Prof. Mariluz Maldonado Rodríguez Social Sciences 1rst Secondary School Mummification is the name of the process the Egyptians used to preserve their bodies. Listen to your language assitance:What are mummies?A mummy is the body of a person (or an animal) that is preserved after death.Why did the Egyptians make mummies?Ancient Egyptians believe in life after death. They believe that they have to preserve their bodies so theycould use them in the afterlife.Who were the mummymakers in Ancient Egypt?It took 70 days to embalm a body. During the process, the priest incharge wear the mask of a jackal representing the god Anubis. Anubis isthe god of mummification. He has a human body and the head of ajackal. A team of embalmers help the priest in this matter.The 6 steps of the mummification process:1st PURIFY THE BODY First, the embalmers wash and purify the body with water from the river Nile and good-smelling oils.2nd REMOVE THE INTERNAL ORGANS AND THE BRAIN Second, they remove the brain. They use a long hook to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose. Then, they remove the organs (liver, lungs, stomach and intestines) and put them into “canopic jars”. They only leave the heart inside the body because Egyptians thought the heart was the centre of intelligence and emotion.3rd DRYING OUT PROCESS Third, they fill the body with natron (natural salt) stuffing. They also cover the body with natron for 70 days. This substance absorbe all the moisture from the body.4th STUFF THE BODY WITH LINEN AND COVER THE BODY WITH RESIN After 40-50 days they remove the stuffing and replace it with linen or sawdust. They do that to give the mummy a more human shape. Then, they cover the body with resin, a transparent substance made from plants, that preserve the skin.5th WRAP THE BODY After the 70 days, they wrap the body in strands of linen and cover it in a sheet called a shroud. During this step, they place amulets on the body. They also place the mummy mask on the mummys face.6th COFFIN THE MUMMY They place the body in the mummy case and place the mummy case in a stone coffin called a sarcophagus. The mummy is now ready for its journey to afterlife.
Prof. Mariluz Maldonado Rodríguez Social Sciences 1rst Secondary SchoolWhat was the canopic jars for?Ancient Egyptians used four jars to store the liver, stomach, lungs and intestines of the mummy. They aremade in the form of the four gods (called “the sons of Horus”) who protected these organs.These jars go to the tomb with the mummy.IMSETY, the human-headed god, looks HAPY, the baboon-headed god, looks afterafter the liver. the lungs.DUAMUTEF, the jackal-headed god, looks QEBEHSENUEF, the falcon-headed godafter the stomach. looks after the intestines.ACTIVITIES 1. Write down the definition of the following terms:MUMMY:MUMMIFICATION:NATRON:ANUBIS:CANOPIC JARS: 2. Talk to your partner and answer the following questions: • Why did Egyptians made mummies? • Why Egyptians did not remove the heart from the body? • Who is Anubis? • What is the name of the salt that Egyptians used to drying out the body? • Which organ do the Egyptians store in the jackal-headed jar? 3. Go to the following link and follow the mummification process: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/mummy.html