Alice 2013 full report

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BACKGROUND
The African Livestock Conference and Exhibition (ALiCE) was held in Nairobi, Kenya on June
26th to 28th, 2013. It was the result of a long running initiative that grew from the observation that
there was no major forum that brings together public and private sector interests in the livestock
industry at the continental level. EAFF, KLPA and ESADA responding to a request from UK
organized the conference to bring together various actors in the livestock sector in Africa to
stimulate trade in livestock and livestock products as well as facilitate technology and knowledge
transfer. ALiCE is, to date, the largest convergence of stakeholders in the livestock sector in
Africa. Alice brought together suppliers of animal genetics, animal health products, animal feed
and forage, farm equipment; animal products’ processors and processing equipment, livestock
consultants, distributors and producers.CONFERENCE OPENING
The chair of the first session, Dr. Kipkurui Arap Langat, the chairman of ESADA opened the
meeting by welcoming all to the AliCE 2013 conference. He saluted the Chief Guest, Honorable
Felix Kiptarus Kosgey, the Cabinet Secretary for Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
Development and congratulated him on his appointment. He gave details of the array of
participants present including; leading livestock sector experts across the sectors’ value chains,
renowned business leaders, agricultural researchers and scientists, government officials, Livestock
Producers and other livestock sector players who came together to share knowledge, experiences,
solutions and technologies that will create the desired impetus for enhanced competitiveness and
trade in the African livestock sector. He extended a hearty welcome to the delegates representing
the following countries; Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Sudan, Southern Sudan, Democratic republic
of Congo, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, Gambia,
Botswana, Djibouti, Israel, Germany, Italy, Nepal, Egypt, Maldives, USA, France, India, Namibia,
Netherlands, Burundi, Canada and UK.He stated that this annual Africa livestock event is a brainchild of AU-IBAR, ILRI and GALVmed.
The three ALiCE 2013 host organizations jointly developed the conference as one of the means of
addressing the challenges facing the livestock sector in Africa. He observed that the livestock
sector in sub-Saharan Africa continues to underperform due to the following reasons;

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Alice 2013 full report

  1. 1. FINAL REPORT AFRICAN LIVESTOCK CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION (ALiCE 2013) HELD ON 26th – 28th JUNE, 2013 AT SAFARI PARK HOTEL – NAIROBI, KENYA Theme: ‘Towards a Competitive and Sustainable World-class Livestock Sector’ alice2013@livestockafrica.com www.livestockafrica.com
  2. 2. 2 CONTENTS ACRONYMS..................................................................................................................................... 3 CONFERENCE OPENING............................................................................................................... 4 SESSION ONE: THE GLOBAL LIVESTOCK SITUATION ....................................................... 12 Opportunities for a sustainable and competitive livestock sector in Africa ................................ 12 Animal health and welfare in a changing trade and food security environment in Africa .......... 13 One Goal: Different Routes; Towards Improved Livestock Health ............................................ 15 Plenary Discussions ..................................................................................................................... 17 SESSION TWO: LIVESTOCK SECTOR POLICIES AND ECONOMICS.................................. 19 Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africa ............................................................................... 19 Linking farmers to (high value) livestock product markets: Opportunities and challenges in Southern and Eastern Africa ........................................................................................................... 21 Investing in African Livestock: Business opportunities in 2030-2050........................................ 23 Plenary Discussions ..................................................................................................................... 25 SESSION THREE: LIVESTOCK FARMING FOR GLOBAL MARKET.................................... 26 A new approach to livestock service delivery ............................................................................. 26 Drawing from the indigenous African livestock genomes - a dart aimed at sustainability......... 29 Towards a competitive and sustainable African world class livestock: ...................................... 30 Plenary Discussions ..................................................................................................................... 32 SESSION FOUR: A LOOK AT DAIRY, BEEF, POULTRY AND PIGS VALUE CHAINS ...... 35 Unleashing the potential of admix crossbred dairy cattle populations:....................................... 35 The untapped potential: the pig sector in Kenya ......................................................................... 38 Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Cow: Nutritional Manipulations .................................................. 40 The Kuroiler chicken as a means of reducing poverty and providing nutritional security in Uganda............................................................................................................................................. 42 General comments, questions and answers.................................................................................. 43 SESSION FIVE: LIVESTOCK SECTOR; FEEDING AFRICA.................................................... 44 Kenya Animal Genetics Resource Centre.................................................................................... 44 Aflatoxins: Impact on Livestock and Livestock Trade................................................................ 46 Genetic resources for family poultry production in India............................................................ 48 General comments, questions and answers.................................................................................. 49 SESSION SIX: TOWARDS A COMPETITIVE AND SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK SECTOR50 Growing away from Grants – African Livestock Catalytic Fund................................................ 50 Sustainable livestock. For People, for the Planet......................................................................... 53 General comments, questions and answers.................................................................................. 54 RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................................. 55 FIELD TRIPS .................................................................................................................................. 56 Brookside livestock breeders show and sale 2013....................................................................... 56 Kenya Animal Genetic Resources Centre (KAGRC).................................................................. 57 Tassells Cattle Farms ................................................................................................................... 59 Isinya Poultry Farm and Animal Feed Manufacturers................................................................. 63 LIST OF SPONSORS, PARTNERS AND SUPPORTERS............................................................ 64 ANNEXE I: CONFERENCE PROGRAM...................................................................................... 66 ANNEXE II: LIST OF EXHIBITORS............................................................................................ 72 ANNEXE III: List of Participants.................................................................................................... 73
