Solar sailor project report newest rev

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Solar sailor project report newest rev

  1. 1. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Project Report Interactive Educational Game Prepared by: Victor Arosemena, William McNally, Anthony Santistevan, Jeremy Struebing, Taylor DeIaco, Joe Rodriguez, Loren Karl Schwappach and Noemi Reyes Wikstrom. EE490 – EE491 Product Design Series Capstone Project Team DRAFT – Revision 2BCreative Solutions Team LLCColorado Technical University4435 N. Chestnut StreetColorado Springs, CO 80907 Accepted by: Professor Dr. Kathy Kasley Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering Colorado Technical University June 2011
  2. 2. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report CREATIVE SOLUTIONS DESIGN TEAMVictor Arosemena Senior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerTaylor DeIaco Junior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerWilliam McNally Senior Undergraduate Computer EngineerJoe Rodriguez Junior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerAnthony Santistevan Senior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerLoren Schwappach Senior Undergraduate Computer/Electrical EngineerJeremy Struebing Junior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerNoemi R. Wikstrom Senior Undergraduate Electrical Engineer 2|Page
  3. 3. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report RECORD OF REVISIONRevision Description Name Date 1A Drafted Volume I. Changes EE490 Report NRW 05/07/2011 1B Correction on Grammar Errors WM 05/20/2011 1B Adding Information and Format NRW 05/24/2011 1C Entered frame & Air flow system descriptions/figures VA 05/24/2011 from previous. Updated figure reference numbers. 1C User‟s Demographics NRW 05/25/2011 1D Add Instructions in Spanish NRW 05/26/2011 2A Editing of the Report NRW 06/10/2011 2B Editing of Report added information on Power LKS 06/16/2011 Distribution/Play Surface/Air Flow System/Home Base/Power Systems/Graphics. 3|Page
  4. 4. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe Creative Solutions Team, LLC would like to acknowledge and extend a heartfelt gratitude tothe following persons and companies who have made the completion of the Solar SailorInteractive Educational Game possible:Our Dean, Dr. Kathy Kasley, for her vital encouragement, guidance and support.All Colorado Technical University, Department of IT and Computer and Electrical Engineeringfaculty members and Staff.To Mrs. Deborah Thornton from the Kennedy Imagination Celebration Center, for the inspirationshe extended.To Mr. Barry Farley from the Chimaera Group for his contribution and creative inspiration in thedesign of the backdrop board.To Mr. Mike Studebaker from Anthony‟s Manufacturing service for his amazing craftsmanshipand precious time dedicated in the construction of the Solar Sailor‟s metal frame.To Anthony Sharer for the printing of the Informational display, Backdrop display and UserInterface displays.To Scott Phelps for his contribution on the design and construction of the plastic resin moldingand materials of the Shuttle for the Solar Sailor Project.To Michaela Schwappach for her cheerful disposition and constant reminder of our primarycustomer, the Children of Colorado Springs.To Frank VLcek for allowed us the use of his tools in the construction of the Solar Sailor IEG.To Analog Devices for donating the ADuC7026 microcontroller unit, vital to the communicationsystem of the Solar Sailor IEG.A very special thank you to one our own team members, Mr. William McNally for sharing hisknowledge and experience with all of us.Most especially to our family and friends.And to God, who made all things possible. 4|Page
  5. 5. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report ABSTRACTThe Solar Sailor Interactive Educational Game project report provides the game definition,block diagram with interfaces and individual components design details, operating instructions,testing, costs and trade-offs.This includes:  User Interface  Acceptance Testing Checklist  Safety Concerns  Components and Connections  Design Trade-Offs  Conclusion 5|Page
  6. 6. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportTable of ContentsCREATIVE SOLUTIONS DESIGN TEAM ................................................................................................ 2RECORD OF REVISION............................................................................................................................. 3ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 4ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................................. 5LIST OF ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................ 8Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 9 Project Requirement Objectives.............................................................................................................. 10 Product Overview ................................................................................................................................... 10 Product Use Constraints .......................................................................................................................... 11 Engineering Constraints .......................................................................................................................... 11 Assumptions............................................................................................................................................ 11 Users of the Game ................................................................................................................................... 11 User‟s demographics ............................................................................................................................... 12 How to Play the Game ............................................................................................................................ 13 Game Interface ........................................................................................................................................ 14 Acceptance Checklist .............................................................................................................................. 19 Safety Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 20High Level Block Diagram ......................................................................................................................... 22Components and Connections..................................................................................................................... 23 Game Control .......................................................................................................................................... 23 Play Area................................................................................................................................................. 27 Air Flow System ..................................................................................................................................... 30 Informational Display Board, Backdrop and User Interface graphics .................................................... 41 Spaceship Component ............................................................................................................................. 43 Planet Driver Component ....................................................................................................................... 47 Power Distribution .................................................................................................................................. 53 Light Power ............................................................................................................................................. 56 Control Logic ........................................................................................................................................... 58 Microcontroller Unit ............................................................................................................................... 59 Design Trade-Offs .................................................................................................................................. 62 6|Page
  7. 7. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportDesign Cycle ............................................................................................................................................... 63CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 66 7|Page
  8. 8. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportLIST OF ACRONYMS Acronym Definition of Term AFS Air Flow System ARS Air Return System AWG American Wire Gage CFM Cubic Feet per Minute CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission EDS Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive IEG Interactive Educational Game LCD Liquid Crystal Display LED Light-Emitting Diode MCU Microcontroller NEC National Electric Code PWM Pulse-width Modulation RF Radio Frequency RPM Revolutions Per Minute SS Solar Sailor SSE Solar Sailor Explorer STEAM Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics UI User Interface 8|Page
