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    Solar sailor project report newest rev Solar sailor project report newest rev Document Transcript

    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Project Report Interactive Educational Game Prepared by: Victor Arosemena, William McNally, Anthony Santistevan, Jeremy Struebing, Taylor DeIaco, Joe Rodriguez, Loren Karl Schwappach and Noemi Reyes Wikstrom. EE490 – EE491 Product Design Series Capstone Project Team DRAFT – Revision 2BCreative Solutions Team LLCColorado Technical University4435 N. Chestnut StreetColorado Springs, CO 80907 Accepted by: Professor Dr. Kathy Kasley Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering Colorado Technical University June 2011
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report CREATIVE SOLUTIONS DESIGN TEAMVictor Arosemena Senior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerTaylor DeIaco Junior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerWilliam McNally Senior Undergraduate Computer EngineerJoe Rodriguez Junior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerAnthony Santistevan Senior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerLoren Schwappach Senior Undergraduate Computer/Electrical EngineerJeremy Struebing Junior Undergraduate Electrical EngineerNoemi R. Wikstrom Senior Undergraduate Electrical Engineer 2|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report RECORD OF REVISIONRevision Description Name Date 1A Drafted Volume I. Changes EE490 Report NRW 05/07/2011 1B Correction on Grammar Errors WM 05/20/2011 1B Adding Information and Format NRW 05/24/2011 1C Entered frame & Air flow system descriptions/figures VA 05/24/2011 from previous. Updated figure reference numbers. 1C User‟s Demographics NRW 05/25/2011 1D Add Instructions in Spanish NRW 05/26/2011 2A Editing of the Report NRW 06/10/2011 2B Editing of Report added information on Power LKS 06/16/2011 Distribution/Play Surface/Air Flow System/Home Base/Power Systems/Graphics. 3|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe Creative Solutions Team, LLC would like to acknowledge and extend a heartfelt gratitude tothe following persons and companies who have made the completion of the Solar SailorInteractive Educational Game possible:Our Dean, Dr. Kathy Kasley, for her vital encouragement, guidance and support.All Colorado Technical University, Department of IT and Computer and Electrical Engineeringfaculty members and Staff.To Mrs. Deborah Thornton from the Kennedy Imagination Celebration Center, for the inspirationshe extended.To Mr. Barry Farley from the Chimaera Group for his contribution and creative inspiration in thedesign of the backdrop board.To Mr. Mike Studebaker from Anthony‟s Manufacturing service for his amazing craftsmanshipand precious time dedicated in the construction of the Solar Sailor‟s metal frame.To Anthony Sharer for the printing of the Informational display, Backdrop display and UserInterface displays.To Scott Phelps for his contribution on the design and construction of the plastic resin moldingand materials of the Shuttle for the Solar Sailor Project.To Michaela Schwappach for her cheerful disposition and constant reminder of our primarycustomer, the Children of Colorado Springs.To Frank VLcek for allowed us the use of his tools in the construction of the Solar Sailor IEG.To Analog Devices for donating the ADuC7026 microcontroller unit, vital to the communicationsystem of the Solar Sailor IEG.A very special thank you to one our own team members, Mr. William McNally for sharing hisknowledge and experience with all of us.Most especially to our family and friends.And to God, who made all things possible. 4|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report ABSTRACTThe Solar Sailor Interactive Educational Game project report provides the game definition,block diagram with interfaces and individual components design details, operating instructions,testing, costs and trade-offs.This includes:  User Interface  Acceptance Testing Checklist  Safety Concerns  Components and Connections  Design Trade-Offs  Conclusion 5|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportTable of ContentsCREATIVE SOLUTIONS DESIGN TEAM ................................................................................................ 2RECORD OF REVISION............................................................................................................................. 3ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 4ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................................. 5LIST OF ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................ 8Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 9 Project Requirement Objectives.............................................................................................................. 10 Product Overview ................................................................................................................................... 10 Product Use Constraints .......................................................................................................................... 11 Engineering Constraints .......................................................................................................................... 11 Assumptions............................................................................................................................................ 11 Users of the Game ................................................................................................................................... 11 User‟s demographics ............................................................................................................................... 12 How to Play the Game ............................................................................................................................ 13 Game Interface ........................................................................................................................................ 14 Acceptance Checklist .............................................................................................................................. 19 Safety Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 20High Level Block Diagram ......................................................................................................................... 22Components and Connections..................................................................................................................... 23 Game Control .......................................................................................................................................... 23 Play Area................................................................................................................................................. 27 Air Flow System ..................................................................................................................................... 30 Informational Display Board, Backdrop and User Interface graphics .................................................... 41 Spaceship Component ............................................................................................................................. 43 Planet Driver Component ....................................................................................................................... 47 Power Distribution .................................................................................................................................. 53 Light Power ............................................................................................................................................. 56 Control Logic ........................................................................................................................................... 58 Microcontroller Unit ............................................................................................................................... 59 Design Trade-Offs .................................................................................................................................. 62 6|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportDesign Cycle ............................................................................................................................................... 63CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 66 7|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportLIST OF ACRONYMS Acronym Definition of Term AFS Air Flow System ARS Air Return System AWG American Wire Gage CFM Cubic Feet per Minute CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission EDS Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive IEG Interactive Educational Game LCD Liquid Crystal Display LED Light-Emitting Diode MCU Microcontroller NEC National Electric Code PWM Pulse-width Modulation RF Radio Frequency RPM Revolutions Per Minute SS Solar Sailor SSE Solar Sailor Explorer STEAM Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics UI User Interface 8|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportIntroduction The Creative Solutions Team has designed an educational, interactive, astronomy gamewhose purpose is to teach children about the solar system and orbital mechanics. The SolarSailor is designed to expose the player to some aspects of the science behind space travel. Theobjective of this project report is to provide a detail account of the design process andconstruction of the Solar Sailor Interactive Educational Game. The final product will be donatedto the Kennedy Center Imagination Celebration. The Kennedy Center Imagination Celebration isan independent foundation that serves the community by providing arts, science and educationalprograms to children in the Pikes Peak Region. Figure 1: Solar Sailor Features 9|Page
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure 1 Solar Sailor Features 1 User Interface Panel 2 Mission Select Button and Indicator Panel 3 Success and Failure Indicators 4 Home base 5 Shuttle 6 Rotating Planet 7 Game Play Surface 8 Air Return Rails 9 Creative Backdrop 10 Power Lights 11 Clear Windows (on both sides) Table 1: Solar Sailor Features as depicted on Figure 1.Project Requirement Objectives The primary objectives for the Solar Sailor include:  Demonstrate the concept of frictionless space.  Provide an interactive learning tool for engaging astronomical information.  Exhibit the mechanics involved in space vehicle thrust.  Teach children the importance of fuel conservation in space exploration.  Present the physics of planetary motion around a solar body.Product Overview The Solar Sailor interactive game is design to be played as an enclosed system containedwithin approximately 8 ft. high by 4 ft. 10 inches wide by 4 ft. 6 inches long table. Within thesedimensions the system can be broken up into three primary levels. The top of the Solar Sailorsystem will be contained within a transparent Plexiglas cover and overhead lighting system. Thefirst level of the system contains the play field of the table. This level contains two objects, acentral model sun and an orbiting planet. The planet will rotate around the playfield in a circularsolar orbit at various speeds determined by the player selected planetary mission. This motion isachieved via a mechanical arm connected to the central sun and controlled by a game controller. An air propelled rover (spaceship) will be navigated by the user over a table similar to airhockey game (demonstrating frictionless space). The player will be given a mission to visit oneof the eight planetary bodies in our solar system. The player will then proceed to navigate the airpropelled space ship using a limited amount of fuel (represented by time) to the planet. If the 10 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportspaceship reaches the planet, then the planet will flash/illuminate and an LCD will displayplanetary facts, the distance covered, and amount of fuel used. Thereafter the LCD will providethe player with their next planetary mission after positioning the spaceship back at home base. Ifthe player fails to reach the planet (runs out of fuel) the LCD will inform the user of the missionfailure and reset the system for the next attempt.Product Use Constraints The SS shall require AC power and should be located within 3 feet of a 110 volts electricreceptacle. The game shall be contained within a large table with a locked removable sideopening for service and repair. To ensure the safety of the users, no individual is allowed totouch the internal components of the system without a thorough understanding of the electricaland mechanical components of the design.Engineering Constraints The complete cost for the project shall not exceed the amount of $800.00 USD. Theactual cost of the project is $1634.45 approved by the costumer. (See Appendix/Part Lists) Thedesign shall be light enough for transportation, no more than 200 pounds. The design shall be asrobust and reliable as possible, since no maintenance will be provided by the Creative Solutionsteam after the completion of the project. The life expectancy of all components of the designshall be greater than 3 years without maintenance.Assumptions Product assumptions for the SS system include: Users are a minimum of 3 feet 6 inchesin height. (See Appendix/Height Chart) The SS will be contained within the ImaginationCelebration at the Citadel Mall in a conditioned indoor environment with standard temperature,humidity, and air quality. The SS will be provided a local conditioned 120VAC power source.The SS will sits on a flat, level floor.Users of the Game The Solar Sailor is intended to be played by children from the ages of six to twelve years old, butit can be challenging to all ages. The game is designed to provide visual clues and auditory referencesthroughout the game to assist younger players in navigating the Shuttle for successful missioncompletion. Adult supervision is required for children 8 years and younger; in compliance with theConsumer Product Safety Commission (http://www.cpsc.gov). Users should be no less than 3‟6‟‟ inheight to reach the User Interface control panel. A first grade reading level or higher is suggested for 11 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportunderstanding