three 20-foot recrea- zones beyond those authorized. It wasapplication number were linked to a job by 0830 when the badge making crew tional vehicles and were equipped with reasoned that a badge had “power” ifrequisition number thus filling a specific came on. Printing time averaged 800 a camera and provided work space for used by a forceful person. Although itposition. The new staff member was four. Since none of the MAUs were on- access credentials per hour, aidedgiven a completed “Terms and greatly by the fact that the bar codes was expected that some Olympic line to the accreditation computer sys- Family members would attempt to gainConditions” letter to read and sign. were not printed on the access creden- tem, MAU badging procedures varied maximum advantage from theirThis form detailed the conditions of tials. The access credential stock was greatly from those at the accreditation badges, it was decided that theseemployment, the rate of pay (if any), not serially numbered, reconciled or centers. In total, the mobile accredita- situations would be dealt with whenthe applicant’s name, application controlled as was the ID stock. tion units produced more than 10,000 they occurred. However, the supportnumber and job requisition number. credentials or 16 percent of the staff/ The matching and assembly of identifi- personnel could be deterred fromThe applicant was then required to contractor total. cation and access credentials involved misuse of the badge by not allowingvisit one of eight accreditation centers, laminating, matching and riveting and The mobile accreditation units’ func- the badge to leave the site. This couldfour of which were established at the was very time consuming. Up to 30 tion was to travel to remote sites and be accomplished by issuing a person’sstaffing centers. The accreditation people at a time were utilized on process groups of 100 or more. The badge at the beginning of his shift andcenters each had the same equipment several occasions in order to achieve department requesting the services capturing it again as that personand staffing level. Space, equipment the desired output rate of 5,000 two- reserved an MAU in advance and the completed his shift.and personnel requirements were part badges per day. In total, 5,750 MAU staff pre-printed the badge inserts Arguments against this plan were thatdefined based on the projected flow of man-hours were required to produce needed for the group appointment. The it was effective only in single sitepeople to be accredited each day. more than 60,000 two-part badges objective was to match the pre-printed applications and costs to administer between 24 June and 28 July.The identity of Games staff members insert to the verified individual the procedure were excessive. Thewas verified before going through the applicant, take the photograph and The final process in badge production captured badge system also requiredactual badging process. Staff members laminate the insert. was distribution. The completed two- supplemental identification cards forwere required to present a “Terms and Approximately 800 square feet of part badges were sorted by site code staff use on LAOOC transportation, asConditions” (proof-of-hire) letter along and distributed accordingly. The space and two 110-volt electrical well as for verification of LAOOCwith a photographic identification card outlets were required for the MAU. The distribution scheme was as follows: association for use on public transport(preferably a California driver’s license). MAU could accommodate 120 people o All “L” and “K” badges assigned to systems (LAOOC employees wereIf the subject could not produce both of per hour if properly scheduled. While a specific site code were distributed allowed to ride at no charge uponthese items, he would not be processed the concept of the mobile accreditation to that location. presentation of identification with thefor a credential and the supervisor of centers was good, the units proved o Badges for staff assigned to the Ma- LAOOC). One advantage of a captivethe Games Staffing Center would be difficult to manage efficiently. Depart- rina Center were distributed at the badge system was that it would reducenotified. ments requesting the service usually Marina Accreditation Center (MAC). the chance of individuals losing theirAfter the individual’s identity had been did not know who would attend the o “Ks” badges with multi-site access badges.verified, he was processed through the session. Typically, the no-show rate privileges were distributed at the Venue management was less thanfollowing credential fabrication was 50 percent; moreover, many MAC since they were not assigned to enthusiastic about the captive badgeprocedure: applicants asked to have their pictures a specific location. and had great concerns about potentialo Step 1; the badge was printed taken for later attachment to a not-yet- Distribution to venues and other sites delays in checking through large num- printed insert. In total, 36 percent of was accomplished by: bers of staff as well as the space and following data entry. In the event of a pictures taken had to be secured for o Delivery via accreditation vehicles personnel required to manage the sys- misprinted badge, the insert was later use at the central offices. tem. However, with the approval of the removed from the printer, stamped and personnel void, notated with the reason for Access credentials-the lower portion o Inter-office mail via LAOOC courier larger venues, the LAOOC’s Operations voiding and initialed by the person of the badge-were prepared by com- o Pick-up by personnel from the given Committee decided to implement a who voided it. A new insert was then puter in mass print runs and matched to site captive badge system at all venues and printed. the identification portions-the upper o Issuance at accreditation centers villages.o Step 2; the Games staff member was part of the badge-that had been pre- upon fabrication after 14 July 1984 The captive badge decision required photographed. Each sheet of self- viously filed in PID number order. Mass accreditation to expand the role of the Distribution occurred between 10 July processing film had space for four print runs were done between 24 June and 12 August 1984, with most of the venue access control manager and to photographs. and 15 July, averaging 5,000 per run. develop procedures for staff check-in, deliveries occurring during July.o Step 3; the printed badge was Initial mass prints were defined by pre- storage and issuance of badges. The The most severe badge distribution removed from the printer and signed determined PID ranges: 1 to 5,000; number of check-in lines was enlarged problems occurred as a result of the by the subject. 5,001 to 10,000 and so on. Typically, for each site to ensure that each shift movement and reassignment ofo Step 4; the strip of film was pulled about 80 percent of the access creden- could be checked in within two hours. personnel during those weeks after the from the camera and placed into a tials within a range were printed. The fabrication of two-part badges began. 60-second flow timer. When the film Access credential information content dropped out of the bottom of the was defined as of the date of printing, flow timer, the negative was peeled thus badges were distributed to the away and discarded. site listed on the badge even if a person had been reassigned.50
    • This caused an overall increase in staff company. The insert and photocheck-in personnel at the venues and together were then laminated and filedvillages. at the Marina Center. This completedOverall, the captive badge system was the preparation of the upper portion ofeffective and very few incidents of the two-part badge.badge misuse by staff were reported. The next step was for the contractorA small number of “L” badges, mostly to request site and access privilegesfor LAOOC senior managers, were ap- based upon job functions and require-proved for non-capture. These badges ments. If single site access wasgenerally had all-site pictograms. requested, it was the responsibility of5.03.5 the venue management team to assign Procedures for accreditation the privileges at their respectiveof non-LAOOC staff venues. This team was composed ofAccreditation badges for non-LAOOC the commissioner, venue director, ac-staff were given the letter category cess control manager, venue security “K,” for contractor. The “K” badge, manager, competition director and alike the “L” badge, had two parts and member of the contractor accredita-was fabricated in essentially the same tion unit.manner. The upper portion of the If the contractor requested multiplebadge contained personal identity site access for an employee, an infinityinformation such as the letter category pictogram or other broad access(“K”), name, PID number and the bar privileges, the request was reviewedcode. The lower portion of the badge and approved or denied by the directorincluded the site pictogram, access of Accreditation and the Accesszone, job title, company name and Privilege Review Board. The five-captive or non-captive indicator. Like member Access Privilege Reviewthe “L” badge, the two parts of the Board was established by manage- 11 “K” badge were fabricated at different ment and composed of department 11 A captured badge system prevents misusetimes and later physically riveted representatives from competition and of badges.together. venue management, villages, Games 12 A time-consuming process of marching upThe accreditation procedure for non- staffing, security and accreditation. the proper portions of the two-part accred-LAOOC staff member “K” badge The assignment of multiple site access itation badges is followed by assembly and lamination of each badge.holders varied only slightly from that to contractors was restricted to thefor “L” badges. The initial step was to fullest extent possible. The use of theidentify the individuals and