  9. 9. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportIntroduction The Creative Solutions Team has designed an educational, interactive, astronomy gamewhose purpose is to teach children about the solar system and orbital mechanics. The SolarSailor is designed to expose the player to some aspects of the science behind space travel. Theobjective of this project report is to provide a detail account of the design process andconstruction of the Solar Sailor Interactive Educational Game. The final product will be donatedto the Kennedy Center Imagination Celebration. The Kennedy Center Imagination Celebration isan independent foundation that serves the community by providing arts, science and educationalprograms to children in the Pikes Peak Region. Figure 1: Solar Sailor Features 9|Page
  10. 10. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure 1 Solar Sailor Features 1 User Interface Panel 2 Mission Select Button and Indicator Panel 3 Success and Failure Indicators 4 Home base 5 Shuttle 6 Rotating Planet 7 Game Play Surface 8 Air Return Rails 9 Creative Backdrop 10 Power Lights 11 Clear Windows (on both sides) Table 1: Solar Sailor Features as depicted on Figure 1.Project Requirement Objectives The primary objectives for the Solar Sailor include:  Demonstrate the concept of frictionless space.  Provide an interactive learning tool for engaging astronomical information.  Exhibit the mechanics involved in space vehicle thrust.  Teach children the importance of fuel conservation in space exploration.  Present the physics of planetary motion around a solar body.Product Overview The Solar Sailor interactive game is design to be played as an enclosed system containedwithin approximately 8 ft. high by 4 ft. 10 inches wide by 4 ft. 6 inches long table. Within thesedimensions the system can be broken up into three primary levels. The top of the Solar Sailorsystem will be contained within a transparent Plexiglas cover and overhead lighting system. Thefirst level of the system contains the play field of the table. This level contains two objects, acentral model sun and an orbiting planet. The planet will rotate around the playfield in a circularsolar orbit at various speeds determined by the player selected planetary mission. This motion isachieved via a mechanical arm connected to the central sun and controlled by a game controller. An air propelled rover (spaceship) will be navigated by the user over a table similar to airhockey game (demonstrating frictionless space). The player will be given a mission to visit oneof the eight planetary bodies in our solar system. The player will then proceed to navigate the airpropelled space ship using a limited amount of fuel (represented by time) to the planet. If the 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportspaceship reaches the planet, then the planet will flash/illuminate and an LCD will displayplanetary facts, the distance covered, and amount of fuel used. Thereafter the LCD will providethe player with their next planetary mission after positioning the spaceship back at home base. Ifthe player fails to reach the planet (runs out of fuel) the LCD will inform the user of the missionfailure and reset the system for the next attempt.Product Use Constraints The SS shall require AC power and should be located within 3 feet of a 110 volts electricreceptacle. The game shall be contained within a large table with a locked removable sideopening for service and repair. To ensure the safety of the users, no individual is allowed totouch the internal components of the system without a thorough understanding of the electricaland mechanical components of the design.Engineering Constraints The complete cost for the project shall not exceed the amount of $800.00 USD. Theactual cost of the project is $1634.45 approved by the costumer. (See Appendix/Part Lists) Thedesign shall be light enough for transportation, no more than 200 pounds. The design shall be asrobust and reliable as possible, since no maintenance will be provided by the Creative Solutionsteam after the completion of the project. The life expectancy of all components of the designshall be greater than 3 years without maintenance.Assumptions Product assumptions for the SS system include: Users are a minimum of 3 feet 6 inchesin height. (See Appendix/Height Chart) The SS will be contained within the ImaginationCelebration at the Citadel Mall in a conditioned indoor environment with standard temperature,humidity, and air quality. The SS will be provided a local conditioned 120VAC power source.The SS will sits on a flat, level floor.Users of the Game The Solar Sailor is intended to be played by children from the ages of six to twelve years old, butit can be challenging to all ages. The game is designed to provide visual clues and auditory referencesthroughout the game to assist younger players in navigating the Shuttle for successful missioncompletion. Adult supervision is required for children 8 years and younger; in compliance with theConsumer Product Safety Commission (http://www.cpsc.gov). Users should be no less than 3‟6‟‟ inheight to reach the User Interface control panel. A first grade reading level or higher is suggested for 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportunderstanding the information provided via the Solar Sailor informational display and additionalinformation covered on the informational display board (backdrop poster board). The user will requiremotor skills as necessary to operate the joystick, and select one of the planetary missions.User’s demographicsEdited by Noemi Wikstrom As part of the design process is necessary to research the product‟s target audience. Thegame is designed to fulfill the needs of our primary customer. As stated before, the Solar Sailoris an Interactive Educational Game. The Solar Sailor game target audience is children ages six totwelve years old in the Pikes Peak Region who visits the Imagination Celebration Center. One of the major concerns in the design on the Solar Sailor was to provide a console thatwill be ergonomically efficient for our target audience. The average height of 6 year old child is3 feet six inches (see Appendix/ Growth Chart). The Creative Solutions team designed theControl Panel for the Solar Sailor Game slanted downwards in a 45 degree angle thus making thejoystick, the mission select buttons and the LCD available to the user. Safety measures andconsiderations in the design process will be discussed further in this publication under the SafetySummary Section. In a study conducted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission relating tochildren‟s age to toy characteristics and play behavior it shows that computer and interactiveeducational games for children on the age group six to eight years old are increasinglysophisticated. These children can use a joystick to move objects, and can use bothnavigational systems and exploratory programs and are very attracted to console and handheld scientific games. Children from ages ranging from 9 to 12 years old are interested in complex gameswith complex subjects, music creation games, and educational games like multimediaactivities. They enjoy games based on popular sports and activities, like skating and complexfantasy games. This age group depending on their experience can have very sophisticatedcomputer skills. Children play with audiovisual equipment at different ages. The volumelevel, length of the game, visual images, language presentation and content/themerepresented in the game determines the age for which the game is appropriate. [38] The Creative Solutions team took the above criteria in consideration when designingthe Solar Sailor game. The Solar Sailor provides an educational aspect at the inclusion ofplanetary and physics facts in addition offer the experience of maneuvering a space shuttle ina frictionless environment. All of these aspects are related to the Science of Astronomy.Another aspect of our research led us to the inclusion Spanish instructions in the game console.According with the U.S. Census Bureau 12% of the population in Colorado Springs is Hispanicor Latino origin. (http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/08/0816000.html) The users of the Solar 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportSailor game will have the opportunity to listen to the instructions in English or Spanish. Audioinstructions are included to reinforce and ease the experience of our younger players.How to Play the Game Lead Engineer: Taylor DeIaco, Alternate Bill McNally. Audio recorded by Noemi Wikstrom andLoren Schwappach. Instructions and Editing by Noemi Wikstrom.Goal of the Game The player must navigate the Solar Sailor Shuttle from home base using the joystick andland the Shuttle near the mission selected rotating planet before exhausting their limited fuelsupply.Contents of the GameA PlayfieldA sun replicaA rotating planetA RF Controlled ShuttleJoystickFuel gaugeInformational DisplayStart/Reset ButtonsMission Selection buttonsGame InstructionsInformational Display Board (Back drop poster board)Game Instructions 1. Press START button to begin 2. Select a mission by pressing the button of your chosen planetary destination. 