the information provided via the Solar Sailor informational display and additionalinformation covered on the informational display board (backdrop poster board). The user will requiremotor skills as necessary to operate the joystick, and select one of the planetary missions.User’s demographicsEdited by Noemi Wikstrom As part of the design process is necessary to research the product‟s target audience. Thegame is designed to fulfill the needs of our primary customer. As stated before, the Solar Sailoris an Interactive Educational Game. The Solar Sailor game target audience is children ages six totwelve years old in the Pikes Peak Region who visits the Imagination Celebration Center. One of the major concerns in the design on the Solar Sailor was to provide a console thatwill be ergonomically efficient for our target audience. The average height of 6 year old child is3 feet six inches (see Appendix/ Growth Chart). The Creative Solutions team designed theControl Panel for the Solar Sailor Game slanted downwards in a 45 degree angle thus making thejoystick, the mission select buttons and the LCD available to the user. Safety measures andconsiderations in the design process will be discussed further in this publication under the SafetySummary Section. In a study conducted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission relating tochildren‟s age to toy characteristics and play behavior it shows that computer and interactiveeducational games for children on the age group six to eight years old are increasinglysophisticated. These children can use a joystick to move objects, and can use bothnavigational systems and exploratory programs and are very attracted to console and handheld scientific games. Children from ages ranging from 9 to 12 years old are interested in complex gameswith complex subjects, music creation games, and educational games like multimediaactivities. They enjoy games based on popular sports and activities, like skating and complexfantasy games. This age group depending on their experience can have very sophisticatedcomputer skills. Children play with audiovisual equipment at different ages. The volumelevel, length of the game, visual images, language presentation and content/themerepresented in the game determines the age for which the game is appropriate. [38] The Creative Solutions team took the above criteria in consideration when designingthe Solar Sailor game. The Solar Sailor provides an educational aspect at the inclusion ofplanetary and physics facts in addition offer the experience of maneuvering a space shuttle ina frictionless environment. All of these aspects are related to the Science of Astronomy.Another aspect of our research led us to the inclusion Spanish instructions in the game console.According with the U.S. Census Bureau 12% of the population in Colorado Springs is Hispanicor Latino origin. (http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/08/0816000.html) The users of the Solar 12 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportSailor game will have the opportunity to listen to the instructions in English or Spanish. Audioinstructions are included to reinforce and ease the experience of our younger players.How to Play the Game Lead Engineer: Taylor DeIaco, Alternate Bill McNally. Audio recorded by Noemi Wikstrom andLoren Schwappach. Instructions and Editing by Noemi Wikstrom.Goal of the Game The player must navigate the Solar Sailor Shuttle from home base using the joystick andland the Shuttle near the mission selected rotating planet before exhausting their limited fuelsupply.Contents of the GameA PlayfieldA sun replicaA rotating planetA RF Controlled ShuttleJoystickFuel gaugeInformational DisplayStart/Reset ButtonsMission Selection buttonsGame InstructionsInformational Display Board (Back drop poster board)Game Instructions 1. Press START button to begin 2. Select a mission by pressing the button of your chosen planetary destination. 3. Wait for the countdown to complete. 4. Use the joystick to rotate and propel your Solar Sailor Shuttle to the planet. 5. Monitor the Fuel Gauge. 6. Try to land on the Planet 7. Do not run out of fuel. 13 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportGame InterfaceThe user will be provided visual instructions written in English and Spanish displayed on the UserInterface and on the LCD. The user will also be presented with audio instructions recorded by NoemiWikstrom (Spanish) and Loren Schwappach (English). After the user finishes reading/hearing the initialinstruction the user will then initiate the game by pressing Start as currently being prompted by the audioand LCD: “SOLAR SAILOR PRESS START TO BEGIN” Spanish: “EXPLORADOR SOLAR PRESSIONE EL BOTON DE INICIO” Auditory clue: Press Start to continue. (Pause, 30 seconds, message repeats) Spanish: Presione el botón de inicio para continuar.The start button will be pressed which will display the following on the LCD: “SELECT MISSION WITH MISSION SELECT BUTTONS”Spanish: “SELECCIONE LA MISION UTILIZANDO LOS BOTONES DE SELECTIONPLANETARIA” Auditory clue: Select the Mission using the Mission Select Buttons in the Control Panel. The Mission Select Buttons are located in the right hand side of the Control Panel indicating the planet‟s name: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Seleccione la misión utilizando los botones de selección planetaria. Los botones de selección planetaria están localizados a la mano derecha de panel de controles indicando el nombre de los planetas: Mercurio, Venus, Planeta Tierra, Martes, Júpiter, Saturno, Urano y Neptuno. Once the user selects the mission, as the menu states, the overhead lighting will turn onand the air table will be activated levitating the shuttle and simulating frictionless space. Theplanet motor will also begin to drive the planet at the appropriate speed as determined by theplayer selected mission. The RF communication system will allow the shuttle to communicatewith the game controller to provide future control to the user. A blastoff countdown timer willthen be displayed on the informational display to prepare the user for blast-off and user control.The user will not have control of the Shuttle until the blastoff countdown timer reaches zero. LCD will display a graphic indicating a 10 – 0 countdown: 14 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Auditory clue: Beginning of Blast off, all stations ready: (Pause 3 seconds) 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0. Comienzo de cuenta regresiva. (Pausa de 3 segundos) Diez, nueve, ocho, siete, seis, cinco, cuatro, tres. dos, uno, zero. Once the blast off countdown timer reaches zero the LCD will display: “BLAST OFF! Auditory Clue: BLAST OFF! DESPEGUE! The fuel gauge will then show full and the user will be able to use the joystick tonavigate/control the shuttle. The LCD will display the following message: FUEL GAUGE – FULL Auditory Clue: Monitor the Fuel Gauge. Use the propulsion system carefully, you have limited amount of fuel to reach the planet. Each time you move the joystick, the fuel will be depleted. Plan your mission accordingly. Observe la válvula de combustible. Use el sistema de propulsión cuidadosamente, solo tiene una cantidad limitada de combustible para alcanzar el planeta. Cada vez que mueva la palanca de control agotara los niveles de combustible. Calcule la misión en respecto de los niveles de combustible disponible. The user will control the shuttle with the directional joystick. Pressing forward or reversewill thrust the shuttle forward or backward using the shuttles fan system. Pressing left and rightwill rotate the shuttle around its middle axis. Whenever the user thrusts the shuttle, the shuttlefuel indicator will deplete according to how long the fans are used. LCD will display the following message: “USE THE JOYSTICK TO ROTATE AND PROPEL YOUR SOLAR SAILOR SHUTTLE TO THE PLANET” “UTILICE LA PALANCA DE CONTROL PARA HACER GIRAR Y ACELERAR LA NAVE ESPACIAL HACIA EL PLANETA” 15 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Auditory Clue: USE THE JOYSTICK TO ROTATE AND PROPEL YOUR SOLAR SAILOR SHUTTLE TO THE PLANET. Push up to propel the shuttle in a forward movement. Push left to rotate the shuttle in a clockwise movement. Push right to rotate the shuttle in a counterclockwise movement. Push down to propel the shuttle backwards. Utilice la palanca de control para hacer girar y acelerar la nave especial hacia el planeta. Presione hacia arriba para mover la nave espacial en movimiento directo. Presione hacia la derecha para mover la nave espacial en movimiento lateral Este. Presione hacia la izquierda para mover la nave espacial en movimiento lateral Oeste. Presione hacia abajo para mover la nave espacial en movimiento reverso. The player will maneuver the shuttle to the outside edge of the rotating planet in order to“dock” or “land” on the planet. LCD will display the following message: “TRY TO LAND ON THE PLANET” “TRATE ALCANZAR EL PLANETA” Auditory Clue: Try to land on the Planet. The shuttle should hover closely to the planet for at least 5 seconds. Trate de alcanzar el planeta. La nave espacial deberá aterrizar cerca del planeta por al menos 5 segundos. If the shuttle docks on the planet, before the shuttle fuel is depleted, this indicates asuccessful mission. The user will be congratulated with flashing lights and a message from anLED on the Control Panel: “CONGRATULATIONS! PLANET REACHED. MISSION SUCCESS!” “FELICITACIONES! HA ATERRIZADO EN EL PLANETA. LA MISION EXITOSA! <<PAUSE>> Auditory Clue: Congratulations! You have completed the mission. (Music will play for 30 seconds) Felicitaciones, usted ha completado la misión.This will initiate a reset for a new game to be played. 16 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report If the fuel is fully depleted before the shuttle lands on the planet, the mission is failed. Afailure notification will be displayed on the Control Panel: “MISSION FAILED. TRY AGAIN” MISION FALLIDA. TRATE DE NUEVO. <<PAUSE>> Auditory Clue: Mission Failed. Please try again. (Music will play for 30 seconds) Misión Fallida. Por favor trate de nuevo. Upon the fuel being exhausted the air system and lights will turn for a period of 30seconds. This will give the player the illusion of being stranded in space. After the 30 secondtimer has expired the game will enter the shuttle return mode. The air system and lights willagain turn on and also the shuttle return air system will also be enabled. The system will stay inthis mode till the shuttle arrives at the home port tripping the magnetic sensor and returning thegame to its idle state. Figure 1: User Interface Panel The user interface is shown in Figure 1 above. The LCD display will output various directives tohelp the user play the game. Number 2, is the fuel gauge, which displays the remaining fuel for theshuttle. Number 3 shows the joystick which is used to direct the shuttle in the four directions. Finally,the Start and Reset button are self explanatory.Figure 2: Solar Sailor user interface panel. 17 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 3: Solar Sailor play surface. On the play field a fan propelled shuttle (puck) will be levitated during play by an air hockey liketable design. The air table is used by the Solar Sailor to simulate a frictionless surface. The player willselect a mission via the control panel display (Figure 2) using the mission selection buttons (Figure 1item 2). The player will have a limited amount of fuel available to reach their chosen planetarydestination, and this limit will be indicated by the fuel gauge display located on the control panel(Figure 1 part 4). If the Shuttle is successfully navigated by the user to the planet (before running out offuel), a magnetic sensor on the rotating planet will transmits a mission success message to the gamecontroller, and an LED on the far end of the playfield will illuminate indicating a green “Congratulations– Mission Complete” if the mission was successful or a red “Mission Failure” LED if the mission wasunsuccessful. The informational display will also display facts to the player about the completed mission. Onceeither mission success or failure is detected the simulation will pause (the planet will stop rotating, theShuttle will no longer be levitated, and the primary lighting will turn off) to allow the user to take inmission success/failure. After a set amount of time the system will then reset by initiating directionalairflow to return the Shuttle to home base. The system will then provide the player the option to selecttheir next planetary mission. The active/inactive players will also have an informational display boardlocated behind the Solar Sailor game relative to the control panel. This display will be approximately 3feet height by 6 feet wide. On this informational display board will be accurate information and picturesof the various Solar Sailor planetary missions to include astronomical information, physics equations andrelative size and distances of each body from the sun as well as relevant information/equations pertainingto the concepts used in the Solar Sailor system game. 18 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportAcceptance ChecklistItem Criteria Verifications Fail Pass1.0 Solar Sailor system The game is connected to the power source turns on1.1 Informational display Informational Display (LCD) shows message turns on “Solar Sailor Press Start to begin”2.0 Start Button functional Game is waiting to start ON = Start Idle = Reset (approximately 2 minutes of inactivity)2.1 Mission Selection Press each Planetary Mission Buttons Functional Rotating Planet will move, the speed depending upon the selection.2.2 Shuttle is functional Using the joystick, the shuttle moves back, forward, counterclockwise and clockwise. Mission Complete – Shuttle Reach Planet Mission Failure – Shuttle remains inactive for more than 2 minutes Mission Failure – Shuttle navigates until fuel is exhausted.2.3 Planet Driver Planet Driver moves at selected speed Functional Planet Driver Stops when Shuttle Reach the planet Planet Driver Stops when game is Idle (after two minutes of inactivity)2.4 Joystick is functional Joystick inactive until countdown reaches zero Shuttle moves forward, backwards, clockwise and counterclockwise2.5 Fuel Gauge Functional LEDs show fuel when game starts LEDs decrease after