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Task Analysis

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  • 1. Cathy St. Pierre Susan Cho Chris Loiselle Jim Olaye Task Analysis
  • 2. Task Analysis - The ID Process
    • First Step:
      • Identify the Subject Matter Expert (SME)
    • Second Step:
      • Contact them and determine meeting place
        • i.e – office or at location that has proper equipment or conditions
    • Third Step:
      • Inquire if any special equipment or training is needed
    • Fourth Step:
      • Ask (SME) what type of examples are needed
          • E.g. – written reports, diagrams, pictures
  • 3. Task Analysis - The ID Process
    • Fifth Step:
      • Prepare for Analysis
        • Make sure you have two notepads, note cards, and a camera
          • If conditions are favorable , use a laptop or PDA with keyboard for note taking
    • Six Step:
      • Remember to respect (SME)’s time during meeting
        • Prepare ahead of time the summary of the problems and goals
        • Indicate the target audience so you set the stage for the analysis
        • Seek clarification on questions you may have during the meeting, not after the fact
        • Literature searches as part of SME prep would be advantageous
  • 4. Task Analysis - The ID Process
    • Before the task analysis begins:
      • You can identify the content you want to design the instruction around by brainstorming- flowcharts, concept mapping etc.
      • Come up with goals and objectives of the instructional design
    • During the task analysis:
      • Identified goals are broken down into greater detail
      • The analysis should include both conceptual and procedural learning tasks
      • The information provided should be a mix of critical content and content that is nice to know.
    • Your role as the ID :
      • Is to organize and sequence the content provided by the (SME) by applying learning and instructional theories
  • 5. Task Analysis - The ID Process
    • Helpful Hints
      • Classify tasks according to desired learning outcome
      • Inventorying tasks – identifying what tasks you want to complete
      • Selecting tasks – prioritize to choose the most appropriate tasks
      • Decomposing tasks - describe the components of the tasks, goals and objectives to help define the instructional design you are trying to accomplish
      • Sequencing tasks – arranging tasks and ordering instruction that best facilitates learning
  • 6. Being your own (SME)
    • Two major advantages
      • Ease of access to and scheduling of meetings
      • You are already familiar with the learners and problems they have with tasks
    • Major disadvantage
      • Familiarity with the content may cause you to skip steps in analysis of problem
    • Four items to counter disadvantage
      • Find another SME and assume role of designer
      • Ask someone else to perform task analysis
      • Have another expert identify missing steps
      • Listen to feedback from a novice and an expert
  • 7. Task analysis
    • The most critical step in the instructional design process(Jonassen, Hannum, Tessmer, 1999)
    • Three problems to be solved by Task analysis
    • 1)Task analysis defines the content required to solve the performance problems or alleviate a performance need.
    • 2)The process forces the subject-matter expert to work through each individual step, subtle steps are more easily identified
    • 3) Designers have opportunity to view the contents from the learner’s perspective.
  • 8. Specific techniques for analyzing content and tasks
    • Step1: How to conduct a topic analysis
    • : to be well suited for defining cognitive knowledge
    • Step2: How to conduct a procedural analysis
    • : for use with psychomotor tasks, job tasks, or cognitive knowledge
    • Step3: The critical incident method
    • : to be useful for analyzing interpersonal skills
  • 9. Topic Analysis
    • Content structure
    • Fact
    • Concepts
    • Principles and Rules
    • Procedures
    • Interpersonal Skills
    • Attitudes
  • 10. Topic Analysis(cont.)
    • Analyzing a topic
    • 1)The learner analysis describes the learner’s knowledge of the content area
    • 2) The SME is often source of information concerning the learner’s entry-level knowledge
    • a basis for determining the level of detail needed in this initial analysis
  • 11. Procedural Analysis
    • Breaking down the mental and/or physical steps that the learner must go through so that the task can be successfully achieved
    • The steps that make up a task are arranged linearly and sequentially, illustrating where the learner begins and ends.
    • Flow chart, Table format are used
  • 12. Procedural Analysis(cont.)
    • Application of steps (Smith & Ragan, 1999)
    • Step1. Determine whether a particular procedure is applicable.
    • Step2. Recall the steps of the procedure.
    • Step3. Apply the steps in order, with decision steps if required.
    • Step4. Confirm that the end result is reasonable.
  • 13. Procedural Analysis(cont.)
    • Flowchart of a procedure
  • 14. Procedural Analysis(cont.)
    • Checklist
    • Relevant cues and feedback are identified?
    • The analysis identifies the generally acceptable procedure?
    • The decision steps identified?
    • All steps accurately described?
    • Critical steps, could result in personal injury, equipment damage, or other loss, are identified?
  • 15. Procedural Analysis(cont.)
    • Applied Cognitive Task Analysis(Militello and Hutton,1998)
    • Step1: The designer asks a SME to identify three to six broad steps that are performed as part of this task.
    • Step2: A knowledge audit that is used to generate examples of the task.
    • Step3: To conduct a simulation interview the expert describes how he/she would solve a realistic problem.
    • Step4: To create a cognitive demands table that synthesizes the information from the first three steps.
  • 16. References
    • Jonassen, D., Hannum, w., & Tessmer, M. (1999). “ Task Analysis methods for instructional design” . Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Militello, L.G., & Hutton, R.J. B. (1998). Applied cognitive task analysis: A Practitioner's toolkit for understanding cognitive task demands. Ergonomics, 41, 1618-1641.
    • Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., & Kemp, J.E. “ D e signing Effective Instruction ” , 5 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
    • Smith, P. and Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.