3. Wait for the countdown to complete. 4. Use the joystick to rotate and propel your Solar Sailor Shuttle to the planet. 5. Monitor the Fuel Gauge. 6. Try to land on the Planet 7. Do not run out of fuel. 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportGame InterfaceThe user will be provided visual instructions written in English and Spanish displayed on the UserInterface and on the LCD. The user will also be presented with audio instructions recorded by NoemiWikstrom (Spanish) and Loren Schwappach (English). After the user finishes reading/hearing the initialinstruction the user will then initiate the game by pressing Start as currently being prompted by the audioand LCD: “SOLAR SAILOR PRESS START TO BEGIN” Spanish: “EXPLORADOR SOLAR PRESSIONE EL BOTON DE INICIO” Auditory clue: Press Start to continue. (Pause, 30 seconds, message repeats) Spanish: Presione el botón de inicio para continuar.The start button will be pressed which will display the following on the LCD: “SELECT MISSION WITH MISSION SELECT BUTTONS”Spanish: “SELECCIONE LA MISION UTILIZANDO LOS BOTONES DE SELECTIONPLANETARIA” Auditory clue: Select the Mission using the Mission Select Buttons in the Control Panel. The Mission Select Buttons are located in the right hand side of the Control Panel indicating the planet‟s name: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Seleccione la misión utilizando los botones de selección planetaria. Los botones de selección planetaria están localizados a la mano derecha de panel de controles indicando el nombre de los planetas: Mercurio, Venus, Planeta Tierra, Martes, Júpiter, Saturno, Urano y Neptuno. Once the user selects the mission, as the menu states, the overhead lighting will turn onand the air table will be activated levitating the shuttle and simulating frictionless space. Theplanet motor will also begin to drive the planet at the appropriate speed as determined by theplayer selected mission. The RF communication system will allow the shuttle to communicatewith the game controller to provide future control to the user. A blastoff countdown timer willthen be displayed on the informational display to prepare the user for blast-off and user control.The user will not have control of the Shuttle until the blastoff countdown timer reaches zero. LCD will display a graphic indicating a 10 – 0 countdown: 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Auditory clue: Beginning of Blast off, all stations ready: (Pause 3 seconds) 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0. Comienzo de cuenta regresiva. (Pausa de 3 segundos) Diez, nueve, ocho, siete, seis, cinco, cuatro, tres. dos, uno, zero. Once the blast off countdown timer reaches zero the LCD will display: “BLAST OFF! Auditory Clue: BLAST OFF! DESPEGUE! The fuel gauge will then show full and the user will be able to use the joystick tonavigate/control the shuttle. The LCD will display the following message: FUEL GAUGE – FULL Auditory Clue: Monitor the Fuel Gauge. Use the propulsion system carefully, you have limited amount of fuel to reach the planet. Each time you move the joystick, the fuel will be depleted. Plan your mission accordingly. Observe la válvula de combustible. Use el sistema de propulsión cuidadosamente, solo tiene una cantidad limitada de combustible para alcanzar el planeta. Cada vez que mueva la palanca de control agotara los niveles de combustible. Calcule la misión en respecto de los niveles de combustible disponible. The user will control the shuttle with the directional joystick. Pressing forward or reversewill thrust the shuttle forward or backward using the shuttles fan system. Pressing left and rightwill rotate the shuttle around its middle axis. Whenever the user thrusts the shuttle, the shuttlefuel indicator will deplete according to how long the fans are used. LCD will display the following message: “USE THE JOYSTICK TO ROTATE AND PROPEL YOUR SOLAR SAILOR SHUTTLE TO THE PLANET” “UTILICE LA PALANCA DE CONTROL PARA HACER GIRAR Y ACELERAR LA NAVE ESPACIAL HACIA EL PLANETA” 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Auditory Clue: USE THE JOYSTICK TO ROTATE AND PROPEL YOUR SOLAR SAILOR SHUTTLE TO THE PLANET. Push up to propel the shuttle in a forward movement. Push left to rotate the shuttle in a clockwise movement. Push right to rotate the shuttle in a counterclockwise movement. Push down to propel the shuttle backwards. Utilice la palanca de control para hacer girar y acelerar la nave especial hacia el planeta. Presione hacia arriba para mover la nave espacial en movimiento directo. Presione hacia la derecha para mover la nave espacial en movimiento lateral Este. Presione hacia la izquierda para mover la nave espacial en movimiento lateral Oeste. Presione hacia abajo para mover la nave espacial en movimiento reverso. The player will maneuver the shuttle to the outside edge of the rotating planet in order to“dock” or “land” on the planet. LCD will display the following message: “TRY TO LAND ON THE PLANET” “TRATE ALCANZAR EL PLANETA” Auditory Clue: Try to land on the Planet. The shuttle should hover closely to the planet for at least 5 seconds. Trate de alcanzar el planeta. La nave espacial deberá aterrizar cerca del planeta por al menos 5 segundos. If the shuttle docks on the planet, before the shuttle fuel is depleted, this indicates asuccessful mission. The user will be congratulated with flashing lights and a message from anLED on the Control Panel: “CONGRATULATIONS! PLANET REACHED. MISSION SUCCESS!” “FELICITACIONES! HA ATERRIZADO EN EL PLANETA. LA MISION EXITOSA! <<PAUSE>> Auditory Clue: Congratulations! You have completed the mission. (Music will play for 30 seconds) Felicitaciones, usted ha completado la misión.This will initiate a reset for a new game to be played. 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report If the fuel is fully depleted before the shuttle lands on the planet, the mission is failed. Afailure notification will be displayed on the Control Panel: “MISSION FAILED. TRY AGAIN” MISION FALLIDA. TRATE DE NUEVO. <<PAUSE>> Auditory Clue: Mission Failed. Please try again. (Music will play for 30 seconds) Misión Fallida. Por favor trate de nuevo. Upon the fuel being exhausted the air system and lights will turn for a period of 30seconds. This will give the player the illusion of being stranded in space. After the 30 secondtimer has expired the game will enter the shuttle return mode. The air system and lights willagain turn on and also the shuttle return air system will also be enabled. The system will stay inthis mode till the shuttle arrives at the home port tripping the magnetic sensor and returning thegame to its idle state. Figure 1: User Interface Panel The user interface is shown in Figure 1 above. The LCD display will output various directives tohelp the user play the game. Number 2, is the fuel gauge, which displays the remaining fuel for theshuttle. Number 3 shows the joystick which is used to direct the shuttle in the four directions. Finally,the Start and Reset button are self explanatory.Figure 2: Solar Sailor user interface panel. 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 3: Solar Sailor play surface. On the play field a fan propelled shuttle (puck) will be levitated during play by an air hockey liketable design. The air table is used by the Solar Sailor to simulate a frictionless surface. The player willselect a mission via the control panel display (Figure 2) using the mission selection buttons (Figure 1item 2). The player will have a limited amount of fuel available to reach their chosen planetarydestination, and this limit will be indicated by the fuel gauge display located on the control panel(Figure 1 part 4). If the Shuttle is successfully navigated by the user to the planet (before running out offuel), a magnetic sensor on the rotating planet will transmits a mission success message to the gamecontroller, and an LED on the far end of the playfield will illuminate indicating a green “Congratulations– Mission Complete” if the mission was successful or a red “Mission Failure” LED if the mission wasunsuccessful. The informational display will also display facts to the player about the completed mission. Onceeither mission success or failure is detected the simulation will pause (the planet will stop rotating, theShuttle will no longer be levitated, and the primary lighting will turn off) to allow the user to take inmission success/failure. After a set amount of time the system will then reset by initiating directionalairflow to return the Shuttle to home base. The system will then provide the player the option to selecttheir next planetary mission. The active/inactive players will also have an informational display boardlocated behind the Solar Sailor game relative to the control panel. This display will be approximately 3feet height by 6 feet wide. On this informational display board will be accurate information and picturesof the various Solar Sailor planetary missions to include astronomical information, physics equations andrelative size and distances of each body from the sun as well as relevant information/equations pertainingto the concepts used in the Solar Sailor system game. 