joystick is moved LEDs show fuel empty after joystick is moved a maximum of 15 times3.0 Playfield Functional Shuttle Lifts up when air compressor turns on Shuttle returns to home base when side fans turns on Air compressor turns off when game is on idle mode. Air Compressor turns on, when game starts Air Compressor turns off, when mission fails4.0 Control Panel Informational Display provides instructions to the Functional player Informational Display prompt player to press start Informational Display shows countdown Informational Display provide player with planetary facts Mission Complete LED turns on Mission Failed LED turns on 19 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportSafety SummaryEdited by: Noemi Wikstrom, Safety Labels engineered/added by: Loren Schwappach The primary consideration for safety in the design of the Solar Sailor is to assure that theuse of the interactive game does not cause injury to the user. Creative Solutions alsoacknowledge that safety can also extend beyond human injury to include property damage andenvironmental damage. Therefore; the Creative Solutions teams have also consider the issues ofsafety in design because of liability arising from the use of an unsafe product. Liability refers tothe manufacturer of a machine or product being liable, or financially responsible, for any injuryor damage resulting from the use of an unsafe product. [2] To assure that the Solar SailorInteractive game will not cause injury or loss, the Creative Solutions Team design safety into theproduct. Each component and section in this report will include the safety considerations andmeasures taken by the designers to provide a safe product to our customers. The Solar Sailor Game was designed as enclosed system due to safety considerations.The primary target audience of the product is children. By making the moving parts, electricalcomponents and small components inaccessible to the user, the Solar Sailor prevents electricalhazards, shocking hazards and potential damage to the equipment. Enclosing the system alsoprovides durability to the components of the game. Another important safety feature of the Solar Sailor Game is the tampered switch addedto the back panel. The purpose of the tampered switch is to shut-off all power to the game oncethe utility door on the side of the game is open. The utility door provides access to internalcomponents such as the MCU and the Air Compressor. As an extra safety measure Warning, Caution and Note labels are also included on theSolar Sailor Game. The safety labels include labels informing the user to remove power beforeopening the access panel, warning the user not to touch the hot air ventilation system near thelights, informing the user of the systems weight and that multiple people are required to lift /remove the top, and informing the user of the risk of electric shock, high current devices andpower warnings both inside the system and outside. The following are general safety precautions that are not related to any specific procedureand therefore do not appear elsewhere in this publication. The safety recommendations must befollowed during the operations and maintenance of the Solar Sailor IEG. [3]Electrical Precautions Safety regulations must be observed at all times. Under certain conditions, dangerouspotentials may exist in circuits with power control in the OFF position because of the chargesretained by capacitors. To avoid casualties, before touching circuits, always remove power,discharge, and ground the circuits. Under no circumstances should any person reach within or 20 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportenter an enclosure for the purpose of servicing or adjusting the equipment without the presenceor assistance of another person capable of rendering aid.Notes, Cautions, and Warnings The following warnings and cautions appear in the text of the Project Report and repeatedhere for emphasis.  Ensure that all systems are grounded to prevent electrical shock.  Ensure that all electrical circuits are de-energized. The printed circuit boards contain Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive (EDS) devices.Improper board handling could result in damage of the board. The following precautions arerecommended when handling the board:  Make sure you are grounded electrically by using a wrist strap connected to an electrically grounded component or physically touching the chassis or something electrically connected to the chassis. Any movement can generate a damaging static voltage. Additional discharging to a known ground may be needed after movement.  Handle circuit boards by the edge only. Do not touch the printed circuitry or the connector pins on the circuit cards.Notes, Cautions, and Warnings are applied under the conditions described below: Note A NOTE statement is used to notify people of installation, operations, programming, or maintenance information that are important, but not hazard-related. Caution CAUTION indicated a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices. Warning WARNING indicates potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. For a detailed explanation and further safety considerations please refer to the UserManual and Safety Instructions in the Appendix section. 21 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportTamper SwitchLead Engineers and Designers: William McNally and Noemi Wikstrom, Installed by: LorenSchwappach End switches or tamper switch are typically wired to a component serving as an open/notopen indicator. When the tamper is powered open, one of the tamper blades makes contact withthe spring rod of the end of the switch which in turn makes a connection allowing power to flowto the Solar Sailor. This set up is used as a safety precaution, to ensure that all components of thegame are powered off when the access panel is open during maintenance or servicing of thegame. The following figure shows the tamper switch component in the lower back panel of theSolar Sailor. Figure S1: Tamper SwitchHigh Level Block DiagramCreated by: Loren Schwappach, Edited by: Noemi Wikstrom The Solar Sailor will have several hardware components that will directly interact withthe MCU. The microcontroller will provide commands to turn on and off the air table, lights, andreturn fans, and directives to adjust the speed and sensors to indicate when the spaceship hasreached its destination (home base or planet). Each sensor has a specific purpose in the overalldesign mainly to define the states that will enable and reset the condition of the main controller. 22 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The figure below provides a representation of the main controller interface in the SolarSailor Design. The figure below is a representation of the system Hardware Interface. Figure 4: Solar Sailor (Power & Communication) Block Diagram (See Appendix)Components and ConnectionsGame ControlLead Engineers and Designers: Taylor DeIaco and William McNally The brain of the Solar Sailor is the microprocessor kernel. At this state in the designprocess there is an option for using one of two microprocessors to make up the kernel of thesystem. The first possibility is the Analog Devices ADuC7026 Precision AnalogMicrocontroller. The architecture of the controller is the 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI RISCprocessor, which will provide all the functionality needed to control all aspects of the SolarSailor. The analog components of this controller features 12-bit precision for all analog to digital 23 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report(ADC) and digital to analog (DAC) conversions. The controller provides up to 16 input ADCchannels or 12 input ADC channels and four DAC output channels. [5] The second microprocessor under consideration is the Atmel ATMega24, the big brotherto the ATiny24 which will be the microprocessor on the puck receiving the transmitted signalfrom the main processor. Experimentation is scheduled as one of the first design validation stepsupon the receipt of the hardware that will be ordered upon the approval of the initial designconcept. Regardless of the actual processor chosen, the requirements of the design are consistent.The software control as shown in Figure 4 will be the operation of the communication betweenthe controller kernel and the entire game system. The input into the system will be received from the user interface. Each input signal willbe passed through a second-order low pass filter to eliminate signal switch bounce from beingintroduced into the processor kernel. All processes instantiated by the microprocessor will beinterrupt driven. They will be separated into two operations, game mode and non-game mode. Asshown in Figure 1, the first operation after the initial power up routines is to ensure that the puckis in its home position. If the puck is not in the home position will automatically launch the puckreturn system. Once system has determined that the puck is home the system will enter an idlestate waiting from input from the user. Standard messages will be displayed to the LCD interfaceupon entering the game mode. Once a game mode instance has been initiated and the welcoming text has beenpresented, the mission statistics will be displayed. This state will allow the user to select from allthe possible missions available. Revision one of the Solar Sailor will incorporate the planetcharacteristics of solar system that Earth is a member of, later revisions will have the opportunityof modifying these parameters to simulate other solar systems around the universe. Once theuser accepts the displayed mission, the mission parameters will be loaded into the instantiation ofthe game class. The communication channels between the processor kernel and the puck, and theprocessor and the planet will be initiated. The blower motor will be enabled and the game willwait for the planet rotation to come up to speed. 24 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Initialize Mission Initialize Power Idle Mode Wait for Joy Stick Parameters No No Interrupt Initialize Drive Internal Diagnostics Joy Stick True Received Motor Yes Yes Yes Check Home Display Welcome Yes No Start Blower Motor Drive Motor Return to Idle Mode Proximity Sensor Message No Yes Puck at Home Display Mission Wait for Start Joy Stick False Game Over Position? Stats Button No No Yes Yes Initiate Return Start Button Accept Mission? Halt Motor Planet Reached System Pressed No No Increment Mission Check Fuel Status Fuel Exhausted? Counter YesFigure 5: Software Interface of components of the Solar Sailor. (See Appendix)Figure 6: Debounce schematicOnce the system has been successfully initiated the system will relinquish control to the userinput device. The user will have the ability to engage one of four contacts within the joy stickinput device. Each switch of the joy stick will correspond with one of the possible motor controlstates. The control states are defined as JOY_STICK_FORWARD the puck will be acceleratedin the orientation of the cone of the Sailor, by delivering a positive referenced ON signal to theforward/reverse propulsion unit. The JOY_STICK_BACK state will result in a negativereferenced ON signal to the forward/reverse propulsion system. The JOY_STICK_LEFT statewill result in a negative referenced ON signal being sent to rotational propulsion systemdelivering a counter clock-wise acceleration to the puck. The JOY_STICK_RIGHT state will 25 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportresult in a positive referenced ON signal being delivered to the rotational propulsion systemdelivering a clock-wise acceleration to the puck.Upon the release of any joy stick movement the propulsion systems will terminate and thecalculated fuel, or propulsion time remaining, will be updated for the interactive statisticsprovided to the user via the LCD display. The system will monitor the fuel level throughiterations of the propulsion sequence until exhausted. If the fuel is exhausted before the missionis accomplished the system will exit game mode and initiate the puck return sequence. If theplanet is encountered the system will initiate GAME_LEVEL_SUCCESS mode and the nextlevel of difficulty will be presented to the user for their acceptance.At any time during any game mode there has been no user input detected for more than 45seconds, game mode will terminate shutting down the blower system. After 15 minutes of nouser input the system will enter sleep mode.Parts required for the MCU and Software design:4 – Switch, PB, SPST, On/Off, Red1 – LCD Display Parallel1 – Joystick1 – ARV Dragon (Software)1 – Amp 20 – Position, 2-Row Straight Breakaway Header Connector1 – AMP 40 –Position, 2-Row Straight Breakaway Header Connector1 ARES 40-Pin ZIF Socket1 – Precision Analog Microcontroller 12 Analog I/O ARM7TDMI MCU1 – Low Voltage Octal Bidirectional Transceiver16 – 47 Ω +/- 10% resistor20 - .2µF 100V 5% Capacitor8 - 10KΩ resistor +/- 5%5 – Op-Amp2 - Adapter for standard 80 pin TQFP SMD Parts2 - 20-pin SSOP Adapter2 - Versa Strip Phenolic Prototype Board1 - Stand-off Hex M/F .875" 6-32BR100 - Phillips Machine Screw 6-32-1/2100 - Washer Flat #6100 - Washer Lock Internal Teeth #6 Zinc100 - Nut Hex 6-32 Zinc2 - ATtiny24 PDIP2 - ATmega16 PDIP 26 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportPlay AreaLead Engineers and Designers: Victor Arosemena (Primary) and Loren Schwappach (Alternate) The Solar Sailor play area is the largest part of the system. The play area can only bedescribed along with the frame. The frame is the main component of the system. This frameshown in Figure 7 was constructed by Anthony‟s Manufacturing Services Company tospecifications shown in Figure 10. The frame was constructed in two pieces, the top and bottom.The frame is one inch rolled square steel tubing and L-bars. This was done for transportation,maintenance, and strength purposes. The entire frame was painted and coated with spray epoxyto prevent rust. The top section covers the play area. The halogen lights are mounted to the topsection with steel L-bars. Siding for the top is Plexiglas to allow visibility of the entire playsurface as well as safety of the user and observers. The play area will be inaccessible once thetop section is attached to the bottom. The main air chamber was constructed to approximatelyfour feet in length by four feet in width by two inches in height; actual dimensions are four feetby four feet by 43/4 inches. The deeper air chamber was for aesthetic purposes.Figure 7: Solar Sailor Frame – Initial Product without support cross beams The top of this chamber is the play surface where the shuttle is levitated. The remainingsix inches on the two sides of the play area were originally the air return system. The playsurface was created by drilling a one inch square matrix of 1/32 holes (Figure 8). Sealing theplay surface to the air chamber was the most important aspect to the play surface functioningproperly. Creating a level play surface is crucial in the operation of the Solar Sailor. To ensure asafe seal for the air pressure within the chamber all seams on the interior were blocked with oneinch square blocks. Once these seals were secured in place they were additionally sealed withsilicon. All interior walls were tested frequently for uniform height. 