Why we chose our topicGeorge Loftus, Jess Thorpe and Dan O’Riordan
Our Initial IdeasAlcohol- More and more youths EMA – Student Benefits Cut are drinking at an early - the Cut of the EMA age- Binge Drinking Smoking - Smoking Ban how it affected students and Ideas College Life - Exams - The stressful life that teachers views college brings to students Youth Issues Drugs - Their Image and - Should some drugs be legalised Stereotypes appearance - Music, Fashion
Notes on Student Documentaries• Camera – ensure that footage is adequate to the topic - Gather both expert and Vox Pop interviews - don’t overload documentary with all scripted narration• Audio – Don’t use ‘cheesy’ music that does not go with a documentary style - Make sure that the music is not too loud it takes over, just in the background - Don’t use echo or a deep bass on scripted narration• Editing – don’t overload documentary with transitions and filters - avoid repeating shots and images - include a good opening montage for your documentary - use graphics and statistics to mix it up• Mise – en – Scene – think about what background to use when doing expert interviews
Codes and Conventions of documentary• Interview – an interview is a very common code in a documentary as this allows the audience to get a wider picture and in-depth analysis of the topic with a variety of interviews. One of these interviews is called a ‘Vox –Pop’ which means, ‘voice of the people’ these types of interviews allow the public to voice their opinion of the matter getting a stronger image of a public point of view on the topic. Another style of interview is an, ‘Expert’ interview which allows an expert in that field give a detailed analysis on the topic much more than a vox- pop. A convention used in an interview is a cutaway to a related piece of footage to what the interviewee is talking about this breaks up the interview so the audience d not get bored.• Voiceover – another convention is to use a voiceover to explain what is going on in the clip, they are seen as being in control of the documentary giving the facts and statistics mostly with little opinion shown. AS they give mostly facts and statistics the audience are more likely to take on the intended reading of the documentary.• Music – The Music is an important of the documentary as it has to be detailed so that audience knows it is there but cannot be too dramatic that it takes the focus away from the actual topic of the documentary.
Codes and Conventions of documentary continued• Graphics – graphics are a common convention of documentaries as these provide a visual aid for the audience giving statistics and facts in the form of graphs and cartoons to give the audience something a bit different and makes them easier to understand. An exemplar of this is, ‘Supersize – Me’ as he quite frequently uses graphics to create a comical element towards his documentary.• Reconstruction – This is a convention that is again quite frequent in documentaries, used in mostly crime and more serious documentaries to recreate an event with actors. This again is a visual aid for the audience so that they can relate to the event in the documentary or the real event that the documentary is covering.
Choice of Television ChannelBBC Three• We have chosen BBC Three because it is a public service broadcaster which is there to, “inform, educate and entertain”. BBC Three with contain all three of these factors so it is very suitable for the documentary.• In addition it contains other documentaries similar to our own so this will contain the correct target audience for our documentary and also the target audience will be more incline to watch a programme similar to others on the same programme.• The target audience of BBC Three is quite broad as they target an audience of the ages between 16 – 40 in the sense that it is a big age gap but it specific towards our age range as this is the precise audience that we want our documentary to be aimed towards. Our documentary will benefit most from this as we want to educate the youths who are at the age that they will be affected by this.• In addition BBC Three appeals to a minority audience who have their own views about ideas such as smoking, however most do not know the dangers and these people watching are more likely benefit from this being on BBC Three rather than BBC 1.• The BBC are known for their documentaries, especially BBC Three, with successful documentaries such as Sun Sex and Suspicious Parents, this means that our documentary will get better publicity and adverts.