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportAcceptance ChecklistItem Criteria Verifications Fail Pass1.0 Solar Sailor system The game is connected to the power source turns on1.1 Informational display Informational Display (LCD) shows message turns on “Solar Sailor Press Start to begin”2.0 Start Button functional Game is waiting to start ON = Start Idle = Reset (approximately 2 minutes of inactivity)2.1 Mission Selection Press each Planetary Mission Buttons Functional Rotating Planet will move, the speed depending upon the selection.2.2 Shuttle is functional Using the joystick, the shuttle moves back, forward, counterclockwise and clockwise. Mission Complete – Shuttle Reach Planet Mission Failure – Shuttle remains inactive for more than 2 minutes Mission Failure – Shuttle navigates until fuel is exhausted.2.3 Planet Driver Planet Driver moves at selected speed Functional Planet Driver Stops when Shuttle Reach the planet Planet Driver Stops when game is Idle (after two minutes of inactivity)2.4 Joystick is functional Joystick inactive until countdown reaches zero Shuttle moves forward, backwards, clockwise and counterclockwise2.5 Fuel Gauge Functional LEDs show fuel when game starts LEDs decrease after joystick is moved LEDs show fuel empty after joystick is moved a maximum of 15 times3.0 Playfield Functional Shuttle Lifts up when air compressor turns on Shuttle returns to home base when side fans turns on Air compressor turns off when game is on idle mode. Air Compressor turns on, when game starts Air Compressor turns off, when mission fails4.0 Control Panel Informational Display provides instructions to the Functional player Informational Display prompt player to press start Informational Display shows countdown Informational Display provide player with planetary facts Mission Complete LED turns on Mission Failed LED turns on 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportSafety SummaryEdited by: Noemi Wikstrom, Safety Labels engineered/added by: Loren Schwappach The primary consideration for safety in the design of the Solar Sailor is to assure that theuse of the interactive game does not cause injury to the user. Creative Solutions alsoacknowledge that safety can also extend beyond human injury to include property damage andenvironmental damage. Therefore; the Creative Solutions teams have also consider the issues ofsafety in design because of liability arising from the use of an unsafe product. Liability refers tothe manufacturer of a machine or product being liable, or financially responsible, for any injuryor damage resulting from the use of an unsafe product. [2] To assure that the Solar SailorInteractive game will not cause injury or loss, the Creative Solutions Team design safety into theproduct. Each component and section in this report will include the safety considerations andmeasures taken by the designers to provide a safe product to our customers. The Solar Sailor Game was designed as enclosed system due to safety considerations.The primary target audience of the product is children. By making the moving parts, electricalcomponents and small components inaccessible to the user, the Solar Sailor prevents electricalhazards, shocking hazards and potential damage to the equipment. Enclosing the system alsoprovides durability to the components of the game. Another important safety feature of the Solar Sailor Game is the tampered switch addedto the back panel. The purpose of the tampered switch is to shut-off all power to the game oncethe utility door on the side of the game is open. The utility door provides access to internalcomponents such as the MCU and the Air Compressor. As an extra safety measure Warning, Caution and Note labels are also included on theSolar Sailor Game. The safety labels include labels informing the user to remove power beforeopening the access panel, warning the user not to touch the hot air ventilation system near thelights, informing the user of the systems weight and that multiple people are required to lift /remove the top, and informing the user of the risk of electric shock, high current devices andpower warnings both inside the system and outside. The following are general safety precautions that are not related to any specific procedureand therefore do not appear elsewhere in this publication. The safety recommendations must befollowed during the operations and maintenance of the Solar Sailor IEG. [3]Electrical Precautions Safety regulations must be observed at all times. Under certain conditions, dangerouspotentials may exist in circuits with power control in the OFF position because of the chargesretained by capacitors. To avoid casualties, before touching circuits, always remove power,discharge, and ground the circuits. Under no circumstances should any person reach within or 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportenter an enclosure for the purpose of servicing or adjusting the equipment without the presenceor assistance of another person capable of rendering aid.Notes, Cautions, and Warnings The following warnings and cautions appear in the text of the Project Report and repeatedhere for emphasis.  Ensure that all systems are grounded to prevent electrical shock.  Ensure that all electrical circuits are de-energized. The printed circuit boards contain Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive (EDS) devices.Improper board handling could result in damage of the board. The following precautions arerecommended when handling the board:  Make sure you are grounded electrically by using a wrist strap connected to an electrically grounded component or physically touching the chassis or something electrically connected to the chassis. Any movement can generate a damaging static voltage. Additional discharging to a known ground may be needed after movement.  Handle circuit boards by the edge only. Do not touch the printed circuitry or the connector pins on the circuit cards.Notes, Cautions, and Warnings are applied under the conditions described below: Note A NOTE statement is used to notify people of installation, operations, programming, or maintenance information that are important, but not hazard-related. Caution CAUTION indicated a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices. Warning WARNING indicates potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. For a detailed explanation and further safety considerations please refer to the UserManual and Safety Instructions in the Appendix section. 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportTamper SwitchLead Engineers and Designers: William McNally and Noemi Wikstrom, Installed by: LorenSchwappach End switches or tamper switch are typically wired to a component serving as an open/notopen indicator. When the tamper is powered open, one of the tamper blades makes contact withthe spring rod of the end of the switch which in turn makes a connection allowing power to flowto the Solar Sailor. This set up is used as a safety precaution, to ensure that all components of thegame are powered off when the access panel is open during maintenance or servicing of thegame. The following figure shows the tamper switch component in the lower back panel of theSolar Sailor. Figure S1: Tamper SwitchHigh Level Block DiagramCreated by: Loren Schwappach, Edited by: Noemi Wikstrom The Solar Sailor will have several hardware components that will directly interact withthe MCU. The microcontroller will provide commands to turn on and off the air table, lights, andreturn fans, and directives to adjust the speed and sensors to indicate when the spaceship hasreached its destination (home base or planet). Each sensor has a specific purpose in the overalldesign mainly to define the states that will enable and reset the condition of the main controller. 22 | P a g e
  23. 23. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The figure below provides a representation of the main controller interface in the SolarSailor Design. The figure below is a representation of the system Hardware Interface. Figure 4: Solar Sailor (Power & Communication) Block Diagram (See Appendix)Components and ConnectionsGame ControlLead Engineers and Designers: Taylor DeIaco and William McNally The brain of the Solar Sailor is the microprocessor kernel. At this state in the designprocess there is an option for using one of two microprocessors to make up the kernel of thesystem. The first possibility is the Analog Devices ADuC7026 Precision AnalogMicrocontroller. The architecture of the controller is the 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI RISCprocessor, which will provide all the functionality needed to control all aspects of the SolarSailor. The analog components of this controller features 12-bit precision for all analog to digital 23 | P a g e