organiza- conditional access pictograms and thetions under contract. In January 1984, strongly-enforced policy to assignthe LAOOC formed the Contractor people to a single site wheneverAccreditation Unit which began to possible was generally successful.actively identify contracting organiza- Once the access and site privilegestions and develop a roster of more than were assigned and input, the computer400 companies. As contractor com- was then ready to generate the lowerpanies were identified, each was given portion of the badge. The access cre-one or more requisition numbers and all dentials were prepared by mass badgeapplicants working for the company print. The final step was assembly. The 12were assigned that requisition number. completed badges were then distrib- The PAB allowed site access but elimi-This differed from the LAOOC staff uted to the assigned venue or, in the nated the need to issue permanent orapplication process in which the case of multiple-site badges, stored at temporary credentials on an individualindividual applicant was assigned a job the Marina Center for pick-up. basis. Additionally, the PAB gave con-with a unique requisition number. Public area badges tractor employees a sense of identifi-Because contractor requirements were A public area badge (PAB) was cation with the overall Olympic activity.so difficult to assess, the decision to developed for contractor personnel Each access control manager was is-abandon the requisition process for who required regular, recurring access sued a small extra supply of public areacontractors simplified and expedited to competition venues but only to badges to use as necessary. The venueinitial processing of applications. It public (spectator) areas. The badges access control managers worked dir-allowed for the preparation of indivi- were issued to concessionaires, main- ectly with the contractor at each site todual identification cards before job title tenance companies, contract crowd develop the most feasible system toand location information were management companies and other distribute and manage the badges on aavailable. The decision to utilize the groups to identify personnel at a site daily basis. While there were reser-two-part badge proved to be of critical who were admitted based on a shift vations about the public area badgeimportance. assignment roster. The rosters were program, the administrative difficultiesOnce contracting firms were identified received or controlled by the LAOOC in trying to run security checks and fullyand assigned the requisition number, venue access control manager or a accredit thousands of people hiredindividual applications could be company representative accountable close to the opening of the Gamesaccepted and assigned. This activated to the LAOOC. were impossible. In all, more thanthe individual’s ability to receive a The PAB was a laminated one-part 12,500 PABs were issued.contractor accreditation badge. When badge made from pre-printed badge 5.03.6the individual application was filed, a stock. The badge identified the person- Processing of non-LAOOCsecurity agency check was initiated. nel working in public areas by venue staff applicantsThe assignment of access privileges and company name. Each PAB had an Detailed procedures were followed forwould be blocked by the computer if an individual serial number printed on it. obtaining and processing applicationsindividual did not receive clearance. With the company name on the badge, for accreditation of non-LAOOC person-The next step required the applicant to the contracting company could be held nel (i.e., contractors and outside thirdbe photographed at one of the creden- accountable for its employees. parties). This processing differed onlytialing centers or, if available, the slightly from LAOOC staff processing.mobile accreditation unit. After thephoto was taken it was glued onto a Each contractor and third party grouppre-printed “K” badge insert which required access to Games sitescontaining the applicant’s name and was given a contractor identification 51
    • Accreditation andAccess Controlnumber and assigned to a specific All documents were completed care-LAOOC department. An LAOOC depart- fully and submitted prior to 20 April. All Statistical summary of the contractor accreditation programment contact explained LAOOC access necessary clearances were required Standard “K” badges produced on IBM System 38 Totalcontrol policies and procedures to each prior to photographing and laminatingcontractor and helped determine the Applications processed 43,517 badge inserts. Contractor accessnumber of applications required. information was keyed into the Identification cards prepared 28,574Applications were then issued on a accreditation computer system and Badges distributed 28,500 28,500strictly controlled basis to the contrac- within two weeks after submission of Special “K” badges produced by personal computertor by the LAOOC Security Department. the completed forms, contractor Individual names entered 1,900 1,900Each contractor was required to main- employees were requested to make an appointment for badge preparation. Generic law enforcement “KS” badgestain an LAOOC Accreditation Applica-tion Log to account for each application Contractors could request the dispatch Various police agencies 3,674form by number. All applications were of a mobile unit to handle preparation Los Angeles Fire Department 20 3,684individually numbered and became of pre-printed ID cards (upper portion of Public area badgesunusable if copied, since the computer the badge). The request was subject tosystem rejected duplicate numbers. Specific contractors 11,141 Accreditation Department approval and MAU availability. Venue generic badge 1,610 12,751The contractor was responsible forcompleting each application form with Contractor employees presented proof Grand Total 46,845the full name and job title of each of identity at the accreditation center sons who did not clear the security 5.03.7employee as it appeared on company and had photographs taken. At the check were removed from the accredi- Special procedures forpayroll records. The contractor same appointment, each applicant was tation computer file. security personnelinstructed each employee how to fingerprinted for the background Accreditation hand matched (upper) ID In May 1984, it was decided to use acomplete the application form clearly check. The photograph was affixed to cards by PID number with the associ- special generic badge for uniformedand completely. The forms were con- the upper portion of the badge, the ated access credentials (lower), and law enforcement personnel. The badgefidential documents and employees badge was laminated and filed at the physically riveted the two parts used the letters “Ks” (for security), didwere instructed to mail the completed Marina Center by PID number. together to complete the badge. If the not include a photograph of the bearerform directly to the LAOOC Security Based on contractor requests and two matching badge parts (ID card and and was issued to the law enforcementDepartment or return it to the company requirements, access privileges were access credential) were not easily agency and not to a specific individual.contact who returned the forms assigned to each employee. Data found, the Accreditation Department Several factors led to the decision todirectly to the LAOOC. processing generated a computerized resolved the problem by using the on- use this special badge:Periodic computer printouts by con- access list for each contractor. Access line computer system. o More than 38 law enforcementtractor number verified the status of credentials were then printed in Completed “L” and “K” badges were agencies were involved and eachapplications returned and processed. sequence by PID number. Those per- stored together in sequence by access rotated many of its regular staff forThe contractor was provided copies of credential location code. Those Olympic duty assignments.the printout to reconcile its log of badges with multiple access wereapplications against that of the LAOOC. stored at the Marina AccreditationIf any names appeared on the printout Center in PID number sequence.that were not on the contractor log, the Accreditation later forwarded allcontractor notified the LAOOC for badges except those with multi-sitedirections. access to venues. 13 Access control points and restrictions are visible are the venues. 1352
    • o Some agencies wanted to charge Emergency service pass the LAOOC for time to accredit their The emergency service pass gave personnel. access to a non-credentialed persono Distinctive uniforms and police on an emergency basis upon clearance agency badges were already in use in from venue security. The emergency each jurisdiction. term did not mean necessarily a life-o Computer processing time was threatening situation but rather an overtaxed as it was. important but unplanned visit to ano Law enforcement personnel had a Olympic site. This pass was used history of abusing access privileges sparingly since no major “emergen- to events. cies” presented themselves at theLaw enforcement agencies made their venues, but was worthwhile becauserequest for generic “Ks” badges it eliminated the need to provide fullthrough the LAOOC Security Depart- accreditation to a great number ofment. Once the number of credentials people who might have needed accesswere agreed upon, the Security to a site once or twice during theDepartment submitted that request in course of the Games.writing to the Accreditation Depart- Temporary change of accessment. The request detailed the number This type of pass was used for tempo-of generic “Ks” badges required and rary access until a permanent accessthe access zones to be assigned. credential replaced it or additionalThe generic credentials were produced access was no longer required. Theusing standard “K” badge stock. The temporary change of access pass wasagency name and venue location were not used a great deal, owing to theprinted on each badge, which also in- quickness with which a new accesscluded a bar code and a unique PID num- credential could be generated.ber. The phrase “no photo required” Temporary work passwas printed in the photo area to further The temporary work pass was devel-indicate that it was a non-individualized oped to give access to credentialedgeneric badge that required the personnel who required additionalindividual to have a uniform and law access and who had lost or neverenforcement agency badge in order for received a credential. This passthe “Ks” badge to have any validity. allowed the individual to function at a 14The issuing agency supervised the specific site, but only for a limited, pre- 14 To gain entry into the village press areas, The system worked well, requiring onlydisbursement and collection of badges determined amount of time, usually each journalist exchanges his Olympic cre- the addition of an inter-pass system to dential for a village press badge.among its own officers. This control one day. This type of pass was heavily move the NOC guests from the mainproved very effective. In total, the used during the Games because of the entrance of the village to the creden-LAOOC issued nearly 3,700 generic relatively high number of Olympic tial/pass exchange area.