  3. 3. 3 ACRONYMS AI Artificial Insemination AU African Union AU-IBAR African Union Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources BMC Botswana Meat Commission CAIS Central Artificial Insemination Station CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research EAFF Eastern Africa Farmers Federation EASZ East African Shorthorn Zebu ESADA Eastern and Southern Africa Dairy Association FAO Food and Agricultural Organization GALVmed Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines ILRI International Livestock Research Institute KAGRC Kenya Animal Genetic Resources Centre KCC Kenya Co-operative Creameries KLPA Kenya Livestock Producers Association NTBs Non-Tariff Barriers OiE World Organization for Animal Health PPP Public Private Partnerships PACA Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa
  4. 4. 4 BACKGROUND The African Livestock Conference and Exhibition (ALiCE) was held in Nairobi, Kenya on June 26th to 28th , 2013. It was the result of a long running initiative that grew from the observation that there was no major forum that brings together public and private sector interests in the livestock industry at the continental level. EAFF, KLPA and ESADA responding to a request from UK organized the conference to bring together various actors in the livestock sector in Africa to stimulate trade in livestock and livestock products as well as facilitate technology and knowledge transfer. ALiCE is, to date, the largest convergence of stakeholders in the livestock sector in Africa. Alice brought together suppliers of animal genetics, animal health products, animal feed and forage, farm equipment; animal products’ processors and processing equipment, livestock consultants, distributors and producers. CONFERENCE OPENING The chair of the first session, Dr. Kipkurui Arap Langat, the chairman of ESADA opened the meeting by welcoming all to the AliCE 2013 conference. He saluted the Chief Guest, Honorable Felix Kiptarus Kosgey, the Cabinet Secretary for Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development and congratulated him on his appointment. He gave details of the array of participants present including; leading livestock sector experts across the sectors’ value chains, renowned business leaders, agricultural researchers and scientists, government officials, Livestock Producers and other livestock sector players who came together to share knowledge, experiences, solutions and technologies that will create the desired impetus for enhanced competitiveness and trade in the African livestock sector. He extended a hearty welcome to the delegates representing the following countries; Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Sudan, Southern Sudan, Democratic republic of Congo, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, Gambia, Botswana, Djibouti, Israel, Germany, Italy, Nepal, Egypt, Maldives, USA, France, India, Namibia, Netherlands, Burundi, Canada and UK. He stated that this annual Africa livestock event is a brainchild of AU-IBAR, ILRI and GALVmed. The three ALiCE 2013 host organizations jointly developed the conference as one of the means of addressing the challenges facing the livestock sector in Africa. He observed that the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa continues to underperform due to the following reasons;  Low on-farm productivity
  5. 5. 5  Constrained Market access  Poor competitive Product quality  Poorly resourced and underperforming livestock services  Unfavorable operating environments(particularly policies, but also investment, technical support and information) ALiCE’s origin is founded on the basis of these challenges with a view to providing knowledge, solutions, technologies and insights to continually address these and future challenges in the African livestock sector while positioning the African livestock sector in the global livestock map. In summary he reiterated that the African Livestock sector conference and exhibition is aimed at achieving two complementary goals;  Knowledge sharing and technology, Solutions and transfer of best practices  Networking and businesses linkages for increased intra-regional trade in livestock and livestock products. In particular the African Livestock conference and exhibition will deliver the following benefits to the players in the livestock sector in the region;  Highlight opportunities for livestock sector investments in Africa  Afford the regions livestock producers, service providers and industry suppliers a unique opportunity to showcase their products for benchmarking and trade.  Expose livestock sector stakeholders (producers and suppliers) to new technologies, solutions and ideas for improved competitiveness  Provide a platform for the regions livestock community to discuss and recommend solutions to policy, regulatory and industry bottlenecks that impede livestock, livestock products and services trade and development in the sector.  Provide a platform for sharing and disseminating research works in the livestock sector. He also recognized the support of USAID for facilitating over 2000 farmers to attend the exhibitions and livestock breeders show, as well as the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation for supporting farmers and other stakeholders from Eastern Africa to attend the livestock event. He informed the participants that the speakers would be presenting a wide range of topics including;  The global livestock situation
  6. 6. 6  Livestock sector policies and economics  Livestock farming for the global market  Highlights of the major livestock value chains  Livestock sector; feeding Africa  Towards a competitive and sustainable livestock sector. He said that in total there were 27 exhibitors drawn Kenya, Tanzania, Belgium, Israel, India, Germany, Italy and France and he urged the participants to pay a visit to the exhibitors. OPENING AND WELCOME REMARKS Remarks by EAFF CEO Steve Muchiri He conveyed congratulations to the Cabinet Secretary from the farmers of EAFF. He stated that Kenya is the home of the Pan-African Farmers Organization (PAFO) which was launched in Lilongwe; Malawi in 2011 and the Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) which was launched in 2005. Nairobi was chosen as the capital for the farmers of Africa and farmers of the region because it is a regional hub due to its proximity to important institutions serving Agriculture such as AU-IBAR and ILRI and is relatively stable with a vibrant agriculture sector. He further stated that EAFF is a regional network of apex and national organizations of farmers that are co-operatives, farmer unions, agriculture commodity associations, Livestock organizations, women and youth organizations in Agriculture. EAFF was formed out of the need for representation of farmers and dialogue on agriculture development related issues in the different Regional Economic Communities (RECs). EAFF has 22 member organizations spread in over 10 countries of Eastern Africa - stretching from EAC; IGAD to DR Congo. EAFF’s membership comprises over 20 million family farmers as well as small holders. These represent the entire spectrum of Agriculture from Crops, Livestock, Fisheries and Agro-forestry. This membership is however only a paltry 20% of the entire farming community in the region. In this conference, EAFF supported the participation of 30 livestock farmers who are the EAFF delegates from eight countries. EAFF has a vision to enhance cohesion and prosperity of farmers and does this through representation, advocacy and developing capacity. Regional integration was also mentioned as important to EAFF as it is the basis on which it was founded. EAFF believes that as a region, we
