What are we going to learn?1. THE ATMOSPHERE.2. WHAT IS DE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE?3. HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND CLIMATE RELATED? CLIMATE ZONES.4. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FEATURES OF CLIMATE?5. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION?6. ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA AND NATURAL HAZARDS.7. THE EARTH’S CLIMATES.8. THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT.
1. THE ATMOSPHERE.The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth and makeslife possible on the planet. The atmosphere is divided into 5 layers:1. Troposphere- It is up 10 km altitude.- It is where weather phenomena, like rain and snow, occur.2. Stratosphere- It is at an altitude of 10-50 km.- It contains the ozone layer, which prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.- It is where airplanes fly.3. Mesosphere- It’s at an altitude of 50-80 kms.- It’s the coldest layer. Temperatures are as low as -90º C.4. Thermosphere- It is 80-500 km altitude.- In this layer, temperatures can rise to over 1000º C.- It is where astronauts orbit the Earth.5. Exosphere- It is the outer limit of the atmosphere. - This layer begins at an altitude of 500kms.
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO:• Página 39: Copia el dibujo de la página 39 en tu cuaderno en español. El título es LAS CAPAS ATMOSFÉRICAS.
2. WHAT IS DE DIFFERENCE BETWEENWEATHER AND CLIMATE?WEATHER CLIMATEWeather refers to the state of the Climate refers to the state of the atmosphere in a place over a long period of time. So we canatmosphere in a place at a specific say that the climate in London is temperate.time.For example, we could say that theweather in London today is coldand humid.•Temperatures, rainfall, air pressure and winds are measured and analyzed at weather stations to study weather and climate.•The “Meteosat” satellite provides the images which are used on television weather forecasts.
3. HOW ARE TEMPERATURE ANDCLIMATE RELATED? CLIMATE ZONES.3.1. TEMPERATURE:• Temperature refers to the quantity of heat in the atmosphere.• It is measured by a thermometer.• It is necessary to know the maximum, minimum and average temperatures of an area to study its climate.
3.2. CLIMATE:Our planet is divided into different climate zones according to temperature:• Hot climate zone:- It is between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.- Sun’s rays reach the Earth at a perpendicular angle all year round, so temperatures are always high.- There is a very little difference between the seasons.• Temperate climate zones:- There are two temperate zones between the tropics and the polar circles.- The Sun’s rays reach the Earth at a greater angle than in the hot zone.- Consequently, temperatures are mild an vary with the seasons.• Cold climate zones:- There are two cold climate zones within the polar circles.- The Sun’s rays reach the Earth at an oblique angle all year round.- Consequently, temperatures are always cold.
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO:• Leer página 42 (Las zonas climáticas)• Página 42: Copia el dibujo de la página 42. El título es LAS ZONAS CLIMÁTICAS DE LA TIERRA.
4. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FEATURES OFCLIMATE?The main features of climate are:4.1. TEMPERATURE.4.2. PRECIPITATION.4.3. WINDS.4.4. PRESSURE.
4.1. TEMPERATURE: • Temperature is the amount of heat in the air. • We measure it with a thermometer and express it in degrees centigrade (º C) • Temperature varies across the planet depending on latitude, altitude and proximity to the sea and ocean currents.
4.2. PRECIPITATION: • Is water from the atmosphere that falls onto Earth’s surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet (a mixture of water and snow) or hail. • The atmosphere contains water vapour. The amount of water vapour is called the humidity. • A pluviometer measures the precipitation in square metres (L/m²) or in millimitres (mm).
4.3. WINDS:• Wind is air that moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure to balance differences in atmospheric pressure across the planet.• A weather vane shows the direction of the wind: north wind, east wind, south wind, west wind.• An anemometer measures the wind speed in metres per second (m/s) or kilometers per hour (km/h). When the air is still, we say it is calm.• Winds can change with the seasons, like monsoons in the south and east of Asia. Winds that change daily like sea breezes; during the day, they blow from the sea to the land and during the night they blow in the opposite direction. Winds that almost always blow in the same direction are because of the relief, like the foehn in the Alps.
4.4. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE:• Air, like other substances, has weight. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure that the atmosphere’s weight exerts on the Earth’s surface.• We measure pressure with a barometer in millibars (mbar). We show pressure on maps using lines called isobars.• Normal pressure at sea level (0 m altitude) is 1013 mbar.• High pressure areas or anticyclone are areas where pressure is more than 1013 mbar. Anticyclones produce stable weather conditions, dry and sunny. It is showed on maps with the letter H.• Low pressure areas or depressions are areas where pressure is below 1013 mbar. Depressions produce unstable weather conditions, with clouds and precipitation. It is shown on maps with the letter L.
ACTIVITIES (I):• Match each term on the left with the correct measuring instrument on the right: Atmospheric pressure Barometer Precipitation Thermometer Direction of the wind Anemometer Temperature Pluviometer Wind speed Weather vane
ACTIVITIES (II):• Circle the correct word to complete each of the sentences:a) An anticyclone produces wet/dry weather.b) Areas where pressure is below/more than 1013 mbar are called depressions.c) We measure precipitation with a barometer/pluviometer.