  24. 24. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report(ADC) and digital to analog (DAC) conversions. The controller provides up to 16 input ADCchannels or 12 input ADC channels and four DAC output channels. [5] The second microprocessor under consideration is the Atmel ATMega24, the big brotherto the ATiny24 which will be the microprocessor on the puck receiving the transmitted signalfrom the main processor. Experimentation is scheduled as one of the first design validation stepsupon the receipt of the hardware that will be ordered upon the approval of the initial designconcept. Regardless of the actual processor chosen, the requirements of the design are consistent.The software control as shown in Figure 4 will be the operation of the communication betweenthe controller kernel and the entire game system. The input into the system will be received from the user interface. Each input signal willbe passed through a second-order low pass filter to eliminate signal switch bounce from beingintroduced into the processor kernel. All processes instantiated by the microprocessor will beinterrupt driven. They will be separated into two operations, game mode and non-game mode. Asshown in Figure 1, the first operation after the initial power up routines is to ensure that the puckis in its home position. If the puck is not in the home position will automatically launch the puckreturn system. Once system has determined that the puck is home the system will enter an idlestate waiting from input from the user. Standard messages will be displayed to the LCD interfaceupon entering the game mode. Once a game mode instance has been initiated and the welcoming text has beenpresented, the mission statistics will be displayed. This state will allow the user to select from allthe possible missions available. Revision one of the Solar Sailor will incorporate the planetcharacteristics of solar system that Earth is a member of, later revisions will have the opportunityof modifying these parameters to simulate other solar systems around the universe. Once theuser accepts the displayed mission, the mission parameters will be loaded into the instantiation ofthe game class. The communication channels between the processor kernel and the puck, and theprocessor and the planet will be initiated. The blower motor will be enabled and the game willwait for the planet rotation to come up to speed. 24 | P a g e
  25. 25. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Initialize Mission Initialize Power Idle Mode Wait for Joy Stick Parameters No No Interrupt Initialize Drive Internal Diagnostics Joy Stick True Received Motor Yes Yes Yes Check Home Display Welcome Yes No Start Blower Motor Drive Motor Return to Idle Mode Proximity Sensor Message No Yes Puck at Home Display Mission Wait for Start Joy Stick False Game Over Position? Stats Button No No Yes Yes Initiate Return Start Button Accept Mission? Halt Motor Planet Reached System Pressed No No Increment Mission Check Fuel Status Fuel Exhausted? Counter YesFigure 5: Software Interface of components of the Solar Sailor. (See Appendix)Figure 6: Debounce schematicOnce the system has been successfully initiated the system will relinquish control to the userinput device. The user will have the ability to engage one of four contacts within the joy stickinput device. Each switch of the joy stick will correspond with one of the possible motor controlstates. The control states are defined as JOY_STICK_FORWARD the puck will be acceleratedin the orientation of the cone of the Sailor, by delivering a positive referenced ON signal to theforward/reverse propulsion unit. The JOY_STICK_BACK state will result in a negativereferenced ON signal to the forward/reverse propulsion system. The JOY_STICK_LEFT statewill result in a negative referenced ON signal being sent to rotational propulsion systemdelivering a counter clock-wise acceleration to the puck. The JOY_STICK_RIGHT state will 25 | P a g e
  26. 26. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportresult in a positive referenced ON signal being delivered to the rotational propulsion systemdelivering a clock-wise acceleration to the puck.Upon the release of any joy stick movement the propulsion systems will terminate and thecalculated fuel, or propulsion time remaining, will be updated for the interactive statisticsprovided to the user via the LCD display. The system will monitor the fuel level throughiterations of the propulsion sequence until exhausted. If the fuel is exhausted before the missionis accomplished the system will exit game mode and initiate the puck return sequence. If theplanet is encountered the system will initiate GAME_LEVEL_SUCCESS mode and the nextlevel of difficulty will be presented to the user for their acceptance.At any time during any game mode there has been no user input detected for more than 45seconds, game mode will terminate shutting down the blower system. After 15 minutes of nouser input the system will enter sleep mode.Parts required for the MCU and Software design:4 – Switch, PB, SPST, On/Off, Red1 – LCD Display Parallel1 – Joystick1 – ARV Dragon (Software)1 – Amp 20 – Position, 2-Row Straight Breakaway Header Connector1 – AMP 40 –Position, 2-Row Straight Breakaway Header Connector1 ARES 40-Pin ZIF Socket1 – Precision Analog Microcontroller 12 Analog I/O ARM7TDMI MCU1 – Low Voltage Octal Bidirectional Transceiver16 – 47 Ω +/- 10% resistor20 - .2µF 100V 5% Capacitor8 - 10KΩ resistor +/- 5%5 – Op-Amp2 - Adapter for standard 80 pin TQFP SMD Parts2 - 20-pin SSOP Adapter2 - Versa Strip Phenolic Prototype Board1 - Stand-off Hex M/F .875" 6-32BR100 - Phillips Machine Screw 6-32-1/2100 - Washer Flat #6100 - Washer Lock Internal Teeth #6 Zinc100 - Nut Hex 6-32 Zinc2 - ATtiny24 PDIP2 - ATmega16 PDIP 26 | P a g e
  27. 27. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportPlay AreaLead Engineers and Designers: Victor Arosemena (Primary) and Loren Schwappach (Alternate) The Solar Sailor play area is the largest part of the system. The play area can only bedescribed along with the frame. The frame is the main component of the system. This frameshown in Figure 7 was constructed by Anthony‟s Manufacturing Services Company tospecifications shown in Figure 10. The frame was constructed in two pieces, the top and bottom.The frame is one inch rolled square steel tubing and L-bars. This was done for transportation,maintenance, and strength purposes. The entire frame was painted and coated with spray epoxyto prevent rust. The top section covers the play area. The halogen lights are mounted to the topsection with steel L-bars. Siding for the top is Plexiglas to allow visibility of the entire playsurface as well as safety of the user and observers. The play area will be inaccessible once thetop section is attached to the bottom. The main air chamber was constructed to approximatelyfour feet in length by four feet in width by two inches in height; actual dimensions are four feetby four feet by 43/4 inches. The deeper air chamber was for aesthetic purposes.Figure 7: Solar Sailor Frame – Initial Product without support cross beams The top of this chamber is the play surface where the shuttle is levitated. The remainingsix inches on the two sides of the play area were originally the air return system. The playsurface was created by drilling a one inch square matrix of 1/32 holes (Figure 8). Sealing theplay surface to the air chamber was the most important aspect to the play surface functioningproperly. Creating a level play surface is crucial in the operation of the Solar Sailor. To ensure asafe seal for the air pressure within the chamber all seams on the interior were blocked with oneinch square blocks. Once these seals were secured in place they were additionally sealed withsilicon. All interior walls were tested frequently for uniform height. 27 | P a g e
  28. 28. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 8: Solar Sailor Play Area – Drilling 1/32” Holes. Modifications made during the construction process include cross bar supports on thebottom and middle layer of the frame. A „vented top‟ was created with cross bars in an Xconfiguration for halogen light mount. Three sides of the top were made with steel mesh for aircirculation to occur over the halogen lights. A design change reduced the pressurized area of theair return to be reduced to only one corner of the table with air return rails running the length ofthe play area. Side cross bars were also added to the top section at the discretion of Anthony‟sManufacturing Service for additional stability. This benefited the design by the improvedstability and defining the side of the play area.Figure 9: Solar Sailor Frame – Modification adding X-configuration cross bars for lights. 28 | P a g e
