Cause of the Invasion• King Edward of England dies January 5, 1066, without an heir.• Harold Godwinson of Wessex was crowned king because he was supposedly the closest relative to King Edward, who was Harold’s brother- in-law. King Harold
Cause of Invasion Continued• Duke William of Normandy claimed to be King Edward’s cousin. Duke William also claimed that King Edward sent him a message in 1064 that anointed Duke William the next King of England.• Duke William took Harold’s claim of the throne as an insult and used that to gain support from his people and the Pope. King William
Cause of the Invasion• The third rival for the throne was Harald Hardrada, the King of Norway.• Harald claimed that his nephew Mangus had cut a deal with Harthacut the Danish ruler of England. He said that since Magnus and Harthacut never had a male heir, both promised their kingdom to the other in the event of his death.• When Harthacut died, Mangus was unable to take up his claim to the English throne because he was too busy battling for the rule of Denmark. Then Edward became the Anglo-Saxon ruler of England. Now with Mangus and Edward dead, Hardrada asserted that he, as Manguss heir, was the rightful ruler of England.• When Hardrada heard of Harolds crowning, Hardrada immediately prepared to invade England. King Hardrada
Hardradas Invasion• In September of 1066, Hardrada invasion force landed on the Northern English coast and captured a few coastal villages before moving toward the city of York.• Hardradas invasion was helped by Tostig, King Harolds brother. The Viking army overwhelmed an English force blocking the York road and captured the city.• On September 25, 1066, King Harold and his troops attacked Hardradas army as it camped at Stamford Bridge outside York. The battle was at a stalemate until the Norsemens line broke. Hardrada and Tostig were killed during the battle.• Only 24 of the 240 ships of King Harald’s invasion force made the trip back to Norway.
Battle of Hastings•The battle of Hastings was fought on October 14, 1066.•King Harold arrived on October 13 and positioned his army along the SenlacRidge, forming a shield wall.•King William divided his troops into three zones composing of infantry,archers, and crossbowmen. King William’s original plan called for his archersto weaken Harolds forces with arrows, then for infantry and cavalry assaultsto break through the enemy line.•His plan failed because of King Harold’s position on the ridge and theprotection offered by the shield wall. As Williams infantry advanced, it wasattacked with spears and other projectiles which inflicted heavy casualties.
Battle of Hastings Continued•King William withdrew his cavalry and infantry. He then called his men backdown the ridge. It was pursued by many of the English, who had left thesafety of the shield wall to continue the killing.•King William rallied his cavalry and cut down the attacking Saxons. As theday progressed, William continued his attacks, using the feigning retreats toslowly wear down the Saxons.•King William ordered his archers to shoot at a higher angle so that theirarrows fell on those behind the shield wall. His plan worked and his archersbegan to kill King Harolds. Legend states that King Harold was hit in the eyewith an arrow and was killed.•King William later ordered an assault which finally broke through the shieldwall. With the shield line broken and King Harold’s death, many of theSaxons retreated and left King Harolds personal bodyguard to die.
After the Battle of Hastings• King William continue his campaign to London.• On December 25, 1066, William was crowned King of England and given the title “the Conqueror”.• The Bayeux Tapestry describes King William’s invasion of England and the events that led up to it. The Bayeux Tapestry is a 230 foot long embroidery that contains hundreds of images to teach future generations why King William is the ruler of England. The reason that it was a embroidery instead of a written document was because a vast majority of the population was illiterate.