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO:• Lee la página 44 (La presión atmosférica): ¿Cómo se llaman las altas presiones y las bajas presiones atmosféricas en español? ¿Qué letra se utiliza para marcarlas en un mapa? ¿Por qué crees que utilizan esas letras?• Página 44: Actividad 6.• Página 45: Actividad 7.
5. WHAT FACTORS AFFECTTEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION?• Factors that affect themperature are:o Latitudeo Altitudeo Distance from the sea• Factors that affect precipitation are:o Latitudeo Altitudeo Level of humidity
Factors that affect themperature:Temperatures vary for different reasons:• Temperatures change with latitude. Temperatures are higher near the equator. They decrease progressively as we move towards the poles.• Temperatures change with altitude. Temperatures are usually higher in lower areas and decrease with altitude. They decrease by an average of 6.4 ºC for every thousand metres.• Temperatures change with distance from the sea. The sea makes coastal climates more temperate. Consequently, inland climates are much hotter in summer and much colder in winter.
Factors that affect precipitation:Different areas of the Earth’s surface receive differentamounts of precipitation. These are the factors:• Latitude: it rains more in the areas near the equator than in the temperate zones and polar regions. The temperature is higher near the Equator so there is more evaporation.• Altitude: it rains more in high areas than in low areas.• Level of humidity: it rains more on the coast than in inland. Seas are source of humidity.
TYPES OF RAINFALLS:• Tipos de lluvias – español: página 43 del libro.
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO:• Leer página 41: ¿Qué es el efecto invernadero?• Leer página 43: ¿Qué tipos de lluvia existen? Explícalas.• Realizar dibujo página 43 en el cuaderno con los diferentes tipos de lluvias. Título: TIPOS DE LLUVIAS.
6. ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENAAND NATURAL HAZARDS.Some atmospheric phenomena cause seriousdamage to people and the natural environment.They are:6.1. WIND6.2. HAIL6.3. TORRENTIAL RAIN6.4. DROUGHT6.5. HIGH TEMPERATURES
6.1. WIND• In some cases can be very intense and reach great speeds. Strong winds that spin in large circles and are accompanied by torrential rain can destroy an entire town. Depending on the region where they occur, they are called cyclones, typhoons or hurricanes.
6.2. HAIL• Is produced when the temperature of the air is below 0º C and the rain becomes solid. It falls heavily as small, hard balls of ice, which can have disastrous effect on crops.
6.3. TORRENTIAL RAIN • Is associated with storms. This rain does not last long, but can cause flooding if rivers or lakes overflow.
6.4. DROUGHT• It is a long period without rain. It is a serious problem for people, agriculture and livestock. In addition, prolonged periods of drought can transform the land into a desert.
6.5. HIGH TEMPERATURES• High temperatures increase the risk of forest fires. These huge fires destroy plant and animal life in the forest (which takes many years to regenerate) and can be a threat to human life. If plant life disappears, temperatures rise and there is less precipitation because there are no plants to retain the water and return it to the atmosphere. High temperatures, combined with long droughts or storms, increase the risk of fire.
ACTIVITY:Match each natural hazard to the correct meaning and the damageeach one can do.NATURAL MEANING DAMAGEHAZARDHail Very strong wind with Overflow.Storm heavy rain. Forest fires.Drought Small, hard balls of ice. Destroy crops.Cyclone Period of very hot Destroy a town.High temperatures weather. Transform the land Long period without into a desert. rain. Heavy rain, thunder and lighting.
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO: • Leer páginas 46 y 47. • Página 46: Actividades 9, 10 y 11. • Página 47: Actividades 12 y 13.
CLIMATE ZONE CLIMATE DESCRIPTION Equatorial (________) Humid tropical TROPICAL (________) or Dry tropical HOT (________) (___________) Hot desert (________) Mediterranean (________) Humid sub-tropical (________) TEMPERATE Maritime (___________) (________) Continental (________) COLD Polar (___________) (________) Alpine (________)
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO: • Página 49: Actividades 14, 15 y 16.
8. THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT.• The natural environment is composed of elements of the physical environment (climate, water, soil and relief) and living organisms (plants and animals).
Physical environment:• Elements related to climate modify relief. For example, frozen water in cracks in rocks can cause rocks to fragment; torrential rain causes erosion, etc.• Rich soils (with a lot of organic material) favour plant growth which protects the soil from erosion.
Living organisms:Species adapt to the conditions of the region they inhabitin order to survive: To combat the cold, some animals have a thick coat (ibex) or layer of fat (penguins). Others have a period of hibernation (bears) or migrate for the winter to warmer climates (storks). Some animals can only live in areas where water is abundant (frogs); others have adapted to survive with very little water (camels). Other examples of adaptation include the elephant’s trunk; the jaws of carnivores, which are adapted to eating meat; the snail’s shell and the hedgehog’s (erizo) spines, which are defense mechanism.
ACTIVIDADES DEL LIBRO:• Leer páginas 50-51.• Completa la siguiente tabla con las diferentes forma de adaptación de los animales que aparecen en el texto: CABRA MONTÉS TUCÁN CONEJO JIRAFA PINGÜINO RANA CAMELLO ALCE
ACTIVIDADES FINALES DE LA UNIDAD 3Página 54: Actividades 1, 4, 5, 9.Página 55: Actividades 10, 11, 12,13 y 14.