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Air Quality Management



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  • 1. Air Quality Management
  • 2. Thought of the Day Air Quality Management 2
  • 3. Global Leader in Energy Use Air Quality Management 3
  • 4. Air Quality Management 4
  • 5. Emissions & Effects Air Quality Management 5
  • 6. Emission Events Included in a Fuel Cycle Assessment Air Quality Management 6
  • 7. Total Vehicle Well-to-Wheel Energy Cycle Air Quality Management 7
  • 8. National Average Emission Categories for CO, SOx, NOx, VOC & PM-US EPA 2003 Air Quality Management 8
  • 9. Electricity generation by fuel in billion kilowatt hours, 1949-2020 Air Quality Management 9
  • 10. US Electricity Generation by Source Air Quality Management 10
  • 11. Air Quality Management 11
  • 12. High Cancer Risk Counties for Urban Air Toxics in 1996 Air Quality Management 12
  • 13. Potential Violations of PM2.5 and O3 Source: US-EPA 2002 Air Quality Management 13
  • 14. World Vehicles per Capita• According to the 2007- 2008 World Motor Vehicle Market Report, the worlds motor vehicle population reached 789.8 million units in 2005 Air Quality Management 14
  • 15. Trends in Nationwide SO2 and NO2 Emissions Air Quality Management 15
  • 16. Personal Exposure Meter to measure exposure to PM and Gases during daily activities Exposure: Whether and how a human or other organism comes into contact with a chemical, usually by eating or drinking it, inhaling it, or touching it and having it penetrate the skin Air Quality Management 16
  • 17. Four Chamber Greenhouse-based exposure system to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants Air Quality Management 17
  • 18. Air Quality Management 18
  • 19. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Air Quality Management 19
  • 20. Emission-InventoryDevelopment, Evaluation and Improvement Air Quality Management 20
  • 21. SO2 emissions from electric utilities in United States from 1980-2001 Air Quality Management 21
  • 22. Regional SO2 Emissions from Electric Utilities Air Quality Management 22
  • 23. Location of Surface O3 Monitoring Sites Air Quality Management 23
  • 24. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)Site #1 - Upwind and backgroundcharacterization site.Site #2 - Maximum ozone precursoremissions impact site.Site #3 - Maximum ozone concentrationsite. These sites are intended to monitormaximum ozone concentrationsoccurring downwind from the area ofmaximum precursor emissions.Site #4 - Extreme downwind monitoringsite. These sites are established tocharacterize the extreme downwindtransported ozone and its precursorconcentrations exiting the area and willidentify those areas which are potentiallycontributing to overwhelming ozonetransport into other areas. Air Quality Management 24
  • 25. Air Quality Models• Air quality models use mathematical and numerical techniques to simulate the physical and chemical processes that affect air pollutants as they disperse and react in the atmosphere.• inputs of meteorological data• source information• emission rates• stack height• models are designed to characterize primary pollutants• secondary pollutants that are formed as a result of complex chemical reactions within the atmosphere Air Quality Management 25
  • 26. Surface Data• Surface data are meteorological data that are measured at the earth’s surface (technically, somewhere between the ground level and 10m).• data contains physical parameters• Temperature• dew point• wind direction• wind speed• cloud cover• cloud layer(s)• Visibility• current weather• precipitation amount• Surface data are reported by the National Weather Service for each hour Air Quality Management 26
  • 27. World Car Sales by Manufacturers 1998-2005 Air Quality Management 27
  • 28. Well to Wheel Emissions Air Quality Management 28
  • 29. Fuel Cycle EmissionsFull fuel cycle emissions:1. Biodiesel2. Conventional (Petroleum) Fuels (Gasoline and Diesel)3. Electricity4. Ethanol (E-10 and E-85)5. Hydrogen6. Natural Gas (compressed natural gas [CNG], and liquefiednatural gas [LNG])7. Propane8. Renewable Diesel9. Synthetic Fuels (Dimethyl Ether and Methanol)10. XTLs (Biomass-to-Liquid, Coal-to-Liquid, Gas-to-Liquid) Air Quality Management 29
  • 30. Air Quality Management 30
  • 31. Fuel Pathways Air Quality Management 31
  • 32. Study in Taiwan Air Quality Management 32
  • 33. Global Warming Air Quality Management 33
  • 34. Health Effects Institute Asian Risk Estimates Similar to West Percent Increase in Mortality per 10 µg increase in PM10 0.8 0.62 Percent Increase 0.46 0.6 0.49 0.4 0.2 0 US (90 Cities) Europe (21 Cities) Asia (4 Cities)Health Effects Institute, 2008 Air Quality Management 34