27 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 8: Solar Sailor Play Area – Drilling 1/32” Holes. Modifications made during the construction process include cross bar supports on thebottom and middle layer of the frame. A „vented top‟ was created with cross bars in an Xconfiguration for halogen light mount. Three sides of the top were made with steel mesh for aircirculation to occur over the halogen lights. A design change reduced the pressurized area of theair return to be reduced to only one corner of the table with air return rails running the length ofthe play area. Side cross bars were also added to the top section at the discretion of Anthony‟sManufacturing Service for additional stability. This benefited the design by the improvedstability and defining the side of the play area.Figure 9: Solar Sailor Frame – Modification adding X-configuration cross bars for lights. 28 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 10: Solar Sailor Table Frame CAD Drawing. Side and top profiles respectively. 29 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportAir Flow SystemLead Engineers and Designers: Loren Schwappach (Primary) and Victor Arosemena (Alternate)Figure 11: The Air Flow System (Air Table and Air Return System) The Solar Sailor primary Air Flow System (AFS) Figure 11, utilizes an air-hockey-like tabledesign. The primary air chamber is approximately four feet in length by four feet in width by four inchesin height and was built using standard .75 inch thick hardwood (pressboard) for strength, stability, andnoise/vibration isolation. Typical standard four foot by eight foot air hockey tables normally operate at approximately 300-350 Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) of air flow. There is no direct correlation between CFM and airpressure [28] However, top-of-the-line tables such as tournament play tables are rated at approximately350-400 CFM. The best rated air-hockey tables use commercial grade blowers, although most tablesoperate using several high CFM fans [29]. To ensure an adequate amount of air is delivered to the Solar Sailor Shuttle it was determined bythe Air Flow System team that a high output centrifugal blower capable of producing a minimum 400CFM was required. With the Solar Sailor primary air chamber less than 5.28 Cubic Feet (CF) in size(4‟x4‟x.33‟=5.28 CF) the air chamber received enough in-chamber air flow needed to ensure appropriatelevitation of the Solar Sailor Shuttle. However a delicate balance between the number of 1/32” output airchamber holes (1200+ holes drilled) Figure 8 and the input air was needed to ensure air flow did notreturn through the blower. After the primary chamber was sealed every other 1/32” hole was drilled againusing 1/16” drill bits to increase outward airflow and ensure pressure would not reenter the centrifugal 30 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportblower wasting valuable outward airflow. Air Flow into the system was provided by the Air Flow teamvia a donated screen door mesh (Figure 12). Nine two inch holes were drilled into the bottom boardusing a hole saw by the Air Flow team and a thick screen mesh was secured to the bottom boards toprevent access into the chamber.Figure 12: Input Air Flow screen mesh. The blower chosen for the Solar Sailor primary AFS was the Fasco model B45267 centrifugalblower. The Fasco B45267, Figure 13, was the lowest cost 460 CFM centrifugal blower that the CreativeDesign AFS team could find on the market and operates at a nominal 115 VAC, at 60 Hertz (Hz), and 2.9Amps. [30] The AFS team compared the prices of over six dozen various centrifugal blowers beforefinally selection of the Fasco B45267 blower occurred.Figure 13: Fasco model B45267 [28] The Fasco B45267 weighs approximately nine pounds, is a two speed centrifugal blower capableof operating at 1600 or 1400 Revolutions per Minute (RPM). A noise rating for the Fasco B45267 couldnot be found; however upon actual system testing it was determined to be very minimal. A standard 6 31 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportfeet, 16AWG power cable was used to connect the Fasco blower to a standard 6 outlet 115VAC powerstrip, controlled by the micro controller via a relay. The primary AFS chamber (Figure 14) was to have a six inch by six inch square in the middle ofthe primary AFS chamber separating the primary AFS from the rotating arm assembly high torque minigear motor. This separation was to ensure flexibility in the design and configuration of the gear motorand rotating arm assembly. This separation was not created due to a mid-construction design change. Thechange incorporated lowering the mini gear motor below the primary AFS into the maintenanceaccessible area of the system. This reduced materials and made the motor easier to service/install.Figure 14: Primary AFS Chamber The total size of the Solar Sailor AFS chamber layer is approximately 4.5‟ length by 4.5‟ width(Primary chamber is 4‟x4‟). Subtracting the primary AFS and separation wall leave approximately fiveinches which were to be utilized by the AFS Air Return System (ARS) chamber. The ARS chamberwould have encompassed two sides of the Solar Sailor project and were engineered to be utilized forreturning the Shuttle to an initial/start position at mission time-out/reset/mission completion. The ARSchamber was reduced in size in the construction phase. The change was an adaption to a smaller chamberand thus greater pressures. As well the PVC air return rails (Figure 15) along the length of the play areawere also changed to reduce material and make more efficient use of air flow. 32 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 15: Air Return System – PVC Rails It was initially determined by the Air Flow System team that two high CFM fans capable ofproducing a minimum of 250 CFM would produce enough directed air flow to sufficiently accomplish thetask of repositioning the Shuttle. With the Solar Sailor ARS air chamber less than .672 Cubic Feet (CF)in size (4‟x.42‟x.4‟=.672 CF) the air chamber shall receive more than enough in-chamber directed airflow required to ensure appropriate repositioning of the Solar Sailor Shuttle. The Air Flow System teaminitially reduced the size of the Air Return System into one combined smaller chamber (Figure 16) withtwo 250 CFM fans to further increase airflow, however the output air flow was insufficient and it wasobserved through several tests that the majority of airflow was exiting the system back through the HighCFM fans. 33 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 16: Air Return System – Modification of ARS Chamber To fix the problem with the Air Return System two additional high CFM fans were purchased atthe beginning of week ten and installed by the Air Flow team directly above the primary air chambers.These four high CFM fans were then tested and resulted in more than sufficient directional airflowproviding the force needed to return all test shuttles back to home (Figure 17).Figure 17: Air Return System – Final Modification of the Air Return System 34 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report To accomplish the task of the ARS the AFS team reviewed over fifty compact DC fan designs,however the vast majority of the designs analyzed were either too large and too costly, or were unable toproduce enough air flow necessary to meet the ARS objective. Luckily a small 120 mm x 120 mm x 38mm (4.72 x 4.72 x 1.5 inch) 205 CFM fan was discovered. The ARS team chose to utilize two of theultra-high performance Mechatronics model MD1238X fans. The Mechatronics MD1238X, Figure 18, isthe most cost effective high CFM fan the ARS design team could find. The Mechatronics MD1238Xachieves 205 CFM of air by revolving at 4,500 RPM using 12 VDC at 2.5 Amps [29]. The MechatronicsMD1238X weighs approximately 411g (411g is approximatelly.906lbs) and produces 62 dBA of noise.For comparison a normal conversation is typically rated at 60-70 dB, and city traffic (inside car) typicallyproduces 85dB of noise. [30]. However this noise is still within safety limits and only occurs during thereturn of the shuttle back to home at the end of each mission.Figure 18: Mechatronix MD1238X Fan. [29] As possible alternatives for the Mechatronics MD1238X fan the AFS team looked into using fourCOMPAQ model PSD1212PMBX, 12VDC fans capable of 105 CFM each. The other big considerationwas whether to use two FFB model 1212EHE 12VDC fans rated at 190 CFM. However, the COMPAQfans were above budget constraints and would create too much system noise and the FFB fans were twicethe cost of the Mechatronics MD1238X. In order to control the Fasco B45267, 110VAC, 2.9A,centrifugal blower and Mechatronics MD1238X, 12VDC, 2.5A, fan with the microcontroller the AFSteam reviewed several Single-Pole Single-Throw (SPST) relays. A relay is essentially a large mechanical switch that can be toggled off or on by energizing a coil.There are two parts to most relays, the contact and the coil. The contact part of the relay is the path inwhich the primary devices power travels and is either open or closed [32]. In order to control the FascoB45267 and Mechatronics MD1238X the contact needed to be able to support at least 110VAC @ 2.9Aand 12VDC at 2.5A. For safety concerns the AFS design team researched relays capable of handling atleast a maximum load of 200VAC @5A and 28VDC @5A. 35 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The coil is the second half of the relay and is basically a small electromagnet used to open/closethe switch. Several relays were looked at during this part of the research phase however most relayslooked at were costly and could not meet the requirements above. The microcontroller research teamspecified that the microcontroller would be sending a 3VDC or 5VD signal at a range from 40 – 400 mAto control the relay (using one or more pins). In order to meet these requirements the AFS team found two inexpensive, quality, relays fromsuppliers (Digikey and Sparkfun) recommended by the part procurement official. The two primary relaysidentified by the AFS team were the Tyco T9A Series and the Panasonic DK Series shown by Figures 19and 20 below.Figure 19: Tyco T9A Series Relay [33]Figure 20: Panasonic DK Series Relay [32] 36 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The Panasonic DK1A-L2-3V-F relay (Digikey part number 255-2053-ND) has a contact rating of10A and a maximum switching voltage of 250 VAC, 125 VDC [32]. The Panasonic DK1A-L2-3V-Frelay coil requires 3VDC at 66.7mA for switching the SPST relay on and off, however the relay is fourtimes the price of the Tyco T9A series (Sparkfun SKU: COM-00101) relay. The Tyco relay has a contactrating of 30A and a maximum switching voltage of 240 VAC, 20A @ 28VDC [33]. The Tyco relay coil requires 5VDC at 200mA for switching the SPST relay on and off and washighly recommended on several microcontroller sites. The AFS team met with the microcontroller designteam and determined that the best option was to purchase 3 of the Tyco T9A relays in order to control thefour Air Return System 12 VDC fans, the 120VAC blower, and the four 500W overhead lights. Sparkfunprovided an eagle file/image of a control circuit that would allow the low current 20-40mA output fromthe micro controller to power the required 200mA relay control input (Figure 21).Figure 21: Eagle Layout for the Relay Control Board 37 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The eagle schematic was used by our board designer Anthony Santistevan to create the relaycontrol board shown by Figure 22. This board was then populated and soldered to the hot lines of theblower, lights, and Air Return System fans by the Air Flow Team. The relays were then insulated andaffixed to the power cables to reduce movement damage.Figure 22: Actual Relay Control Board populated for use. In order to provide power to the 12 VDC fans operating at 2.5A each and provide essential powerfor the primary microcontroller the AFS team reviewed power supplies capable of delivering all of therequired output voltages, in a single package, and as cost effectively as possible. The AFS design teamreasoned that a 250W computer power supply would perfectly fit the requirement. After looking over numerous 250W power supplies the AFS design team discovered theDiablotek DA Series PSDA250 250W ATX Power Supply. The Diablotek 250W (Figure 23) powersupply accepts an input voltage of 115 VAC, 60Hz at 8A and provides Outputs of +3.3 VDC at 14A, +5VDC at 14A, +12VDC at 10A (enough to power four 2.5A fans), +12VDC at .5A, -12VDC at .5A, and+5VDC at 2A and costs around ten dollars. Should additional Air Return System fans be required analternative power supply would be needed. The AFS design team determined that the Diablotek 250W power supply was the best option forproviding the regulated DC power to all of the Solar Sailor system components as it fulfilled all powerrequirements and was the cheapest of the power supplies reviewed. 38 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportFigure 23: Diabloteck 250W Power Supply [26].Figure 24: Solar Sailor Air Flow Block Diagram. 