  29. 29. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 10: Solar Sailor Table Frame CAD Drawing. Side and top profiles respectively. 29 | P a g e
  30. 30. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportAir Flow SystemLead Engineers and Designers: Loren Schwappach (Primary) and Victor Arosemena (Alternate)Figure 11: The Air Flow System (Air Table and Air Return System) The Solar Sailor primary Air Flow System (AFS) Figure 11, utilizes an air-hockey-like tabledesign. The primary air chamber is approximately four feet in length by four feet in width by four inchesin height and was built using standard .75 inch thick hardwood (pressboard) for strength, stability, andnoise/vibration isolation. Typical standard four foot by eight foot air hockey tables normally operate at approximately 300-350 Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) of air flow. There is no direct correlation between CFM and airpressure [28] However, top-of-the-line tables such as tournament play tables are rated at approximately350-400 CFM. The best rated air-hockey tables use commercial grade blowers, although most tablesoperate using several high CFM fans [29]. To ensure an adequate amount of air is delivered to the Solar Sailor Shuttle it was determined bythe Air Flow System team that a high output centrifugal blower capable of producing a minimum 400CFM was required. With the Solar Sailor primary air chamber less than 5.28 Cubic Feet (CF) in size(4‟x4‟x.33‟=5.28 CF) the air chamber received enough in-chamber air flow needed to ensure appropriatelevitation of the Solar Sailor Shuttle. However a delicate balance between the number of 1/32” output airchamber holes (1200+ holes drilled) Figure 8 and the input air was needed to ensure air flow did notreturn through the blower. After the primary chamber was sealed every other 1/32” hole was drilled againusing 1/16” drill bits to increase outward airflow and ensure pressure would not reenter the centrifugal 30 | P a g e
  31. 31. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportblower wasting valuable outward airflow. Air Flow into the system was provided by the Air Flow teamvia a donated screen door mesh (Figure 12). Nine two inch holes were drilled into the bottom boardusing a hole saw by the Air Flow team and a thick screen mesh was secured to the bottom boards toprevent access into the chamber.Figure 12: Input Air Flow screen mesh. The blower chosen for the Solar Sailor primary AFS was the Fasco model B45267 centrifugalblower. The Fasco B45267, Figure 13, was the lowest cost 460 CFM centrifugal blower that the CreativeDesign AFS team could find on the market and operates at a nominal 115 VAC, at 60 Hertz (Hz), and 2.9Amps. [30] The AFS team compared the prices of over six dozen various centrifugal blowers beforefinally selection of the Fasco B45267 blower occurred.Figure 13: Fasco model B45267 [28] The Fasco B45267 weighs approximately nine pounds, is a two speed centrifugal blower capableof operating at 1600 or 1400 Revolutions per Minute (RPM). A noise rating for the Fasco B45267 couldnot be found; however upon actual system testing it was determined to be very minimal. A standard 6 31 | P a g e
  32. 32. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportfeet, 16AWG power cable was used to connect the Fasco blower to a standard 6 outlet 115VAC powerstrip, controlled by the micro controller via a relay. The primary AFS chamber (Figure 14) was to have a six inch by six inch square in the middle ofthe primary AFS chamber separating the primary AFS from the rotating arm assembly high torque minigear motor. This separation was to ensure flexibility in the design and configuration of the gear motorand rotating arm assembly. This separation was not created due to a mid-construction design change. Thechange incorporated lowering the mini gear motor below the primary AFS into the maintenanceaccessible area of the system. This reduced materials and made the motor easier to service/install.Figure 14: Primary AFS Chamber The total size of the Solar Sailor AFS chamber layer is approximately 4.5‟ length by 4.5‟ width(Primary chamber is 4‟x4‟). Subtracting the primary AFS and separation wall leave approximately fiveinches which were to be utilized by the AFS Air Return System (ARS) chamber. The ARS chamberwould have encompassed two sides of the Solar Sailor project and were engineered to be utilized forreturning the Shuttle to an initial/start position at mission time-out/reset/mission completion. The ARSchamber was reduced in size in the construction phase. The change was an adaption to a smaller chamberand thus greater pressures. As well the PVC air return rails (Figure 15) along the length of the play areawere also changed to reduce material and make more efficient use of air flow. 32 | P a g e
  33. 33. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 15: Air Return System – PVC Rails It was initially determined by the Air Flow System team that two high CFM fans capable ofproducing a minimum of 250 CFM would produce enough directed air flow to sufficiently accomplish thetask of repositioning the Shuttle. With the Solar Sailor ARS air chamber less than .672 Cubic Feet (CF)in size (4‟x.42‟x.4‟=.672 CF) the air chamber shall receive more than enough in-chamber directed airflow required to ensure appropriate repositioning of the Solar Sailor Shuttle. The Air Flow System teaminitially reduced the size of the Air Return System into one combined smaller chamber (Figure 16) withtwo 250 CFM fans to further increase airflow, however the output air flow was insufficient and it wasobserved through several tests that the majority of airflow was exiting the system back through the HighCFM fans. 33 | P a g e
  34. 34. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 16: Air Return System – Modification of ARS Chamber To fix the problem with the Air Return System two additional high CFM fans were purchased atthe beginning of week ten and installed by the Air Flow team directly above the primary air chambers.These four high CFM fans were then tested and resulted in more than sufficient directional airflowproviding the force needed to return all test shuttles back to home (Figure 17).Figure 17: Air Return System – Final Modification of the Air Return System 34 | P a g e
  35. 35. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report To accomplish the task of the ARS the AFS team reviewed over fifty compact DC fan designs,however the vast majority of the designs analyzed were either too large and too costly, or were unable toproduce enough air flow necessary to meet the ARS objective. Luckily a small 120 mm x 120 mm x 38mm (4.72 x 4.72 x 1.5 inch) 205 CFM fan was discovered. The ARS team chose to utilize two of theultra-high performance Mechatronics model MD1238X fans. The Mechatronics MD1238X, Figure 18, isthe most cost effective high CFM fan the ARS design team could find. The Mechatronics MD1238Xachieves 205 CFM of air by revolving at 4,500 RPM using 12 VDC at 2.5 Amps [29]. The MechatronicsMD1238X weighs approximately 411g (411g is approximatelly.906lbs) and produces 62 dBA of noise.For comparison a normal conversation is typically rated at 60-70 dB, and city traffic (inside car) typicallyproduces 85dB of noise. [30]. However this noise is still within safety limits and only occurs during thereturn of the shuttle back to home at the end of each mission.Figure 18: Mechatronix MD1238X Fan. [29] As possible alternatives for the Mechatronics MD1238X fan the AFS team looked into using fourCOMPAQ model PSD1212PMBX, 12VDC fans capable of 105 CFM each. The other big considerationwas whether to use two FFB model 1212EHE 12VDC fans rated at 190 CFM. However, the COMPAQfans were above budget constraints and would create too much system noise and the FFB fans were twicethe cost of the Mechatronics MD1238X. In order to control the Fasco B45267, 110VAC, 2.9A,centrifugal blower and Mechatronics MD1238X, 12VDC, 2.5A, fan with the microcontroller the AFSteam reviewed several Single-Pole Single-Throw (SPST) relays. A relay is essentially a large mechanical switch that can be toggled off or on by energizing a coil.There are two parts to most relays, the contact and the coil. The contact part of the relay is the path inwhich the primary devices power travels and is either open or closed [32]. In order to control the FascoB45267 and Mechatronics MD1238X the contact needed to be able to support at least 110VAC @ 2.9Aand 12VDC at 2.5A. For safety concerns the AFS design team researched relays capable of handling atleast a maximum load of 200VAC @5A and 28VDC @5A. 35 | P a g e
