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Air Quality Management
Thought of the Day     Air Quality Management   2
Global Leader in Energy Use          Air Quality Management   3
Air Quality Management   4
Emissions & Effects      Air Quality Management   5
Emission Events Included in a Fuel        Cycle Assessment             Air Quality Management   6
Total Vehicle Well-to-Wheel Energy Cycle                Air Quality Management   7
National Average Emission Categories for CO, SOx, NOx, VOC & PM-US EPA 2003                Air Quality Management     8
Electricity generation by fuel in billion      kilowatt hours, 1949-2020                Air Quality Management      9
US Electricity Generation by Source              Air Quality Management   10
Air Quality Management   11
High Cancer Risk Counties for Urban        Air Toxics in 1996             Air Quality Management   12
Potential Violations of PM2.5 and O3        Source: US-EPA 2002              Air Quality Management   13
World Vehicles per Capita• According to the 2007-  2008 World Motor  Vehicle Market Report,  the     worlds   motor  vehic...
Trends in Nationwide SO2 and NO2            Emissions            Air Quality Management   15
Personal Exposure Meter to measure exposure    to PM and Gases during daily activities Exposure: Whether and how a human o...
Four Chamber Greenhouse-based exposure system     to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants                  Air Quality ...
Air Quality Management   18
Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)           Air Quality Management   19
Emission-InventoryDevelopment, Evaluation and       Improvement          Air Quality Management   20
SO2 emissions from electric utilities in   United States from 1980-2001                Air Quality Management   21
Regional SO2 Emissions from Electric              Utilities              Air Quality Management   22
Location of Surface O3 Monitoring Sites                Air Quality Management   23
Photochemical Assessment Monitoring         Stations (PAMS)Site #1 - Upwind and backgroundcharacterization site.Site #2 - ...
Air Quality Models•   Air quality models use mathematical    and numerical techniques to simulate    the physical and chem...
Surface Data•   Surface data are meteorological data    that are measured at the earth’s    surface (technically, somewher...
World Car Sales by Manufacturers           1998-2005            Air Quality Management   27
Well to Wheel Emissions        Air Quality Management   28
Fuel Cycle EmissionsFull fuel cycle emissions:1. Biodiesel2. Conventional (Petroleum) Fuels (Gasoline and Diesel)3. Electr...
Air Quality Management   30
Fuel Pathways   Air Quality Management   31
Study in Taiwan    Air Quality Management   32
Global Warming    Air Quality Management   33
Health Effects Institute                                      Asian Risk Estimates Similar to West                        ...
Implement a Project-II                          Due Date: Friday, 17th May, 2013A PENNY SAVED IS A PENNY EARNED…… have to ...
Air Quality Management            in        Pakistan
The World Bank Assessment Report (Pakistan)• Mean annual cost of Environmental  and Natural Resource Damage is            ...
Annual Cost of Urban Air Pollution   Health Impacts (Billion Rs)             Air Quality Management   38
National Environmental Quality Standards NEQS for Ambient Air                                                           Co...
Number of Vehicles in Pakistan           Air Quality Management   40
Power Shortfall in PakistanOverall power shortfall current and projected inPakistan as:• 6577 MW in 2010• 18320 MW in 2015...
Ambient Air Quality Daily Mean Value              Air Quality Management   42
Summary of Equipment       Air Quality Management   43
Mobile Automatic Air Quality    Monitoring Station          Air Quality Management   44
SOx & NOx Air Quality Management   45
CO, CH4 & O3  Air Quality Management   46
Low Volume Air Sampler       Air Quality Management   47
Particulate Matter Sampling                               Filter Preparation                            Drying and Conditi...
Calculation of Suspended Particulate MatterThe concentration of Total Suspended Particulate was calculated using thefollow...
