Morphology

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Morphology

  1. 1. change the part of speech or the basic meaning of a word. are often not productive or regular in form or meaning – they can be selective about what they‟ll combine with and may also have erratic effects on meaning. Derivational Morphemes generally:
  2. 2. typically occur “inside” any inflectional affixes. Thus in governments, - ment, a derivational suffix, precedes – s, an inflectional suffix. in English, may appear either as prefixes or suffixes: pre – arrange, arrangement
  3. 3. Inflectional Morphemes generally: do not change basic syntactic category: thus big, bigger and biggest are all adjectives. Express grammatically-required features or indicate relations between different words in the sentence.
  4. 4. Example: Lee love-s Kim, -s marks the 3rd person singular present form of the verb, and also relates it to the 3rd singular subject Lee. occurs outside any derivational morphemes. Thus in ration – al – iz-ation-s , the –s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word, outside derivational morphbemes –al, -iz, - ation. In English, are suffixes only.
  5. 5. Some Examples of English Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes Derivational - ation -ize -ic -y - ous Inflectional -s Plural -ed Past - ing Progressive -er Comparative - est Superlative
  6. 6. Properties of some derivational affixes in English: -ation is added to a verb finalize confirm un – is added to a verb tie wind to give a noun finalization confirmation to give a verb untie unwind
  7. 7. - al is added to a noun institution universe • - ize is added to an adjective concrete solar to give an adjective institutional universal • to give a verb concretize solarize
  8. 8. Unclear Application of Inflectional/ Derivational Distinction For example ,the suffix –ing has several uses that are arguably on the borderline between inflection and derivation.  - ing is used to indicate progressive aspect in verbs, following forms of “ to be”: She is going; He will be leaving; They had been asking. ( This uses is generally considered as inflectional suffix, part of the system for making tense and aspect in English verbs.
  9. 9.  -ing is also used to make present participles of verbs, which are used like adjectives: Falling water, stinking mess; glowing embers ( According to the rule that inflection doesn‟t change the lexical category, this should be a form of morphological derivation since it changes the verbs to adjectives.)
  10. 10. Another use of –ing is to make verbal nouns: Flying can be dangerous; Losing is painful. ( By the “changes lexical categories” rule, this should also be a derivational affix since it turns a verb into a noun.)
  11. 11. Constituent Structure of Words: The constituent morphemes of a word can be organized into a branching or hierarchical structure, sometimes called a tree structure. Consider this word below. unusable un- (prefix) Use (verb stem) -able (suffix)
  12. 12. (unusable) (usable)
  13. 13. unlockable un- (prefix) lock (verb stem) -able (suffix) Now , let’s consider the word “unlockable.”
  14. 14. Figure 1 Figure 2 (unlockable) (unlockable) (lockable) (unlock)
  15. 15. Morphology FAQ’s Word( = Morpheme) • car • thank • true • succotash • under Word Class • noun • verb • adjective • noun • preposition 1. Can a word = a morpheme? Yes, at least in the sense that a word may contain exactly one morpheme.
  16. 16. 2. Are there morphemes that are not words? Yes, none of the following morphemes is a word. • un- • dis- • -ness • -s • kempt • (as in unkempt) • prefix • prefix • suffix • suffix • bound morpheme
  17. 17. 3. Can a word = a syllable? Yes, at least in the sense that a word may consist of exactly one syllable. Word • car • work • in • whoops Word Class • noun • verb • preposition • interjection
  18. 18. 4. Are there morphemes that are not syllables? Yes, some of the following morphemes consist of more than one syllable; some of them are less than a syllable: Morpheme • under • spider • -s Word Class • prep.( >syll.) • noun( >syll.) • „plural‟(<syll.)
  19. 19. 5.Are there syllables that are not morphemes? Yes, many syllables are “less” than morphemes. Just because you can break a word into a syllable doesn’t mean it must consist of more than one morpheme. Word Syllables Comments Kayak (ka.yak) Neither ka nor yak is a morpheme broccoli (bro.ko.li) Neither bro nor ko nor li is a morpheme angle (ang.gle) Neither ang nor gle is a morpheme jungle (jung.gle) Neither jung nor gle is a morpheme
  20. 20. So, there is no necessary relationship among syllables, morphemes and words. Each is an independent unit of structure.
  21. 21. What is the significance of knowing all these? • The significance of knowing the nature of words will help us create other words and expand our vocabulary and to be able to know the meaning of words. • It will help us relate what we learn from our studies, teach how to learn skills and help us to teach the language itself.

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