REGIDOR G. GABOYCLSU - Center for Educational Resources Development and Services (CERDS)
Photography Photography is a means of recording forever the things one sees for a moment. It is better than memory because it does more than just recall things to the mind. It enables us to show what we have done, where we have been, what we have seen and even what we have thought
Know your camera! What is your camera? What is the capability of your camera?
Basic Terms: Speed andSensitivity ASA–American Standard Association ISO-International Standard (from International Organizational Standard) DIN-German Institute for Standardization GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) is an arithmetic scale which was used in the former Soviet Union before 1987
Automatic Settings Portrait - Set your digital camera to portrait mode when you are taking photographs of people. Portrait mode will set the image color for skin tone perfectly. Landscape - Set your camera to this mode when you are taking photos of landscapes. For example if you are photographing beach or mountain sceneries. Close Up - Close up mode speaks for itself. For example, when you want to photograph small objects so they fill the whole frame as if to appear larger.
Sports - Sports mode should be used when you want to photograph a moving object such as a child or dog running. Night Portrait - Choose night portrait automatic mode when you want to shoot a person in low light such as night time. Flash Off - This mode is useful for times when you are not allowed to use a flash. For example, in an art gallery.
Full-Automatic When your camera is on automatic, all important settings such as ISO, Aperture and exposure are made for you, taking out the guess work. When your camera is set on automatic, its also recommended that your lens is set on automatic focus. That is if it has that option. If your lens has an option for automatic focus you will notice on the side of it letters AF.
Settings and options The letters AV (for Canon cameras) or A (for Nikon cameras) on your mode dial sets your digital SLR camera to aperture priority. Your camera then changes all other settings such as shutter speed automatically to suit. Remember: Opening your lens more refers to lowering the f number. Closing your lens more refers to a higher f number.
A-DEP stands for automatic depth of field, or auto depth of field. Meaning, the camera sets the depth of field automatically. When the camera is set on A-DEP, the photographer doesnt need to set an aperture F number as the camera does this for them.
Manual settings allow you to choose your own settings depending on your choice.
Camera: Canon EOS 400D / Rebel XTi Lens: Canon EF-S17-85mm f/4-5.6 IS USM Exposure: 0.2 sec (1/5) Aperture: f/22 Focal Length: 85 mm ISO Speed: 100 Exposure Program: Manual Flash: Flash did not fire http://www.slrphotographyguide.comWhy this shot worked (According to the photographer) ―For this beach landscape, I wanted the whole scene from the sand in theforeground, to the island and boat in the background to be fully in focus. I also intendedfor the ocean waves to have a slow motion dreamy look and feel to them. For this to be achieved, the camera needed to be set on a high aperture f/22,and a relatively slow shutter speed of 1/5th of a second. If I had set the camera toaperture priority, then the shutter speed would have been automatically created for me,or conversely if Id set shutter priority, the camera would have automatically set theaperture to suit. Therefore, setting the camera on manual mode, allowed me to fully chooseboth the aperture and the shutter speed.‖ -
Bluish shot: a photo defect The blueish tinge is normally a result of using an incorrect white balance.
When to use white balance? Daylight (Canon) and Direct Sunlight (Nikon): This is a good setting for direct sunlight. For example, a beach landscape mid morning where youre not shooting into shade. When to use Shade white balance: Use shade white balance in shady areas or sunset shots. It will help give a warmer color to your shots. When to use Cloudy: This is a good setting for cloudy days. Its also quite effective for shady areas as well.
When to use Tungsten white balance: This is one of the most extreme balance settings of them all and should only be used with tungsten light bulbs. Or at times where you purposefully want a blue tinge to your images. When to use fluorescent: This setting will help make inside fluorescent house lighting, look a bit better than the yellowy orange color you usually see. Flash white balance: Flash white balance is used mostly for studio work.
Histogram A histogram is a bar chart that shows you whether a photographs exposure is good or bad. You can view the histogram on your cameras LCD screen after you have taken the shot
How does it work? As you can see by the image below, it was underexposed (too dark). There is very little detail seen in the trees, footpath and two people on the left.
Notice this time, the high peaks are on the right hand side of the graph.
REMEMBER!What you should be aiming for,is a histogram that displays the majority of peaks within the center of the graph!
Exceptions There are times when its perfectly acceptable for the graph to display high peaks at either end of the histogram. For instance, if there is naturally a lot of white within the scenery (snow shots), then you would see high peaks on the right side of the histogram, even when the photo is perfectly exposed. On the other hand, if there is a lot of black within the scenery or object you are photographing, then the high peaks would naturally occur on the left hand side of the graph. Furthermore, if there is a good mixture of black and white within the scenery, you may find high peaks at both ends of the histogram.
Rule of Thirds The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of thumb in visual arts such as painting, photography and design. The rule states that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would.
We use photo because… it catches the readers’ attention it serves as the lead of the news story it emphasizes a certain point
What is Photojournalism? Photojournalism is a branch of the field of journalism characterized by the use of images to tell a story. The images in a photojournalism piece may be accompanied with explanatory text, or shown independently, with the images themselves narrating the events they depict.
Qualities of a Photojournalism Material Timeliness — the images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events. Objectivity — the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone. Narrative — the images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level.
Qualities of a Good Photo News Value Focus Depth Atmosphere Clarity Color tone Texture
Captions Captions are text materials that accompany photographs. They may be as short as three to four words, or as long as several paragraphs.