High Volume Air Sampler    Measuring PM10        Air Quality Management   50
Weighing after 24 Hours        Air Quality Management   51
Sample Preparation For AASSample Cutting  Sample ½ piece     Beaker (100 mL)     HCl (1+1) 30mL, H2O2 (30%) 5mL         He...
Sample Preparation For AASFiltered Solution   Conc. on Hot Plate Add HNO (2+98)                                  3        ...
Glassware Air Quality Management   54
Cutting Exposed Filter Paper          Air Quality Management   55
Acid Extraction    Air Quality Management   56
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)              Air Quality Management   57
Proton Induced X-ray Emissions (PIXE)              Air Quality Management   58
Stack Gas Emission Monitoring           Air Quality Management   59
Stack Gas Emission Monitoring           Air Quality Management   60
Stack Gas Emission Monitoring           Air Quality Management   61
Transboundary Effects      Fires in Northwest India (MODIS)Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer                  ...
US-AID ProjectEnergy Auditing Serena       Air Quality Management   63
UN-Habitat Project  Green Roofs     Air Quality Management   64
UN-Habitat Project  Green Roofs     Air Quality Management   65
Crescent Mills, Faisalabad         Air Quality Management   66
CNG Driven Vehicles in Pakistan                            Traffic Police Officials penalizing smoke                      ...
Thank You Air Quality Management   68
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Air Quality Management

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Transcript of "Air Quality Management"

  1. 1. Air Quality Management
  2. 2. Thought of the Day Air Quality Management 2
  3. 3. Global Leader in Energy Use Air Quality Management 3
  4. 4. Air Quality Management 4
  5. 5. Emissions & Effects Air Quality Management 5
  6. 6. Emission Events Included in a Fuel Cycle Assessment Air Quality Management 6
  7. 7. Total Vehicle Well-to-Wheel Energy Cycle Air Quality Management 7
  8. 8. National Average Emission Categories for CO, SOx, NOx, VOC & PM-US EPA 2003 Air Quality Management 8
  9. 9. Electricity generation by fuel in billion kilowatt hours, 1949-2020 Air Quality Management 9
  10. 10. US Electricity Generation by Source Air Quality Management 10
  11. 11. Air Quality Management 11
  12. 12. High Cancer Risk Counties for Urban Air Toxics in 1996 Air Quality Management 12
  13. 13. Potential Violations of PM2.5 and O3 Source: US-EPA 2002 Air Quality Management 13
  14. 14. World Vehicles per Capita• According to the 2007- 2008 World Motor Vehicle Market Report, the worlds motor vehicle population reached 789.8 million units in 2005 Air Quality Management 14
  15. 15. Trends in Nationwide SO2 and NO2 Emissions Air Quality Management 15
  16. 16. Personal Exposure Meter to measure exposure to PM and Gases during daily activities Exposure: Whether and how a human or other organism comes into contact with a chemical, usually by eating or drinking it, inhaling it, or touching it and having it penetrate the skin Air Quality Management 16
  17. 17. Four Chamber Greenhouse-based exposure system to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants Air Quality Management 17
  18. 18. Air Quality Management 18
  19. 19. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Air Quality Management 19
  20. 20. Emission-InventoryDevelopment, Evaluation and Improvement Air Quality Management 20
  21. 21. SO2 emissions from electric utilities in United States from 1980-2001 Air Quality Management 21
  22. 22. Regional SO2 Emissions from Electric Utilities Air Quality Management 22
  23. 23. Location of Surface O3 Monitoring Sites Air Quality Management 23