  7. 7. 7 can form a formidable economically competitive block since the region is endowed with enormous wealth and untapped resources that need to be harnessed. EAFF has a strategic framework (2012-2020) whose orientation is “Commercialization through farmer enterprises”, which emphasizes the need for farmers to play their role as key actors in any value chain. To deliver on this framework, EAFF has formed partnerships with different Stakeholders such as the regional farmer organizations of the continent with whom they launched the Pan-African Farmers Organization (PAFO) that engages with AUC-NPCA and globally with Governments. EAFF has MoUs with EAC; COMESA and IGAD and are currently pursuing an MoU with EALA. Within the private sector, EAFF has MoUs with the East Africa Business Council and East Africa Grain Council. Among Research institutions, EAFF sits in the Boards of ASARECA and FARA as well as in NGOs working in Agriculture. They are also engaged in decision making committees such as the CAADP Multi Donor Trust Fund process, AfDB Africa Fertilizer Financing Mechanism, Partnership for Afflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA) at the AUC among others. EAFF believes these partnerships will help protect, support and transform small scale agriculture which feeds over 2 billion people globally into a sustainable and economically viable enterprise. EAFF believes that Livestock is an important sector in this region especially based on the fact that over 70% of the regions land is used for livestock production. He stated that according to UNDP, any single drought event in a 12 year period in a country can result in 7-10% drop in GDP and this translates to 12-14% increase in poverty. Further to this, the increasing frequency and magnitude of drought is taking a toll on a many lives besides negatively affecting the livelihoods of an increasing number of people thus impeding the achievement of MDGs especially goal number one on reducing hunger. EAFF has thus developed a livestock strategy with specific thrusts towards resilience and competitiveness. This informed EAFF’s contribution to the finalization of the “IGAD Regional CAADP compact and investment plan” a process to which it is a signatory. He re-emphasized that ALiCE is an important platform for livestock farmers to share and learn about developments in the sector, access information on technologies available, have meetings with various value chain actors and chart the way forward with respect to favorable policies and programs to grow this sector. EAFF is very much aware of the contribution by the dairy sector
  8. 8. 8 over the years in uplifting millions of farmers from poverty as well as contributing towards the nutrition of millions of pre-school and school going children. EAFF encourages other investors to use a similar approach of working with farmers in out-grower schemes/contracts and even supporting co-operatives. He said it’s worth noting that the entire Agriculture sector is facing numerous challenges and Livestock in particular has specific ones which are not limited to the challenges of pests and disease, related escalating cost of inputs and livestock feeds which have doubled in the last 5 years, unpredictable weather, un-certain land tenure and conflicts, low value addition and disorganized markets. He stated that with concerted efforts, mutual partnerships and right investments these challenges can be addressed. The EAFF CEO further stated that there are major international investment vehicles being put up to improve the livelihoods of farmers within the continent such as Grow Africa, The New alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, Renewed partnership for unified approach to End hunger in Africa by 2025 among others. However, caution should be taken by the governments to protect African Agriculture and ensure their markets are not vanquished, that farmers and other smaller enterprises are not exploited and exposed. Governments MUST do so by providing leadership on public policy and ensuring that the CAADP process that our leaders assented to in 2003 in Maputo remains Africa led and Africa owned. He concluded that COMESA has an annual food import bill exceeding 22billion USD, this deficit is currently not serviced by the African farmers but EAFF believes African farmers can do it if they:  Invest in organizing producer organizations into enterprises  Invest in and protect ALL institutions that support the work of farmers research/ aggregation and marketing boards; banks; institutions providing inputs etc  Support the development of markets for livestock and value addition for livestock products  Encourage the development and promotion of innovative and affordable pro-poor investment instruments and credit accessible to farmers  Mitigate risks associated with climate change  Invest in knowledge systems that enhance learning; sharing and exchanges  invest in real time data collection and analysis to enhance competitiveness
  9. 9. 9  ensure the right policy environment in a process that involves participation of farmers Remarks by Dr. Ahmed Assawali, Director, African Union’s Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) The AU-IBAR Director paid special tribute to the Government of Kenya for supporting AU-IBAR since its inception in 1951. AU-IBAR is a specialized technical office of the African Union commission mandated to support and coordinate the development and utilization of animal resources in Africa. He quoted recent statistics showing that Africa is home to a significant proportion of the world’s population of livestock including about 80% of the camels, 32% of the goats, 25% of the sheep and 18% of the cattle. However, Africa remains a net importer of almost all livestock products with an annual outflow of over 6 billion US dollars to finance the imports. These imports are an indication of significant and growing market opportunities for African livestock producers, processors and retailers in livestock surplus countries and regions to out- compete and recapture the markets from external actors. He however said that millions of pastoralists who depend solely on livestock for their livelihoods are among the most vulnerable communities to the impacts of the recurrent droughts that mainly affect the Horn of Africa and the Sahel regions of this continent. He appreciated that over the years African governments have set aside resources for the livestock sector, but noted that gaps still exist between commitments at regional level and efforts at individual country level. He brought to light the limited investment initiatives in the livestock sector by both government and the private sector. He stated that there is an urgent need for Africa to identify and prioritize livestock value chains for which there is a comparative advantage, for targeted but holistic investments in order to make a positive and significant difference in the contribution of the livestock sector to the continent’s economic development. These he said calls for appropriate policies, strategies and investments by the public and private sectors at continental, regional and national levels. He recommended among others the need to engage more with the salaried citizens in uplifting the livestock sector and the need to create credible and reliable data for the livestock sector and the translation of policies and commitments to actual implementation.