“Ks” badges. credentials that never arrived, or arrived late, at the Olympic sites. At As the Games progressed, it became5.03.8 several venues, photographs were apparent that issuance of temporaryStaff accreditation requirements affixed to the temporary work pass and passes would not satisfy all the needsin the Games period the pass was laminated, creating a for access changes and that theSeveral varieties of badges were individual assignments of accessdeveloped for the actual Games period “semi-permanent” credential. At other venues, the pass was valid for privileges were not completelyin order to accommodate unique situa- accurate. In many cases, the originaltions or requirements. A temporary several days, and, in special situations, used for multi-site access. assignment was accurate but thepass sub-system was established to individual or group later required ahandle problems which arose when an Venue pass different set of access privileges, Theindividual requiring access to an Olym- The venue pass was used by the com- rate of production and fabrication ofpic site did not have the appropriate missioner to give access to a limited access credentials did not allow for acredential. number of individuals (usually uncre- major distribution of new, individualConstruction dentialed) for VIP or protocol reasons. access credentials (i.e. access creden-This pass was for entry to an Olympic The number of venue passes given out tials linked to individual PID numbers).site by construction personnel prior to per competition session was deter- Instead, generic access credentialsthe opening of the site for the Olym- mined prior to the start of the Games were printed en masse with thepics. The pass used an adhesive back- and varied with the size of the venue. required access privileges, but with aing and was attached to a person’s Olympic Family lounge generic PID number (999999). Theclothing. These passes were issued by This pass resembled a standard size production of these credentials waseither the construction site supervisor business card and was designed to several times faster than that of theor the site security manager. At their give access to the Olympic Family individualized access credentials. Thediscretion, the pass could be date lounge at each venue. The commis- generic production was done on twostamped to provide limited access to sioner was given a supply of these levels: a request or case-by-case basisthe site. cards to give out to anyone who and in anticipation of requests fromThis pass system worked adequately already had access to the specific site venues or departments.but problems arose when construction but not to the lounge (zone 5). When a new access credential wasat the site continued into the training Village NOC guest generated and assigned to an indivi-and competition dates. dual, the existing access credential on The village NOC guest pass was the badge was removed and the newCourse marshal developed to allow guests of the NOCs one riveted on.This pass was developed along the to visit their delegations at the Olympicsame lines as the construction pass. villages. The number of guest passes The combination of temporary andIt was issued to Games personnel per delegation was determined by the special access passes along with theinvolved in working the edge of the size of the delegation in residence at ability to change access privilegespublic area on the course for the mara- the village. In addition to these NOC gave the system the great flexibilitythons and race walks. It was primarily a specific passes, the mayor andform of identification since it did not administrative officer at the villagegive special access to the bearer. were given a set of guest passes to handle overflow and special delegation requests. The guest passes were sequentially numbered, marked with the country and village abbreviations and laminated. 53
    • Accreditation andAccess Controlwhich was necessary for successful secured zones within the site (public 5.04.2 Unlike the venues, the villages had onlyoperation of Games access control in area badges). Relationship of two zones-the village common areathe face of changing individual respon- The two phases of accreditation and access control to security (zone 7) and the housing areas (zone 8).sibilities on a day-to-day basis. access control were bound together by Access control was responsible for Contract security personnel, backed up5.04 the ultimate goal of accurately iden- access and internal movement within by law enforcement officers, operatedAccess control tifying all personnel having a proper a site while security personnel were the magnetometers at the entrance to function within the Olympic sites. The concerned with controlling personnel and within each village. Access control5.04.1 for security and safety purposes. At staff was not present at these areas. access control phase could not beNature of access control various access control points, such as effectively implemented unless the 5.04.3requirements the athlete entrance where security accreditation phase had successfully Recruitment of access controlThe primary function of access control was in charge, guards functioned as identified those individuals and given management and staffwas to control passage into and within access controllers. As a general rule, them proper credentials. The basic operating philosophy ofOlympic sites to those persons author- however, access control and securityized. Authorized entry was determined The two general areas of venue access access control was based on the dual shared responsibilities at each venue concepts of volunteerism and venueby the letter designation on the identifi- control were at entry points and access point. autonomy. While the initial intent wascation (ID) portion of the badge and the between intra-venue access zones. Access control staff were known as Access control personnel in the to have paid access control managerspictogram shown on the access por- staff check-in clerks and access villages were again concerned with the and volunteer access controllers andtion of the credential. Passage within controllers. The clerks were primarily administrative functions of access staff check-in personnel, this conceptan Olympic site was controlled by the based at the Olympic staff entry point control, while security personnel were changed in March 1984 and became anzone numbers listed on the access while the access controllers were concerned with the safety of village all-volunteer work force. Seniorcredential. positioned at access control points residents and integrity of the village management felt that a significantlySuccessful implementation of the fence lines. Law enforcement officers stronger level of management and a throughout the venue. These person-access control could only be accomp- were present in all phases of access higher level of commitment would be nel rotated assignments throughoutlished after the proper identification, control, especially in situations where obtained by using volunteers at every the course of a day.credentialing and access privilege as- a person was refused entry. If the level and outweighed the potential forsignment processes were completed. Access control within a village focused situation appeared volatile, law reduced time availability. on the control of entry points. Person-Expecting errors in all three phases of enforcement removed the individual Within a venue, the access control nel were divided between two entryimplementation, a sub-system of tem- from the premises. manager (ACM) operated the access points: the staff entry point (for Gamesporary badges was established to give staff) and the main entrance (for The law enforcement officers had no control system. The ACM reportedtemporary access to those individuals athletes, Olympic Family members and direct reporting relationship to access directly to the venue director and/orwho required access but did not have accredited media). Personnel were control management. It was, therefore, commissioner. The ACM was autono-the appropriate credentials. trained to work exclusively at one entry the responsibility of the supervisor for mous and only contacted the accessIn addition, special credentials were point and did not work the other. each shift to understand the duties of control staff at the Marina Center fordeveloped for those persons who law enforcement and to coordinate theneeded to be at a site on a long term responsibilities of the access controlbasis but did not require access to staff with those of law enforcement and the contract security personnel.