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    Theme 1 Theme 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Theme 1
      History, Science, and Trade
      Lindsey Miller
      History 140
    • Source one –What is History?
      People are curious by nature
      Desire to learn history as a way to learn from past
      Understand where ideas and current life originated
      History can be verified through primary and secondary sources
      Proof also comes from:
      • reliable witnesses,
      • logical possibility,
      • observational cause and effects
    • Source one
      Modern technology now often used to solve old mysteries and verify history
      Example:
      DNA testing
      Satellite Position/Undersea Technology
      History can be verified with evidence and multiple resources
      • Helps solve questions like:
      • How world works
      • What things are
      • Why events occurred
      • What are the affects
    • Source two- Journey of Man
      • Spencer Wells, a geneticist, sought to discover where humans came from
      • Used DNA samples from groups all over the world to trace a common ancestor for Homo sapiens
      • Ancestor goes back 60,000 years to Africa
      • Blood samples from many groups all have common marker – genetic similarity
      • Wells looked for changes in DNA sequence
      • “If two people share a change, then they are likely to share an ancestor”
      • This study impossible to do without current technology
      Pictured, a San matriarch of the San Bushmen in Africa is the oldest genetically distinct population of humans
    • Source three - Catastrophe
      • David Keyes sought to explain mystery from the past
      • Writings he discovered told of weird climatic changes:
      • Times of dim sunlight
      • Time of only four hours of sunlight
      • Unordinary weather
      • Used various sources to find proof, and evidence for his theory
      • Used a mix of modern science, and primary sources
      The study of tree rings, as pictured, were used in Keyes research.
    • Catastrophe – Sources and Conclusion
      Sources Included:
      • Tree rings – with the study of tree ring growth, scientists can see how much a tree grew in one year – implying good climate or bad.
      • Studies of polar icecaps- similarly contains information about climatic change throughout history
      • Study of primary and secondary writings from around 535 discuss times of little sunlight – further evidence
      • Carbon Dating – carbon dating charcoal in dirt layers can provide an estimated date
      Conclusion:
      • Major climatic change – such as the one that occurred in ~535 can have many affects
      • Disease – plague possibly tied to catastrophe
      • Temperature affects how bacteria form
      • Crops
      • Affected dry and wet cycles
      • Temperature changed
      • Less crops – less food
      • Communications
      • satellites would not work
      • aircraft transport interrupted
    • Source four – America Before Columbus
      • Once believed Americas were not highly populated when Spanish arrived
      • Modern studies may prove otherwise
      • Jesuit records of births and deaths of the time show many more deaths than birth
      • Sudden surge in death rate most likely caused by disease:
      • Europeans brought diseases unseen by the natives
      • In coastal New England killed 90% of population
      • Population estimated after reviewing the records by 90-112 million
      • Estimated population before was 1.15 million
      Art depicting Spanish interacting with natives
    • Source Four- Lost Cities of The AMAZON
      • Chronicler noted large cities and towns in the Amazons
      • Many did not believe this was possible and saw little evidence
      • Modern science and researching has brought forward potential proof otherwise
      Pictured here, a modern Kuikuro village provides insight into the past
    • Source Four- Lost Cities of Amazon
      Evidence
      Conclusion
      Artifacts discovered
      Old pottery – 1500 years old and very sophisticated
      Possible implication of more civilized group
      Could indicate settled society – versus nomadic one
      Soil Management
      Black soil – terra preta discovered around Amazon
      Very fertile – could support large cities
      Man-made mixture, required soil management
      Currently no one knows how to make it
      Kuikuro Natives
      Studying the residential natives gives insight into the past
      Natives use similar techniques their ancestors used
      Made dams to capture fish
      Large permanent houses, with storage for food
      Orchards, gardens, and fields all hundred to thousands years old still exists
      Wooden Roads and Structures
      After modern research clear evidence of possible large cities and populations living in the Amazon
      Without the discover and use of various sources this conclusion could not have been made
    • Source five – European Voyages and how the world changed
      • Plants and Animals
      • Exchange of animals and plants affected world
      • Europeans brought horses over to Americas
      • Changed how natives hunted
      • Gave plains Indians mastery over their environment
      • Crops
      • Potatoes
      • Helped feed Europe
      • Easy to plant and cultivate
      • Sugar Cane
      • Resulted in slaves being brought from Africa to harvest
      • Columbus helped unite the world and carried a major impact
      • Through Columbus Exchange the entire world was changed
    • Theme one - Conclusion
      Many mysteries and ideas from history have been changed due to modern research
      Examples:
      Now have possible theory to the ancestry of Homo sapiens
      Impossible to do without modern genetic forensics
      Solved historical mystery of unusual climate changes
      Can help current society predict affects of major climate changes
      Re-evaluated view of Americas before and after Columbus
      Larger population than thought before
      In Amazon – more civilized and larger towns
      Overall the past allows modern society to learn more and affect our future but none of this would be possible without evidence through research