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Truth vs. Validity


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  • 1. Validity
    To Critical Thinking
    By: Lori Khoury
    October 4, 2011
  • 2. Topics:
    • What is Communication?
    • 3. What are levels of Communication?
    • 4. Types of Communication
    • 5. Verbal Communication vs. Nonverbal Communication
    • 6. What is Truth?
    • 7. An example of truth
    • 8. What is Validity?
    • 9. An example of validity
    • 10. What is the difference between Truth vs. Validity
    • 11. The Continuum of Argumentative Certainty
    • 12. Conclusion
  • What is Communication?
    • Communication is referred to as the act by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback.
    • 13. Transmission model of communication
    • Sender Message Channel Receiver
    • 14. Sender-is the source of the message
    • 15. Message-is the content of the communication
    • 16. Channel-is the medium through which message must pass
    • 17. Receiver-is the target audience of the message
  • Types of Communication
    Sign Language
    Face to face
  • 18. Two levels of Communication:
    • There are two levels of Communication:
    • 19. Verbal-is defined as any means of communicating
    that uses language (words, numbers or
    • Nonverbal-is defined as the exchange of messages
    through non-linguistic means which
    consist of body language, facial
    expression, physical appearance,
    tone of voice, and much more.
  • 20. Verbal Communication
  • 21. What is Truth?
    • Truth is defined as accurately describes or reflects reality
    • 22. Truth with capital “T” means the ultimate accurate position on a situation or interpretation of an event.
    • 23. Truth with small “t” means what someone believes as being the only answer to a situation or only interpretation of an event.
    • 24. For example; there either is or is not a god.
    • 25. Since these two are mutually exclusive and opposite, only one of these statements can be true.
  • What is Validity?
    • Validity is defined as a measurement of how
    certain we are of any situation.
    • Threshold is specific location on the Continuum
    of Certain where we accept argument.
    • In the end is the argument “valid” enough to be accept
    • 26. Three types of Validity
    • 27. Internal-able to make a casual statement
    about what happened
    • External-able to generalize your results
    to other people
    • Construct-able to manipulate others to agree with you
  • Difference between Truth & Validity
    • There is only one Truth, there can be many reasonable positions
    • 28. Absolute truth can never change, but new valid evidence are created and discovered
    • 29. Truth is created internally
    • 30. Validity is based on external information. It is okay to change your view as new evidence are being brought up
    • 31. Science and the law uses validity to prove a point not the truth. There is no way that we can know the absolute truth about a scientific principle or if a man is innocent or guilty
  • The Continuum of Argumentative Certainty
    Opinion Assertion Inference Fact
  • 32. Conclusion
    • As critical thinkers, like science and law we too prefer validity over the truth
    • 33. All the decisions we make is made by validity nor the truth
    • 34. We prefer validity because we are open minded when it comes new evidence being found
    • 35. Best way to put is validity equals facts and truth does not equal validity