Occupational Health & safety
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  • 1. Occupational Health & SafetyOHS
  • 2. Thought of the Day• This is the Book about which there is nodoubt, a guidance for those conscious of theirLord…• Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer,and spend out of what We have provided forthem…Al-QuranOccupational Health & Safety 2
  • 3. Terms• competent person means a person who has acquired, throughtraining, qualification, or experience, or a combination ofthese, the knowledge and skills, to perform the work activity• construction site means a place at which construction work isundertaken, and any other area in the vicinity where plant or othermaterial used or to be used in connection with the constructionwork is located or kept during the construction work• construction work means1. Excavation or filling of trenches, ditches, shafts, wells, tunnels2. building, including the manufacturing of prefabricated elements ofa building at the place of workconcerned), alteration, renovation, repair, maintenance3. civil engineering forexample, airports, harbors, waterways, river, and sea defenseworks, roads and highways, railways, bridges and tunnelsOccupational Health & Safety 3
  • 4. Terms• hazard means a source or a situation with a potentialfor harm in terms of human injury or ill-health, damageto property, damage to the environment, or acombination of these• incident means an event that has the potential to harmor injure a person or the environment• induction training refers to several types of trainingdependent on whether the employee is new to theindustry, new to the site, or performing a new workactivity• MSDS means a Material Safety Data Sheet• safe work method statement (SWMS)Occupational Health & Safety 4
  • 5. Why it should be important to youOccupational Health & Safety 5
  • 6. What Workers Are MostLikely To Be Injured?1) Least experienced employees2) Age 16-21 20 times3) Age 21-25 10 times4) Age 26-30 4 timesOccupational Health & Safety 6
  • 7. Identify the Hazards?Occupational Health & Safety 7
  • 8. The Numbers• U.S. natural disaster deaths100 deaths/year on average• U.S. workplace accidents10,000 deaths/year on averageOccupational Health & Safety 8
  • 9. Key preliminary findings of the 2011Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries• Fatal work injuries inthe private constructionsector declined to 721in 2011 from 774 in2010, a decline of 7percent and the fifthconsecutive year oflower fatality counts.Fatal constructioninjuries are down nearly42 percent since 2006Occupational Health & Safety 9
  • 10. Number and Rate of Fatal occupationalInjuries by Industry Sector 2011Occupational Health & Safety 10
  • 11. What Are The Most Frequent Causesof Deaths In Construction?• OSHA has found that 90% of all constructionfatalities result from 4 types of constructionaccidents:– Falls from elevation 33%– Struck by equipment/falling object 22%– Caught in/between 18%– Electrical shock 17%Occupational Health & Safety 11
  • 12. Construction Workers at Top of WorldTrade Centre• BBC 15 May 2013• Footage has been releasedof the view from the steelspire at the top of OneWorld Trade Center in NewYork.• The final section of the408-foot (125 meter) spirewas installed on top of thebuilding last week, makingthe building the talleststructure in the westernhemisphere, at 1,776 feet(541 m) high.Occupational Health & Safety 12
  • 13. Safety PyramidOccupational Health & Safety 13
  • 14. OSHA Safety And Health Program• OSHA’s General IndustryDigest• Four Major elements1. Managementcommitment andemployee involvement2. Worksite analysis3. Hazard prevention andcontrol4. Safety and healthtrainingOccupational Health & Safety 14
  • 15. Management Commitment AndEmployee Involvement• State clearly a worksite policy on safe and healthful workand working conditions• Establish and communicate a clear goal for the safety andhealth program• Provide visible top management involvement inimplementing the program• Assign and communicate responsibility for all aspects of theprogram• Provide adequate authority and resources to responsibleparties• Hold managers, supervisors, and employees accountableOccupational Health & Safety 15
  • 16. Worksite Analysis• Conduct comprehensivebaseline worksite surveysfor safety and health• Analyze planned and newfacilities, processes, materials, and equipment• Perform routine jobhazard analyses• Investigate accidents and“near-miss” incidents• Analyze injury and illnesstrendsOccupational Health & Safety 16
  • 17. Hazard Prevention And Control• Use engineering techniques wherefeasible and appropriate• Establish safe work practices andprocedures• Provide personal protectiveequipment (PPE) when engineeringcontrols are not feasible• Use administrative controls, such asreducing the duration of exposure• Plan and prepare for emergencies,and conduct training and emergencydrills• “Second Nature”• Establish a medical program thatincludes first aid onsite andemergency medical careOccupational Health & Safety 17
  • 18. Safety and Health Training• Employee training• Supervisory training• Analyzing the work undertheir supervision toanticipate and identifypotential hazards• Maintaining physicalprotections in their workareas• Reinforcing employeetraining• Understanding their safetyand health responsibilitiesOccupational Health & Safety 18
