Motivating Learners


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  • In order to produce instruction that motivates the learner. Four attributes of the instruction must be considered throughout the design of the instructional strategy. These four parts are attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. Their initial attention can be gained by using emotional or personal information, asking questions, creating mental challenges, or using human interest examples.
  • The second aspect of motivation is relevance. Sustaining learner’s attention is difficult. Especially when the students do not perceive the instruction relevant to themselves. Learners ask, “why do we have to study this”? Employees when involved in non essential training, question the relationship between training and their jobs. One way of gaining and sustaining interest is to use information from the learner and context analyses. Instruction must be related to important goals in the learner’s lives. For example, the presentations and lectures heard in this class will continue to help us in our careers, so must of us pay attention during class time.
  • The third part of ARCS is confidence. For learners to be highly motivated, they must be confident that they can master the objectives for the instruction. Lacking confidence in turn produces a less motivated feeling, which leads to incomplete learning. Learners who are overconfident are also problematic. Learners who lack confidence must be convinced that they have the skills and knowledge to be successful. If a leaner has mastered the instruction, they should be given more advanced instruction that meets the four aspects of the ARCS model.
  • The final component of Keller’s model is satisfaction. High motivation depends on whether the learner derives satifscation from the learning experience. Some would be refer to this as reinforcement. Sometimes satisfaction is sustained through the use of extrinsic rewards for success. Promotions, receiving a high grade, or time off from work or school. The intrinsic satisfaction a learner can gain by mastering a new skill and being able to use it successfully is equally, if not more important. Self-esteem can be greatly enhanced through the learning process.
  • There is a direct relationship between the five main learning components of the instructional strategy and the four aspects of motivation described in the ARCS approach. Is this material related/ relevant to my personal needs and interests? Am I confident I can do this by expending reasonable effort? Did this satisfy my needs and interests? If answered yes, leaner will focus attention on the instruction. If no, learner will not focus attention on instruction.
  • Motivating Learners

    1. 1. Motivating Learners: a systematic approach using the ARCS Model Chris Jim Cathy Susan
    2. 2. John Keller’s ARCS model <ul><li>A ttention </li></ul>
    3. 3. John Keller’s ARCS model <ul><li>R elevance </li></ul>
    4. 4. John Keller’s ARCS model <ul><li>C onfidence </li></ul>
    5. 5. John Keller’s ARCS model <ul><li>S atisfaction </li></ul>
    6. 6. Relationship of Learning Components
    7. 7. Learning Framework
    8. 8. Competency Based Learning <ul><li>The purpose of teaching is to bring about a desire change in the learner’s behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching should make a student different in terms of what he can do or accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>This change is normally brought about by the instructor employing a teaching strategy to accomplish his objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Different tasks call for different methods and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>It also depend on the nature of the task, the nature of the learning objectives that are to be realized and the ability, aptitude, pre-knowledge and age of the students. </li></ul>
    9. 9. STRUCTURAL APPROACH <ul><li>The structural approach has considerable advantages. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables a teacher to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select appropriate teaching tactics, depending on the classes of structure involved in the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the relationship between different classes of structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase his student’s depth of understanding by using the innate structure of the task as a vehicle for presenting facts and incorporating additional facts into the student’s repertoire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the information in such a way that it is more likely to be remembered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It enables students to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select appropriate learning tactics, depending on the classic structure involved in the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive the relationship between different classes learning objective and different classes of structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase his depth of understanding by using the innate structure of the task as a vehicle for learning facts and incorporating additional facts into his repertoire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the information once it has been taught. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Broad methods of instruction that includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Case study strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Tactics (Methods) </li></ul><ul><li>More detailed aspects of instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same tactics can occur in every teaching strategy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Bruner’s Definition of Teaching <ul><li>Defines teaching as: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to simplify the presentation of information </li></ul><ul><li>Generate new propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the actual manipulability of the material involved </li></ul>
    12. 12. TYPE OF LEARNING STRUCTURE <ul><li>These include: </li></ul><ul><li>Signal structures </li></ul><ul><li>Chain structures </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-discrimination structures </li></ul><ul><li>Concept structures </li></ul><ul><li>Principle structures </li></ul>
    13. 13. MATRIX ANALYSIS <ul><li>Developed by, Thomas, Davis, Openshaw, and Bird (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix analysis involves: </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of association </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of discrimination </li></ul>
    14. 14. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dick, W., Carey L., Carey J. O. (2009). The Systematic Design of Instruction . 7th edition </li></ul>