  10. 10. 10 Remarks by Dr. Jimmy Smith, Director General of ILRI The Director General of ILRI also congratulated the Cabinet Secretary on his appointment. He informed the conference that ILRI and CGIAR are ready to work with governments in advancing the livestock sector. He announced that the conference theme ‘Towards a Competitive and Sustainable World-class Livestock Sector’ was in response to the global concern on the need for the world to feed itself in light of the rising population. The livestock sector will play a key role in food and nutrition security and the deliberations of the conference will confirm the importance of the livestock sector towards this goal. He explained the developing world contributes 30% of the global livestock sector supply and 70% of this supply is from small holders in Africa. Discussions should focus on how to enhance the participation of smallholders in the livestock value chain and contribution in meeting the rising food import bills. Dr. Smith implored ministers and ministries to support the transformation of the livestock sector. He decried the justifications often presented for neglecting the livestock sector including contribution to climate change and health hazards by clarifying that these can be addressed through good food choices and carbon emission reduction strategies. Through the conference and exhibition, opportunities and solutions to challenges in the sector would be demonstrated. Remarks by Guest of Honour – Honorable Felix Kiptarus Kosgey Kenya’s Cabinet Secretary; Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development In his speech, the Cabinet Secretary informed the conference that Kenya’s blueprint for long-term development, Vision 2030, underscored the role of the livestock sector. For this reason the Government of Kenya has put in place various initiatives to develop the sector. The government of Kenya’s main agenda for the agriculture sector is food and nutrition security through supporting critical areas. This includes a shift from rain-fed agriculture to irrigation particularly for the large ASAL areas of Kenya, by expanding existing irrigation schemes and opening up new ones; promoting livestock sector; focusing on research to enable employment of technologies that will
  11. 11. 11 achieve maximum returns; information dissemination and training of farmers with a focus on youth and women primarily on access to credit. In this regard, the government has set aside a KSh. 2 billion fund to eliminate the risk associated with loans issued to farmers by commercial banks. This fund is expected to increase to KSh. 20 billion within the next four years. He further stated that in the current budget, a total of KSh. 38.07 billion was allocated to address famine and turn around agriculture. He also indicated that the government intends to build 50 markets that will link 90 producer groups as a way of promoting business growth. Plans are also underway to increase fish productivity as a viable income generating activity by increasing the number of fingerlings supplied to farmers, restoring fishery stocks and habitats, establishing recreational marine parks, providing cold chain facilities and fish auction centers across the country. Plans for the livestock sector include increasing the number of abattoirs by constructing 21 medium sized abattoirs and supporting 260 farmers with milk value addition facilities; enhancing Artificial Insemination services by allocating funds to assist 630 livestock farmers access artificial insemination services, disease reduction efforts whereby on the onset the GOK intends to vaccinate 61 million livestock in the next five years. He concluded by explaining that the GOK welcomes partnerships with other governments as well as with private sector. The Cabinet Secretary indicated that the government of Kenya is ready to work with sector stakeholders, researchers, NGOs and other partners to make the livestock sector competitive. He conveyed his optimism that the conference and exhibition would generate innovative ways forward for the livestock sector. Honorable Kiptarus gave a hand in appreciating the sponsors of the conference and exhibition by issuing them with plaques of honor.
  12. 12. 12 SESSION ONE: THE GLOBAL LIVESTOCK SITUATION Opportunities for a sustainable and competitive livestock sector in Africa By Dr. Jimmy Smith, ILRI Director General Dr. Smith recognized that the global livestock sector is growing rapidly at 40% of agriculture GDP and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. Four out of five of the highest value global commodities are livestock i.e. cow milk, indigenous cattle meat, indigenous pig meat and indigenous chicken meat. Drivers of the global livestock sector trends include population growth with over 9 billion people to feed by 2050; income growth and rapid urbanization. These imply that major opportunities exist for Africa’s livestock sector. Livestock sector provides food and nutritional security, powers economic development, improves human health and enhances the environment but pollution, land/water degradation, Green house Gas emissions and biodiversity losses must be greatly reduced. Even though Africa recognizes the central importance of agriculture for development, livestock is still often under-represented, a situation that must change. Africa is a net importer of animal- sourced foods because production has not kept pace with consumption growth. Inherent complexities of the livestock sector are: it intersects with all other smallholder agricultural production systems; impinges on key environmental and human health issues; forces hard trade- offs such as food, feed or bio-fuels. In this regard, Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) seeks to; employ agriculture-led growth to achieve MDG1 of halving poverty and hunger by 2015, pursue 6% average annual sector growth at national level, allocate 10% of national budgets to the agriculture sector, exploit regional complementarities and cooperation to boost growth, support evidence-based policymaking, include farmers, agribusiness, civil society in partnerships and alliances. To meet the growing demand with sustainable African production systems rather than imports, several things have to be done differently, for instance having private-public synergies such as Innovative franchise models providing smallholders with access to agro-vets ( e.g. ‘Sidai’ in Kenya) ; New low-cost, pen-side diagnostic tools that are providing diagnostics for smallholder settings; New mobile phone systems that are helping farmers monitor the health and reproduction of their animals (‘iCow’ in Kenya); Index based livestock insurance that is reducing risk for
  13. 13. 13 pastoralists using banking, insurance and IT from private sector innovation; East Africa Dairy Development (EADD) project that is connecting farmers to service providers and new business opportunities through a hub model. Research solutions are needed to transform Africa’s livestock sector. Critical interventions for smallholder producers required to facilitate increased access to markets, technology (feeds, breeds, health) and adopt enabling policies as well as new institutional and business models. New investments and institutional reforms are needed to take livestock sector successes to a higher scale. Taking action now, together and coherently, can ensure that Africa’s livestock sector is competitive and sustainable. Key shifts are to provide more public sector attention to create an appropriate enabling environment for large and small scale producers; giving attention to local markets while promoting continental trade; shift from a hazard to a risk based approach to regulating food safety, market access and trade policies; promoting access to markets –link rural infrastructure development to the needs of the agriculture sector; avoiding reckless attempts at ‘leap frogging’ and strengthening research and extension delivery services. This is in recognition that market access promotes a technology demand pull. Animal health and welfare in a changing trade and food security environment in Africa By Dr. Walter N. Masiga, Representative for Eastern Africa World Organisation for Animal Health Dr. Masiga started with a bold statement that ‘Africa is no longer the doomed continent!’ He went on to inform that by 2050 with a population of 9 billion, the world demand for milk, meat and eggs will have increased by 70%. Currently the per capita consumption of meat in Africa is estimated at 54 kg in Southern Africa, 24 kg in North Africa and a mere 12 kg in West Africa. It therefore goes without saying that animal health and welfare practices are and will be deeply affected by the changing political, social, cultural and environmental parameters that challenge our conventional animal production and health systems in Africa. Unfortunately the livestock sector is faced with many challenges. Global warming affects the distribution of many vectors of animal diseases on the continent. The geographical coverage and frequency of outbreaks of diseases such as West Nile fever, Blue tongue and Rift Valley fever, as well as dengue fever (chikungunya) and malaria, have been extended due to the resilience of their vectors to the changing patterns of temperature and rainfall. Urbanization, deforestation, and the encroachment of human settlements into pristine nature, have led to destruction of habitats for