“F” Accreditation badges issued to each NOCNOC F Fo Fx Total NOC F Fo Fx Total NOC F Fo Fx Total NOC F Fo Fx TotalAFG 0 0 0 0 ECU 12 14 0 26 KUW 26 14 0 40 SAM 9 2 0 11AH0 0 0 0 0 EGY 112 47 0 159 LAO 0 0 0 0 SAU 49 23 2 74ALB 0 0 0 0 ESA 12 5 0 17 LBA 7 7 0 14 SEN 24 17 6 47ALG 36 17 0 53 ESP 191 75 8 274 LBR 9 2 0 11 SEY 9 2 0 11AND 2 1 0 3 ETH 0 0 0 0 LES 4 4 0 8 SIN 5 6 0 11ANG 0 0 0 0 FIJ 15 6 0 21 LIB 24 13 0 37 SLE 12 3 0 15ANT 26 13 0 39 FIN 89 45 0 134 LIE 9 6 0 15 SMR 19 10 0 29ARG 85 46 0 131 FRA 259 107 27 393 LUX 5 5 0 10 SOL 4 0 0 4AUS 257 0 6 263 FRG 421 156 61 638 MAD 5 3 0 8 SOM 7 5 0 12AUT 106 58 0 164 GAB 4 2 0 6 MAL 22 15 0 37 SRI 4 1 0 5BAH 24 13 0 37 GAM 13 4 0 17 MAR 32 14 0 46 SUD 9 8 0 17BAN 1 1 0 2 GBR 478 165 21 664 MAW 15 3 0 18 SUI 147 48 2 197BAR 16 11 0 27 GDR 0 0 0 0 MEX 103 78 0 181 SUR 5 6 0 11BEL 84 45 0 129 GEQ 6 1 0 7 MGL 0 0 0 0 SWE 189 84 0 273BEN 4 1 0 5 GHA 24 10 0 34 MLI 4 3 0 7 SWZ 8 5 0 13BER 14 10 0 24 GRE 65 32 0 97 MLT 10 6 0 16 SYR 9 4 0 13BHU 6 4 0 10 GRA 8 4 0 12 MON 8 5 0 13 TAN 19 14 0 33BIR 1 2 0 3 GUA 23 23 0 46 MOZ 9 5 0 14 TCH 0 0 0 0BIZ 12 4 0 16 GUI 3 5 0 8 MRI 5 1 0 6 THA 51 25 0 76BOL 13 4 0 17 GUY 10 7 0 17 MTN 3 3 0 6 TOG 5 2 0 7BOT 7 1 0 8 HAI 3 2 0 5 NCA 25 17 0 42 TON 7 4 0 11BRA 153 69 1 223 HKG 48 14 0 62 NEP 11 5 0 16 TPE 60 28 0 88BRN 12 10 0 22 HOL 144 61 0 205 NGR 33 18 2 53 TRI 15 10 0 25BUL 0 0 0 0 HON 13 8 0 21 NGU 7 2 0 9 TUN 23 13 0 36CAF 3 2 0 5 HUN 0 0 0 0 NIG 5 3 0 8 TUR 46 17 0 63CAN 466 159 38 663 INA 18 16 0 34 NOR 118 48 4 170 UAE 7 2 0 9CAY 9 7 0 16 IND 50 24 0 74 NZL 136 56 0 192 UGA 26 8 0 34CGO 0 11 0 11 IRL 45 30 0 75 OMA 16 12 0 28 URS 0 0 0 0CHA 4 0 0 4 IRN 0 0 0 0 PAK 31 12 0 43 URU 21 17 0 38CHI 63 33 0 96 IRQ 24 12 0 36 PAN 8 11 0 19 USA 592 183 8 783CHN 226 117 0 343 ISL 30 16 0 46 PAR 16 2 0 18 VEN 25 22 0 47CIV 15 14 0 29 ISR 32 33 0 65 PER 39 25 0 64 VIE 0 0 0 0CMR 48 27 0 75 ISV 34 22 0 56 PHI 19 22 0 41 VOL 0 0 0 0COL 42 26 0 68 ITA 314 113 72 499 POL 0 0 0 0 YAR 3 4 0 7CRC 32 15 0 47 IVB 9 3 0 12 POR 42 20 0 62 YMD 0 0 0 0CUB 0 0 0 0 JAM 47 17 0 64 PRK 0 0 0 0 YUG 142 62 0 204CYP 10 7 0 17 JOR 13 9 0 22 PUR 53 35 3 91 ZAI 7 6 0 13DEN 67 40 0 107 JPN 256 113 5 374 QAT 27 13 0 40 ZAM 16 7 0 23DJI 2 7 0 9 KEN 68 23 0 91 ROM 127 44 0 171 ZIM 15 10 0 25DOM 41 25 0 66 KOR 206 92 18 316 RWA 2 1 0 454
    • materiel and assistance in the arbitra-tion of access control problems. Weekly staff badge fabricationsLarge venues had assistant access Accreditation East UCLA/ Long Marina UCSB Uniform USC Mobile Weeklycontrol managers and all venues had Center Crenshaw L. A. Westwood Beach Center Village Dist. Village Accred. totalsone or more staff check-in supervisors 26 March - April 1 23 23 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 61who operated the staff entry points, 2 April - April 8 145 74 211 228 25 0 0 0 0 683These three positions—ACM, assistantACM, and staff check-in supervisor— 9 April - April 15 167 37 104 58 0 0 0 0 37 403made up the access control manage- 16 April - April 22 121 58 216 220 61 0 0 0 0 676ment team at each venue. 23 April - April 29 214 175 424 370 311 0 0 0 0 1,494Access control staff stationed at staff 30 April - May 6 496 349 648 498 308 0 0 0 66 2,365entry and working directly under the 7 May - May 13 358 433 596 454 395 0 0 0 105 2,341staff check-in supervisor were called 14 May - May 20 319 190 320 314 203 0 0 0 103 1,449staff check-in clerks. Access control- 21 May - May 27 596 340 616 370 506 0 0 0 610 3,038lers staffed zone control points at the 28 May - June 3 452 407 832 525 854 0 0 0 501 3,571venue. 4 June - June 10 691 668 704 744 261 0 0 0 552 3,620Within a village, the access control 11 June - June 17 1,158 1,144 1,246 1,414 1,400 103 41 0 271 6,777manager reported to the director of 18 June - June 24 300 331 471 405 849 84 124 0 721 3,285administration. The ACM was autono- 25 June - July 1 548 302 659 475 394 92 552 0 1,843 4,865mous from the access control staff atthe Marina Center also. Some of the 2 July - July 8 5 0 1,339 845 423 341 500 0 1,164 4,617villages had assistant access control 9 July - July 15 0 0 960 1,130 1,233 74 1,421 265 2,111 7,194managers and all had one or more staff 16 July - July 22 0 0 441 309 1,262 80 791 97 828 3,808check-in supervisors. 23 July - July 29 0 0 569 398 1,052 111 1,111 987 270 4,498The major difference between the 30 July - August 5 0 0 286 181 1,345 124 432 797 1,106 4,271structure of the access control staff at 6 August - August 12 0 0 205 53 522 48 133 220 0 1,181the villages was that village employees Totals 5,593 4,531 10,862 8,991 11,404 1,057 5,105 2,366 10,288 60,197were paid, whereas all venue accesscontrol staff was volunteer. The village 5.04.4 venue directed people to the appropri- credential was inspected for theoperation was 24 hours-per-day for Training of access control staff ate entrance. In addition, these signs appropriate letter designation and33 days whereas each venue was only Management training began shortly indicated the credentials and access pictogram by an access controller. Inoperational during the competition after recruitment and at least four privileges necessary for access some situations, particularly at highperiod. It was felt that the longer dura- months before the start of the Games, through that particular entrance. demand sport events, the accesstion of village operations required paid The training sessions were held in the Competing athletes entered through controller asked the Olympic Familyemployees to insure adequate staff evenings, initially bi-weekly, then once the athlete entrance, usually aboard a member for a ticket. If the credentialslevels over the entire term. a week. The access control super- bus coming from an Olympic village. were in order, the bar code of the cre-Manpower planning was essentially visors were included during the last As the athletes departed the bus, their dential was wanded and the Olympiccompleted during the fall of 1983 as two months of training sessions. credentials were inspected by either an Family member was allowed entry.part of the venue development The general format was stand-up access controller or a security officer An Olympic staff member requiringprocess. The number of access presentations augmented by detailed to verify that the letter designation was entrance into a venue entered throughcontrollers was determined by the written handouts. The training “F” and the pictogram on the access the staff check-in point. Those staffAccreditation, Security and Venue emphasized the goals and values of the credential corresponded to the sport members who had captive badgesDevelopment departments. They Accreditation Department and its role being played at the venue. After the picked up their credentials from a staffestablished access control points and at each venue. A portion of the training badge bar code was wanded, the check-in clerk. They proceeded to a bardetermined which points should be was devoted to role-playing. Access athlete passed into the venue. code stand where their badges werecovered by access control and which problems and situations were simu- A working member of the press en- wanded and proceeded to their workby security. lated, and managers were taught how tered through the press entry. His or station. Those individuals who pos-One access control manager was to use the system. her credential was checked for the sessed non-captive badges proceededassigned to each venue. The number of A full-time training coordinator was appropriate letter designation (“E”) directly to the bar code stand. It was atassistant managers and supervisors added at this time who focused on the (almost all of which had infinity picto- this point that their credentials werewas determined by the size of the staff training objectives. Some venue grams). This process was conducted checked for the appropriate pictogram.and the length of the operating day. directors and security managers also by an access controller. The credential The bar code was wanded and they attended the training sessions. Access was not wanded due to problems in the entered the venue.Recruitment of managers was donethrough the accreditation/support control managers were given sug- printing of bar codes on the “E” Personnel who arrived at the wrongoperations management or venue gested training materials and a plan to credentials. entry point were directed to the rightmanagement and were approved by train venue staff members. A delivery person entered the venue area. In cases where an individualboth the commissioners and accredi- In general, the training program was through a designated vehicle delivery arrived without a credential or with antation management. A direct mail started too late, since it could have entrance. A security officer checked inappropriate credential, access con-campaign to the Southern California been more effective. It was, however, the delivery person’s credential and trol determined the validity of theirFootball Officials Association pro- more than satisfactory, especially then checked a delivery log to make claim for venue access. If the claim wasduced the core of supervisors and given the time constraints. sure that the delivery was scheduled. legitimate, access control issued aassistant managers, a few managers The security guard then inspected the temporary work pass or an emergency 5.04.5 service pass.and a significant number of working vehicle and wanded the credential. The Operations of access controlstaff (approximately 100 in total). A during the Games delivery person was then allowed to Entry to an Olympic village, like asimilar campaign with martial arts enter the venue. venue, depended on the individual and Entry to an Olympic venue was givengroups netted about 60 staffers. The A ticketed spectator gained entrance the reason for access. Signs at several to those needing access, generally aaccess control managers recruited to the venue through the use of a spec- points outside of the village directed competing athlete, a working memberabout 150 of their own staff. The tator gate. Neither access control nor people to the appropriate entrance. of the press, a delivery person, abalance (about 800) came through ticketed spectator, an Olympic Family security checked spectators.referrals and the staffing centers. member or an Olympic staff member. An Olympic Family member entered aAttrition was generally very low Signs at several points outside of the venue through the VIP/guest entryamong all categories. Of the original point. This point was usually manned22 access control managers hired, only by access control, security and proto-four were replaced, primarily for an col. Each Olympic Family member’sinability to commit the required time.There was no management attritionduring the Games. 55