Research into Topic• These are the webpages that we used for our research into documentary about Youth Smoking;- http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/12/10/us-youth-smoking-idUKBRE8B918M20121210-http://www.nashuatelegraph.com/opinion/editorials/988787-465/clearing-the-air-on-youth-smoking.html-http://bedford-nh.patch.com/articles/tobacco-sales-to-nh-youth-spiked-in-2012-6873d4dc• IN addition we used YouTube videos to get research about the topic on smoking these are;- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4aloB3BjluI- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yaBTK1LGMFE
Article Number 1• http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/12/10/us-youth-smoking-idUKBRE8B918M20121210(Reuters Health) - Doctors should talk to school-aged kids and teens about the consequences of smoking and how to avoidpressure to start using cigarettes, a government-backed panel said today.The draft guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force are based on a review of studies that found 19 percent fewer youths started smoking after a range of prevention programs.Out of more than 26,000 kids and teens in those trials, researchers found 50 would have to be counselled to prevent one from trying cigarettes over the next seven months to three years.However, the same review showed no benefits from smoking cessation counselling or drug treatment with Zyban (bupropion) for youth who had already taken up the habit."Ninety percent or so of smokers initiate smoking prior to (age) 18, so to really prevent smoking you have to address the teenage and older child population," said Dr. David Grossman, a memberof the task force from Group Health Research Institute and the University of Washington in Seattle."This is really good news that primary care clinicians can play a role in this," he told Reuters Health.The draft guidelines are an update to the task forces 2003 guidelines, which found there wasnt enough evidence to determine whether counselling could help prevent kids from starting tosmoke or help youth smokers quit. The newest version will be posted on the USPSTF website for public comment (bit.ly/cy0SzP) from December 11 until January 7.The studies analysed in the new review looked at everything from home mailings and phone calls to group counselling sessions with kids and their parents."A variety of approaches appear to work. The most important thing is that clinicians do raise the issue as part of well-child care," Grossman said, noting that counselling can be quick andinexpensive.The task force said theres still a need for more research, including studies looking at what types of prevention programs are most feasible in the real world.It also recommends referring kids who already smoke to counselling programs designed for smoking cessation. Theres some evidence that school-based programs may help kids quit, forexample.Researchers at the Kaiser Permanente Centre for Health Research in Portland, Oregon, led by Carrie Pat node conducted the review supporting the new guidelines, which is published in theAnnals of Internal Medicine."If youre parents, you certainly want the family doctor to speak to your child on every occasion about not smoking," said Dr. Roger Thomas from the University of Calgary in Canada, who studiesinterventions to prevent adolescent smoking.And for doctors, "the more politely you do it, the less lecturing you do, the better," Thomas, who isnt part of the task force or the evidence review team, told Reuters Health.He said implementing non-smoking policies around schools and making sure shopkeepers dont sell cigarettes to teens can dissuade some young people from taking up the habit as well."These interventions are working, and states should be putting money into these programs… because in the long term they save lives," agreed Dr. Joseph DiFranza, a tobacco researcher from theUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, who also wasnt involved in the new guidelines."Smoking or nicotine addiction really is a paediatric disease that carries over into adulthood," DiFranza told Reuters Health.A combination of community and school initiatives, as well as counselling during primary care visits, Grossman said, "really give us a chance at being able to prevent youth smoking."
Article Number 2• http://www.nashuatelegraph.com/opinion/editorials/988787-465/clearing-the-air-on-youth-smoking.htmlClearing the air on youth smokingIn the summer of 2011, The Telegraph began publishing an occasional series of stories under the heading “Cuts and Consequences,” which were intendedto put a human face on the impact of state budget cuts on state programs during the 2011-12 budget cycle.Human services agencies, hospitals and colleges took the brunt of these cuts by the Republican-controlled Legislature, resulting in fewer services forchildren with disabilities, home health care for the disabled, drug and alcohol treatment, and legal assistance to the poor, to name a few.Now, it looks like we can add one more negative consequence to the list: a significant jump in the percentage of New Hampshire retail outlets that soldtobacco products to minors in 2012.Last month, the state Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Services issued its annual report that concluded tobacco sales to New Hampshire youth rose 5.4percentage points last year – from 7.8 percent in 2011 to 13.2 in 2012.The percentage of stores found to have sold tobacco products to minors varied from county to county, ranging from a low of 0 percent in MerrimackCounty (none of 25 outlets checked) to a high of 55.6 percent in Coos County (five of nine). Hillsborough County registered slightly under the state averageat 10.5 percent (eight of 76).And among the stated reasons for the sizeable year-over-year jump statewide?State budget cuts that led to fewer investigators and fewer inspections than in previous years, according to state officials.“This year, with the declining number of inspections, we may have gotten a little lax on that,” said Robert O’Hannon, a program specialist in the bureau andthe former coordinator of a federal program aimed at restricting the sale of tobacco products to youth.The so-called Synar program – named after its sponsor, former U.S. Rep. Mike Synar, D-Okla., in 1992 – requires states to adopt and enforce lawsprohibiting the sale of tobacco to individuals under the age of 18. States that exceed the 20-percent mark run the risk of losing up to 40 percent of theirfederal grant funding.Even with the increase, New Hampshire didn’t come close to that level, but the significance of that dramatic rise was not lost on state health officials.“While the results of the checks were well under the federal Synar requirement of 20 percent, this does raise concerns,” Joe Harding, director of thebureau, said in a statement. “Research shows that lower tobacco use by youth also decreases the chance that they will use drugs or alcohol.”Data compiled from the New Hampshire Youth Risk Behaviour Survey found a strong link between those who smoke and those who use other controlledsubstances. Based on a survey of 27,000 students in 2007, for example, 27 out of 28 high school students who smoked acknowledged drinking alcohol, too.And while this year’s Synar report makes no specific mention of the state Legislature’s ill-conceived decision in 2011 to reduce the state cigarette tax by 10cents to $1.68 a pack – proponents erroneously argued such a move actually would boost state revenues – studies have shown that higher cigarette pricescan serve as a deterrent to youth smoking. In fact, one study found that a 10 percent hike in cigarette prices can reduce youth smoking by roughly 7percent.All the more reason why Gov.-elect Maggie Hassan should follow through on her campaign pledge to reinstate the 10-cent tax in the new legislative session.