  14. 14. 14 some disease vectors e.g. tsetse fly species. Additionally closer cohabitation between man, animal and vector has led to increase in re‐emerging and emerging diseases of man and animal. On the other hand emission by cattle and small ruminants of methane and other gasses from manure and stomach fermentation have been blamed for contributing to global warming and the greenhouse effect. Additionally degradation of CO2‐capturing vegetation due to overgrazing, erosion, the deforestation undertaken to open up more land for cattle farming, and the depletion of water resources for cattle and livestock in general have contributed to global warming and the greenhouse effect. Soaring demographics have led to increased conflicts between pastoralists and cultivators; food producers and nature (wildlife) conservationists, for dwindling natural resources. Regional integration and the globalization of trade have also led to increasing pressure on prices, with local markets facing unhealthy competition. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) democratically attempts to devise trade standards and internationally binding agreements on many of the challenges. Every year trade standards are created, revised, fine‐tuned and abolished where necessary, to ensure trade of livestock and livestock products is facilitated without endangering food safety, condoning animal cruelty or discriminating poorer nations. OIE supports focal points for wildlife in the design and setting of new standards, as well as the increased involvement of African states in the approval process of these standards; the separation of disease status in domestic (and captive wild animals) from wild animals. OIE has invested considerable resources and expertise in providing a sound scientific basis for animal welfare standards, hitherto entirely handled by the global private agri‐food business as so called industry or private standards. In spite of all these challenges, tremendous opportunities for innovative approaches to help feed a rapidly growing world population and provide consumers with varied, healthy, and balanced animal proteins exist. Aquaculture production (farmed fish) will supply most of the animal protein in future and by 2020 farmed fish will account for 68% of overall fish consumption. Accessing world markets for beef will be possible through large scale operations so as to take advantage of economies of scale.
  15. 15. 15 One Goal: Different Routes; Towards Improved Livestock Health By Dr. Peter Jeffries, Chief Executive: GALVmed An important aspect of profitable and efficient livestock production is a focus on health and welfare, driven primarily by prevention and where necessary, through treatment of disease. Dr. Jeffries explained that small scale livestock farmers require veterinary support that is reliable and provides sustainable supply of products; appropriate pack size; market opportunities with fair prices; good quality products and not counterfeits. However, perceived risks for investing in Africa by animal health companies include: reduced protection of intellectual property; fake products; inefficiency of markets coupled with complex distribution channels and lack of a level playing field. Progress in product development and supply to meet the specific needs of Africa is slow because of several hindrances including:  Technical challenges  Ease of registration  Counterfeit products  Market accessibility  Distribution outlets - cold chain  Limited research and development budgets  Prioritisation of projects These hindrances increases concerns about business viability in Africa, although the perception is rapidly changing. In light of all these hindrances, different stakeholders have key roles to play in improving the livestock sector as shown below: Government  Management of notifiable disease  Vet product accreditation  Counterfeit control Private sector Pharmaceuticals  Development & registration of suitable products for Africa  Marketing & sale of products
  16. 16. 16  Food security  Food safety  Animal welfare  Adverse reaction reporting & investigation  Support for private sector veterinarians Private sector Veterinarians Opportunity to establish private clinics without concerns that NGOs or others will disturb the market with free or heavily subsidised products or services Livestock Keepers  Efficient production systems  Animal welfare  Demand for product availability  Efficient markets for sale GALVmed is currently supported by the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation with projects having been funded by the European Commission. Its role in the virtuos circle:  A livestock health Product development and adoption Partnership organisation  A not-for-profit company - Public-Private Partnership and registered charity  Pro-poor focused: working with key partners to make a sustainable difference in access to animal health products for poor livestock keepers For product development and supply GALVmed makes available and facilitates adoption of livestock health products for some of the 900 million people who rely on livestock for their livelihoods by undertaking the following activities:  Intervention in all necessary links of the value chain, including: Product development, registration, manufacture, distribution, commercialisation and delivery to the end user  Building capacity (upstream and downstream)  Market development and adoption by creation of sustainable value chains  Understanding and influencing policy to enable the above  Advocating for livestock as a route out of poverty
  17. 17. 17 GALVmed pursues all these through partnerships and linkages of major national and international bodies involved in Animal Health i.e. animal Health Industry, Research Institutions, Universities, donors, governments and livestock Keepers; listening to end users; de-risking product development and supply. Plenary Discussions The first session was aimed at assessing where the livestock sector currently is, where it is headed to (2015 to 2030), what opportunities are there for exploitation and the policy and priority changes required. Small holder farmers are responsible for a large proportion of production, they are not heterogeneous and often mix crop and livestock production activities. Small land sizes favour crop sector more than the livestock sector while the crop sector also supports the livestock through provision of fodder. It was reiterated that there is need to change these farming systems so as to meet the rising consumption demands from the rising populationra. This requires policies that incorporate animal welfare. It was noted that attempts to commercialise animal enterprises are succeeding in small measure because small scale farmers use livestock to enhance food security or raised as pets. To improve the competitiveness of small holders, farmers should be encouraged to upgrade livestock keeping to business enterprises. The government and NGOs on the other hand sometimes distort markets through subsidies and this should be re-examined in light of appropriate and inappropriate subsidies. Appropriate subsidies should be temporal measures to avert a crisis and for uplifting very bad circumstances. Inappropriate subsidies are provided where/when people can afford. Research and development should come up with strategies/technologies that are friendly to the youth and ensuring markets for livestock are available. Questions and answers A participant from Uganda involved with young farmers in advancing techno agriculture sought to know why counterfeit products are competing “effectively”. The fact that there are counterfeits