    • Accreditation andAccess ControlAn athlete entered the village either because a credential was lost or stolen, The badges themselves were attrac- Bar code operationsthrough the athlete bus entrance or on or the holder had abused his access tive, lightweight and easy to read, even The BCR program worked as much fromfoot through the main entrance. Those privileges-the background informa- from a distance. The use of larger its image as a sophisticated system asarriving by bus had their credentials tion was put into the accreditation letters for name, function and organiza- it did from the reality of its detectioninspected by a security officer or by a computer system and a report was tion as generated by computer-based ability. Very few technical problemscheck-in clerk at the main entrance. generated. This report was distributed badge printing systems is highly occurred and the system proved to beThe person that did the check-in to all the venues to be added to the recommended for future organizers of a great deterrent as only a handful ofverified that the letter designation was memory of the bar code readers. This all kinds of events where accreditation fraudulent badge-users were actuallyan “F.” After the badge bar code was procedure was updated on a 24-hour is required. The many security features detected.wanded, the athlete passed into the basis. incorporated in the badges proved There were irregularities in the printvillage. The movement of personnel within an worthwhile as forgeries of accredita- quality of the bar coding on the “E” Olympic site was controlled entirely by tion badges were not in evidence. (media) badges and on some OlympicA bar code reader was located at themain entrance only. A working member zone numbers found on the Olympic Accreditation badge processing Family credentials. Some wereof the media entered through the main access credential. Access control The credentialing operations worked mistakenly de-authorized at the OAC,entrance. His credential was checked points which demarcated the entry into because of a core group of staff who which caused undue delay and somefor the appropriate letter designation new zones were manned by access were dedicated to overcoming any unpleasantness for those individuals(“E”) by an access controller. The controllers and/or security officers. It shortcomings in the system. The affected when they tried to enter amember of the media would then go was the function of the person man- overall design of the system was venue or village. The media credentialsthrough a security inspection point and ning this point to visually identify the adequate and produced a majority of were not read at any site because sobe escorted into the credential appropriate zone number on the Olym- the badges correctly and on time. many were improperly printed.exchange section of the entry area. At pic credential. The credential holder Olympic Family operations The task of processing individualthis point, the journalist exchanged his could only pass through this point applications and matching them to Olympic Family accreditation wentOlympic credential for a village press when his or her access credential con- specific job requisitions, site and very well. More than 15,000 peoplebadge and entered the village press tained the appropriate zone number. access code assignments was were accredited and the overwhelmingarea. The number of media allowed in Internal signage was developed which extremely complex. Thousands of majority were processed in a quick,each village was limited to 200 at any pictorially showed the access creden- changes were made after original input courteous and efficient manner.one time at the UCLA or USC villages tial codes necessary to gain entrance had been made and re-issuance ofand to 40 at UCSB. Contributing to this success were the through the access control points. badges was sometimes necessary. following factors: insistence that theOlympic Family and vehicle delivery These signs were placed on both sides To assist this, it would have helped to computer system and its operation beentry into the villages was basically the of the access control point to allow for have had sufficient computer capacity efficient flow from both directions. understood; careful coding andsame as at the venues. Staff check-in to be able to process changes and re- fastidious proofreading of Olympicalso followed the venue procedure. 5.05 print necessary identification and Family lists; advance verification andGuests of NOC delegations entered the Summary and recommendations access code badge sections quickly. revisions of the largest NOCs’ familyvillage through the main entrance. If a The Olympic accreditation and access In the future, it is essential to develop lists by the respective chefs depass was available-each delegation control planning and operations sys- and test badge printing software well mission; advance chef arrivals andwas allocated a number of guest tems were highly successful in many in advance of the Games and at a level processing through delegationpasses based on its delegation size- areas while other areas required last- which will simulate the required registration; and knowledgeable andthe guest went through the security minute development. capacities for Olympic Family, staff and decisive leadership combined withinspection point and was escorted to other accredited groups. Because data willing and conscientious workers.the credential exchange section of the Accreditation badge design on the actual Olympic accredited The two-part badge for LAOOC staff Access control summaryentry area. At this point, the guest personnel—whether Olympic Family,exchanged some form of identification and contractors was a new concept in staff or others—is always late in Venue access control fell into twofor one of the NOC’s guest badges. The badge design and was highly flexible. It coming, it is necessary to be prepared functional areas: the staff entry/exitguest was then escorted to the waiting allowed the identification portion of the to generate thousands of badges at the point and access zone control. On aarea where he or she was met by a badge to be prepared prior to the last minute. The personal computer- systems level, each of the proceduresrepresentative of the NOC and admitted assignment of site and access privi- based back-up system for Olympic of these functional areas workedto the village. leges and facilitated the changing of Family badges was a worthwhile according to the original design. Some access privileges, if necessary, after a protection device. problems arose in the efficiency of theAll Olympic credentials contained bar staff entry point because of weak-codes encoded with the personal badge was issued. Thus, accredited All groups requiring accreditation must persons did not have to have their nesses in the credentialing processidentification number (PID) of the be well informed of the procedures for which placed a heavy reliance on thecredential holder. The purpose of this picture re-taken if their site or access accreditation. It might have been codes were changed. Since individual temporary pass sub-system of accessbar code was to discourage the illegal helpful to publish a short document for control rather than the primary systemduplication of credentials and create a picture-taking was the most difficult staff and contractors which detailed part of the accreditation process to of Olympic credentials. Although themethod for voiding a credential. The the accreditation process in much the accreditation system worked in gen-PID number was read by a bar code control, the two-part badge system same manner as the Identity Card provided major advantages to the eral, a large quantity of the staff badgesreader at each external Olympic site Manual did for the Olympic Family. did not arrive at the appropriate siteaccess point. The bar code readers organizers. A very high level of pre-Games turn- until after the Games began. Thisthemselves were small electronic The badges for Olympic Family mem- over among the contractor employees resulted in a need to issue majordevices which were programmed to bers were organized mostly along the made the distribution program more quantities of temporary passes.compare PID data contained on the requirements outlined in the Olympic complex than it should have been. Itbadge bar codes against a pre-deter- Charter. However, the LAOOC was Zone control had a few problems, most might have been more efficient to have with the ineffectiveness of interiormined set of invalid PID numbers and required to design special solutions for the access credential portion of thethen inform the access clerk via audible additional team officials in excess of signage and restrictions on access badge attached at the venue and not at privilege assignments. Overall, theand visual signals. the charter limits (“Fx”), for additional the main accreditation center. This was non-competition-related IF officials Olympic accreditation and accessAt each entry point at a venue, the done towards the end of the Games. control operations were generallycredential was wanded to test its (“J”) and for observers from future Games organizers, organizing Access control staff, successful because the systemsvalidity. Those which had been de- recruitment and training worked and because alternate meth-authorized were captured and the committees of various other sporting events and for committees from cities The recruitment function went quite ods were developed to adjust tocredential holders were detained. unique sets of circumstances. considering a bid for a future Olympic smoothly and the quality of personnelThe job of wanding (reading the bar Games (“O”). was very good. Attrition was minimal.code) was performed by both access The decision to use an all volunteercontrollers and security officers. The staff proved successful as a high levelresponsibility for usage, updating, and of dedication and motivation to get themaintenance belonged to access job done was evident at almost everycontrol. venue.Once a determination was made todeauthorize a credential-usually 56