39 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportAir Flow System parts required for assembly:1 - Fasco B45267 Centrifugal Blower (460 CFM)4 - Mechatronics MD1238 Fans (205 CFM each)3 – PWR Relays SPST-NO 30A1 - Diablotek DA Series 250W ATX Power Supply1 – 18 AWG Power Cable1 – 6 Outlet 110VAC, 15A Surge Protector3 - 4.5L x 4.5W x.75"H Hardwood boards4 - 4.5W x 10"L x .75"H Hardwood boards4 - 4.5W x 5"L x .75"H Hardwood boards2 - 4.5W x 5"L x .75"H Hardwood boards4 - 1L x 2"W x .75"H Hardwood boards2 – 18 fl. oz. bottles of Gorilla Glue (Wood)4 – 3M containers of Silicon SealantSafety Considerations All the components of the Air Flow Systems are not accessible to the users, unless the plaxiglassis removed from the Solar Sailor game or the relays, power and centrifugal blower is accessed from theaccess panel. For maintanance considerations all the parts required to replace any of the components arelisted in the Appendix under the Part List. CAUTION: The Air Return System 12VDC fan blades and Centrifugal blower have sharp blades and cause cutting injuries. Remove and replace units if malfunctioning. Do not run fans/blower while Plexiglas is removed or access panel is open. WARNING: Do not remove any components of the air system (fans/blower) and/or power system (AC outlet, relays, tamper switch, power supply, surge protector, grounding wire) unless the Solar Sailor Game is powered off (to include primary power, surge protector, and power supply) and disconnected from the electrical outlet. Failure to disconnect the Solar Sailor game could result in death by Electrical Shock. 40 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportInformational Display Board, Backdrop and User Interface graphicsLead Engineers and Designers: Loren Schwappach and Barry Farley (Chimaera) (Primary) andTaylor DeIaco (Alternate) The Solar Sailor informational display (Figure 25) was designed by Loren Schwappachusing a royalty free image of the sun and the eight planets created by NASA. NASA authorizedthe modification and use of the image for educational or informational purposes, including photocollections, textbooks, public exhibits and Internet Web pages. The NASA image was resizedand altered using GIMP (A freeware graphics editor) to make the image appear more surreal andthe names, graphics and planetary/physics information was added as separate layers with 75%transparency. Facts about each of the eight planets (to include: diameter, mass (relative to earth),avg. density, distance from sun, surface gravity, orbital time, number of moons, and surfacetemperature were compiled using several sources with NASA being the primary), Newton andKeplers three laws and information about achieving orbit were also added to the illustration toincrease the audiences understanding of gravity, inertia, forces, and frictionless motion in space.Figure 25: Solar Sailor Informational Display 41 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The Solar Sailor backdrop (Figure 26) was created by Barry Farley (CTU Chimaera).The design was created to illustrate the creativity and wonder of space travel while playing theSolar Sailor game. Figure 26: Solar Sailor Backdrop The Solar Sailor User Interface (Figure 27) was conceived initially by Taylor DeIaco.This design was then modified / resized by Loren Schwappach with the colors, instructions (inEnglish and Spanish) and planetary scheme of the backdrop poster to provide a unified vision ofthe game. Figure 27: Solar Sailor User Interface 42 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportSpaceship ComponentLead Engineers and Designers: Anthony Santistevan and Joe RodriguezContributing Engineer: Taylor DeIaco The Solar Flyer (Shuttle) is the physical representation of the interactive element of the systemdesign. The item will be created from scratch using plastic resin molding techniques. Creating the playpiece from scratch will allow for having direct input to the amount of mass introduced to the air table.This will make it easier to accurately simulate zero friction environment provided by the air table. The plastic resin molding process also produces a robust product that will be able to withstand thestresses of accidental collisions. The molding process will first require creating a clay positive of thespaceship. This spaceship will then be hollow molded to provide area inside the fuselage for installingthe needed components. Weight was the primary consideration when casting the base and fuselage of the shuttle.Research initially pointed towards air hockey pucks having a mass between 18 and 48 grams. Testing onthe completed air table showed that movement was likely when the shuttle was under a mass of 44 grams.In order to move a higher mass shuttle, more airflow by way of an additional blower will be required.Finished product mass is 42g with all components added. The base will be 3.5" in diameter and 1" tall. The base will be left open air. This will allow forthe storage of the electrical components and assist with keeping under the mass limit. The fan rotors willbe 1.5" diameter for the fore and aft directional motors, and 1.5" diameter for the forward and reversethrust motor in the rear. The rotors were sourced from a local hobby shop as inconsistencies with themolding process were interfering with the aerodynamics needed for movement. Figure 28: Graphic Representation, top view of the spaceship component, planned and actual [12] The spaceship will be controlled by an amplitude modulated radio frequency (RF) serial datastream from the joy stick controller by way of the main microcontroller. This signal will be input to the 43 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportspaceship at the 433MHz Receiver. This receiver was chosen due to the low availability of small formlow power RF receivers. The serial data stream is then decoded by the ATtiny24 microprocessor.Individual control signals are then sent to the Inverting Buffer IC from the ATtiny24, and subsequentlyused as biasing for the transistor arrays that will directly drive the motors. A crystal oscillator is utilizedto stabilize the clock signals of the ATtiny24 microprocessor.A circuit diagram is provided below in Figure 29. A larger version of this figure can also be found in theAppendix for easier viewing. Figure 29: Circuit Diagram, Spaceship Component [14][15] (See Appendix) Power is provided to the mobile spaceship by way of solar cells. The fan motors are connected toan unregulated 3.3V solar circuit. The max provided current of this circuit is estimated to be 80mA.Testing under the current lighting scheme yields the available current of 67mA. The max draw of themotor circuit at any given time is 50mA [15]. The control signal flow is separated to an unregulated 6.5Vsolar power supply circuit. This is done to ensure that the higher current draw of the motors will notinterfere with receiving commands from the MCU. The max current provided by this circuit is estimatedat 33mA, and the max current draw is estimated at 12mA [18]. All components were populated onto acustom printed circuit board (PCB) shown in Figure 30. The process for creating the PCB is listed in theAppendix. 44 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure 30: Graphic Representation side view, planned and actual, and PCB[13]. The spaceship will be controlled by three small fans. Two fans will be place fore and aft of thespaceship perpendicular to the fuselage as shown in Figure 30. The two motors will be wired into thecircuit inversely; if one motor is running forward, the second will be running in reverse. When the foremotor is running forward and the aft is running reverse, the spaceship will achieve a clockwise rotation.If the signal is reversed, the fore motor will be running in reverse and the aft motor will run forward, andthe ship will achieve a counterclockwise rotation. These actions allow the spaceship to point in thedesired direction. The third fan in the rear is the thrust fan. The rear fan enables forward and reversemovement in whichever direction it is respectively pointed. No User Begins Game Planetary By Pressing Start System Idle User input? No Capture? Button Yes Yes Wait for Solar Power No Cells to Charge Success Available? System Yes Fore Fan Forward; User Input Fore Fan Reverse; Counter-Clockwise Clockwise Aft Fan Reverse Direction Aft Fan Forward Forward Reverse Rear Fan Forward Rear Fan Reverse Figure 31: Behavioral Flowchart of the Spaceship (See Appendix) 45 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Control signals received from the MCU will follow this table: Directional Motor Array Input1 Enable1 Motor X H Standby H L Clockwise L L Counter-Clockwise Thrust Motor Array Input 2 Enable 2 Motor X H Standby H L Forward L L Reverse Table 2: Truth Table, Motor Control Circuit [14] The spaceship will also have a permanent magnet that will activate the proximity sensor locatedat home base and the Planet Driver. The magnet will be mounted on the starboard side of the spaceship inorder to simulate a spaceship in orbit. The operator will need to align the magnet with the sensor andcapture device to ensure a successful orbit.Spaceship Parts required for assembly:3 – Small Pager Motor.2 - 37 x 33mm Monocrystalline Solar Cell1 - Receiver AM Mini Hybrid 433MHZ4 - Transistor Array NPN and PNP DUAL 30V2 - Capacitor 1000uF 25V2 - Capacitor .1uF 25V1 - 74HC240 Enable line Invertor1 - ATTINY24-20PU-ND 14 Pin Microcontroller8 - 1KΩ Resistor1 – Crystal Oscillator1 – completed circuit board1 – neodymium magnet1 liter - Plastic Resin Molding Materials500g - Molding Clay 46 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportPlanet Driver ComponentLead Engineers and Designers: Noemi Wikstrom and Jeremy StruebingAlternate Engineers and Contributors: William McNally, Taylor DeIaco, Anthony Santistevan The purpose of the Planet Driver is to introduce the concept of orbits and planettrajectory in our solar system. The Planet Driver consists of a DC motor connected to a 3 inchrod in the z direction and a 16 inch rod in the x direction, creating an inverted “L” shape. In theintersection of the rods, above the playfield a 4 inch in diameter sphere enclose the connectionrepresenting the Sun. At the end of the rod in the x-direction a 2 inch in diameter sphere isconnected, representing the planet. (See Figure P1) Sun Planet Figure P1: Planet Driver Sun and Planet Representations The orbit represented in the design is a circular orbit with an eccentricity of zero. [6] ThePlanet Driver assembly will be controlled by the MCU which will turn the motor on/off anddrive the speed of rotation using a DC gear motor. The modulation technique to control the speedof the motor is Pulse-width modulation. PWM is a commonly used technique for controllingpower to inertial electrical devices. [37] The gear motor will be capable of 8 gear speedssufficient to model effective orbital speeds of eight planetary bodies. An LED will be displayedinside the model sun and on the planet sphere. A magnetic sensor inside the planetary spherewill allow detection of the player‟s air propelled spaceship and it will transmit a signal to themicrocontroller once the Solar Sailor shuttle has triggered the proximity in the planetary object.The proximity sensor will activate the transmitter inside the planet to communicate with themicrocontroller. The planetary LED will flash and the LCD will inform the user once missionsuccess is detected. The transmitter is an AMRT4-433 and operates at 433MHz. It transmits on acurrent of 4 milliamps and an operating temperature of -25oC~85oC. The supply voltage for thetransmitter can be anywhere from 2 to 14 volts. This will be supplied by the solar cell that will beattached to the rotating planet. The transmitter will be placed inside the rotating planet alongwith the proximity sensor and the LED on a small circuit board. 47 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure P2: Schematic for Rotating Planet (See Appendix/ Figures) The DC motor is placed in the center of the play field. (See Figure P3) The axle of themotor is connected to a threaded rod measuring 6 inches protruding to the play field. To providemore stability to the threaded rod, a hollow stainless steel rod is used to cover the threaded rod. 2 Feet Figure P3: Installation of the DC Motor at the Center of the Play Field 48 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The “sun” was originally design to be represented by 4” diameter hemisphere (Sun).However; one of the main concerns was to provide the user with more play field area tomaneuver the spaceship. It was decided to use a Sphere instead located above the playfield about4 inches above the surface. A 16 inch shaft is connected to the main rod in the y-direction. A 2inch diameter plastic sphere is attached to the secondary shaft representing the planet. The motor move the shaft and planet around the sun with an orbit circumference of 2πr =9.42 feet. Using the circumference of 9.42 feet we can calculate the required motor velocitiesscaled to the Planet Driver. Assuming that one revolution equates to 10 seconds and 60 secondsequate to 1 minute. At maximum speed the motor rotates at 6 rpm. To represent the planet‟s rotations around the sun, the speed of the motor will becontrolled by the comparison of the planet‟s orbital (Earth days) rotations around the sun. Forexample, Mercury has the smallest orbit, it take approximately 88 days to complete a rotation[6]. Equating Mercury‟s orbital rotation at 6 rpm, we can scale the rest of the planet‟s orbitalspeeds. The table below lists the calculated planet‟s orbital speeds scaled for the planet driver. Planet rpm Mercury 6 Venus 5 Earth 4 Mars 3 Jupiter 0.5 Saturn 0.25 Uranus 0.125 Neptune 0.025 Table P1: Planet Driver revolutions per minute for each planet The sphere (planet) connected to the rotating shaft will contain a flashing LED. The LED willlight up when the spaceship reach the planet. To be able to detect the spaceship the planet will also serveas a sensor. Inside the sphere a 3.6 x 5.0 x 1.0 mm [7] proximity sensor will detect the changes in themagnetic field when the spaceship has reached the planet. 