Article Number 3• http://bedford-nh.patch.com/articles/tobacco-sales-to-nh-youth-spiked-in-2012-6873d4dcTobacco Sales to NH Youth Spiked in 2012Tobacco sales to young people in the Granite State increased by about 5 percent over the pastyear, according to a new report.The statistics, via recent tobacco compliance checks, show tobacco sales to youth increased from 7.8percent in 2011 to 13.2 percent in 2012, according to a report released by the Bureau of Drug andAlcohol Services, state Department of Health and Human Services.The report said 291 tobacco retailers statewide were surveyed this year.Joe Harding, director of the Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Services, said in a press release Dec. 20 that the2012 results are well under the federal requirement of 20 percent. However, concerns remain, he said."Research shows that lower tobacco use by youth also decreases the chance that they will use drugs oralcohol," Harding said.Data from the NH Youth Risk Behavior Survey of 22,000 students found that nearly all of the high schoolstudents who smoked also reported drinking.CDC studies found that 19.5 percent of high schools students reported they had one more cigarettes inthe past month, when surveyed in 2009. The same study and time period estimated that 5.7 percent ofmiddle school students had tried or were smoking cigarettes at some point.
Research Evaluation• Our research has come from secondary sources so it does not have the validity of getting our own knowledge but does give us a good understanding of the dangers and risks that we need to use in our documentary.• In addition we have done our own research through questionnaires and analysing other documentaries from the same channel. This gives us a more personal knowledge of what youth smoking is happening and within the college that we are going to feature within our documentary.
Research into topic• From looking at these webpages and YouTube videos we found our facts that we will use in our documentary; Nearly 90% of regular smokers start before they are 21. There are over 3 million youth smokers in the UK alone. It is estimated that each year in England around 340,000 children under the age of 16 who have never smoked before try smoking In 2011, 25% of 11-15 year olds had smoked at least once On 1 October 2007 the legal age for the purchase of tobacco in England and Wales was raised from 16 to18. Despite the law, children still succeeded in buying tobacco from shops and vending machines. There is little evidence to show that they have been successful in reducing either uptake of smoking or smoking prevalence among young people.
Choice of TV Listings• Radio Times has a good range of programmes listed in detail, and therefore the magazines appeals to as many people as possible. This will make my advert affective.• The magazine is appropriate for all ages so will still target our specific group that we are aiming at. In addition it has no preference of gender so will again, keep a wide range of people.• The magazine is quite informal so will appeal to a younger audience as well as the regular readers of this magazine.• With famous actors and actresses featured on the main cover, it will attract a wider audience so we have more chance of our documentary being viewed and then further watched.• The radio times includes many great documentaries within their todays choices section so we will have a better chance to be noticed by our target audience and for the documentary to be noticed.
Choice of Radio Station• We have chosen BBC Radio 1 as it is a very popular throughout the UK as it can reach a vast audience because the station is on FM (throughout the UK and in Northern France), LW (Throughout the UK and most of Europe), on Digital TV and internet. This means that we have an increased chance of people listening to our radio trail as the station is very vast.• To back this up, BBC Radio 1 is the second most popular radio station,(source; MediaUK.com) in the UK clearly indicating that the chances of our documentary being heard is increasingly big with over 11 million listerners.• In addition, Radio 1 includes some of the best DJ’s including Nick Grimshaw, Zane Lowe and Fearne Cotton who has recently won the Best Music Programme of 2012 in the Sony Radio Academy Awards. With this huge audience it will again increase our chances of the Radio Trail to be heard.• Radio 1’s remit includes;“The remit of Radio 1 is to entertain and engage a broad range of young listeners with a distinctive mix of contemporarymusic and speech. Its target audience is 15-29 year olds and it should also provide some programming for youngerteenagers.”These guidelines are particularly suitable for our radio trail as we have a young target audience that will fit perfectly into this radio station. Also it specifically states that it focuses on young listerners which again is a main part of ourdocumentary as we want to focus on the younger generation who this will focus on.