  36. 36. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The coil is the second half of the relay and is basically a small electromagnet used to open/closethe switch. Several relays were looked at during this part of the research phase however most relayslooked at were costly and could not meet the requirements above. The microcontroller research teamspecified that the microcontroller would be sending a 3VDC or 5VD signal at a range from 40 – 400 mAto control the relay (using one or more pins). In order to meet these requirements the AFS team found two inexpensive, quality, relays fromsuppliers (Digikey and Sparkfun) recommended by the part procurement official. The two primary relaysidentified by the AFS team were the Tyco T9A Series and the Panasonic DK Series shown by Figures 19and 20 below.Figure 19: Tyco T9A Series Relay [33]Figure 20: Panasonic DK Series Relay [32] 36 | P a g e
  37. 37. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The Panasonic DK1A-L2-3V-F relay (Digikey part number 255-2053-ND) has a contact rating of10A and a maximum switching voltage of 250 VAC, 125 VDC [32]. The Panasonic DK1A-L2-3V-Frelay coil requires 3VDC at 66.7mA for switching the SPST relay on and off, however the relay is fourtimes the price of the Tyco T9A series (Sparkfun SKU: COM-00101) relay. The Tyco relay has a contactrating of 30A and a maximum switching voltage of 240 VAC, 20A @ 28VDC [33]. The Tyco relay coil requires 5VDC at 200mA for switching the SPST relay on and off and washighly recommended on several microcontroller sites. The AFS team met with the microcontroller designteam and determined that the best option was to purchase 3 of the Tyco T9A relays in order to control thefour Air Return System 12 VDC fans, the 120VAC blower, and the four 500W overhead lights. Sparkfunprovided an eagle file/image of a control circuit that would allow the low current 20-40mA output fromthe micro controller to power the required 200mA relay control input (Figure 21).Figure 21: Eagle Layout for the Relay Control Board 37 | P a g e
  38. 38. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The eagle schematic was used by our board designer Anthony Santistevan to create the relaycontrol board shown by Figure 22. This board was then populated and soldered to the hot lines of theblower, lights, and Air Return System fans by the Air Flow Team. The relays were then insulated andaffixed to the power cables to reduce movement damage.Figure 22: Actual Relay Control Board populated for use. In order to provide power to the 12 VDC fans operating at 2.5A each and provide essential powerfor the primary microcontroller the AFS team reviewed power supplies capable of delivering all of therequired output voltages, in a single package, and as cost effectively as possible. The AFS design teamreasoned that a 250W computer power supply would perfectly fit the requirement. After looking over numerous 250W power supplies the AFS design team discovered theDiablotek DA Series PSDA250 250W ATX Power Supply. The Diablotek 250W (Figure 23) powersupply accepts an input voltage of 115 VAC, 60Hz at 8A and provides Outputs of +3.3 VDC at 14A, +5VDC at 14A, +12VDC at 10A (enough to power four 2.5A fans), +12VDC at .5A, -12VDC at .5A, and+5VDC at 2A and costs around ten dollars. Should additional Air Return System fans be required analternative power supply would be needed. The AFS design team determined that the Diablotek 250W power supply was the best option forproviding the regulated DC power to all of the Solar Sailor system components as it fulfilled all powerrequirements and was the cheapest of the power supplies reviewed. 38 | P a g e
  39. 39. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 23: Diabloteck 250W Power Supply [26].Figure 24: Solar Sailor Air Flow Block Diagram. 39 | P a g e
  40. 40. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportAir Flow System parts required for assembly:1 - Fasco B45267 Centrifugal Blower (460 CFM)4 - Mechatronics MD1238 Fans (205 CFM each)3 – PWR Relays SPST-NO 30A1 - Diablotek DA Series 250W ATX Power Supply1 – 18 AWG Power Cable1 – 6 Outlet 110VAC, 15A Surge Protector3 - 4.5L x 4.5W x.75"H Hardwood boards4 - 4.5W x 10"L x .75"H Hardwood boards4 - 4.5W x 5"L x .75"H Hardwood boards2 - 4.5W x 5"L x .75"H Hardwood boards4 - 1L x 2"W x .75"H Hardwood boards2 – 18 fl. oz. bottles of Gorilla Glue (Wood)4 – 3M containers of Silicon SealantSafety Considerations All the components of the Air Flow Systems are not accessible to the users, unless the plaxiglassis removed from the Solar Sailor game or the relays, power and centrifugal blower is accessed from theaccess panel. For maintanance considerations all the parts required to replace any of the components arelisted in the Appendix under the Part List. CAUTION: The Air Return System 12VDC fan blades and Centrifugal blower have sharp blades and cause cutting injuries. Remove and replace units if malfunctioning. Do not run fans/blower while Plexiglas is removed or access panel is open. WARNING: Do not remove any components of the air system (fans/blower) and/or power system (AC outlet, relays, tamper switch, power supply, surge protector, grounding wire) unless the Solar Sailor Game is powered off (to include primary power, surge protector, and power supply) and disconnected from the electrical outlet. Failure to disconnect the Solar Sailor game could result in death by Electrical Shock. 40 | P a g e
  41. 41. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportInformational Display Board, Backdrop and User Interface graphicsLead Engineers and Designers: Loren Schwappach and Barry Farley (Chimaera) (Primary) andTaylor DeIaco (Alternate) The Solar Sailor informational display (Figure 25) was designed by Loren Schwappachusing a royalty free image of the sun and the eight planets created by NASA. NASA authorizedthe modification and use of the image for educational or informational purposes, including photocollections, textbooks, public exhibits and Internet Web pages. The NASA image was resizedand altered using GIMP (A freeware graphics editor) to make the image appear more surreal andthe names, graphics and planetary/physics information was added as separate layers with 75%transparency. Facts about each of the eight planets (to include: diameter, mass (relative to earth),avg. density, distance from sun, surface gravity, orbital time, number of moons, and surfacetemperature were compiled using several sources with NASA being the primary), Newton andKeplers three laws and information about achieving orbit were also added to the illustration toincrease the audiences understanding of gravity, inertia, forces, and frictionless motion in space.Figure 25: Solar Sailor Informational Display 41 | P a g e
  42. 42. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The Solar Sailor backdrop (Figure 26) was created by Barry Farley (CTU Chimaera).The design was created to illustrate the creativity and wonder of space travel while playing theSolar Sailor game. Figure 26: Solar Sailor Backdrop The Solar Sailor User Interface (Figure 27) was conceived initially by Taylor DeIaco.This design was then modified / resized by Loren Schwappach with the colors, instructions (inEnglish and Spanish) and planetary scheme of the backdrop poster to provide a unified vision ofthe game. Figure 27: Solar Sailor User Interface 42 | P a g e
  43. 43. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportSpaceship ComponentLead Engineers and Designers: Anthony Santistevan and Joe RodriguezContributing Engineer: Taylor DeIaco The Solar Flyer (Shuttle) is the physical representation of the interactive element of the systemdesign. The item will be created from scratch using plastic resin molding techniques. Creating the playpiece from scratch will allow for having direct input to the amount of mass introduced to the air table.This will make it easier to accurately simulate zero friction environment provided by the air table. The plastic resin molding process also produces a robust product that will be able to withstand thestresses of accidental collisions. The molding process will first require creating a clay positive of thespaceship. This spaceship will then be hollow molded to provide area inside the fuselage for installingthe needed components. Weight was the primary consideration when casting the base and fuselage of the shuttle.Research initially pointed towards air hockey pucks having a mass between 18 and 48 grams. Testing onthe completed air table showed that movement was likely when the shuttle was under a mass of 44 grams.In order to move a higher mass shuttle, more airflow by way of an additional blower will be required.Finished product mass is 42g with all components added. The base will be 3.5" in diameter and 1" tall. The base will be left open air. This will allow forthe storage of the electrical components and assist with keeping under the mass limit. The fan rotors willbe 1.5" diameter for the fore and aft directional motors, and 1.5" diameter for the forward and reversethrust motor in the rear. The rotors were sourced from a local hobby shop as inconsistencies with themolding process were interfering with the aerodynamics needed for movement. Figure 28: Graphic Representation, top view of the spaceship component, planned and actual [12] The spaceship will be controlled by an amplitude modulated radio frequency (RF) serial datastream from the joy stick controller by way of the main microcontroller. This signal will be input to the 43 | P a g e
