Battle Of Saratoga
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  • 1. Battle of Saratoga
  • 2.
    • Turning point of war
    • Proved to France and other European countries that the Patriots could win
  • 3. Who fought it for the British?
    • 3,300 red-coats
    • 3,900 Hessians
    • Canadians
    • Indians
  • 4.  
  • 5. What were the 2 major engagements?
    • Battle of Freeman’s Farm
    • Battle of Bemis Heights
  • 6. Battle of Freeman’s Farm
    • The British were past Saratoga nearing Albany
    • They ran into American forces in a clearing in the woods at Freeman's Farm, 10 miles south of Saratoga
    • General Benedict Arnold ordered Colonel Daniel Morgan and his 400 sharpshooters to “assault and harass” the British while they were still advancing through the woods
    • Morgan charged aggressively and inflicted severe casualties before being forced back across the field.
    • Arnold sent forward the brigades to support Morgan.
    • The British sent forces to attack the Americans across Freeman's Farm.
    • Arnold's reinforced line repulsed the British attack with heavy losses.
    • By the end of the battle the British and German troops had repulsed one last attack from the Americans, and Arnold was relieved of command.
    • Although they had to relinquish the field, the Americans had halted Britain's advance and inflicted losses the British could ill afford.
  • 7. Freeman’s Farm
  • 8. Battle of Bemis Heights
    • Britains made plans to assault the American troops and drive them from the field.
    • The main assault would be made by the Hessians against the American forces on Bemis Heights.
    • American forces held their fire until the Hessians were well within range, devastating the British in the first attack and routed the survivors in a counter attack.
    • Colonel Morgan and his sharpshooters attacked and routed the Canadian infantry and began to engage British regulars.
    • British forces began to rally, and Benedict Arnold arrived on the field (despite his prior dismissal) and ordered Morgan to concentrate his fire on the officers, particularly the generals.
    • One of Morgan's sharpshooters fired and mortally wounded the British leader
    • As the battle raged on, Arnold fell wounded.
  • 9.  
  • 10. Battle of Saratoga
    • Decisive American victory
    • Result – France entered the conflict on behalf of America
  • 11. Strategies
    • Americans learned to mix sharpshooters with trained men armed with muskets and bayonets.
    • Sharpshooters shot well over 200 yards, but were unable to reload quickly
  • 12. Surrender
    • Burgoyne's troops were disarmed and should have been paroled (returned to Britain on the condition that they engage in no further conflict with America), a common 18th century military practice.
    • Instead, the Continental Congress refused to ratify the "convention" (the document detailing the terms of surrender agreed to by Gates and Burgoyne).
    • Some of the British and German officers were eventually exchanged for captured American officers
    • Some were held captive in camps in New England, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, until the end of the war.
    • Another serious difficulty encountered was that Charles I, Duke of Brunswick, did not want his soldiers back, fearing they would hinder future recruitment
    • Hessians did not appreciate this and deserted in large numbers; of 5,723 Brunswick troops, only 3,015 returned. Most became Americans.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Benedict Arnold at Bemis Heights
  • 15. Who was Benedict Arnold?
    • A Traitor
    • Arnold was to later switch sides and became a British general after offering to deliver West Point to the British for cash.
  • 16. The Boot Monument
    • The Boot Monument on the battlefield commemorates the heroism of Benedict Arnold in the conflict when he was wounded in the foot.
    • According to legend, Arnold, as a British general, asked an American captive in Virginia what the Americans would do with him. The reply was:
      • "We would cut your leg off and bury it with full military honors for your work at Quebec and Saratoga. The rest of you we would hang."
    • The monument is dedicated to "the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army", but does not mention Arnold by name.
  • 17.