    • Administration6
    • Administration6.01 o Telecopier and telex services, in building’s underground garage were Daily appointment sheets wereNature of services offered conjunction with the Technology provided with complimentary parking compiled and distributed to inform all Department by use of adhesive labels (validations) of the approximately 50 employeesFrom the earliest days of the LAOOC in o Telephone service, in conjunction purchased by the LAOOC, representing about business being transacted in1979 through the close-out and tear with the Technology Department blocks of time. other departments. Mail delivery to thedown period following the Games, one o Travel services, in conjunction with LAOOC was enhanced when the Unitedof the constant needs of the staff was 6.03 the Finance Department Office environment: States Postal Service granted a specialfor general administrative services. o Word processing services ZIP code for all LAOOC mail: Los 1981—1983 in WestwoodNo successful office can operate Angeles, California 90084 USA. Byefficiently without well-managed Administrative services were handled As the staff enlarged, the Century City acquiring this special code, no streetcommunications, conference, mail and by a senior member of the administra- headquarters became crowded rather address was required and all LAOOCreception services, but this became all tive support staff from inception quickly. An agreement with the mail could be addressed in the samethe more important as the LAOOC grew through late 1982, when an Adminis- University of California, Los Angeles way from approximately July 1981from 11 persons at the end of 1979 to tration Department was formed. At its (UCLA) was made for office space on a through the end of the existence of the 1,530 just prior to the Games. peak in the pre-Games period, there temporary basis in advance of the Organizing Committee. In view of the were 39 people working in Adminis- construction of a new office buildingThe Administration Department many moves which were to come, this tration, eight in word processing and which would house the LAOOC’s provided general office services for the proved to be a wise action and saved four in travel. administrative headquarters. The UCLA LAOOC including: considerable confusion among those 6.02 campus is located in west Los Angeles, wishing to contact the LAOOC.o Business cards Office environment: not far from the Century City offices. While the LAOOC occupied a floor ando Conference room reservations 1979—1981 in Century Cityo Courier services The LAOOC moved to the University a half in the Extension Building, a newo Food and beverage services within In the LAOOC’s infancy, office space Extension building in July 1981 and structure was being built directly the office complex was established on half of a floor in a occupied the entire sixth and half of the across the street in an existing UCLAo Mail delivery, pick-up and postage modern office building in the Century seventh floor for a total of about parking lot. This three-story buildingo Office furnishing, in conjunction with City area of west Los Angeles, at 30,000 square feet. Facilities similar to became the LAOOC’s administrative the Material Logistics Department 10100 Santa Monica Boulevard. As the those in Century City were installed, headquarters in July 1982, just aftero Office movement, packing staff was small, needs were modest including two conference rooms. completion of the building itself. This and unpacking and were handled (at peak) by the Security facilities were installed for the new headquarters provided moreo Photocopying, in conjunction with office manager (a senior support staff first time and included the wearing of space and facilities for the LAOOC, the Technology Department person), one receptionist, one mail picture identification badges by which had now grown to approximate-o Parking for staff and visitors clerk and one supply clerk. employees and temporary identifica- ly 100 people. The LAOOC contributedo Reception services Facilities in this period (April 1979-July tion badges by guests. Guest identi- more than $3 million to the construc-o Satellite office negotiations and 1981) included one large and one small fication badges were color-coded for tion of the project, in effect paying its set-up conference room, a communications regular visitors (blue) and for special rent in advance in order to assist witho Security at the LAOOC offices, in center with one telex machine and one guests (red), including IOC members the construction of the building. conjunction with the Security photocopier, a reception area and a and members of the LAOOC Board of The building offered more facilities and Department small kitchen. Directors. A security guard was on featured special furniture componentso Shipping, receiving and warehousing duty during non-business hours. and security arrangements. The Parking was available in the building at the main office site and was purchased for employees by interior offered about 55,000 usable the LAOOC. Guests who parked in the square feet (70,000 square feet gross) for use and included a total of seven conference rooms. Office furniture was supplied by Westinghouse Office 58
    • Systems through a sponsorship Food and beverage services were Mail delivery was increased to twiceagreement with the LAOOC. These available at several points. Each floor per day for both inter-office mail andmodular work stations provided much- had a small area designated for coffee posted mail. Memorandums distrib-needed flexibility in the design and size service, while soft drinks and mineral uted to management staff or to all staffof work spaces for the different groups water were provided by sponsors were handled as part of the mail runswhich were placed in the building. Coca-Cola and Perrier. Orange juice throughout the building. Outgoing mailSecurity was given a high priority and and non-carbonated fruit drinks were volume in July 1983 reached 41,000special precautions were taken to keep made available as well. An employee pieces and special courier serviceintruders away. Search lights were lunch area was available in a separate deliveries averaged 500 per month.mounted on the roof of the building and room on the first floor, which also LAOOC office furniture was a modularclosed-circuit television cameras were contained several vending machines system integrated with movableplaced on the roof as well as inside the supplied by UCLA. A microwave oven partitions which segmented the openbuilding to monitor the movement of was also provided by UCLA to heat office areas into work stations andpeople, especially after business prepared foods from the vending included desks, credenzas, files,hours. machines. A notable favorite among 1 storage units, tables and chairs. TheCommunications services included staff members was microwave- design of the new building wastwo telex machines and full-time prepared popcorn. basically open down both hallwaysoperators to go with them. Two high- An executive dining room was set with closed offices lining the outerspeed telecopiers were installed for up in September 1982. Hot lunches sides and ends and conference andboth manual and automatic use. In were served daily (at no charge) to utility rooms in the middle. Thisaddition to a receptionist, two full-time executives who signed up for one of enabled the Administration group toswitchboard operators were hired and two sittings (1145 and 1300) ahead of revise the floor plan periodically for thewere present from 0800—1800 daily. time. Luncheons were arranged for benefit of new employees withoutConference rooms included four rooms department meetings if desired and the having to tear down permanent walls.seating 10—14, a third floor room for dining room could accommodate 24 Eventually, however, the number ofexecutive use only, seating 20, a first- people. Eventually, a cold sandwich, persons working on all floors simplyfloor conference area for 25—50 and an soup and fruit menu was arranged and exceeded the building’s capacity,auditorium-style room which could all department executives were requiring the move to larger quartersaccommodate up to 150 persons. expected to sign up for at least two in Culver City.Conference rooms were reserved on a lunches per week for the purpose of Office supplies and smaller-sizedbooking basis only by the receptionist. exchanging ideas and sharing status furnishings were handled by an on-site 2No special equipment or facilities for reports on matters of common supply room which operated fromaudio-visual use, food service or sound interest, This goal was reached in early 0900-1200 daily. Orders submittedsupport were provided in any of these 1983 and led to the formation of the after those hours were delivered therooms. successful cafeteria concept at the following morning. Culver City headquarters building some months later. The 1300 seating became available for business lunches with non-Committee staff (guests). 1 In spring of 1980, Soviet Olympic planners visit with LAOOC President Peter V. Ueberroth at the LAOOCs first administra- tive headquarters in the Century City area of west Los Angeles. 2 In July 1982, a growing LAOOC staff moves into a new, three-story building on the campus of UCLA. 3 Temporary partitions and walls divide the interior of the LAOOC administrative head- quarters into suitable workspace while festive banners and shapes hang from the ceiling to brighten the environment. 3 59