  • 19. Program EvaluationSigns and symptoms of gaps in aprogram can include• Accidents or near-missincidents that go unreported• Accidents or near-missincidents that are notinvestigated• The absence of a preventivemaintenance program forequipment and facilities• Employee/supervisor attitudethat production supersedessafetyOccupational Health & Safety 19
  • 20. Occupational Health & Safety 20
  • 21. Occupational Health & Safety 21
  • 22. Occupational Health & Safety 22
  • 23. Employer Benefits• Lower Workers’ Compensation Costs• Enables Employer to Ensure Restrictions AreFollowed• Sends a Message That Workers’ CompensationIs Not a Paid Vacation• Weeds Out Employees Looking for a Free Ride• Employees Return to Their Regular Jobs MoreQuicklyOccupational Health & Safety 23
  • 24. Employee Benefits• Sends the Message That the Employee IsValued• Enhances the Employee’s Sense of Self-Worth• Eliminates the Psychological Effects of Idleness• Speeds Return to Regular Job• Provides for Rapid Resumption of Salary andOther InterestsOccupational Health & Safety 24
  • 25. Accident Investigations• Benefits of conductingaccident investigations• Identifies root causes ofaccidents• Creates awareness• Evidences trends• Stimulates thoughts relativeto prevention• Demonstrates managementcommitment and concern• Identifies weaknesses in thesafety program• Justifies expendituresOccupational Health & Safety 25
  • 26. Documenting the Accident Scene• Written observations• Sketches• Photographs• Videotape• Acquiring witnessstatements• Reviewing relevantdocumentationOccupational Health & Safety 26
  • 27. Ergonomics or Human Factors• The word ergonomics comes from Greek: ergomeans work and nomos means law;therefore, “ergonomos” means “law of work.”• Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientificdiscipline concerned with the understanding ofinteractions among humans and other elementsof a system, and the profession that appliestheory, principles, data and methods to design inorder to optimize human well-being and overallsystem performance.Occupational Health & Safety 27
  • 28. Occupational Health & Safety 28
  • 29. Occupational Health & Safety 29
  • 30. Safety Internet Resources• Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov• Department of Transportation www.dot.gov• Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov• Federal Emergency Management Agency www.fema.gov• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov• National Institute for Occupational Safety and Healthwww.cdc.gov/niosh• Department of Labor www.dol.gov• Bureau of Labor Statistics http://stats.bls.gov• State of California OSHA CALOSHAwww.dir.ca.gov/occupational_safety.html• Professional organizationsOccupational Health & Safety 30
  • 31. Noise-exposed Occupations inConstruction Industry• Bricklayer• Carpenter• Concrete worker (around apump, vibrator, jackhammer, or poweredfinishing equipment)• Driller• Drywaller (shooting track orboarding)• Electrician• Form worker• Foreman• Framer• Labourer• Mobile equipment operator• Pipefitter• Plumber• Roofer (shake, tar/gravel,membrane, shingle)• Sandblaster• Steel erector• Supervisor• Truck driver• Welder/fabricatorOccupational Health & Safety 31
  • 32. OHSAS 18001 - Occupational HealthAnd Safety Management System• HazardIdentification, RiskAssessment & RiskControl• Success requires strongManagement of Change(MOC) procedureOccupational Health & Safety 32
  • 33. OHS PlanningOccupational Health & Safety 33
  • 34. Operational ControlOccupational Health & Safety 34
  • 35. Accident, Incidents, Non-conformances &Corrective and Preventive Action• Handle, investigate, mitigate– Accidents– Incidents– non-conformances• Corrective and preventive actions• Review action plans through risk assessment processOccupational Health & Safety 35
  • 36. Corrective and Preventive Action• Correct immediate problem• Mitigate consequences• Eliminate or control root cause• Prevent recurrence• Review action plans through risk assessmentprocess• Communicate results and monitorOccupational Health & Safety 36
  • 37. Exposed to fall hazard due tounprotected side/edgeOccupational Health & Safety 37
  • 38. The top of a stepladder shall not beused as a stepOccupational Health & Safety 38
  • 39. Construction DisastersThe Big Blue Crane CollapseOccupational Health & Safety 39
  • 40. Vehicle Monitoring SystemOccupational Health & Safety 40
  • 41. Visual and Audio Alert SystemsOccupational Health & Safety 41
  • 42. Building Information Modeling (BIM)and Safety• Automatic SafetyChecking ofConstruction Modelsand SchedulesOccupational Health & Safety 42
  • 43. Building Information Modeling (BIM)and SafetyOccupational Health & Safety 43
  • 44. Using game technologies to improve thesafety of construction plant operationsOccupational Health & Safety 44
  • 45. Real-time resource location data collection andvisualization technology for construction safety andactivity monitoring applicationsOccupational Health & Safety 45
  • 46. Real-time Resource Location DataCollectionOccupational Health & Safety 46
  • 47. The Safety Culture PerspectiveOccupational Health & Safety 47
  • 48. Safety ManagementOccupational Health & Safety 48
  • 49. Occupational Health & Safety 49
  • 50. Thank You