Term paperIntellectual Property Rights“Study of the patents on Zipper” Submitted by: Amit Rander 2010SMF6569 Bhushan Jain 2010SMF6528 Lokesh Bahety 2010SMF6555
Zipper: An introduction Invention: ‘Hookless Fastener’ in 1913 Function: Noun / zip-per / originally a trademark Definition: A fastening device consisting of parallel rows of metal, plastic, or nylon teeth on adjacent edges of an opening that are interlocked by a sliding tab. “Slide fastener with two edges of teeth attached to a fabric tape. The teeth lock into a snug fit when they arc drawn together by a slide. When the slide is pulled back, the teeth separate. ‘’ Patent: 1,060,378 (US) issued April 29,1913 Class: 206 ‘Special Receptable or Package’ Inventor: Gideon Sundback Nationality: Swedish Source: USPTO official website http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/classification/uspcindex/indexp.htm
Milestones 1851 Patent # 8,540 issued Nov. 25, Automatic, continuous clothing closure, Elias Howe 1893 Patent # 504,037 issued Aug. 25, shoe fastener, hook-and-eye, Whitcomb L. Judson 1894 Universal Fastener Company formed 1904 Automatic Hook and Eye Company 1905 C-urity, Whitcomb L. Judson 1913 Patent # 1060378 Hookless fastener, Otto Frederick Gideon Sundback 1917 Patent # 1,219,881 (US) issued Mar. 20, 1917, Separable fastener, Gideon Sundback 1925 Zipper name trademark, B. F. Goodrich Company, 1928 Hookless Fastener Comapny renamed Talon, Inc. 1934 Zipper manufacturing, YKK group
Journey to the zipper 1913 In 1893 Whitcomb Judson of Chicago (who also invented the Pneumatic Street Railway) marketed a Clasp Locker a complicated hook-and-eye shoe fastener. The clasp locker was an assemblage of hooks and eyes that Judson thought would save people time and sore backs fastening their shoes with one hand. Together with businessman Colonel Lewis Walker, Whitcomb launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture the new device. Hook and eye clasp • Swedish immigrant and electrical engineer, Gideon Sundback hired for Universal Fastener Company • Good design skills and a marriage to the plant- managers daughter Elvira Aronson led Sundback to the position of head designer at Universal. • He was responsible for improving the Judson C- curity Fastener • After his wife’s death in 1911, he busied himself at the design table • By December of 1913, he came up with the Hookless fastener: Original Design modern zipper. Patent: 1060378
Journey to the Zipper (cont.) 1917 Sundback increased the number of fastening elements from four per inch to ten or eleven, had two facing-rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by the slider, and increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slider. • The patent for the Separable Fastener was issued in 1917 • Sundback also created the manufacturing machine for the new zipper. • The S-L or scrapless machine took a special Y-shaped wire and cut scoops from it, then punched the scoop dimple and nib, and clamped each scoop on a cloth tape to produce a continuous zipper chain • Within the first year of operation, Sundbacks zipper-making machinery was producing a few hundred feet of fastener per Separable fastener: Original Design day.` Patent: 1219881 The popular zipper name came from B. F. Goodrich Company president Bertram G. Wrok, when they decided to use Gideons fastener on his "Mystic Boot", which were rubber boots or galoshes, and called it the Zipper Boot. Boots and tobacco pouches with a zippered closure were the two chief uses of the zipper during its early years. It took twenty more years to convince the fashion industry to seriously promote the novel closure on garments
The rise of the zipper 1930s Not until 1934 when Lord Louis Mountbaten persuaded the Prince of Wales and George, Duke of York to give up their buttons for zipper flies. Tailors who disdained zipper flies as vulgar created a fold of cloth to conceal the zipper. • In the 1930’s, a sales campaign began for childrens clothing featuring zippers. The campaign praised zippers for promoting self-reliance in young children by making it possible for them to dress in self-help clothing. • In 1934, YKK (Yoshida Kogyo Kabushililaisha) was founded. Sixty years later they changed their name to YKK Co. The privately owned firm, headquartered in Japan, now is made up of 80 companies at 206 facilities in 52 countries.Why the name ‘Zipper?’ • The B. F. Goodrich Company galoshes could be fastened with a single zip of the hand. • A Goodrich executive is said to have slid the fastener up and down on the boot and exclaimed, “Zip er up,” echoing the sound made by this device and the fasteners came to be called "zippers." • Registered in 1925, zipper was originally a B.F. Goodrich trademark for overshoes with fasteners • As the fastener that “zipped” came to be used in other articles, Zipper itself had moved into the world of common nouns
Modern day Use Now • The zipper beat the button in the • The next big boost for the zipper 1937 in the "Battle of the Fly," came when zippers could open when French fashion designers on both ends, as on jackets raved over zippers in mens • Today the zipper is everywhere, trousers in clothing, luggage and leather • Esquire magazine declared the goods and countless other zipper the "Newest Tailoring Idea objects for Men" • Thousands of zipper miles • Among the zippered flys many produced daily meet the needs of virtues was that it would exclude consumers, thanks to the early "The Possibility of Unintentional efforts of the many famous zipper and Embarrassing Disarray“ inventors.