Thought and Practice

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  • 1. Chapter II Heritage of Theoretical Thought and Practice 450 B.C. to 1950 By The RAMS Sandra Grasso Christopher Loiselle Charles Willis SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 2. The Sophists
    • “ Sophist Any of a group of professional fifth-century B.C. Greek philosophers and teachers who speculated on theology, metaphysics, and the sciences, and who were later characterized by Plato as superficial manipulators of rhetoric and dialectic.” 1
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 3. Elder Sophists
    • Fifth century group of independent teachers in Greece. According to Saettler, were the first professional teachers (p.46).
    • Worked for fees and competed for students.
    • They taught the art of politics and oratory especially related to the political campaign.
    • Saw teaching as “techne” in the Greek or technology –blend of theoretical and practical. (Saettler p. 46).
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 4. Elder Sophists
    • From Saettler we know that Sophists developed rules and techniques in teaching rhetoric. (p.25)
      • Sophists believed that education was paramount in the development of social responsibility and the ability to self rule.
      • Goal of Sophists was the development of an individual who had broad knowledge and competence in many fields.
      • Differed with Plato who believed that men were predestined for their particular role in life regardless of education.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 5. Sophists Influences on Education
    • The Sophists were the first to teach many students at the same time. Previously had used a one: one or tutorial model.
    • They used rhetoric and eristic (the art of disputation) for instruction of many different areas.
    • Ultimate goal was an person who was competent in every field by way of applied analysis. (Saettler, p. 26)
    • Proponents of a systematic approach to education.
      • Students had clear understanding expectations of teachers, understood how to reach goals and how well they were progressing.
    • The study of rhetoric evolved into what came to be known as the seven liberal arts which influenced European education for more than a millennium.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 6. Socratic Method
    • According to Saettler, The Socratic method of instruction”…was carried on through the give-and take of conversation, which Socrates guided by a series of leading questions.” (p. 26)
      • New conclusions could be reached in light of leading questions by reflection and discussion of information already held.
    • The Socratic Method is applied in current day education especially in areas where discussion of the different facets of an argument can be instructive such as in politics, law or psychology.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 7. Scholastic Method
    • Europe-twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
    • Abelard-Notre Dame cathedral school. Encouraged interpretation of Scripture by presentation of various sides of theological and philosophical perspectives. (Saettler p.27). Students were encouraged to draw their own conclusions which in some cases bordered on heresy.
    • Influenced Lombard and Aquinas.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 8. Scholastic Method
    • While influenced by Abelard, Lombard and Aquinas differed somewhat.
      • Lombard while offering students provocative questions upon which to reflect, always gave the accepted, corrected response (Seattler p. 28).
      • Aquinas-method of deductive reasoning by formulation of questions, proposed solutions and creation of a thesis which is then tested.
    • Clearly this formed the early groundwork to scientific inquiry and to what we know as the scientific method.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 9. Comenius Principles of Instructional Method
    • Johann Amos Comenius-17 th century.
      • Developed pansophia-system of universal knowledge. ( Seattler p. 29). Believed that the views of Christianity should not impede the instructional process. Goal of education was not to prepare men for particular occupations but rather as good and civil human beings.
      • Wanted greater access to education for people regardless of social station.
      • Originally envisioned an educational system available to all from kindergarten through university.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 10. Comenius Instructional Method
    • Many ideas that are currently still in use. ( Seattler p. 30).
      • Learning should begin at infancy and progress with the developmental stage of each learner.
      • Learning should have value to the student.
      • Organization of material should be from simple to the more complex.
      • Related materials such as books should be associated with instruction.
      • Sequence in instruction is important.
      • Understand is most important with memorization only secondary.
      • Associated objects or drawings can aid learning.
        • Produced popular picture book for children.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 11. Instructional Method-American Schools
    • In 17 th century, was based on individual recitations. No group discussions.
    • Instruction and facilities were poor and primitive. School term was short and learning was minimal generally.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 12. Lancasterian Monitorial System
    • Joseph Lancaster-19 th century.
      • Wrote manuals of classroom organization and introduced plans for group instruction.
    • The Lancasterian System was a way of educating many students at a relatively low cost. Very large class size and inexpensive instructional media, such as slate, wall charts, sand tables and blackboards made avoided the purchase of books and ink.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 13. Lancasterian Monitorial System
    • Instruction including drills and rote memorization. (Seattler p.34)
    • More advanced students taught less advanced students. Consequently many students could be taught at a lower cost.
    • Results were impressive when compared to the established method of recitation.
    • Grouping by ability in different subject areas allowed for progress at individual pace.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 14. Lancasterian Monitorial System
    • Method for teaching many students at the same time.
    • “ Introduced order and system into instructional method” (Seattler p. 36).
    • Some concepts prevail today
      • Teaching is the dissemination of knowledge.
      • To know is enough to teach.
    • Model is still in use at universities with teaching fellows.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 15. Pestalozzi’s Educational Theory
    • Development of the learner was of prime importance.
    • Emphasized sensory instruction. Use of the senses is important today especially in early education.
    • Understood that individuals learn differently from each other. This is an important concept in current day education.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 16. Pestalozzi’s Educational Theory
    • According to Seattler we understand that Pestalozzi encouraged learning by introduction of 3 part instruction in math, writing and language. All of this led the student to the development of insight or what he called “Anschauung” (p.37).
    • Insight is the natural development of the mind from simple concepts to more complex.
    • Led to related methodologies such as the Quincy method of object teaching. We might call this hands on or manipulative type of instruction today. Louis Agassiz (naturalist) was also a proponent of this type of instruction.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 17. Froebel Method of Instruction
    • “ Purpose of the educator was to control the growth of a child into a man…” (Seattler p 42)
    • Four basic tenets.
      • Free self-activity-personal growth
      • Creativity
      • Social Participation
      • Motor Expression –learning by doing.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 18. Froebel Method of Instruction
    • Most famous for concept of Kindergarten. (Seattler p 43)
    • Play to the child but with more important intent.
      • Games and Songs-socialization
      • Construction-drawing, modeling etc.
      • Gifts and Occupation –ball, cubes, cylinders, blocks.
      • Kindergartens quickly became popular and continue to be important in early education today. In addition his ideas of instruction continue to be used in education.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 19. The Herbartian Method of Instruction
    • Johann Friedrich Herbart-19 th century.
    • Influenced by Comenius and Pestalozzi.
    • Conceptualized psychology of learning and teaching.
      • Learning should relate to prior learning.
      • Sequence of ideas was important.
      • Learning was dominated by the teacher.
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008
  • 20. Sources
    • Saettler,L.P. (1990). The evolution of American educational technology. Englewood. CO: Libraries Unlimited.
    • sophists. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition . Retrieved September 07, 2008, from website: sophists
    SED EM 550 September 11, 2008