Truth vs. Validity


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Truth vs. Validity

  1. 1. Validity<br />Vs. <br />Truth<br /> To Critical Thinking<br />By: Lori Khoury<br />October 4, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Topics:<br /><ul><li>What is Communication?
  3. 3. What are levels of Communication?
  4. 4. Types of Communication
  5. 5. Verbal Communication vs. Nonverbal Communication
  6. 6. What is Truth?
  7. 7. An example of truth
  8. 8. What is Validity?
  9. 9. An example of validity
  10. 10. What is the difference between Truth vs. Validity
  11. 11. The Continuum of Argumentative Certainty
  12. 12. Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>What is Communication?<br /><ul><li>Communication is referred to as the act by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback.
  13. 13. Transmission model of communication</li></ul>EncodesDecodes<br /><ul><li>Sender Message Channel Receiver
  14. 14. Sender-is the source of the message
  15. 15. Message-is the content of the communication
  16. 16. Channel-is the medium through which message must pass
  17. 17. Receiver-is the target audience of the message</li></li></ul><li>Types of Communication<br />Telephone<br />Sign Language<br />Face to face<br />Cyberspace<br />Nonverbal<br />
  18. 18. Two levels of Communication:<br /><ul><li>There are two levels of Communication:
  19. 19. Verbal-is defined as any means of communicating </li></ul>that uses language (words, numbers or<br />symbols).<br /><ul><li>Nonverbal-is defined as the exchange of messages</li></ul> through non-linguistic means which<br /> consist of body language, facial <br /> expression, physical appearance, <br /> tone of voice, and much more. <br />
  20. 20. Verbal Communication<br /> Nonverbal<br />Communication<br />VS.<br />
  21. 21. What is Truth?<br /><ul><li>Truth is defined as accurately describes or reflects reality
  22. 22. Truth with capital “T” means the ultimate accurate position on a situation or interpretation of an event.
  23. 23. Truth with small “t” means what someone believes as being the only answer to a situation or only interpretation of an event.
  24. 24. For example; there either is or is not a god.
  25. 25. Since these two are mutually exclusive and opposite, only one of these statements can be true. </li></li></ul><li>What is Validity?<br /><ul><li>Validity is defined as a measurement of how </li></ul> certain we are of any situation.<br /><ul><li>Threshold is specific location on the Continuum</li></ul> of Certain where we accept argument.<br /><ul><li>In the end is the argument “valid” enough to be accept
  26. 26. Three types of Validity
  27. 27. Internal-able to make a casual statement </li></ul> about what happened<br /><ul><li>External-able to generalize your results </li></ul> to other people<br /><ul><li>Construct-able to manipulate others to agree with you</li></li></ul><li>Difference between Truth & Validity <br /><ul><li>There is only one Truth, there can be many reasonable positions
  28. 28. Absolute truth can never change, but new valid evidence are created and discovered
  29. 29. Truth is created internally
  30. 30. Validity is based on external information. It is okay to change your view as new evidence are being brought up
  31. 31. Science and the law uses validity to prove a point not the truth. There is no way that we can know the absolute truth about a scientific principle or if a man is innocent or guilty</li></li></ul><li>The Continuum of Argumentative Certainty <br />Opinion Assertion Inference Fact<br />0%--------25%--------------50%------------75%-------99%<br />
  32. 32. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>As critical thinkers, like science and law we too prefer validity over the truth
  33. 33. All the decisions we make is made by validity nor the truth
  34. 34. We prefer validity because we are open minded when it comes new evidence being found
  35. 35. Best way to put is validity equals facts and truth does not equal validity</li>