Lfa Logical Framework Analysis

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Logical Framework Analysis in Project Management

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  • Lohith shetty, very good effort. and very useful for students studying Project Formulation and management.
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Lfa Logical Framework Analysis

  1. 1. Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous), President 2014, JCI Mangalore
  2. 2. Logical frame work Analysis • What is Logical Framework Analysis? • The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is a management tool mainly used in the design, monitoring and evaluation of international development projects. It is also widely known as Goal Oriented Project Planning (GOPP) or Objectives Oriented Project Planning (OOPP). Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous), President 2014, JCI Mangalore
  3. 3. LFA: What is it all about? • Used as a tool to convert problems/ objectives into a project. It links the goal and objectives of a project to its inputs and outputs. • Helps in developing objective indicators for all stages of the project and means of verification for the indicators; overall assumptions and risk factors which have a bearing on the success / failure of the project. • Also helps in collecting data required for monitoring and assessing the impact of the project. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  4. 4. LFA IS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PROJECTS The Logical Framework Approach is analytical tool for objectives- oriented project planning and management The key words are: • • • • Objectives oriented Target group oriented Participatory Clearly stating the Assumptions Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  5. 5. LFA I Preparatory Phase II Analysis Phase III Planning Phase Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  6. 6. I. Preparatory Phase A. • • • Determine the Focus Area Determine the focus area to be analyzed Study the focus area Present results of fact finding in short report B. Analyze Stakeholders involved • Identify all stakeholders who have a relation to the focus area • Identify what the most important stakeholders contribute to and benefit from the focus area. Wetted Shetty, invite to the • Determine who to by Jc LohithAloysius workshop Asst Professor, St
  7. 7. II. Analysis Phase A. Analyze the problems • • • • • • • • • • Formulate problems from point of view of the identified Stakeholders. Check whether all relevant problems of stakeholders are included Check that problems are understood Select a tentative “starter” problem Identify direct causes of starter problem Identify direct effects of starter problem Continue identifying cause-effect relationships Check completeness of the diagram Add additional problems if necessary Draw connecting lines to make “Problem Tree” Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  8. 8. B. Analyze the Objectives • • • • Restate problems as positive statements, “reached” situations (objectives) Compare problems and objectives. Discuss the formulations. Examine the “means-end” relationships and adjust chart if needed Draw connecting lines (“Objective Tree”) C. Clustering • • Identify clusters of related objectives in terms of expertise required/ commonality/ theme/ affinity Give a name to each cluster Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  9. 9. III. Planning Phase A. Scope the project • • • Identify which clusters are outside of project responsibility/resources Determine willingness to contribute by stakeholders to clusters. Determine the priority ranking for addressing the different objective clusters. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  10. 10. Checklist of Criteria Relationship with state/ national policies/ MDGs Attractiveness to target groups Contribution to other clusters Probability of success Side effects: Positive/Negative Urgency Resource availability - Funds - Counterpart institutions - Expertise required/available - Time horizon • History of the project • Sustainability • Etc…. • • • • • • • Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  11. 11. B. Determine Intervention Logic and External Factors • Identify Overall Goal from the objective tree • Select Project Objectives/Purpose from objective tree outputs/results that • Identify contribute to achieving the project objectives/purpose. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  12. 12. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step I. Define goal. What is the wider sector goal? What overall problem or need are you trying to address? The goal does not change, it may be affected by external factors. Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  13. 13. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step 2. Define the objective/purpose. What impact do you hope to make? How will the user benefit? Purpose may also be affected by factors outside your project. Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  14. 14. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step 3. Define the outputs. What will be the measurable end results of the planned activities? What results will the project be directly responsible for? Project team is accountable for the results. Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  15. 15. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step 4. Define the activities. What will actually be done to achieve the outputs? This is a summary presentation showing what needs to be done to achieve each output. Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  16. 16. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step 5. Verify vertical logic. Use ‘if–then’ test to check cause and effect. Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  17. 17. Assumptions / Risks Assumptions are major conditions which are outside the direct control of the project, but which are so important that they will have to be met or have to hold true if the project is to achieve its objectives. Sources of generating Assumptions: 1. Unselected Objectives from ‘Objective Tree’ 2. Constraints/ weaknesses of different stakeholders in the project- from Stakeholder Analysis 3. Negative side effects of the project interventions 4. Rational, logic argumentations: “Which other external factors must become true to achieve Outputs/Results, assuming that Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, all the activities are already achieved?” and so on.. Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  18. 18. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 7d What project Step 8d. How will inputs and budget will be you verify activity the main OVIs here. What OVIs. The project inputs are needed to accounts will be a carryout the activities? major MOV here. Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Step 6a. Define the assumptions. Include here anything that must happens before the project commence. Asst Professor, St Aloysius Activity and input assumption. Critical conditions