  18. 18. 18 means that there is a need for those drugs. The way forward on counterfeit drugs for long term success should focus on the cost of the drugs and the promotion of the advantages of using better quality products by farmers that add value to the enterprise and therefore result in higher profitability levels. Emphasis should be on appropriate subsidies while avoiding inappropriate subsidies. Subsidized drugs should be discouraged as this mode of supply is not sustainable in the long-term. The government should put in place right policies to enhance food safety and protect end users from unqualified community animal health workers. Governments should also ensure good quality inputs through effective regulation and regulatory agencies. What is the role of private veterinarians (community animal health workers vis a vis professional veterinarians considering emerging community livestock extension workers who also have access to drugs? Community based animal workers play a key role by offering alternative and affordable services. They are also accessible particularly to pastoralists and farmers in remote areas. They should however, work under strict supervision to ensure quality. Within OIE, community based animal health workers are not recognised under the regulated standards and professionals. India is a major exporter of meat despite the big risk of foot and mouth disease. How can the East African livestock sector learn from this experience to strengthen its global competitiveness and improve food safety while reducing risk? The most effective lesson is putting up the right infrastructure to ensure animal health. OIE has regulations regarding trade in livestock and livestock products that need to be adhered to. Additionally, since only 10% of livestock and livestock products from the East African region is traded outside/exported while 90% is traded locally; more efforts should be put towards improving local markets. The Export thresholds for European markets are very high and it’s therefore advisable to focus on the high potential local markets. Smallholder farmers are also encouraged to commercialize their undertakings to be more competitive. What policies are there to ensure control and handling of veterinary pharmaceuticals is effectively regulated so that they are not found in the food chains? A veterinary pharmaceuticals control bill should be developed to ensure veterinary products are not deposited in the food chain.
  19. 19. 19 Drugs in Africa are resistant e.g. acaricides are not able to kill ticks, east coast fever is out of control etc. Is it because of counterfeits or the research and design process is weak? On the other hand how can the supply and distribution of vaccines be improved? Governments should take the responsibility of tracking and monitoring drugs more seriously. The private sector should also identify potential areas for investment with regards to control of diseases. It should also be noted that the issue of east coast fever is partially as a result of counterfeit drugs and poor research. There is also a need for clear government responsibilities to determine the right concentrations of the drugs. Other comments from the floor The virtual circle by Dr. Smith should be broadened to include agribusiness markets and put the farmers at the centre. If we are to succeed in raising the profile of livestock in the economy lets engage policy makers to invest in livestock market infrastructure in the broad sense and let us also look at the whole livestock value chain components focussing mainly on production and marketing including other support components like input supply and veterinary services. SESSION TWO: LIVESTOCK SECTOR POLICIES AND ECONOMICS Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africa By Dr. Simplice Nouala, AU-IBAR The rationale for a policy framework for pastorailsm in Africa is premised on: 1. The peculiar features/challenges of pastoralism in Africa including: • extreme and worsening levels of poverty and food insecurity; • political and economical marginalization; • environmental degradation and dwindling access to resources (land, water, pastures) and basic services (e.g. health, education); • uneven market relationships and increased pressure on fragile eco-systems • exposure to climatic risks, diseases, conflicts and insecurity 2. Inadequacy/irrelevance of Responses • Inadequate governance frameworks, • ineffective institutional settings,
  20. 20. 20 • Policy biases against pastoralists (e.g., development and trade), • Ineffective interventions because of their irrelevance (don’t reflect pastoralist realities and circumstances) The Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africa arises from the need for a continent-wide platform to effectively address, in a holistic manner, the many challenges of pastoral communities. It’s a Joint AUC and the UNOCHA initiative. The process started with regional assessments, stakeholders’ consultations, followed by adoption by political leaders and finally policy implementation. A specialists task force was set up (composed of high level experts from each of the regions) to: • Serve as quality assurance mechanism, providing periodic guidance at each stage of the process of elaborating the pastoral policy framework. • serve as the interface between the technical and the political setting of the initiative; Milestones so far: • Launched in July 2007 in Isiolo, Kenya • Regional assessments and stakeholders consultations held in the period 2008-2010 • Policy framework approved by Ministerial Conference in October 2010 • Decision on “Africa’s Pastoralism” adopted by AU Assembly of Heads of States and governments in January 2011 The goals of the Policy Framework are to secure, protect and improve the lives, livelihoods and rights of African pastoralists; an advocacy tool for promoting the development and improvement of pastoral communities across Africa; a tool for harnessing the economic and technical resources needed to empower pastoral communities; a platform for mobilizing and coordinating political commitment to pastoral development in Africa and facilitate engagement with regional and country-level planning processes. The objectives and strategies to achieve the policy are: Objective 1: Secure and protect the lives, livelihoods and rights of pastoral peoples and ensure continent-wide commitment to political, social and economic development of pastoral communities and pastoral areas.  Recognize the role of pastoralism in development  Demonstrating commitment to pastoral policy development
  21. 21. 21  Integrating pastoral issues into decision-making processes  Acknowledge the legitimacy of indigenous pastoral institutions  Strengthening the role and rights of women in pastoral communities  Mainstreaming pastoral issues in poverty reduction programs  Service delivery (health, education…) Objective 2: Reinforce the contribution of pastoral livestock wealth to national, regional and continent-wide economies.  Pastoral rangeland governance  Policy support to mobility within and between countries  Protecting pastoral livestock assets  Marketing of pastoral livestock and livestock products  Financial and insurance services tailored to pastoral areas  Protect African genetic resources –animals and plants  Research and extension Linking farmers to (high value) livestock product markets: Opportunities and challenges in Southern and Eastern Africa By Dr. Hikuepi (Epi) Katjiuongua and Amos Omore The global demand and particularly African demand for animal-sourced foods is estimated to be ‘’extraordinarily high’’ due to population growth, urbanization, and increasing incomes. Despite the growth potential, African countries’ production will not keep pace with consumption growth, and Africa is still expected to continue being a net importer of animal sourced foods. Dr. Hikuepi shared lessons on beef from two Southern African countries - Namibia and Botswana and dairy in Eastern Africa. Namibia is among the top ten beef exporters to the EU and has penetrated the high-end retail market. This was aided by smart branding and marketing with a shift from selling a commodity to selling attributes. The country established a credible cattle traceability system: FANMEAT certification. Although costly, it signals compliance with international SPS standards and EU requirements. Namibia has more policy and private sector engagement eg Ekwatho finance project which links livestock producers to the market and offers value addition. Namibia has exported beef to the EU for the last 20 years even though it holds only 3% market share. Regrettably, disease status in Northern Namibia limits greater participation of small livestock producers.