  44. 44. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportspaceship at the 433MHz Receiver. This receiver was chosen due to the low availability of small formlow power RF receivers. The serial data stream is then decoded by the ATtiny24 microprocessor.Individual control signals are then sent to the Inverting Buffer IC from the ATtiny24, and subsequentlyused as biasing for the transistor arrays that will directly drive the motors. A crystal oscillator is utilizedto stabilize the clock signals of the ATtiny24 microprocessor.A circuit diagram is provided below in Figure 29. A larger version of this figure can also be found in theAppendix for easier viewing. Figure 29: Circuit Diagram, Spaceship Component [14][15] (See Appendix) Power is provided to the mobile spaceship by way of solar cells. The fan motors are connected toan unregulated 3.3V solar circuit. The max provided current of this circuit is estimated to be 80mA.Testing under the current lighting scheme yields the available current of 67mA. The max draw of themotor circuit at any given time is 50mA [15]. The control signal flow is separated to an unregulated 6.5Vsolar power supply circuit. This is done to ensure that the higher current draw of the motors will notinterfere with receiving commands from the MCU. The max current provided by this circuit is estimatedat 33mA, and the max current draw is estimated at 12mA [18]. All components were populated onto acustom printed circuit board (PCB) shown in Figure 30. The process for creating the PCB is listed in theAppendix. 44 | P a g e
  45. 45. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure 30: Graphic Representation side view, planned and actual, and PCB[13]. The spaceship will be controlled by three small fans. Two fans will be place fore and aft of thespaceship perpendicular to the fuselage as shown in Figure 30. The two motors will be wired into thecircuit inversely; if one motor is running forward, the second will be running in reverse. When the foremotor is running forward and the aft is running reverse, the spaceship will achieve a clockwise rotation.If the signal is reversed, the fore motor will be running in reverse and the aft motor will run forward, andthe ship will achieve a counterclockwise rotation. These actions allow the spaceship to point in thedesired direction. The third fan in the rear is the thrust fan. The rear fan enables forward and reversemovement in whichever direction it is respectively pointed. No User Begins Game Planetary By Pressing Start System Idle User input? No Capture? Button Yes Yes Wait for Solar Power No Cells to Charge Success Available? System Yes Fore Fan Forward; User Input Fore Fan Reverse; Counter-Clockwise Clockwise Aft Fan Reverse Direction Aft Fan Forward Forward Reverse Rear Fan Forward Rear Fan Reverse Figure 31: Behavioral Flowchart of the Spaceship (See Appendix) 45 | P a g e
  46. 46. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Control signals received from the MCU will follow this table: Directional Motor Array Input1 Enable1 Motor X H Standby H L Clockwise L L Counter-Clockwise Thrust Motor Array Input 2 Enable 2 Motor X H Standby H L Forward L L Reverse Table 2: Truth Table, Motor Control Circuit [14] The spaceship will also have a permanent magnet that will activate the proximity sensor locatedat home base and the Planet Driver. The magnet will be mounted on the starboard side of the spaceship inorder to simulate a spaceship in orbit. The operator will need to align the magnet with the sensor andcapture device to ensure a successful orbit.Spaceship Parts required for assembly:3 – Small Pager Motor.2 - 37 x 33mm Monocrystalline Solar Cell1 - Receiver AM Mini Hybrid 433MHZ4 - Transistor Array NPN and PNP DUAL 30V2 - Capacitor 1000uF 25V2 - Capacitor .1uF 25V1 - 74HC240 Enable line Invertor1 - ATTINY24-20PU-ND 14 Pin Microcontroller8 - 1KΩ Resistor1 – Crystal Oscillator1 – completed circuit board1 – neodymium magnet1 liter - Plastic Resin Molding Materials500g - Molding Clay 46 | P a g e
  47. 47. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportPlanet Driver ComponentLead Engineers and Designers: Noemi Wikstrom and Jeremy StruebingAlternate Engineers and Contributors: William McNally, Taylor DeIaco, Anthony Santistevan The purpose of the Planet Driver is to introduce the concept of orbits and planettrajectory in our solar system. The Planet Driver consists of a DC motor connected to a 3 inchrod in the z direction and a 16 inch rod in the x direction, creating an inverted “L” shape. In theintersection of the rods, above the playfield a 4 inch in diameter sphere enclose the connectionrepresenting the Sun. At the end of the rod in the x-direction a 2 inch in diameter sphere isconnected, representing the planet. (See Figure P1) Sun Planet Figure P1: Planet Driver Sun and Planet Representations The orbit represented in the design is a circular orbit with an eccentricity of zero. [6] ThePlanet Driver assembly will be controlled by the MCU which will turn the motor on/off anddrive the speed of rotation using a DC gear motor. The modulation technique to control the speedof the motor is Pulse-width modulation. PWM is a commonly used technique for controllingpower to inertial electrical devices. [37] The gear motor will be capable of 8 gear speedssufficient to model effective orbital speeds of eight planetary bodies. An LED will be displayedinside the model sun and on the planet sphere. A magnetic sensor inside the planetary spherewill allow detection of the player‟s air propelled spaceship and it will transmit a signal to themicrocontroller once the Solar Sailor shuttle has triggered the proximity in the planetary object.The proximity sensor will activate the transmitter inside the planet to communicate with themicrocontroller. The planetary LED will flash and the LCD will inform the user once missionsuccess is detected. The transmitter is an AMRT4-433 and operates at 433MHz. It transmits on acurrent of 4 milliamps and an operating temperature of -25oC~85oC. The supply voltage for thetransmitter can be anywhere from 2 to 14 volts. This will be supplied by the solar cell that will beattached to the rotating planet. The transmitter will be placed inside the rotating planet alongwith the proximity sensor and the LED on a small circuit board. 47 | P a g e
  48. 48. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure P2: Schematic for Rotating Planet (See Appendix/ Figures) The DC motor is placed in the center of the play field. (See Figure P3) The axle of themotor is connected to a threaded rod measuring 6 inches protruding to the play field. To providemore stability to the threaded rod, a hollow stainless steel rod is used to cover the threaded rod. 2 Feet Figure P3: Installation of the DC Motor at the Center of the Play Field 48 | P a g e
  49. 49. June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The “sun” was originally design to be represented by 4” diameter hemisphere (Sun).However; one of the main concerns was to provide the user with more play field area tomaneuver the spaceship. It was decided to use a Sphere instead located above the playfield about4 inches above the surface. A 16 inch shaft is connected to the main rod in the y-direction. A 2inch diameter plastic sphere is attached to the secondary shaft representing the planet. The motor move the shaft and planet around the sun with an orbit circumference of 2πr =9.42 feet. Using the circumference of 9.42 feet we can calculate the required motor velocitiesscaled to the Planet Driver. Assuming that one revolution equates to 10 seconds and 60 secondsequate to 1 minute. At maximum speed the motor rotates at 6 rpm. To represent the planet‟s rotations around the sun, the speed of the motor will becontrolled by the comparison of the planet‟s orbital (Earth days) rotations around the sun. Forexample, Mercury has the smallest orbit, it take approximately 88 days to complete a rotation[6]. Equating Mercury‟s orbital rotation at 6 rpm, we can scale the rest of the planet‟s orbitalspeeds. The table below lists the calculated planet‟s orbital speeds scaled for the planet driver. Planet rpm Mercury 6 Venus 5 Earth 4 Mars 3 Jupiter 0.5 Saturn 0.25 Uranus 0.125 Neptune 0.025 Table P1: Planet Driver revolutions per minute for each planet The sphere (planet) connected to the rotating shaft will contain a flashing LED. The LED willlight up when the spaceship reach the planet. To be able to detect the spaceship the planet will also serveas a sensor. Inside the sphere a 3.6 x 5.0 x 1.0 mm [7] proximity sensor will detect the changes in themagnetic field when the spaceship has reached the planet. 49 | P a g e

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