    • AdministrationStaff parking began in UCLA’s Lot 1, when supplies were needed. Neces- The main building obviously was not property owner allowed use of anpart of which had been used as the site sary storage was usually relegated to suited for office use, but was re- additional building adjacent to theof the building itself. Parking was corners of offices and sometimes in designed for the LAOOC’s needs. With Marina Center and on the same lot.purchased by the LAOOC from the hallways. the knowledge that it was to be used Large, open areas became available foruniversity and was limited to an agreed for only one year, the Administration conference use on a booking basis and Word processing was established as anumber of spaces. Some of these separate service in May 1983. Its main Department oversaw the installation of suited the need for additional meetingspaces were used for guests, but this functions were to assist support staff a large number of temporary partitions space for groups of up to 500 people.became increasingly difficult as the and walls to divide the space into Meeting equipment and furniture was in the preparation of long documentsnumber of permanent staff increased. suitable work space for the various provided by the LAOOC. (greater than five pages) and the gener-Finally, the LAOOC purchased parking in ation of large numbers of generic departments which required enough Courier services for deliveries outsidea number of lots on the UCLA campus letters, usually to five or more address- room for not only their current staffs, of Los Angeles were heavily used atas well as in the surrounding commer- ees. In addition, the word processing but also for peak staffing just prior to the Marina Center. A full-time repre-cial district. The LAOOC provided free group provided proofreading services, the Games, The furniture which was sentative of DHL Corporation, theparking to all staff members, generally gave seminars on the operation of used in Westwood was left there and LAOOC’s official supplier of courierwithin a four to six-block walk of the office automation equipment supplied new, light, movable desk and return services, was present to assist withOrganizing Committee headquarters. by IBM, and tested prospective word units were brought in. With only a few large shipments. The presence of aVolunteers and business visitors processing applications. Turnaround exceptions in the executive offices, professional courier service was espe-parked in a commercial parking lot time for most projects was eight hours everyone used the same furnishings in cially important when large packagesacross the street from the LAOOC build- on a first-come, first-served basis, with varying arrangements. were sent to the National Olympicing and had their parking tickets paid by rush projects scheduled at the discre- The strength of the Marina Center Committees or other large groupsthe LAOOC by use of a sticker system tion of the group manager. Longer design was its lack of permanent within the Olympic family. Time-similar to that used in Century City. projects required advance scheduling dividers and walling. The open working sensitive documents such as accredi-After the completion of an agreement to meet particular deadlines. At its spaces forced interaction among tation forms or shipping instructionswith Xerox, photocopying machines peak in Westwood, the word process- employees from different depart- were arranged well in advance andwere placed on all three floors of the ing group included a manager and four ments, who worked within touching special arrangements often had to benew building. One high-volume copier operators, including one person work- distance of their neighbors. Further, the made for countries which did not havewas placed on each of the three floors ing on an evening shift. Equipment central pathways through the building efficient mail service and to whichand a second high-volume copier was included five IBM Display writers, two encouraged interaction between there was no other effective method ofpresent on the third floor. Twelve special printers and a special feeder for departments and helped to forge delivery. In all, the LAOOC compiled asmaller machines with varying addressing envelopes. bonds among the Organizing Com- courier service bill of $323,217.17 withcapabilities and speeds were placed As the staff, contractors, consultants mittee staff as a company with a single DHL, most of which was covered bystrategically throughout each floor. and volunteers working in the LAOOC purpose, rather than as a group of DHL’s in-kind commitment as part of itsSpecial attention was paid to unique office moved past 500 persons in mid- unrelated departments working on a suppliership.needs for oversized copying and 1983, it became clear that new, much common timetable. It was often noted Food and beverage services were care-enlargement to handle larger-sized larger facilities would be needed. that as much was accomplished while fully planned. Since there were manyjobs on a reservation basis, including Although it had been thought at one walking toward the cafeteria for lunch fewer restaurants in the area than insome rudimentary binding involving point that sufficient room would exist as during an entire day at one’s desk. Westwood and because the interac-GBC brand combs. The copy center in the UCLA building to house the entire This interplay between responsible tion between department managers inoperator also coordinated all photo- administrative staff for the Games, it managers and their staffs helped to the executive dining room in West- copier repairs, re-orders of supplies, was necessary to find another home. reinforce the urgency of the work at wood had proved effective, food routine maintenance and service calls. hand and assisted the progress of the service plans for the Marina Center Although the majority of the LAOOC LAOOC in an intangible way that couldA reception area was provided for staff left the UCLA building in August included a cafeteria. A building which not have taken place in a more typical had been previously used for thatvisitors and all non-LAOOC employees 1983, several functions remained. The office environment. purpose by prior tenants was refur-were issued a visitor’s badge upon Ceremonies Department was housedentry. Badges previously used at the at Westwood through the Games The main office complex was basically bished and opened in late August. TheExtension Building were discarded period, and staff from the UCLA Village, a one-floor building with 25,000 square cafeteria included one large room for alland a single, red “visitor” badge was gymnastics and tennis were present feet of warehouse space on one side. staff and three smaller, private roomsissued. Guests were not issued badges in the months leading up to their Second floor spaces were available on which could be used for meetings oruntil verification of their appointment occupancy at the sites of their venues each end of the building. A remarkable private luncheons. Owing to thewith an LAOOC staff member was made and villages. In addition, the West- structure of steel pipe painted in aqua favorable year-round weather inand some form of personal identifica- wood building was used as a Games formed a two-story office area for the Southern California, however, the pre-tion was shown. LAOOC staff members staffing center for people living on the Architecture and Construction Depart- ferred seating areas were outside in aentered and exited from the back of the west side of Los Angeles and in the ment. Additional electrical wiring was patio setting, using lattice-styledbuilding, where their picture identifica- San Fernando Valley. done beneath a false floor to add chairs and shaded tables.tion badges were kept. These badges outlets for individual use. The ceiling ARA Services, the LAOOC’s sponsor for 6.04 and walkways were decorated withwere also changed in early 1983 to a food service and athlete transportation Office environment: festively colored shapes and lines andsmaller size for ease in issuance and 1983—1984 in Culver City management, operated the cafeteriastorage. sonotubes were placed at the entrance and brought in the necessary equip- In its search for a final site for its to major pathways across the building, ment. A breakfast menu was servedSecurity was very tight and was limited administrative headquarters, the much as they would be placed at entry from 0700 to0830 and a full lunchto persons with legitimate business LAOOC looked for a large building with points at the venue for the Games. menu was available for 1130 to 1400with the LAOOC. A well-respected localprotection firm was hired to provide large amounts of open space that could Almost 20 conference rooms were from Monday through Friday. A varietyaround-the-clock security for the build- be easily altered to handle a rapidly available in various areas throughout of complimentary beverages wereing, including holidays and weekends. expanding staff. Although several the building. The main conference area available, including coffee, hotThe reception area was staffed for visi- options for existing office-style space on the main floor had a capacity of chocolate, juices, mineral water, non-tors and included monitor apparatus existed, the Organizing Committee almost 200 persons and was specially carbonated fruit drinks, soft drinks andfor the television cameras placed