Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan

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  • 1. Climate Change & Water Resources in Pakistan
  • 2. Changez (Genghis) Khan 1162-1227 Behead him, who pollutes water Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 2
  • 3. Water Facts • 2.6 billion people lack improved sanitation • 800 million people lack access to safe drinking water • agriculture uses 70% of fresh water worldwide (40% employment) Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 3
  • 4. South Asia 2060 • Maximum # of FIRs registered for theft of water • 2nd for theft of Cattle • 3rd… is very interesting • Dr. Adil Najam at 16th Sustainable Development Conference SDPI 2013… South Asia 2060 Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 4
  • 5. War Against Terrorism The number of people killed in War Against Terrorism from 1990s till today is less than the number of children dying in Delhi due to water related diseases annually South Asia 2060 Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 5
  • 6. Water Issues-UNEP Priority water-related issues 1. Agriculture 2. Industry 3. Cities 4. Watersheds Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 6
  • 7. The Himalayas Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 7
  • 8. River Basins in Himalayas Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 8
  • 9. One of the Most Water-Stressed Countries-ADB 2013 • Pakistan was pointed as "one of the most water-stressed countries in the world, not far from being classified, 'water-scarce‘ • Asian Development Bank Report 2013 Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 9
  • 10. Pakistan’s per capita water availability dwindling • The per capita water availability in Pakistan has dwindled by over 406 percent • from 5,260 cubic meters in 1951 • to 1,038 cubic meters in 2010 • If trend continues, then by 2020, the water availability in Pakistan would further lower to 877 cubic meters per annum Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 10
  • 11. Pakistan’s Storage Capacity • Pakistan’s storage capacity is just for 30 days • India has the ability to store water for 120-220 days • Egypt has 1,000 days water storage capacity only on River Nile • America 900 days on River Colorado • Australia 600 and South Africa has the ability to store water for 500 days on River Orange Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 11
  • 12. Q: What is MAF? Ans: Million Acre Feet… Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 12
  • 13. Underground Water Extraction • In Pakistan, the annual extraction of water has gone up to 51 million-acre feet • Lowering the water table • In future, more energy cost for pumping Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 13
  • 14. Losing Capacity to Store Water • Pakistan has also lost its capacity to store water by 27 percent • 4.37 million feet of water… from 16.28 MAF to 11.91 MAF because of sedimentation • Pakistan will lose more capacity to store water by up to 37 percent (5.95MAF) in 2025 Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 14
  • 15. Per Capita Storage Capacity • United States… the per capita storage capacity stands at 6,150 cubic meters • Australia 5,000 cubic meters • but in Pakistan it is just 132 cubic meters Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 15
  • 16. Climate of Pakistan-Dr. Hanif (Pak Met Dept) Rainfall Distribution Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 16
  • 17. Pakistan’s Climate Pakistan is historically prone to Extreme Weather Events/Disasters, such as Heavy Rains/River Flooding Torrential Rain/Flash Flooding Monsoons Urban Flooding Snow-melt Flooding Cyclones/Coastal Flooding In Pakistan, more than 70% Extreme Weather Events are associated with Monsoon Season Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 17
  • 18. Weather Systems Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 18
  • 19. Weather Systems Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 19
  • 20. Newly Emerged Tracks Monsoon Weather Systems: 2010, 2011, 2012 Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 20
  • 21. Monsoonal Weather Systems – Rainfall Shift MONSOON – Rainfall Distribution (1961-1990) Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 21
  • 22. Monsoonal Weather Systems – Rainfall Shift MONSOON – Rainfall Distribution (1991-2010) Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 22
  • 23. Monsoonal Weather Systems – Rainfall Shift MONSOON – Rainfall Trend (Westward Shift) Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 23
  • 24. Future Trends in Pakistan • Decrease in glacier volume/snow cover • alterations in the seasonal flow pattern of the Indus River System (IRS) • Increased annual flows for a few decades • followed by decline in flows in subsequent years • Increase in the formation and outburst of glacial lakes (GLOF) • Higher frequency and intensity of extreme climate events coupled with irregular monsoon rains causing frequent floods and droughts Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 24
  • 25. Water Tankers Situation in Karachi Climate Change & Water Resources of Pakistan 25