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“ Sophist Any of a group of professional fifth-century B.C. Greek philosophers and teachers who speculated on theology, metaphysics, and the sciences, and who were later characterized by Plato as superficial manipulators of rhetoric and dialectic.” 1
Abelard-Notre Dame cathedral school. Encouraged interpretation of Scripture by presentation of various sides of theological and philosophical perspectives. (Saettler p.27). Students were encouraged to draw their own conclusions which in some cases bordered on heresy.
Developed pansophia-system of universal knowledge. ( Seattler p. 29). Believed that the views of Christianity should not impede the instructional process. Goal of education was not to prepare men for particular occupations but rather as good and civil human beings.
Wanted greater access to education for people regardless of social station.
Originally envisioned an educational system available to all from kindergarten through university.
Wrote manuals of classroom organization and introduced plans for group instruction.
The Lancasterian System was a way of educating many students at a relatively low cost. Very large class size and inexpensive instructional media, such as slate, wall charts, sand tables and blackboards made avoided the purchase of books and ink.
According to Seattler we understand that Pestalozzi encouraged learning by introduction of 3 part instruction in math, writing and language. All of this led the student to the development of insight or what he called “Anschauung” (p.37).
Insight is the natural development of the mind from simple concepts to more complex.
Led to related methodologies such as the Quincy method of object teaching. We might call this hands on or manipulative type of instruction today. Louis Agassiz (naturalist) was also a proponent of this type of instruction.
Saettler,L.P. (1990). The evolution of American educational technology. Englewood. CO: Libraries Unlimited.
sophists. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition . Retrieved September 07, 2008, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ sophists