  22. 22. 22 Botswana on the other hand had inconsistent supply due to export bans arising from the FMD disease challenge resulting in key beef exporters facing financial losses. The country focused primarily on the EU market neglecting regional and domestic market opportunities. Botswana Market structure for the livestock value chain is monopolized by the Botswana Meat Commission (BMC). BMC controls exports as the sole buyer and seller leading to little competition and low producer prices. The abattoirs operate below capacity and therefore are not profitable with average losses of 33 mil. USD (2009-2011). Traceability system and veterinary service provision are weak thus inconsistent supply for farmers. The trade policy hinders regional trade as it restricts farmers to sell live animals into regional markets. Livestock producers are unable to take advantage of increasing weaner prices (e.g. SA market). Botswana has focused heavily on the EU market neglecting local and regional market opportunities. Small livestock producers in Botswana and Namibia have a great role to play including: Supplying high-value livestock product markets – currently their participation is low because the costs of moving to a weaner-ox production system are high (e.g. feed costs), animal disease and animal welfare requirements is a challenge and locks out many suppliers and insufficient grazing land. Greater participation in markets by Smallholder livestock producers can be increased through: - Market diversification: market segmentation targeting regional and domestic markets - Public private partnerships: finance mechanisms to overcome capital constraints faced by small livestock producers and other value chain actors - Coordination: to achieve economies of scale - Diversity of smallholder livestock farmers: degree of market orientation - Sharing costs of standards and compliance by the farmer, government and private sector. Opportunities existing for the livestock sector include: - High growth in domestic and regional demand of animal-sourced foods - Increasing global meat product prices - Inclusive livestock sector growth strategy: yields greater benefits for society at large Challenges for the livestock sector: - Low competitiveness and productivity (rising feed costs) - High costs of compliance: SPS requirements in high value markets - NTBs and high transport costs in regional markets
  23. 23. 23 - Export of lower quality livestock products and by-products into African markets Way forward 1. Lower NTBs and improve regional integration: key to foster intra-regional trade and investment. 2. Improve productivity and competitiveness so as to respond to the growing demand. Can be achieved by Identifying and scaling out appropriate technologies to address production constraints, lowering the cost of technology transfer and improve service delivery (e.g. animal disease vaccine delivery) and improving risk mitigating and coping strategies. 3. Creation of smart linkages between private service providers and Value Chain actors. Its critical to reduce risk and address binding constraints faced by Value Chain actors, enhance economies of scale for producers and other value chain actors and provide support for different types of small livestock producers who dominate in many countries. 4. Invest in livestock data. There is need to improve data collection systems and analytical capacity to gain an accurate picture about markets (consumption and animal resource base) so as to enhance information flow on market conditions and planning. 5. Trade agreements: EU-EPA trade agreement and others. Investing in African Livestock: Business opportunities in 2030-2050 By Ugo Pica-Ciamarra (FAO), Derek Baker (ILRI), Nancy Morgan (FAO) Cheikh Ly (FAO) & Simplice Nouala (AU-IBAR) Africa is fast growing and this provides varoius business opportunities for the large scale commercial enterprises, medium scale farmers and self employed/smallholders. Trends in demand for consumption of livestock products are determined by food and non-food products, quantity, quality, Input / output price, retail forms amongst many others. Comparing the African livestock markets vs other world regions, African meat and milk market is and will be smaller than most meat and milk markets in other world regions. African livestock markets products including beef, milk, poultry, eggs, pork, mutton and sheep, with milk being the largest market, followed by beef and poultry. African livestock markets by regions ie western (ECOWAS), eastern (IGAD), central (ECCAS), norther (UMA and Egypt) and southern (SADC).
  24. 24. 24 Milk 2005/07 = 32.4 mio tons Eastern Africa and Northern Africa are the largest milk markets with over 60% of the increased demand from milk in 2005/07- 2050 being from Eastern and Northern Africa. The annual growth rate is approximately 2%-3% in all regions. Beef 2005/07 = 4.7 mio tons Beef market is relatively uniform in terms of its importance across regions. Over 70 % of the increased demand for beef in 2005/07- 2050 is from Western, Southern and Eastern Africa with an annual growth rate of approximately 2%-3% in all regions. Poultry 2005/07 = 4.7 mio tons The Poultry market is dominated by Southern and Northern Africa. Over 56% of the increased demand in 2005/07- 2050 will be from Southern and Northern Africa; 20% from West Africa. Annual growth rate approximately 3%-6% in all regions. The trends indicate that African producers are partly unable to fully benefit from growing market opportunities and trade balance is worsening. Imports of all livestock products are increasingly critical to satisfy consumer’s demand.