  24. 24. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)Site #1 - Upwind and backgroundcharacterization site.Site #2 - Maximum ozone precursoremissions impact site.Site #3 - Maximum ozone concentrationsite. These sites are intended to monitormaximum ozone concentrationsoccurring downwind from the area ofmaximum precursor emissions.Site #4 - Extreme downwind monitoringsite. These sites are established tocharacterize the extreme downwindtransported ozone and its precursorconcentrations exiting the area and willidentify those areas which are potentiallycontributing to overwhelming ozonetransport into other areas. Air Quality Management 24
  25. 25. Air Quality Models• Air quality models use mathematical and numerical techniques to simulate the physical and chemical processes that affect air pollutants as they disperse and react in the atmosphere.• inputs of meteorological data• source information• emission rates• stack height• models are designed to characterize primary pollutants• secondary pollutants that are formed as a result of complex chemical reactions within the atmosphere Air Quality Management 25
  26. 26. Surface Data• Surface data are meteorological data that are measured at the earth’s surface (technically, somewhere between the ground level and 10m).• data contains physical parameters• Temperature• dew point• wind direction• wind speed• cloud cover• cloud layer(s)• Visibility• current weather• precipitation amount• Surface data are reported by the National Weather Service for each hour Air Quality Management 26
  27. 27. World Car Sales by Manufacturers 1998-2005 Air Quality Management 27
  28. 28. Well to Wheel Emissions Air Quality Management 28
  29. 29. Fuel Cycle EmissionsFull fuel cycle emissions:1. Biodiesel2. Conventional (Petroleum) Fuels (Gasoline and Diesel)3. Electricity4. Ethanol (E-10 and E-85)5. Hydrogen6. Natural Gas (compressed natural gas [CNG], and liquefiednatural gas [LNG])7. Propane8. Renewable Diesel9. Synthetic Fuels (Dimethyl Ether and Methanol)10. XTLs (Biomass-to-Liquid, Coal-to-Liquid, Gas-to-Liquid) Air Quality Management 29
  30. 30. Air Quality Management 30
  31. 31. Fuel Pathways Air Quality Management 31
  32. 32. Study in Taiwan Air Quality Management 32
  33. 33. Global Warming Air Quality Management 33
  34. 34. Health Effects Institute Asian Risk Estimates Similar to West Percent Increase in Mortality per 10 µg increase in PM10 0.8 0.62 Percent Increase 0.46 0.6 0.49 0.4 0.2 0 US (90 Cities) Europe (21 Cities) Asia (4 Cities)Health Effects Institute, 2008 Air Quality Management 34
  35. 35. Implement a Project-II Due Date: Friday, 17th May, 2013A PENNY SAVED IS A PENNY EARNED…… have to save money or earn money…… up to Rs 10,000 within one month…• Solid Waste Management• Air Quality Management• Energy Audit• Material Recovery from Solid Waste• Biofuels• Energy Conservation• Selling Drinking WaterOr• Any smart idea related to Public Health EngineeringNote: Provide complete data related to the activitiesin terms of Rupees Air Quality Management 35
  36. 36. Air Quality Management in Pakistan
  37. 37. The World Bank Assessment Report (Pakistan)• Mean annual cost of Environmental and Natural Resource Damage is Environmental and Natural about Rs. 365 billion or 6% of GDP Resource Damage• Air pollution contributes 1/3 to the (Rs. 365 billion) Indoor total damage air pollution• Rs. 67 billion for Indoor air 19% pollution Others• Rs. 65 billion for Urban air (Water, pollution Waste water,• Annually urban air pollution causes Solid waste ) – 22,000 deaths among adults Urban air 63% pollution – 700 deaths among young 18% children Air Quality Management 37
  38. 38. Annual Cost of Urban Air Pollution Health Impacts (Billion Rs) Air Quality Management 38