  • 35. Implement a Project-II Due Date: Friday, 17th May, 2013A PENNY SAVED IS A PENNY EARNED…… have to save money or earn money…… up to Rs 10,000 within one month…• Solid Waste Management• Air Quality Management• Energy Audit• Material Recovery from Solid Waste• Biofuels• Energy Conservation• Selling Drinking WaterOr• Any smart idea related to Public Health EngineeringNote: Provide complete data related to the activitiesin terms of Rupees Air Quality Management 35
  • 36. Air Quality Management in Pakistan
  • 37. The World Bank Assessment Report (Pakistan)• Mean annual cost of Environmental and Natural Resource Damage is Environmental and Natural about Rs. 365 billion or 6% of GDP Resource Damage• Air pollution contributes 1/3 to the (Rs. 365 billion) Indoor total damage air pollution• Rs. 67 billion for Indoor air 19% pollution Others• Rs. 65 billion for Urban air (Water, pollution Waste water,• Annually urban air pollution causes Solid waste ) – 22,000 deaths among adults Urban air 63% pollution – 700 deaths among young 18% children Air Quality Management 37
  • 38. Annual Cost of Urban Air Pollution Health Impacts (Billion Rs) Air Quality Management 38
  • 39. National Environmental Quality Standards NEQS for Ambient Air Concentration in Ambient Air Pollutants Time-weighted average Effective from 1st January, 2009 Annual Average 80 µg/m3 Sulfur Dioxide 24 hour 120 µg/m3 Annual Average 40 µg/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen as NO 24 hour 40 µg/m3 Annual Average 40 µg/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 24 hour 80 µg/m3 Ozone 1 hour 180 µg/m3 Suspended Particulate Matter Annual Average 400 µg/m3 SPM 24 hour 550 µg/m3 Annual Average 200 µg/m3 Particulate Matter PM10 24 hour 250 µg/m3 Annual Average 25 µg/m3 Particulate Matter PM2.5 24 hour 40 µg/m3 1 hour 25 µg/m3 Annual Average 1.5 µg/m3 Lead (Pb) 24 hour 2.0 µg/m3 8 hour 5 mg/m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Air Quality Management 39 1 hour 10 mg/m3
  • 40. Number of Vehicles in Pakistan Air Quality Management 40
  • 41. Power Shortfall in PakistanOverall power shortfall current and projected inPakistan as:• 6577 MW in 2010• 18320 MW in 2015• 36462 MW by 2020 Primary Energy Supplies by source in Pakistan Air Quality Management 41
  • 42. Ambient Air Quality Daily Mean Value Air Quality Management 42
  • 43. Summary of Equipment Air Quality Management 43
  • 44. Mobile Automatic Air Quality Monitoring Station Air Quality Management 44
  • 45. SOx & NOx Air Quality Management 45
  • 46. CO, CH4 & O3 Air Quality Management 46
  • 47. Low Volume Air Sampler Air Quality Management 47
  • 48. Particulate Matter Sampling Filter Preparation Drying and Conditioning Numbering Weighing (200C, 50%R.H), 24 hrs SamplingFilter setting to sampler Sampling (12+12 hrs) Collecting sampled filter Sample MeasurementDrying and Conditioning Calculate concentration/ Weighing Preserve sample(200C, 50%R.H), 48 hrs
  • 49. Calculation of Suspended Particulate MatterThe concentration of Total Suspended Particulate was calculated using thefollowing formula (40 CFR Appendix B, Part 50, USEPA) 6 Wf Wi 10 (µg/m3) TSP = V where, TSP is mass concentration of total suspended particulate matter (µg/m3) Wi is initial weight of clean filter (g) Wf is final weight of exposed filter (g) V is the sampled air volume (m3) 106 is for conversion of g to µg
  • 50. High Volume Air Sampler Measuring PM10 Air Quality Management 50
  • 51. Weighing after 24 Hours Air Quality Management 51
  • 52. Sample Preparation For AASSample Cutting Sample ½ piece Beaker (100 mL) HCl (1+1) 30mL, H2O2 (30%) 5mL Heat on Hot Plate 1200C, 1Hr Filtration Filter Paper/Funnel
  • 53. Sample Preparation For AASFiltered Solution Conc. on Hot Plate Add HNO (2+98) 3 soon before dry-up Constant Vol (25mL) HNO (2+98) 3 Sample Transfer Polyethylene Bottle AAS Analysis
  • 54. Glassware Air Quality Management 54
  • 55. Cutting Exposed Filter Paper Air Quality Management 55
  • 56. Acid Extraction Air Quality Management 56
  • 57. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Air Quality Management 57
  • 58. Proton Induced X-ray Emissions (PIXE) Air Quality Management 58
  • 59. Stack Gas Emission Monitoring Air Quality Management 59
  • 60. Stack Gas Emission Monitoring Air Quality Management 60
  • 61. Stack Gas Emission Monitoring Air Quality Management 61
  • 62. Transboundary Effects Fires in Northwest India (MODIS)Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Air Quality Management 62
  • 63. US-AID ProjectEnergy Auditing Serena Air Quality Management 63
  • 64. UN-Habitat Project Green Roofs Air Quality Management 64
  • 65. UN-Habitat Project Green Roofs Air Quality Management 65
  • 66. Crescent Mills, Faisalabad Air Quality Management 66
  • 67. CNG Driven Vehicles in Pakistan Traffic Police Officials penalizing smoke emitting vehicle operators Air Quality Management 67
  • 68. Thank You Air Quality Management 68