opted to occupy an old warehouse in carpeted and a sound system was tea from opening through lunchtime.throughout the building. Security Culver City, California, located just installed. Conference room scheduling Beverage counters were installedguards at the back entrance handled north of the Los Angeles International was instituted as in Westwood and a throughout the main building withthe ingress and egress of LAOOC Airport and about ten miles southwest room schedule summary was circulat- coffee, tea and soft drinks available.employees, who were required to turn of the UCLA campus where the ed for some time before ending for lack The cafeteria was formally named thein and pick up their identification previous LAOOC office had been. In all, of interest. The Electronic Messaging Cafe de Coubertin in honor of the badges every time they entered or the “Marina Center,” as it came to be System (EMS) was later used to request founder of the International Olympicexited the building. called, included four buildings with conference facilities and verify reser- Committee and leader of the modern open interior space of approximately vations. The executive office wing on Olympic movement, Baron Pierre deShipping and receiving services at the 180,000 square feet. Prior to its use by the second floor had its own confer- Coubertin. Westwood building were kept to a the LAOOC, it had been a helicopter ence room for roughly 20 persons. minimum, since there was very little engineering and design center. Even these facilities became overbur- storage space available. The major dened close to the Games, especially task with regard to shipping and since many departments were holding receiving was the movement of equip- classes and training seminars for their ment and supplies between rented Games staff. An agreement with the warehouse space and the LAOOC office 60
    • All permanent staff and volunteers chairs were ordered and proved around the Marina Center. The park-who worked at the Marina Center were workable. These furnishings were not and-ride shuttle system continuedentitled to a once-daily subsidy of $2 ordered after the beginning of May through June, at which time enoughon their lunch food purchases. The 1984, however, and staff which joined staff had left for their Games siteCafe de Coubertin was not open to the LAOOC after that time were issued offices that parking at the Marina couldvisitors unless accompanied by a per- folding chairs and tables to work on. continue without special controls. Amanent staff member. Additional food The movement of LAOOC staff from special lot was set up for visitors, nearservice areas were available in the main the Westwood building to the Marina the front entrance on Walnut Avenue.building, including vending machines Center took almost five weeks and A helipad was available between thefor prepared sandwiches and other was orchestrated in stages. A “file main building and the adjacent confer-snacks. A microwave oven was pre- reduction contest” was staged at the ence center building and was usedsent to warm foods and a cooler was Westwood office prior to the move heavily by President Peter Ueberroth.provided for employee lunches and was won by the Youth Services Reception services were increased tobrought to the office. Department, based on the amount of include two receptionists on duty full-The cafeteria concept was a trash generated by each department, time during the day, along with securitytremendous success. It encouraged divided by the number of employees in personnel to authorize entry and issuecamaraderie within departments, that department. This was an effective visitor’s badges. Bags and parcelsprovided a natural forum for discus- method of encouraging a review of files brought into the Marina Center weresions between members of different so that unnecessary paper would not searched and X-rayed for securitydepartments and was a quick and easy continue to accumulate. reasons and in the months just prior toway to eat a mid-day meal at a Photocopying needs increased the Games, all visitors were required todiscounted rate in a short period of dramatically as the staff grew. A total walk through a magnetometer, similartime. Crowding became common late of 24 machines for staff use were to those which would be used at the 4in the pre-Games period as the size of installed throughout the building, villages. Switchboard duties werethe staff overwhelmed the Cafe de taken over by the Communications 4 Access to LAOOC facilities for staff and including 15 smaller-sized copiers visitors is controlled by a badge system.Coubertin, but this did not cause any with enlargement and reduction Center.major problems. capabilities, four convenience copiers Visitor access procedures becameMail delivery and postal services and five large volume copiers with standardized in September 1983. Listsincreased as the Games approached. automatic feeders, sorters and of visitors had to be supplied by eachDeliveries were made to all depart- staplers. In all, some 23,308,151 department at least one day in advancements twice per day. Individual pieces copies were made between August of arrival in order to have badgesof metered mail (using standard enve- 1983 and the end of August 1984 by issued to them. Calls to the appropriatelopes) from the Marina Center followed the LAOOC staff. This includes work department were made to announcethe following pattern: processed at the Copying Center, a the arrival of any visitor and an LAOOC separate photocopying shop set up at volunteer escort would then walk theMonth Mail pieces the Marina Center for handling very visitor to the department concerned.September 1983 36,319 large projects. It was equipped with The volunteer escorts worked in shifts two of Xerox’s largest photocopying and were extraordinarily helpful; 150-October 1983 33,715 systems, a smaller, automated copier 200 were used on a daily basis. VisitorsNovember 1983 49,387 and a stitcher for stapling needs. In who came unannounced or for whom aDecember 1983 65,298 addition to regular photocopying, the previous instruction regarding arrivalJanuary 1984 57,434 Copy Center could reproduce overhead had not been made were asked to waitFebruary 1984 66,002 transparencies in various background while a call was placed to verify theMarch 1984 77,746 colors, generate mailing labels, copy appointment. In addition to the security 105,066 onto parchment award certificates and precautions taken at the frontApril 1984 reduce oversized originals to standard- entrance, special care was taken toMay 1984 207,153 sized copies. Typical Copy Center guard the employee entrance at theJune 1984 122,860 projects included reproductions rear of the facility. The LAOOCJuly 1984 112,089 totaling 500 or more pages. Smaller contracted with a security firm to pro-August 1984 65,041 applications were often run by staff at vide guard services at the MarinaTotal 998,110 night, using one of the five large Center in the same manner as at West- volume copiers located around the wood. All employees at the MarinaThe expenditure total for mail delivery building. A Xerox model 2080 copier Center had to wear identity badgesduring this 12-month period was was also installed in the Architecture which were handed out and re-$381,759.41. However, special and Construction Department. This captured on a daily basis. Securitydeliveries, odd-sized packages and machine was able to handle the personnel patrolled the main building,large shipments (both national and oversized copying requirements for asking the identity of those who wereinternational) totaling $1,346,893 were blueprints and other construction not wearing a badge in plain sight. Aalso sent from the Marina Center as planning documents. The 2080 saved property release system using signedwell as from all other satellite offices. not only money for reprints of plans forms allowed the movement of equip-Local messenger deliveries totaling and blueprints, but more importantly ment and files outside of the Marina$239,656.33 were sent from Septem- saved immense amounts of time for Center and briefcases and handbagsber 1983-August 1984. The heaviest those who needed the reproductions. were routinely searched after the endactivity for the local messenger ser- of the Games to guard against theft.vices came in April-August 1984, with Parking at the Marina Center becameApril, May and August about equal and crowded relatively quickly. The lot was Shipping and receiving became moreJune-July double that. National ship- re-striped to accommodate more cars important at the Marina Center than itping services outside of DHL were light, and additional spaces were acquired in had been at Westwood, since thereaveraging 400-500 pieces monthly, early 1984. Finally, in April, there was was warehouse space of about 25,000but 1,097 pieces in August 1984. not enough room for staff and volun- square feet on one side of the main teer parking and an additional lot building. Shipping and receiving wasOffice furnishings consisted of approximately seven miles away was coordinated through a special interiorstandardized units of lightweight desks obtained. Parking passes were gate which was controlled by securitywithout drawers, shorter typewriter distributed to staff and a shuttle bus personnel. Additional warehousingstands on rollers and two-drawer units from the off-site lot was established. space became available in an adjacenton rollers. These three-piece sets were Although usually efficient, the off-site building which was not used for officesissued to almost all staff, along with parking plan was not accepted by and could therefore be fully secured atextra individual units where available. some employees, who parked on the all times. Department uses of theA limited number of bookshelves, side streets in surrounding areas warehouse area were coordinated bycabinets and wardrobes were also the Administration Department andavailable. These units were well