49 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure P4: Proximity Sensor with leads in the ports. The 2-Axis Magnetic sensor uses the strength and the direction of the magnetic field to measurein a range of +/- 2 Gauss. The sensor will transmit the signal to microcontroller and the component willstop and the game reset. In Figure 4, notice that the magnetic sensor has a very small (~3mm x 4mm)surface mount IC package making the pins extremely small and difficult to prototype. For that reason, themagnetic sensor is mounted to a PCB for easier connection to rest of the Planet Driver circuit. The planet circuit contains an A tiny microcontroller brain. This processor takes the magneticsensor voltage as in input, analyses this voltage level, and outputs a pulse width modulated signalaccording to whether or not the magnetic sensor‟s voltage level is higher than a threshold level. Theoutputted pulse width modulated signal is routed into a RF transmitter to be broadcast to the CPUreceiver. To provide power to the sensor inside the planet and the flashing LED, a 37 x 33mm Mono-Crystalline Solar Cell will be also attached to the planet circuit board. The solar cell will provide 6.1 voltsat 23mA. The reason Solar Cells are used instead of routing power from the main power supply, is thatthe planet is rotating, and any wires being routed through the planet shaft will twist together until theybreak. Figure P6: Soldering of the 24 gauge wire to the DC Motor for the Planet Driver 50 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The Planet Driver component will use a DC Motor: High Torque Mini DC Gear Motor 3-12V, 5-25 rpm. The nominal operating voltage is 6 volts with an operating voltage range of 3 – 12 volts and anoperating life 8000 hours.[8] The diameter of the spindle is 7 mm and the motor is 40 mm long and 48mm in diameter. The power will be provided by the power supply unit of the Solar Sailor Table. The motor speed will be varied using pulse-width modulation (PWM). The average value ofvoltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by providing power only a certain percent of time,effectively slowing the motors speed. [9] The PWM will be controlled by a signal from themicrocontroller. Figure P7: DC Motor: High Torque Mini DC Gear Motor. [8]The following flowchart represents the behavior of the Planet Driver component. Figure P8: Solar Sailor Planet Driver Behavior flowchart.Planet Driver Parts required for assembly: 51 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report1 - 4” diameter Plastic Sphere1 - 2” diameter Plastic Sphere1 - Proximity Sensor. HMC6042- 2-Axis Magnetic Sensor1 - 37 x 33mm Mono-crystalline Solar Cell1 – TWS-434 Transmitter1 – 16 inch metal rod1 – 12 inch metal rod1 – Threaded Rod1 – LED In the process of the planet driver design, some parts were eliminated or replaced. The originalidea was to run wires through a PVC pipe to supply power for the components inside the planet. Theproblem encountered was the realization that the wires will twist, and damage the signal line. The solutionis to use solar cells embeded in the planet to provide power for the electrical components, remotly, frominside the plant. The other issue with the design was the use of PVC pipe, which is not aestheticallypleasing. The solution was to use, thin metallic rods, which are very resistant and lighter than the PVC.An added benefit of the lighter metallic rods are in the load for the motor. The spheres use in the design,were chosen due to durability and cost, the spheres are made of plastic as opposed to metal or glass.Although there were several alternatives for the gear motor, the team decided to use the High TorqueMini DC Gear motor [8] depicted in Figure P7 due to its comparable price and efficiency. The threadedrods are covered by stainless steal hollow rods to provide stability to the motor axle and prevent bendingdue to the load.Recommendation from Tailor DeIaco The result of the planet driver was that it worked as expected. There seems to be a minot stabilityissue at the sun. The time constraint did not allow for final testing of the motor or installation of theelectronics into the rotating planet. There are a couple of things that can be improved in the planet driverassembly. First add a small rod inside the sun at the 90o turn for added stability. Second, replace theconnector with an elbow. The last thing that could be improved on is the shaft leading out to the rotatingplanet. This could be a solid piece of material.Safety ConsiderationsAll the component of the Planet Driver are not accessible to the users, unless the plaxiglass is removedfrom the Solar Sailor game or the motor is access from the bottom section of the Play field. Formaintanance considerations all the parts required to replace any of the components are listed in theAppendix under the Part List. 52 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportThe paint used to decorate the “Sun” and the “Planet” do not contain lead, as required by the UnitedStates Environmental Protection Agency. WARNING: Do not remove any components of the Planet Driver unless the Solar Sailor Game is disconnected from the electrical outlet. Failure to disconnect the Solar Sailor game could result in Electrical Shock.Power DistributionLead Engineer: Loren Schwappach, Alternate Engineer: William McNally The purpose of the Power Distribution System is to supply power to all of thecomponents of the Solar Sailor. Primary power is fed into the system from an external 120VAC20A outlet via a 12 AWG cable to an internal 20A outlet controlled by a primary 30A capableon/off switch and a 20A capable tamper switch (via the hot/black wire). This power then feeds a15A Surge Protector Power Strip (with a 15A circuit breaker). The circuit breaker feeds all ofthe units of the Solar Sailor to include the 120VAC, 2A (240W) power for the Air Flow Systemblower controlled via relay, the 250W Power Supply feeding the microcontroller and Air ReturnSystem fan relay powering four 12V, 2.5A fans (10A, 120W), and the Solar Sailor 2000W solarcell lighting system powering four 500W halogen lights via a 15A 120VAC outlet and controlledby the microcontroller via relay. The Solar Sailor was designed so that the lighting system andfans would not operate at the same time and if so trip the 15A surge protector. This was more ofa game design feature (to add effect when the player completes his/her mission) than a systemand user safety feature but was essential after redesigning the Air Flow Return System to utilizefour fans vs. two and tripling the power of the lighting system to utilize 500W vs. 150W halogenbulbs. The frame itself was further grounded as an additional safety measure. Figure 32: Wiring of the Power Distribution System 53 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Power has always been a major focus as the design of this project as it progressed. All thecomponents that were selected were included in the initial power consumption calculations of theoverall project. The initial design consumed less than 300W of power. This iteration of designwas based upon the assumption that the lighting at the Imagination Celebration Center was highintensity fixtures that should deliver an adequate photos stream to the photo cells deliveringpower to both the shuttle and the planet. Initial testing of the photocells proved that assumptiondrastically wrong. This failure facilitated a complete redesign on the game.This iteration of the design incorporated four 150W halogen lights to be installed above the playsurface of the game. Each light would provide power for a quarter of the play surface.Experimentation with a single 500W halogen light source showed that this should be adequatefor the power needs of the shuttle. The planet circuit was neglected from this testing, since theshuttle circuit was shown to be much greater than the power consumed by the planet circuit. Thisphase of the design was still well within the power specification that the unit must not consumemore power than a standard 15 amp circuit, or 1800W (120VAC * 15 A).At the end of week ten the Solar Sailor was beginning to take form. All the mechanical issues ofthe frame seemed to have been overcome, and we were prepared to proceed with the testing ofthe mechanical functions of the game. Once that testing was completed, it was time to includethe shuttle in the testing of the system. The addition of the 150W proved not to be a validsolution to the lack of power derived from the solar cells, and the deadline for completion of theproduct by the date scheduled for the presentation was almost upon us. Unfortunately thesolution posed new problems for the system. The mechanical design to support the lights wasbased upon the use of commercially available halogen work lights. This presented a conundrum;the next size halogen lighting source that is commercially available consumes 500W. Addingthese to the design brought the power consumption of the product to 2300W. Team memberspresent at this development discussed the issues, and elected to proceed with acquiring the higherpowered lights, this decision was on the hope that there may be a 20 amp circuit available tosupply power for the Solar Sailor, since the Imagination Celebration Center is located in acommercial location.This presented what could possibly be a code violation. 12AWG stranded wire had been chosento connect the top of the frame that contains the lighting, and the bottom of the frame that had theinterface point to deliver that power. 12AWG solid wire is rated to deliver 20A of current;however the NEC standard rule of thumb when using stranded wire instead of solid is to drop tothe next lower gage of wire for the maximum current rating. The maximum rating for 14AWGsolid wire is 15A. The 500W halogens would be drawing 16.667A total current technicallyviolating NEC recommendations.Initial testing of the Solar Sailor with the 500W halogens installed went very well for what couldhave possibly occurred. The expected result of powering up the system was to have the 15 ampcircuit breaker powering the test circuit to trip, but to our amazement this did not happen. Wewere able to perform many tests, and concluded that the addition of the new lighting fixtures didnot cause the circuit to be overdrawn. This assumption was called into question at the end of theproduct presentation. The system had never been continuously powered for any significant 54 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportlength of time and after the presentation had concluded and the product was being viewed by theaudience, the overload protection on the power strip that is used for power distribution for the120VAC devices tripped. After resetting the overload protection, it tripped again after somelength of time. This is an indication that the power distribution design has failed to deliveradequate power for the unit.To overcome this failure will require certain experiments to be run to make the systemfunctional. First the actual draw of the halogen lights needs to be measured. Our testing showedthat the lights are not actually consuming 500W of power each, since the four lamps in paralleldid not trip a standard 15 amp circuit breaker. However the fact that the overload protection ofthe power strip trips after some length of time indicates that the system is at the borderline ofexceeding the power specifications. Once the actual current is measured to the lights, it may bepossible to redistribute the power through multiple surge protected devices, so that individualdevices can derive power from different legs of the circuit. This approach would require twosupply circuits from the base to the top of the frame so that only two lights derive power fromthe same power distribution point.Power System Parts required for assembly:1 – 30A, Primary Power On/Off Button1 – 20A, 120VAC Outlet1 – 20A, Tamper switch1 – 6 Outlet 110VAC, 15A Surge Protector2 – 12ft, 12 AWG Power Cables1 - Diablotek DA Series 250W ATX Power Supply3 – PWR Relays SPST-NO 30ASafety Considerations All the components of the Power System are not accessible to the users, unless the plaxiglass isremoved from the Solar Sailor game or the relays, wires, and power control devices are accessed via theaccess panel. For maintanance considerations all the parts required to replace any of the components arelisted in the Appendix under the Part List. WARNING: Do not remove any components of the power system (AC outlet, relays, tamper switch, power supply, surge protector, grounding wire, and wiring) unless the Solar Sailor Game is powered off (to include primary power, surge protector, and power supply) and disconnected from the electrical outlet. Failure to 55 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report disconnect the Solar Sailor game could result in death by Electrical Shock.Light PowerLead Engineer and Designer: Joe Rodriguez, Install and Wiring: Anthony Santistevan and LorenSchwappach The purpose of the Light Power is to supply voltage and power to the solar panels of theSpace Shuttle and the Planet Driver. The Light Power is made up of four 500 watt halogenlamps. These lamps are hung and positioned 20 inches away from the play surface of the gamethey are spaced out 1 foot away from each other so that all locations on the play surface will becovered with power. (See Figure L1) Figure L1: Four 500 Watt Halogen Lights for Power The four 500 watt halogen light needed to be rewired so that all lights could be poweredon at the same time form the same cord. The first thing done was to disable the switch on theback of the lights so that they could only be turned off when the game was powered down whichwould kill off all lights instead of just one at a time. This is done as a safety precaution so that alllights would be off to prevent burns when lights needed to be replaced. The next thing thatneeded to be done was that the four light were separated into pairs of two so that the pairs couldbe wired together into its own junction box. Then the wires from the paired junction boxes weregathered and then again tied into one final junction box allowing the four light to be powered offof just one cord (See Figure L2). In the event of doing this the light are now running at 18 ampsinstead of the common 15 amp outlet. Since the game is going to an industrial structure the lightsocks there are powered off a 20 amp circuit breaker allowing the light to still function andoperate in its environment. 