  39. 39. National Environmental Quality Standards NEQS for Ambient Air Concentration in Ambient Air Pollutants Time-weighted average Effective from 1st January, 2009 Annual Average 80 µg/m3 Sulfur Dioxide 24 hour 120 µg/m3 Annual Average 40 µg/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen as NO 24 hour 40 µg/m3 Annual Average 40 µg/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 24 hour 80 µg/m3 Ozone 1 hour 180 µg/m3 Suspended Particulate Matter Annual Average 400 µg/m3 SPM 24 hour 550 µg/m3 Annual Average 200 µg/m3 Particulate Matter PM10 24 hour 250 µg/m3 Annual Average 25 µg/m3 Particulate Matter PM2.5 24 hour 40 µg/m3 1 hour 25 µg/m3 Annual Average 1.5 µg/m3 Lead (Pb) 24 hour 2.0 µg/m3 8 hour 5 mg/m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Air Quality Management 39 1 hour 10 mg/m3
  40. 40. Number of Vehicles in Pakistan Air Quality Management 40
  41. 41. Power Shortfall in PakistanOverall power shortfall current and projected inPakistan as:• 6577 MW in 2010• 18320 MW in 2015• 36462 MW by 2020 Primary Energy Supplies by source in Pakistan Air Quality Management 41
  42. 42. Ambient Air Quality Daily Mean Value Air Quality Management 42
  43. 43. Summary of Equipment Air Quality Management 43
  44. 44. Mobile Automatic Air Quality Monitoring Station Air Quality Management 44
  45. 45. SOx & NOx Air Quality Management 45
  46. 46. CO, CH4 & O3 Air Quality Management 46
  47. 47. Low Volume Air Sampler Air Quality Management 47
  48. 48. Particulate Matter Sampling Filter Preparation Drying and Conditioning Numbering Weighing (200C, 50%R.H), 24 hrs SamplingFilter setting to sampler Sampling (12+12 hrs) Collecting sampled filter Sample MeasurementDrying and Conditioning Calculate concentration/ Weighing Preserve sample(200C, 50%R.H), 48 hrs
  49. 49. Calculation of Suspended Particulate MatterThe concentration of Total Suspended Particulate was calculated using thefollowing formula (40 CFR Appendix B, Part 50, USEPA) 6 Wf Wi 10 (µg/m3) TSP = V where, TSP is mass concentration of total suspended particulate matter (µg/m3) Wi is initial weight of clean filter (g) Wf is final weight of exposed filter (g) V is the sampled air volume (m3) 106 is for conversion of g to µg
  50. 50. High Volume Air Sampler Measuring PM10 Air Quality Management 50
  51. 51. Weighing after 24 Hours Air Quality Management 51
  52. 52. Sample Preparation For AASSample Cutting Sample ½ piece Beaker (100 mL) HCl (1+1) 30mL, H2O2 (30%) 5mL Heat on Hot Plate 1200C, 1Hr Filtration Filter Paper/Funnel
  53. 53. Sample Preparation For AASFiltered Solution Conc. on Hot Plate Add HNO (2+98) 3 soon before dry-up Constant Vol (25mL) HNO (2+98) 3 Sample Transfer Polyethylene Bottle AAS Analysis
  54. 54. Glassware Air Quality Management 54
  55. 55. Cutting Exposed Filter Paper Air Quality Management 55
  56. 56. Acid Extraction Air Quality Management 56
  57. 57. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Air Quality Management 57
  58. 58. Proton Induced X-ray Emissions (PIXE) Air Quality Management 58
  59. 59. Stack Gas Emission Monitoring Air Quality Management 59
  60. 60. Stack Gas Emission Monitoring Air Quality Management 60
  61. 61. Stack Gas Emission Monitoring Air Quality Management 61
  62. 62. Transboundary Effects Fires in Northwest India (MODIS)Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Air Quality Management 62
  63. 63. US-AID ProjectEnergy Auditing Serena Air Quality Management 63
  64. 64. UN-Habitat Project Green Roofs Air Quality Management 64
  65. 65. UN-Habitat Project Green Roofs Air Quality Management 65
  66. 66. Crescent Mills, Faisalabad Air Quality Management 66
  67. 67. CNG Driven Vehicles in Pakistan Traffic Police Officials penalizing smoke emitting vehicle operators Air Quality Management 67
  68. 68. Thank You Air Quality Management 68
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