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Meaning, Understanding & History of Social Group Work

Meaning, Understanding & History of Social Group Work

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  • 1. 1 Meaning, Understanding & History of Social Group Work Jc Lohith Shetty PGDPM, MSW, MBA, NET Asst Professor St Aloysius College (Autonomous) Trainer – Junior Chamber International President - 2014, JCI Mangalore Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 2. 2  Statutory Instructions:  This is not a study material & only a teaching aid.  There is constant changes made to this teaching material & those changes are not updated in Slide Share.  This slide is prepared as teaching aid only, so it can be understood & interpreted rightly only after attending my classes. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 3. Group 3  How old were you when you first joined a group  How many different groups do you belong to?  How do you identity a group leader?  Does your behaviour change when in or with different groups?  Have you even lead a group? Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 4. What is a group: 4 Huse and Bowditch (1977)  Common purpose or objective  Internet with each other  Aware of one another  Perceive themselves to be part of the group. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 5. Significance of groups: 5             Belongingness – no man is an island Safety and security Esteem and growth – recognition and appreciation Reaching objectives Development of norms and control Emotional support Division of labour and responsibility Leadership and development To develop personality To develop self confidence To develop adjustment power Giddens 1989 “Social group is a number of people who interact with each other on a regular basis”. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 6. Group influence on Human Behaviour: 6          Learn to solve his problems Formation of attitudes Change individual’s level of aspiration and striving Modify the individual’s habit of living Influence upon individual’s perception and his role in given situation Provide psychological support and help him to express both pleasant & unpleasant feelings. Tend to influence the choices Affects individuals speed, accuracy and productivity Place limits on individual’s drive for power and his needs to controlling. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 7. Social group work: Meaning: 7  It’s a method of social work  To help individuals in group  Activities are used to help individual development  To reach common objective  To bring positive changes  To develop personality , leadership and learning  Used for problem solving  Rehabilitation  Solve adjustment problems  Treatment Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 8. Definition of Social Group Work: 1 8  Coyle - 1937 “Social Group Work aims at the develop of persons through the interplay of personalities in group situation as provide for integration and co-operative group action for common ends. American Association of Group Workers – “Group work is a method by which the group worker enables various types of groups to function in such a way that both group interaction and programme activities continue to the growth of the individual and the achievement of desirable social goals”. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 9. Definition of Social Group Work: 2 9  Wilson and Ryland – 1949 We see Social Group Work as a process and a method through which group life is affected by a worker who consciously directs the interacting process towards the accomplishment of goals, which in our community are conceived in a democratic frame of reference. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 10. Definition of Social Group Work: 3 10  Konopka G – 1963 Social Group Work is a method of social work which helps individual to enhance their social functioning through purposeful group experience and to cope more effectively with their personal, group or community problem. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 11. Scope and Current use of SGWP: A) Group work with children and youth 11 B) Group work with women: C) Group work with elderly: D) Group work with Industrial / Organisational workers: E) Group work in communities F) Correctional setting G) Group work in self help groups H) Group work in hospital setup I) Social group work with poor J) Social group work in mental hospitals K) Social group work with family planning L) Social group work and physical crippled M) Social group work and labour welfare N) Social group work and social planning – PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) O) Adult education Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 12. Significance of Social Group Work: A. Significance to Individual: 12  Helping individual to cope with their problem through GWP  Helpful in development of skills & personality  Molding the personality of Individuals  It helps in meeting the objectives of group & group members  SGW Develops norms and control facilitating social development  Development of Self Conscience & Emotional support  Division of labour and responsibility especially with SHG & developmental group work  Leadership and development of individuals, especially with developmental group work Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 13. Significance of Social Group Work: contd… 13 B. Significance to Social Group Worker:  SGWr can help the individuals with personal problem with the group support  SGWr can easily help individual to cope with their Emotional problem through GWP  SWr can concentrate on the development & coping of many in a group simultaneously instead of giving individual attention. This will reach many in need  SWr can be more effective in guiding , directing & molding individuals as the number of members is limited & had a formal setup compared to open communities.  SGWr can easily develop norms and etiquettes in Group members, facilitating social development C. Significance to Society:  Directs the youth energy in a positive direction leading to development  Develops a sense of safety and security to the group members, even to the deprived group members. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 14. A) Group work with children and youth 14 I. Recreational Groups:  Engaging members in leisure time activities for recreation.  To evolve norms for decision making.  To respect the minority opinion.  To encourage wide participation.  To develop a sense of fan play.  To develop life skills.  To inculcate the understanding of diversity. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 15. A) Group work with children and youth 15 II. Educational groups:  Informal education through activities  Learning skills to be self employed  Helping slow learners  Generating awareness  Dealing with the problems of drop out  Health and Hygiene awareness  To facilitate value education  Awareness on nutrition  Educate public on HIV Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 16. A) Group work with children and youth 16 III. Support groups:  To discuss about their problems and look for solution  Street children  Orphan children  Drug related  Adolescent girls facing violence or abuse Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 17. A) Group work with children and youth 17 IV. Remedial groups:  Use of group action and group programmes to modify behavioural responses to members.  Children’s home, observation homes, second home, certified schools etc.  Learning new coping strategies and thinking about future. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 18. B) Group work with women: 18 I. Education:  Through literacy skills for legal, social and political issues.  Providing information and awareness to deprived group in rural and urban areas. II. Support:  Domestic violence – at home and work place.  Developing network – commercial sex workers – HIV. III. Livelihood:  Acquire economic skills  Small business enterprise  Individually or collectively  Legal Aid  Health groups Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 19. C) Group work with elderly: 19 I. Supportive group for loss of active life, physical health loneliness, loss of Spouse, children depart. II. Recreational day care centres III. Health groups IV. Economic problems Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 20. D) Group work with Industrial / Organisational workers: 20  Work Groups: To provide variety of services to employees  Legal Aid: Union rights, collective bargaining, accidents etc.  Improving productivity – team work, quality circle, training  Welfare services: To manage canteen, transport, housing, recreational clubs, community welfare etc. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 21. GW with other settings 21 E) Group work in communities F) Correctional setting G) Group work in self help groups H) Group work in hospital setup I) Social group work with poor J) Social group work in mental hospitals K) Social group work with family planning L) Social group work and physical crippled M) Social group work and labour welfare N) Social group work and social planning – PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal)  O) Adult education           Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 22. History of Social Group Work: 22 A) Development of Social Group Work in England:  Taking care of the poor was done by Church.  People were helping helpless, blind and other poor due to      religious feelings. But no work was being done to make them self supporting. For the first time in 1531 Henry Astam posed statute of Henry VIII, which started checking the olds and poor. They were provided licences for begging. In 1572 legislation was passed directing government to provide and facilitate the helpless. In 1576 house of correction were established for giving professional training to poor. In 1601 Elizabeth’s legislation was passed for the poor, aged, helpless etc and it continued for longest period. In 1834 a report was presented again for this poor law. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 23. In 1834 a report was presented again for this poor law 23  Following suggestions were given in this report  Partial help should be abolished.  All the persons who need help should be put in work houses.  Outside help should be provided only for ill person, aged, new born babies, widows etc.  The help giving law of different perished should be brought under Poor Law Union.  The status of the people getting help should be lower than the working people.  A central counselling centre should be established for the control in 1834 New, Poor Law was made, but not much successful. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 24. History of Social Group Work: Cont... 24  With the industrial development many new problems surfaced. Christian, Charity, Socialists and Trade Unions did a lot of work for this.  In 1844 George Williams motivated girls and boys to lead the path of Christianity and established Young Men Christian Association and Young Women Christian Association.  In 1873 Cannon Samual and August Varnet started living with the poor to know their problems and through the help of Cambridge University students they established Management House with these 3 objectives a) Cultural and educational develop of poor. b) To provide information about problem, condition and social improvement of poor to students, management and others who concerned with it. c) To develop consciousness among people for the solution of social and health problems. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 25. History of Social Group Work: Cont... 25  Social group work professional status and educational importance in 20th century with Universities offering formal education, theories from learned and approved by professional organizations.  Apart from clearly organization, groups, societies, association clubs use social group work. Settlement houses give much emphasis on dignity, integrity, relationship and self determination. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 26. Development of social group work in America: 26  In the beginning its nature was to provide recreational services gradually then objectives changed to 4 parts. a) Programme was which perform only recreational and educational activities. Adult Education, Schools and University Education Settlement Houses, YMCA, YWCA. b) To provide such type of services which effect their behaviour and social attitudes – for 9-7Y -programmes for character building and religious, cultural and social development – develop basic human values boys scouts, girls scouts, Comp Fire Girls, 4H club etc. c) Having other objectives, recreational and educational activities are secondary – India organizations, political organizations, labour organization, American Youth Centre. d) The recreational and educational activities are used for treatment of physical, mental and emotional problems. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 27. Development of social group work in America: Cont... 27  In 1866 Dostan YWCA was established and in 1867 second YWCA in New York.  Then the first formal education in social work was developed in 1898 by Colombia University School of Social Work.  Aster First World was community chest movement which increased rapidly.  1923 in Cleave Land, the first experience was started in SSW. In 1926 experimental settlement houses were established with this objective. In 1930 many steps were taken to develop the theory of SGW. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 28. Development of Social Group Work in India: Phase - I 28  India has been a religious country  Ashrams were established for removing internal, external     / both emotional and mental problems to develop social personalities In the beginning Aryans were organized on the basis of Kul – Brahman, Ksthriya, Vysya & Shudra. Economic divisions were made & Ashrams established. Vidyadhan – 300 Brahmans were educated Rich sponsored Matts for education of maths, ayurvedha medicine, religion, warfare, economics, politics etc Budhism and Jaiuism – Baudh Bikshu were helped by rich for their education & spread of wisdom Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 29. Development of Social Group Work in India: Phase - II 29  British colonialisation – Christianity, education, administration etc.  In nineteenth century social reform programmes started Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Rama Krishna Mission, Theosophical society. Mahatma Gandhi brought in freedom fight and transformation of society which lead to Equitable, Humane, Just & Welfare through SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC constitution. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 30. Development of Social Group Work in India: Phase - III 30 After gaining freedom – SW formal education continued. Government efforts are on with NCC, Boys Scout, Guides, NSS etc. Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)
  • 31. Thank You 31 Lohith Shetty, Asst Professor, St Aloysius College (Autonomous)