  19. 19. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Col III Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step 6b. Check the logic. Will the completed activities lead to achievements of the outputs? Are all the resources needed to achieve the outputs? What assumptions external to project have been made? If assumption / risk high redesign. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption.
  20. 20. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Col III Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Step 6c. Define the assumption. If the outputs are produced would the purpose be achieved? What assumptions external to the projects have been made about the achievements of the outputs? If risk / assumptions are Jc Lohith Shetty, Wetted by too great Asst the project. then redesignProfessor, St Aloysius Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption.
  21. 21. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Col III Means of verification (MV) Step 6d. Define the assumptions. If the project purpose is achieved, will this contribute to solving the problem – need. If no, then redesign the project. If yes, mention the Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius assumptions. Col IV Assumption risks Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose / objective assumptions Output assumptions. Activity and input assumption.
  22. 22. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 7d What project Step 8d. How will inputs and budget will be you verify activity the main OVIs here. What OVIs. The project inputs are needed to accounts will be a carryout the activities? major MOV here. Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Step 6e. Define the assumptions. What external factors are needed for, or may prevent the long term sustainability of the project. Asst Professor, St Aloysius Activity and input assumption. Critical conditions
  23. 23. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Activities (Inputs) Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  24. 24. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius Critical conditions
  25. 25. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  26. 26. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Project Structure Goal ( Overall Programme goal) Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Outputs (results) Activities (Inputs) Col II Col III Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Col IV Assumption risks Step 7d What project inputs and budget will be the main OVIs here. What inputs are needed to carryout the activities? Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  27. 27. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 7d What project Step 8d. How will inputs and budget will be you verify activity the main OVIs here. What OVIs. The project inputs are needed to accounts will be a carryout the activities? major MOV here. Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Asst Professor, St Aloysius Activity and input assumption. Critical conditions
  28. 28. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Step 7d What project Step 8d. How will inputs and budget will be you verify activity the main OVIs here. What OVIs. The project inputs are needed to accounts will be a carryout the activities? major MOV here. Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius Activity and input assumption. Critical conditions
  29. 29. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 7d What project Step 8d. How will inputs and budget will be you verify activity the main OVIs here. What OVIs. The project inputs are needed to accounts will be a carryout the activities? major MOV here. Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Asst Professor, St Aloysius Activity and input assumption. Critical conditions
  30. 30. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Means of verification (MV) Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 7d What project Step 8d. How will inputs and budget will be you verify activity the main OVIs here. What OVIs. The project inputs are needed to accounts will be a carryout the activities? major MOV here. Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Step 8d. How will you verify activity OVIs. The project accounts will be a major MOV here Asst Professor, St Aloysius Assumption risks Activity and input assumption. Critical conditions
  31. 31. LFA – Project Planning Matrix Col I Col II Col III Col IV Project Structure Objectively variable indicators (OVI) Means of verification (MV) Assumption risks Goal ( Overall Programme goal Step 7a. What will indicate whether the goal has been achieved? Step 8a. How will you verify goal OVIs. Overall goal hypothesis. Purpose (Objectives short term and long term.) Step 7b. What will indicate whether the purpose or objective has been achieved? Step 8b. How will you verify purpose OVIs ? Purpose / objective assumptions Outputs (results) Step 7c. What will indicate that the outputs have been achieved? This indicators define terms of reference and the deliverables of the project. Step 8c. How will you verify output OVIs? Output assumptions. Activities (Inputs) Step 7d What project inputs and budget will be the main OVIs here. What inputs are needed to carryout the activities? Staff, transport, material, finance etc. Wetted by Step 8d. How will you verify activity OVIs. The project accounts will be a major MOV here. Activity and input assumption. Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius Critical conditions
  32. 32. Steps in the formulation of a project • • • • Preparatory Phase Determine subject of analysis Determine Stakeholders involved Analysis Analysis of problems Analysis of objectives Cluster objectives Planning Scope the project Intervention logic Assumption Indicators and Means of verification Implementation Planning Strategies & Best Practices Cross cutting issues- Equity, Gender, Exit and Sustainability Institutional arrangements Organisation- Personnel, Infrastructure & Scheduling Monitoring & Evaluation Learning & Reinforcement Mechanisms Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  33. 33. TEN STEPS OF LF PROCESS 1. Define PROJECT PURPOSE (MISSION) 2. Define the GOAL(VISION) 3. Define OUT PUT strategy for achieving PP 4. Define key ACTIVITIES for each output 5. Identify key ASSUMPTIONS 6. Verify VERTICAL LOGIC 7. Define objectively verifiable INDICATORS 8. Verify HORIZONTAL LOGIC 9. Decide on MEANS OF VERIFICATION 10. REVIEW Design Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  34. 34. IV. Implementation Planning Strategies & Best Practices Cross cutting issues- Equity, Gender, Exit and Sustainability Institutional arrangements Organisation- Personnel, Infrastructure & Scheduling Monitoring & Evaluation Learning & Reinforcement Mechanisms Wetted by Jc Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius
  35. 35. The Project Manager’s Responsibilities: 1. Produce Outputs- A Management “Contract” • personal commitment 2. 3. 4. • Management tools, e.g., Log frame Scheduling Techniques, Influence, Persuasion, Coordination Monitor assumptions at all levels. Alert top management when: • Output achievement uncertain. • Outputs being produced on schedule but not likely to result in project purpose/goal achievement Recommend corrective actions.Lohith Shetty, Wetted by Jc Asst Professor, St Aloysius

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