56 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report Figure L2: Rewired 500 Watt Halogen Lamps The four 500 watt halogen lights get very hot so as a safety measure the lights only power upwhen the game is about to start and immediately powers down once the game is not in use. This is donebecause while the game is running the air form the play surface is being release up and over the lightand out the top was vented. This is controlled by the games internal CPU and programming. The lightsare also aimed away from the glass so that children or adults will not go blind while playing the game. When first designed we used four 150 watt Halogen Lamps thinking that this would be enoughlight to power the solar cells from 20 inches above the play surface. After running some test and notbeing able to get the solar cells to even charge off of these Halogens we decided to go to the four 500which worked and accomplished the goal of powering the cells. The only problem with going to the 500watt halogens is that they get much hotter faster than the others.Safety ConsiderationsAll the components of the Light System are not accessible to the users, unless the plaxiglass is removedfrom the Solar Sailor game. For maintanance considerations all the parts required to replace any of thecomponents are listed in the Appendix under the Part List. CAUTION: The halogen light bulbs and ventilation area may become hot during increased game play. Do not touch or expose flammable objects to the upper game chamber. WARNING: Do not remove any components of the air system (fans/blower) and/or power system (AC outlet, relays, tamper switch, power supply, surge protector, grounding wire) unless the Solar Sailor Game is powered off (to include primary power, surge protector, and power supply) and disconnected from the electrical outlet. Failure to disconnect the Solar Sailor game could result in death by Electrical Shock. 57 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportControl LogicLead Engineer and Designer: William McNally The control logic flow for the game is initialized at power up. By default the ADuC7026embedded controller will start executing code stored in non-volatile memory at address 0x8000.Once the device completes its initialization a two second delay loop will be entered allowing theRF devices to synchronize. Once the loop completes, the HomeMagSensor will be polled toensure that the shuttle is in its default location. If this test fails, ReturnMode module willexecute, and the game return system will return the shuttle to its home. The system will then enter IdleMode. In IdleMode the system will play the 15 minuteloop of space sounds that are stored on an SD card in the SOMO-14D embedded audio-soundmodule. If the system does not receive a user generated interrupt, i.e. a player pressing the startbutton, the system will enter a 15 minute SleepMode. Once the sleep period has elapsed thesystem will again enter the IdleMode state, to gain attention of potential players. PreGameMode is entered upon a user generated interrupt, i.e. pressing the start button. Awelcome message will be displayed upon the LCD display and the English/Spanish Audio trackswill explain the planning and objectives of the missions. The next audio file to play will be theMission Select track. The system will then wait for 30 seconds waiting for the user to select theplanet that they will to try to land on. If no mission is selected, the then repeats the MissionObjective, Mission Planning and Mission Select audio tracks. If no user input is generated after asecond loop through these audio tracks, the game will return to IdleMode. Once the user presses one of the mission select buttons, the PlanetStatistics parameterswill be loaded into the proper registers to initialize the rotational speed of the planet. The userwill then be prompted to press the start button to continue with the selected mission. If the userpresses a different mission button, new PlanetStatistics parameters will be loaded and the speedwill be change appropriately. The planets speed will range from 0.125 RPMs to 6 RPMs tocomply with the calculated orbital mechanics. The user will accept a mission by pressing the start button, and the mission countdownwill commence. At this point, the overhead lights will turn on, the main blower will turn on andthe audio countdown will commence. The Blast Off track will indicate a transition fromPreGameMode to GameMode, and the joy stick will be enabled for the user to control theshuttle. Upon entering GameMode, the system will play the Mission Control track to assist theuser in controlling the shuttle. A JoyStickUp interrupt will be generated every time that thesystem detects the joy stick being pressed forward, causing forward thrust to be applied. AJoyStickDown interrupt will be generated every time the joy stick is pulled back by the user,causing reverse thrust to be applied to the shuttle. A JoyStickLeft interrupt will be generatedevery time the joy stick is moved to the left, this will apply a counterclockwise rotation to theshuttle. A JoySticRight interrupt will be generated every time the joy stick is moved to the right,this will generate a clockwise rotation to the shuttle. No diagonal movements of the joy stick will 58 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportbe recognized, so the shuttle cannot simultaneously receive rotate and a forward/reversecommands. The system will stay in GameMode as long as the player continues to generate interruptscontrolling the shuttle, has not exhausted the mission fuel supply or the player successfullyconcludes the mission. If no user interrupt is received for 60 seconds, the game will enterSleepMode. If during the course of play, the user consumes the allotted fuel supply, the mainblower will turn off, and an audio track will inform the user that the mission has failed. The fuellevel for each mission is one of the planet parameters loaded into a register in the processor. Thisregister will be decremented for every 250mS that the joy stick is enabled. 15 seconds after themain blower shuts down, the system will enter ReturnMode and return the shuttle to its home. The final exit from GameMode is when the user completes the mission successfully. Asuccessful mission is defined by the user “orbiting” the planet for a period of five seconds. Thisperiod would be measured by the PlanetMagSensor staying true for a period of three seconds.Upon successfully completing the mission the main blower will shut off, the planet will stoprotation, and an audio track will informed the user that they have successfully completed themission. The system will enter ReturnMode after 15 seconds has elapsed. The only exception to this normal control flow is if at any time an interrupt is detectedthat the user has pressed the reset button. This exception will have different affects dependingupon the mode that the game is in when the interrupt is received. If the game is in IdleMode, thereset will have no effect upon the system. If the game is in PreGameMode the system will returnto IdleMode. If the system is in GameMode, the overhead lights will be extinguished and thesystem will enter ReturnMode.Microcontroller UnitLead Engineer and Designer: William McNally At the start of week one of this quarter an unwise decision was made in how the projectwas to proceed. The decision was based upon the assumption that incorporating the AtmelATmega16 controller would simplify communications between the system and the shuttle. Theshuttle includes an ATtiny14 controller has part circuitry, and the two controllers are members ofthe same family. This assumption continued to influence our design decisions until an oversightwas discovered. This oversight was the ability to control the SOMO-14D. Three GPIO lines arerequired to control the SOMO and all GPIO functionality of the ATmega16 had been consumed.This was a major obstacle to the successful completion of the project. The ATmega16 was replaced with the Analog Devices ADuC7026 Precision AnalogMicrocontroller. Because of this change, all development work on the software to control thesystem was render naught, and would have to be developed from scratch, since the commandsets of the two microcontrollers are not compatible. This even coincided with the major buildphase of the frame of the project, and the software development of the system took a backseat to 59 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportthe time invested in building the actual Solar Sailor. At this point, the software has still not beencompleted, and no testing of the software has occurred. Figure M1: Microcontroller Block Diagram The block diagram above shows the pin out for the microcontroller. As shown by theirlabels, the GPIO ports on the chip are multiplexed to perform different functionalities dependingon application of the device. The device allows for up to 32 GPIO lines, but in ourimplementation all 32 are not available. GPIO Port 3.0 - 3.7 are multiplexed with three phasepulse width modulation functions of the microcontroller, and thus not available for use.In our initial design of the Solar Sailor it was decided that we use pulse width modulation tocontrol the orbital speed of the planet for the selected mission. Pins 29 and 30, PWM0H andPWM0L, will be connected to the planet drive motor directly. Pins 55, 56 and 63, GPIO ports 4.0– 4.2, will provide the data to the SOMO-14D control signals of SomoData, SomoClock andSomoReset. The SOMO requires a 16 bit serial data stream to control its functionality. TheSomoClock signal is not a standard clock, so a GPIO port must be dedicated to it. To initializethe device the clock signal must be held high for a minimum of 2mS providing a start signal, 60 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportthen it provides the clocked for the serial data stream. To terminate the data stream theSomoClock signal must be held high for a minimum of 2mS.The user interface encoder circuit will interface with the kernel using pins 61, 60, 59 and 58,GPIO ports P1.1 – P1.4 respectively. The table below summarizes the user interface data. Address Function 0000 JoyStickForward 0001 JoyStickBack 0010 JoyStickLeft 0011 JoyStickRight 0100 START 0101 RESET 0110 N/A 0111 N/A 1000 Mercury 1001 Venus 1010 Earth 1011 Jupiter 1100 Saturn 1101 Neptune 1111 Uranus Table M1: User Interface DataThe table below contains the track addresses within the SD card for the SOMO-14D Track Address Solar Sailor Sound Track 0000.ad4 Press Start 0001.ad4 Mission Select 0002.ad4 Mission Planning 0003.ad4 Mission Objectives 0004.ad4 Count Down 0005.ad4 Blast Off 0006.ad4 Mission Control 0007.ad4 Mission Complete 0008.ad4 Mission Failed 0009.ad4 Table M2: Track Addresses within the SD CardGPIO ports P1.5 – P1.7, pins 57, 52 and 51 will be used to enable the fan, blower and lightsrelays. GPIO ports P2.1 – P2.7, pins 49, 50, 17, 33, 35, 36, and 48, and ports 4.3 – 4.6 will becombined to deliver the 11 IO lines to drive the LCD display. 61 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportPin 10, DAC0, will be the interface to the shuttle‟s RF receiver. Pin 66, ADC0, will be theinterface to the planet transmitter, and pin 76, ADC1, will be the interface to the home portsensor.Early on in the design phase it was decided that to eliminate a physical connection to the shuttleand the planet, the system would incorporate AM band radio frequency transmissions to deliverthe command data stream to the shuttle and from the planet. The AM-HRR30 series oftransmitters and receivers were selected to accomplish the task. The shuttle employs a 433 MHzcommunications channel for data transmission. The planet uses a 315 MHz communicationchannel allowing enough signal separation to avoid crosstalk between communications channels.Design Trade-OffsEdited by Noemi Wikstrom, Updated by the Solar Sailor Team Problem Solution Design ChangesInsufficient lighting provided at Add Halogen Lights to the play Design and construction of thethe Kennedy Imagination field top half of the metal frame toCelebration to power solar cells provide support for the halogen lights. Lexan cover not required and use Plexiglas to enclose the components in the play field Increased in the height and weight of the game console Revision of safety considerations due to heat and brightness of the Halogen LightsInsufficient air flow to return the Re-Designed the Air Return Initially redesigned to use PVCShuttle to Home Base System piping and directional valves however very little pressure was realized. Redesigned ARS chamber into smaller area combined chamber in attempt to fix above however most pressure continued to return through fans. Reinstalled fans and added two additional fans to upper game chamber. This provided more than enough directed air to return 62 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report the shuttle to the home position. However the design of the puck is essential to providing enough contact area.Insufficient Lighting provided by 150 watt halogen lights replaced Four 500 watt halogen lightsthe 150 watt Halogen lamps with 500 watt lights provided sufficient power to charge the solar cells.Potential obstruction in the Move the Sun sphere above the The Sun sphere was movedplayfield due to the position of playfield above the playfield area coveringthe Sun replica the L shape connection of the rods in the z and y direction. No LEDs inside the Sun Replica DC Gear motor position under the playfield area.Customer required sound for the Include a sound card andUser Interface recorded instructions by Noemi and Loren.Difficulty for the player to select Install mission selection buttons Using scroll buttons and a LCDthe planetary mission on the Control Panel display for the menu is not very corresponding each of the planets engaging for children. Therefore a pushbutton for each planet was added to the game.MCU not capable to handle all Originally the CPU selected wasthe inputs the ATmega series. This chip was insufficient for out IO needs, and therefore we switched to the Analog Devices ADuC7026.Wheels installed unable to Removed the wheels andsustain the Solar Sailor weight replaced with a more robust solution.Design CycleEdited by Noemi Wikstrom In the quest to deliver the best product possible, the team evaluated various designalternatives. The following section explains briefly the three major designs considered. The first design idea was to design a pinball machine with a ball launcher (GravityCrash). Using magnets placed under the playfield and a metal ball launched in to the board. Themission was to reach each planet and gather planetary facts in the journey. The idea behind thegame was to launch the ball after the player has answered an astronomy question correctly, theball then would be released and moved to the next target. The goal of the game was for the ballto reach the intended target meanwhile the level of difficulty increase on each level. 