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  • 1. English Colonies of North America
    Lindsey Miller
    History 140
  • 2. American Colonies: Ch 6 - Virginia
    Promoters
    • Queen lacked money to finance oversea colonies
    • 3. Licensed private adventurers to venture overseas
    • 4. These were primarily well-connected gentlemen from southwest countries of England
    • 5. Such as Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins
    • 6. These adventurers were known as the “West Country Men”
    • 7. Also designed the English assault on Spanish empire
    • 8. Primary goals for going to America:
    • 9. Plant Christian religion, traffic, and to conquer
    • 10. Also reduce homelessness, crime, and poverty in England
    Sir Francis Drake – One of the “West Country Men”
  • 11. American Colonies: Ch 6 Virginia
    Roanoke
    • 1587
    • 12. Another group sent to colonize Roanoke
    • 13. Leader: John White
    • 14. Returned to England for supplies
    • 15. When he returned in 1590 he found the settlement abandoned
    1585:
    Sir Walter Ralegh sent 100 colonist to settle on Roanoke
    A small island
    Poor location due to shoals and sand that made it difficult for English ships to land
    Also had sandy infertile soil
    Ultimately doomed to fail
    Colonist demand food from local Algonquian Indians
    Chief refused eventually and was killed
    Indians fled
    Resulted in less food from the colonists since maize was no longer being grown
  • 16. American Colonies: Ch 6 Virginia
    • Powhatan
    • 17. Chief of 33 united Algonquian tribes
    • 18. Indians were intrigued by the technology of the English
    • 19. Powhatan wanted to contain and subject the colonists
    • 20. When demanded too much for food, lashed out
    • 21. Captured Captain John Smith
    • 22. Released him after mock execution ceremony thinking it would make Smith subordinate
    • 23. Smith returned to colonies and continued to harass Powhatan
    • 24. Brutal to Indians
    • 25. Eventually Powhatan was forced to make peace
    English Colonists
    1607 – English wanted to colonize at Chesapeake Bay after the failure of Roanoke
    This location had better harbors, fertile land, and navigable rivers
    Wanted to assimilate natives to English ways
    Thought Indians would supply them with foods
  • 26. American Colonies: Ch 6 Virginia
    Tobacco
    Colonists began cultivating corn, squash and beans
    Needed a market crop
    1616 - Learned how to raise tobacco
    Large revenues gained from taxing tobacco import
    Consumers willing to pay high prices for tobacco
    Crop thrived in Virginia environment
    Sold in England for about 5 to 10 times as much as it cost to produce in Chesapeake
  • 27. American Colonies: Ch 9 Puritans and Indians
    • Natives
    • 28. Tribes divided into different local bands
    • 29. Each consisted of a few hundred people
    • 30. Had leading sachem, lesser sachems, shamans, and prestigious warriors
    • 31. Had highly productive horticulture
    • 32. Grew different crops in the same field
    • 33. Had controlled fires to clear forest
    • 34. Regular burnings diminished mice, fleas, and parasites
    • 35. Fertilized the forest floor
    • 36. Labor was gender based
    • 37. Men
    • 38. Hunted, fished, were in war, and made tools/weapons
    • 39. Women
    • 40. Cared for children, built homes, gathered firewood, butchered animals, prepared meals, gathered shellfish, berries, roots and herbs
    • 41. Planted, weeded, tended and harvested crops
  • American Colonies Ch 9 Puritans and Indians
    Pequot War
    1636
    Conflict between New English and Indians
    English wanted Pequot Indians to pay heavy tribute in wampum, and give children up as hostages
    War was declared
    English attacked and burned a Pequot village
    Spent rest of the year capturing and killing remaining Pequot
    Indians were not united, making manipulation from English easy
    1670: Colonists outnumbered the Indians of southern New England 3 to 1
    Artist depiction of Pequot War
  • 42. American Colonies: Ch 9 Puritans and Indians
    1620-30s
    Puritans concentrated on expanding rather than converting
    1640s
    Reverend John Eliot took lead on mission to convert Indians
    Missions demanded Indians to give up their culture
    Covert or die mentality
    Converting
    Puritans believed first step was getting Indians to settle into communities
    Made communities for them: Praying Towns
    These towns were appealing to small and weak bands of Indians
    These groups saw praying towns as last hope for preserving their group identification
    In the towns had to abandon Algonquian names, body grease, and traditional sports
    Had to learn long Puritan mode of work
    Long days of agricultural labor
    Rest and worship on the Sabbath
  • 43. American Colonies: Ch 9 – Puritans and Indians
    King Philip’s War
    Bloodiest Indian War
    Each side had muskets
    1675
    Indians destroyed 12 colonist townsin search for revenge for the alienation of their land
    Puritans felt compelled to kill Indians
    Began killing Indians in praying towns
    1676
    Colonist realize they cannot win without Indian allies
    Turned into a civil war among Indians
    Allies taught colonists how to avoid ambush and track down rebels
    Indian rebels ran out of food and ammunition
    Resistance collapsed, began surrendering
    War devastated Puritan settlements and Indian villages
    Killed 1,000 English and 3,000 Indians