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Useful words• language [ˈ læŋgwɪdʒ] - kalba• invade – įsiveržti, užgrobti• tribe - gentis• similar - panašus• develop – vystyti, plėsti, tobulinti• lower class – žemesnioji/darbininkų klasė• upper class – aukštuomenės klasė• dominant – vyraujantis, dominuojantis• introduce - supažindinti; pristatyti, įvesti
A short history of EnglishThe history of the English language started withthe arrival of three Germanic tribes who invadedBritain during the 5th century AD. These tribes,the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossedthe North Sea from what today is Denmark andnorthern Germany. At that time people ofBritain spoke a Celtic language. The Angles camefrom Englaland and their language was calledEnglisc - from which the words England andEnglish are derived 1.1 kilti
Old English (450-1100 AD)The invading Germanic tribes spoke similarlanguages, which in Britain developed into whatwe now called Old English. Old English did notsound or look like English today. Now it would bedifficult for English speakers to understand OldEnglish. However, about half of the words usedin Modern English have Old English roots1. Thewords be, strong and water, for example, derivefrom Old English. Old English was spoken untilaround 1100.1 šaknis
Part of Beowulf, a poem written in Old English
Middle English (1100-1500)In 1066 William the Conqueror[ˈ kɒŋkərə],occupied England. The Normans broughtFrench. At that time the lower classes spokeEnglish and the upper classes spoke French. Inthe 14th century English became dominant inBritain again, but with many French words. Thislanguage is called Middle English, but it wouldstill be difficult for English speakers tounderstand today.
An example of Middle English by Chaucer
Early Modern EnglishFrom the 16th century the British had contacts withmany peoples from around the world. This and theperiod of Renaissance introduced many new wordsand phrases. The invention of printing also meantthat there was a common language1 in print. Booksbecame cheaper and more people learned to read.Printing also brought standardization to English.Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialectof London became the standard. In 1604 the firstEnglish dictionary was published.1 bendrinė kalba
Hamlets famous "To be, or not to be" lines,written in Early Modern English by Shakespeare.
Late Modern EnglishThe main difference between Early ModernEnglish and Late Modern English is vocabulary.Late Modern English has many more words,which were created, firstly, during the IndustrialRevolution and technology; secondly, the BritishEmpire had a lot of colonies and the Englishlanguage adopted1 foreign words from manycountries.1 skolintis, paimti
Varieties of EnglishToday, American English is very influential 1, dueto the USAs dominance of cinema, television,popular music, trade and technology (includingthe Internet). But there are many other varieties2of English around the world, including, forexample, Australian English, New ZealandEnglish, Canadian English, South African English,Indian English and Caribbean English.1 įtakingas 2įvairovė
Match the sentences T (true)/F (false)1. Old English developed from similar Germanic language.2. Modern English is very different from Old English.3. Upper and lower classes spoke the same language.4. It is easy to understand Middle English for English speakers.5. A lot of new words appeared in English only during the Industrial Revolution.