63 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report A problem encounter with this design was the ball return mechanism. A solutionsuggested was to use the board inside the pinball machine as a return mechanism. After thehighest target has been reached the board will tilt continuing the game and making the ball returnto home base. The game required the user to have knowledge of science facts and did not servethe interactive learning experience required. In addition the playfield for the design was limitedand the team decided to explore other alternatives. The Second design purpose was to demonstrate principles of physical science andengineering through an interactive simulation. Users would propel a ball into a playing fieldcomprised of a center point „sun‟ and an orbiting mass, the „planet‟. The design focus was tosimulate the gravity pull of the sun and the gravity wells creative by the sun magnetic field. Tosimulate the time-space gravity fields the team suggested the use of a latex material. The variousgravity “space-time” maps were to be simulated by varying the depths on the space time fabricaccording to the planet mass. The Planetary Gravity Simulator design consisted of a 6 feet by 6feet rotating table. The player would launch a metal ball to the play field, depending on the speedand the distance reached by the metal ball, the ball will be affected by the gravitational pull ofthe sun or reach the planet‟s orbit. The next figure is a representation of the Planetary GravitySimulator. Figure 33: Drawing of the Planetary Gravity Simulator 64 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report The Planetary Gravity Simulator included a main controller to interface with different hardwarecomponents in the design. The main controller also controls the LCD displays and the start/reset. Thedesign required sensors to detect the ball position in the play field. One of the major constraints of the design was the rotation of the table. The team at that pointdecided to redesign the Interactive Educational Game. The third idea was the Solar System Explorer; a large enclosed system, contained within a 3 ft.high, 4 ft. wide, and 8 ft. long table. The top level of the table contained a scaled model of our solarsystem. On the top level of the SSE a magnetically driven spaceship would navigate through the solarsystem by the player. The player would have been given a mission (alternating between our outer andinner planets) to visit each of the eight planetary bodies in our solar system. Each mission statementprovided to the player according to the difficulty level chosen by the player. The player would have thenproceeded to navigate a magnetically directed spaceship through the model solar system avoidingobstacles and incorrect planets in order to reach the planetary destination. If the spaceship reached thecorrect planet, the planet will light up. An LCD would have display planetary facts and then provided theplayer with their next planetary mission. If the player navigated to an incorrect planet, the LCD wouldhave provided information about the current planet and then re-directed the player to the next planetarymission. The SSE spaceship designed contained a magnet attached under it. The spaceship was designedto be controlled by a mobilized magnet underneath the model solar system. The magnet was designed tobe mounted on a rover robot, with special wheels that could move freely in any direction throughout thesolar system to provide the player with a more cosmic navigational experience. Figure 34: Drawing of the Solar Explorer Design 65 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report After careful consideration of the requirements of the project, the team selected the idea of theSolar Sailor. The following figure is the prototype of the Solar Sailor presented to the customer at theproduct design presentation on March 18, 2011. Figure 35: Prototype of the Solar Sailor CONCLUSION The Creative Solutions Capstone Design Team will donate an educational, interactive,astronomy game to the Kennedy Center Imagination Celebration in our community. TheKennedy Center Imagination Celebration at Colorado Springs is an independent, non-profitorganization 501(c)3 dedicated to bring the arts to life in the Pikes Peak region. [1] The purpose of the IEG is to teach children from the ages six and above about the solarsystem and orbital mechanics. The Creative Solutions Team took in consideration the ages of theuser‟s to designed and construct the Interactive Education Game. The objective of game is tooffer game that would spark the interest of the children who visit the center on the subject ofScience and technology. The team explored various alternatives discussed in this report. Aftercarefully evaluating the designs tradeoffs the team decided to construct the Solar Sailor Design. In the design process, the team spent most of the time, creating concepts and organizingideas in preparation of the construction phase. One interesting thing about the designing processis that all ideas are good in paper, is different game once is time to put those ideas into practice.Imagination is a powerful things but sticking to a budget is just as powerful. We have learned touse the resources available and design to improve the product without incurring in unnecessaryexpenses. It would be truly wonderful to have all the money in the world at our disposal but in 66 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Reportthe real world, every project has its constraints and requirements. One of the project‟srequirements was to build the Solar Sailor within the budget of $800.00, in the design process werealize that requirement would not be met, and we stand at $1899.45 including the parts donatedby team members (See Appendix/Part List). It is important to keep in mind that the budget forbuilding a prototype or conducting a proof-of-concept is not the same budget and cost ofbuilding the final product. The team had to revise the original parts list to include items thatwere needed after the original design. If the Solar Sailor were to be sent to production the cost ofthe materials will be reduced since the correct parts and amounts will be clearly stated and thebuilding process also revised. In addition to the parts list is important to mention the quantity of hours worked on thisproject. The team used an excel spreadsheet to account for all activities related to the project.Some team members worked mostly in the design and administration of the project and others inthe construction and logistics of the game. Overall the team spent 493.50 hours in the design andadministration and 521.50 hours in the construction. Communication is the key for the success of any design. The Creative Solutions teamreviewed all current and past activities to allow each team member to understand what have beendone and improvements that were necessary. At the beginning of the Product Design series, theteam went to the storming phase, the team struggled in the first weeks of the project todisseminate information and clarification was often delivered in the classroom. One way that thecommunication improved within the team, was the use of the “Dropbox” software. The use ofthe “Dropbox” software proved vital, not only could a team member update a document withoutcreating a new version, but it provided a logical method of storing information. Recommendations for further design and construction the overall system is 85 percentcomplete. The electronics have been installed and there will be additional testing to ensure thesafety and reliability of the Solar Sailor IEG. In addition several pieces will be replaced due tomechanical failures. The wheels to ensure portability have been removed due to the weight of thegame console. Sliders have been provided instead. In the process of transporting the gameconsole back to the construction site, the top unit was damaged due to strong winds. In summary, the product design series has been a challenging and rewarding experiencefor the members of the Creative Solutions Team. The knowledge gathered from this experiencewill help each member in their future careers in the aspects ranging from team dynamics, designspecifications and requirements, budget constraints and most importantly the Ethical obligationas future engineers to provide a product to our customer. 67 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project ReportReferences[1] n.d. The Kennedy Center. Imagination Celebration. Information Pamphlet. 1515 N Academy Blvd. Suite 200, Colorado Springs, CO 80909.[2] Khandani,S. (2005) Engineering Design Process. Education Transfer Plan. Retrieved from: http://www.iisme.org/etp/HS%20Engineering-%20Engineering.pdf on May 24, 2011.[3] MIT/LL Labs (2005) – AUST-1 Manual. Safety Considerations and regulations.[4] Novak, J. (2005) Game Development Essentials. 2nd Edition. Cengage Learning. Information published at http://theinteractivelearningcenter.com/[5] Halliday, D. (2001) Physics Volume I. New York New York: John Wiley & Sons.[6] Serway, R. (2004) Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Sixth edition. Brooks/Cole.[7] Thomas, R. (2006) The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits. . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons[8] McGraw-Hill Science & Technology Dictionary, Circular Object. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/circular-orbit on March 10, 2011[9] Honeywell Datasheet. HMC6042 2-Axis Mag Sensor Circuit .Honeywell 12001 Highway 55 Plymouth, MN 55441 Tel: 800-323-8295 www.honeywell.com/magneticsensors[10] http://www.solarbotics.net/starting/200111_dcmotor/200111_dcmotor2.html[11] DC Motor: High Torque Mini DC Gear Motor 3-12V, 5-25 rpm for Hobby / Robots (Batteryspace.com)[12] Pulse-width modulation. Stemmler, H. (August 1964). "Geregelter Drehstrom-Umkehrantrieb mit gesteuertem Umrichter nach dem Unterschwingungsverfahren". BBC Mitteilungen (Brown Boveri et Cie) 51 (8/9): 555–577. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-width_modulation[13] Culbertson, F. (2001). Diagrams, Space Shuttle. NASA. http://history.nasa.gov/SP- 4225/diagrams/shuttle/shuttle-diagram-1.htm. Retrieved 16 March 2011.[14] Schaffran, M. (2003) Inverter Buffered H-Bridges. Solarbotics.net. Information published at http:// http://www.solarbotics.net/library/circuits/driver_buf_h.html/ Retrieved 16 March 2011.[15] Seale, E. (2003) The "Miller" Solar Engine. Solarbotics.net. Information published at http://www.solarbotics.net/library/circuits/se_t1_mse.html. Retrieved 16 March 2011.[16] Solarbotics. Tiny Pager Motor. http://www.solarbotics.com/products/tpm2/. Retrieved 16 March 2011[17] STS01DTP06. (2006). Datasheet, Dual NPN-PNP complementary Bipolar Transistor. STMicroelectronics. http://www.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/11404.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2011[18] L4931ABxx, L4931Cxx. (2008) Datasheet, Very Low Drop Voltage Regulators With Inhibit. STMicroelectronics. http://www.st.com/internet/com/TECHNICAL_RESOURCES/TECHNICAL_LITERATURE/DATASHEET/C D00000971.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2011.[19] 74HC240; 74HCT240. (2007). Datasheet, Octal Buffer/Line Driver; 3-State; Inverting. NXP B.V. http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/74HC_HCT240.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2011[20] L4931ABxx...[21] AM-HRR30-XXX. (2004). Datasheet, Miniature AM Super-Regen Receiver. RFSolutions Ltd. http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/DS014-1.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2011.[22] ATtiny20. (2010). Datasheet, 8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 2K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash. Atmel Corporation. http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/8235S.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2011.[23] Fasco model B45267 centrifugal blower. Retrieved on 14 March 2010 from the Electric Motor Warehouse website: http://www.electricmotorwarehouse.com/fasco/fasco_blower.htm[24] Mechatronics MD1238X fan. Retrieved on 14 March 2010 from the Cooler Guys website: http://www.coolerguys.com/840556021698.html[25] Tyco T9A Series relay. Retrieved on 15 March 2010 from the Sparkfun website: http://www.sparkfun.com/products/101[26] Panasonic DK Series relay. Retrieved on 16 March 2010 from the Digikey website: http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=255-2053-ND[27] Diablotek 250W Power Supply. Retrieved on 16 March 2010 from the NewEgg website: http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16817822006&nm_mc=OTC- Froogle&cm_mmc=OTC-Froogle-_-Power+Supplies-_-Diablotek-_-17822006[28] http://wrw51.wordpress.com/2008/02/21/understanding-compressed-air-cfm-psi-force-flow/ 68 | P a g e
    • June 2011 Solar Sailor Interactive Educational GameDRAFT – Revision 2B Project Report[29] http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5347986_air-hockey-tables-work.html[30] http://www.fasco.com/pdf/CentrifugalBlowers_2008.pdf[31] http://www.mechatronics.com/pdf/MD1238.pdf[30] http://www.gcaudio.com/resources/howtos/loudness.html[31] http://www.sparkfun.com/tutorials/119[32]http://pewa.panasonic.com/assets/pcsd/catalog/dk-catalog.pdf[33]http://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Components/T9A_DS.pdf[34]http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16817822006&nm_mc=OTC- Froogle&cm_mmc=OTC-Froogle-_-Power+Supplies-_-Diablotek-_-17822006[35] (n.d) Document #281. For Kids‟ sake: Think Toy Safety from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, Office of Information and Public Affairs, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814[36] (2010) EPA Identifies Noise Levels Affecting Health and Welfare. Retrieved from: epa.gov/history/topics/noise on March 16, 2011.[37] (2011) Pulse-width modulation tutorial. Schönung, A.; Stemmler, H. (August 1964). "Geregelter Drehstrom- Umkehrantrieb mit gesteuertem Umrichter nach dem Unterschwingungsverfahren". BBC Mitteilungen (Brown Boveri et Cie) 51 (8/9): 555–577. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-width_modulation[38] Therrel, J. (2002) Age Determination Guidelines Relating to Children‟s Age to Toy Charactersistics and Play Behavior. Retrieved from: www.cpsc.gov/businfo.adg.pdf 69 | P a g e