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The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
The water cycle
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  • 1. Unit 7: Water Cycle & Climate
    • No other planet in the solar system has the unique combination of fluids which Earth does. Earth has a surface that is mostly covered with liquid water, water vapor in the atmosphere, and both frozen and liquid water on the land.
  • 2. A. Earth’s Water
    • The continuous interchange of water between the atmosphere and Earth’s surface.
    • Includes the phase changes of water and the movements of water above, on, and below the Earth’s surface.
  • 3. Water (or Hydrologic) Cycle
    • Precipitation : The falling of water as liquid (rain) or solid (ice, hail, and snow).
      • It can:
            • Infiltrate the Earth’s surface
            • Runoff from the surface into streams, lakes or ocean
            • Be stored in the form of ice and snow
            • Be evapotranspired back into the atmosphere from large bodies of water, soil, plants and animals
  • 4.  
  • 5. Infiltration
  • 6. The Water Cycle
    • Ground Water – Water that is found under the Earth’s surface as the result of infiltration and storage
  • 7.
    • How does water infiltrate the ground?
      • Before runoff and evapotranspiration, water will usually infiltrate the Earth’s surface and become part of the groundwater .
  • 8. Ground Water
    • In order for water to move into the surface materials of the Earth, the materials (rocks/soil) must be permeable and unsaturated .
  • 9. Ground Water
    • 2. Porosity – The ratio of the volume of openings compared to the volume of the material .
    • Depends on:
            • Shape of the particles
            • Looseness of the particles.
            • How well sorted the material is
  • 10. Porosity
    • Water will pass more easily through a cylinder full of round beads, than a cylinder full of square blocks of the same size.
  • 11. Porosity
  • 12. Ground Water
    • 3. Permeability – A material is said to be permeable if it allows water to pass through the connecting pore spaces of the material.
    • How permeable a material is depends on the porosity
  • 13. Ground Water
    • The larger the pore spaces between the particles that make up a material, the greater the permeability of that material.
      • Gravel (large) = High permeability
      • Clay (very small) = Low permeability
  • 14.
    • Precipitation recharges the groundwater supply.
    • Wetlands and streams are present where the water table lies at the ground surface.
    • Streams gain water during the wet season and may lose water during the dry season .
  • 15. Groundwater flows down the hydraulic gradient (slope) from high elevations to low elevations. The shape of the flow path varies depending upon the local geological characteristics.
  • 16. Ground Water
    • Zone of Aeration – Portion of ground through which water passes until the water reaches the zone of saturation.
    • Zone of Saturation – Portion of saturated ground with an upper boundary called the water table.
    • Water Table – The top of the zone of saturation
  • 17. Ground Water
  • 18. Ground Water
    • Ground Water can be easily contaminated by:
    • Landfills
    • Herbicides
    • Fertilizers
    • Underground Storage Tanks (gasoline)
    • Oils
    • Failed Septic Systems
  • 19. Ground Water
    • 4. Capillarity – upward movement of water against the force of gravity in a narrow space, such as a tube, plant vessel, or fine sand particles.
      • The smaller the particle size the better the capillarity
  • 20. C. Surface Water & Runoff
    • Surface Water – Water which does not infiltrate or evaporate (ponds, streams, lakes, etc)
    • Runoff – When water moves over the surface of the Earth .
      • Occurs when rainfall exceeds permeability rate or slope of the surface is too steep to allow infiltration to occur.
  • 21. Climate [9 min]
  • 22. Climate
    • Climate is the average temperature and moisture conditions over a long period of time.
    • Water Budget – a system of accounting for moisture income, storage, and outgo for the soil in a specific area.
  • 23. A. Water Budget
    • Potential Evapotranspiration (PE ): All the water that could enter the air from plants and evaporation.
    • Precipitation (P) : All moisture from the atmosphere; rain, snow, hail and sleet.
      • Storage : Amount of water stored in soil, snow & surface water.
      • Usage : water evaporated or used = storage decreases.
      • Recharge: Precipitation.
  • 24.
    • Surplus : Water above what is lost naturally from the soil (when P is greater than PE)
    • Humid climates are those in which the total amount of P is greater than the total amount of PE
  • 25.
    • Deficit : Water that would be lost above what is in the soil if it were present (when P is less than PE)
    • Arid climates have significantly more total PE than P
  • 26. 2. Climate Pattern Factors
    • Latitude
      • Most important factor in determining climate, especially temperatures
      • Controlled by INcoming SOLAr radiaTION (Insolation)
  • 27.
    • As latitude increases , yearly temperature range (difference between highest and lowest temperature) increases .
  • 28.
    • Elevation
    • As elevation increases , average yearly temperature decreases .
  • 29.
    • Large Bodies of Water – moderate coastal climates because water keeps heat longer!
    Kansas, NE, IA, Syracuse San Francisco, LA, DC Example: Colder than Ave. (Harsh) Warmer than Ave. (Mild) Winters: Warmer than average (HOT) Cooler than Average (Mild) Summers: LAND OCEAN Winds from: Interior (land) Ocean/large lake Location: Continental Marine
  • 30. Orographic Effect and Cloud Formation
  • 31.
    • Orographic Effect
      • Orographic Effect – Mountains act as barriers to prevailing winds. As the wind hits the windward side of a mountain, the air is forced up, cools, condenses and forms clouds with precipitation.
      • Windward side – Side of the mountain that is exposed to the wind. WET
      • Leeward Side – Descending air warms and it holds more moisture, making it DRY .
  • 32. WINDWARD LEEWARD Prevailing Wind Air Rises, Expands & Cools Air Sinks, Compresses & Warms Affects of Mountains on Weather and Climate *Why does rising air cool? *As air temperature decreases, its ability to hold water___________ *Why does falling air warm? Cascade Mountains Condensation & Precipitation Now Answer the questions on page 12
  • 33.
    • Ocean Currents
    • The "Global Conveyer Belt" shows how the oceans move energy from the tropics to the poles and back again in order to moderate Earth's climate. This is accomplished through long-term ocean circulation.
    • Interesting fact: It takes up to 1000 years for water to completely circulate the oceans!
  • 34.
    • Surface Currents – like huge “rivers” in the ocean
      • Can be found on page 4 of the ESRT
  • 35.
    • El Nino
    • A warm ocean current resulting from a reversal of the ocean current in the Pacific which results in climate variability .
  • 36.
    • Wind Belts
      • Uneven heating of the Earth produces global wind belts and pressure belts. These “pressure belts” determine the wetness or dryness of a particular location. Low pressure occurs where air is rising and thus precipitation occurs. High pressure regions are areas that lack rainfall (DRY).
  • 37. You can find the planetary wind belt diagram on your ESRT page 14 Complete the worksheet on page 15 using your ESRT! Due tomorrow!