  25. 25. 25 The fundamental questions based on the trends are how can livestock producers (large scale commercial enterprises, medium scale farmers and smallholders/self-employed) better utilize/benefit from growing livestock markets? How can they be made efficient/competitive? What Technologies/ incentives can encourage farmers to invest in livestock? In conclusion, policies and instititional reforms are key to ensure that markets are utilized to promote an efficient and equitable growth of livestock Plenary Discussions It’s crucial to create and foster partnerships and linkages among and for smallholder farmers and traders to enhance the livestock sector. For the livestock sector in Africa to grow the competitiveness of small holder farmers has to be improved. A major obstacle to the growth of the African livestock trade is the increase in low quality products from Europe. Institutional and capacity needs at different levels (country and regional) to meet the challenges for making the livestock sector competitive should be identified as well as mechanisms for resolving them. Another challenge is lack of information and how to access it: the farmers do not know what the customers (market) wants or needs e.g. how frequent the customers need products and in what form. Information should be real-time. Information is critical in improving the bargaining power of small holder farmers. Information needs for the livestock sector should be addressed by both public and private sector. Initial public support is necessary to boost initiatives by private sector on information generation and dissemination opportunities. The collection of data and statistics for the African continent should be improved as the current data is misleading and decisions made on their basis will also be misinformed. While FAO and EU official statistics are not reliable, they are the only ones available. Questions and answers It has been indicated that most of the livestock products is from small scale livestock keepers. With our present land policies do these small scale farmers have an opportunity to expand in order to capture the future markets for livestock products? The key issues being addressed are secure access to land through land policy issues which is found in a comprehensive framework policy on GMO being developed through a consultative process started in the year 2012
  26. 26. 26 How can gaps that exist with respect to information flow be addressed? And the farmer does not know what the market wants and the form that the product should take; There is need to improve bargaining power of small holder farmers through a comprehensive communication policy and the farmers should try to understand the market to know what the consumers prefer. Could some of the challenges faced by farmers be addressed through GMOs/Are GMOs a potential mechanism of meeting the challenges faced by farmers? Issues of GMOs will be addressed exhaustively in the comprehensive African GMO policy which is underway. The policy will form guiding principles for genetic engineering. Despite genetic engineering having huge potential for improving the livestock sector, the issue of acceptability by global markets is a key determinant on its utilization. The Maasai community is a vulnerable group of neglected farmers and the East African governments are turning their ancestral land to tourism and wildlife protection. Will not the current trend for converting land to conservation initiatives affect livestock production? Marginalization of pastoral communities is addressed in the Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africa as well as in the land policy. Intra Africa regional trade vs international trade - should East Africa concentrate on intra Africa trade and reduce efforts for penetrating the stringent EU markets? Yes, there is need to review the strategies for targeting the global market, but this also varies with each market, product and country. The approach should be to balance, as East Africa caters for international markets, it should also supply and enhance local markets. The livestock market in east Africa is dominated by small holders, are the policies favorable for them to access the markets? How can we create an enabling policy environment for livestock farmers? Small-scale livestock producers need to be better organized and networked to pursue their policy agenda. The role of camel in the livestock sector was not discussed and is there any stakeholder engaging in camel? Kenya has two institutions in charge of promoting the camel and camel issues are well addressed. SESSION THREE: LIVESTOCK FARMING FOR GLOBAL MARKET A new approach to livestock service delivery By Dr. Christie Peacock - Founder and Chairman, Sidai Africa Ltd
  27. 27. 27 The 21st century livestock keepers in Africa require a broad range of services, including financial, marketing, information and environmental services. However, access to quality and affordable livestock services (quality inputs, effective advice and reliable markets) is constrained by many factors including limited service providers, physical distance, price, information and socio-cultural barriers. For example, in dairy and poultry, the private sector is unregulated and anything goes while in the arid and semi arid areas, short-term donor- funded subsidies distort local market. A large proportion of drugs are manufactured below standard e.g. 100% of the Trypanocidal drugs manufactured in Cameroon are manufactured below standard. This leads to a toxic cycle of drug misuse and farmers’ money being wasted as presented in the diagram below. Drug resistance is on the rise e.g. in Kenya and Somalia. For instance, T. vivax is resistant to all drugs except Diminazene aceturate while in Zambia, T. congolense - Diminazene resistance increased from 13% in 1996 to 63% in 2003. Unregulated and unfair competition forces private veterinarians to become input shop keepers competing on price alone. Sidai Africa Ltd provides the following social business solutions: quality veterinary and livestock services through a network of branded franchises owned by qualified personnel. Sidai focuses on preventing disease and improving financial viability and turning the input shop keepers into professional solution providers. Toxic cycle of drug misuse & farmers wasted money Good quality manufacturing Good quality manufacturing Incorrect product
  28. 28. 28 Through franchising, Sidai offers quality assured products and services providing a choice for the farmers and driving out malpractices. Franchising is scalable and durable with ease of entry and greater chances of business success. Franchising enables economies of scale through the increased buying power of the network and opens opportunities for marketing and processing. Sidai is now a trusted brand; it has transformed retail input shops into learning environments which are open and farmer friendly, information rich, farmers meet qualified people and prices are well displayed. Sidai is working towards improving the current agro-vet practice from treating symptoms to preventing disease through good feeding, management and routine vaccination; poor quality products to good quality products; remote diagnosis to accurate diagnosis using mini labs, PAD tests etc; no farmer training to regular farmer training and support to co-ops, groups etc; selling on price to adding value to product through training and advice and shift from transactional relationship with farmer to establishing lifetime relationship with farmer. Challenges of building a fair and sustainable input supply chain and distribution network include: Short-termism – input suppliers and donors as well as the need for sustainable pricing along the supply chain. The future of livestock service delivery depends on public-private partnerships. Private goods include improved nutrition, breeding, reproduction, housing etc; routine vaccination and Franchise Franchise Franchise OPEN NEW VALUE CHAINS •Livestock traders •Food processors •Supermarkets OPEN NEW VALUE CHAINS •Livestock traders •Food processors •Supermarkets FRANCHISEE VALUE PROPOSITION •Source and purchase products •Branding & marketing •Business training & IT •Technical training, diagnostics • Access to competitive finance •New business opportunities FARMERS FARMERSPASTORALISTS
  29. 29. 29 preventative and clinical health care; market information; research and development of new products and conservation of indigenous breed traits. Public goods on the other hand include: national disease surveillance and eradication of trans-boundary diseases; regulation of feed, drug, semen, input markets and service providers; food hygiene and public health; infrastructure such as roads, crushes etc and research on issues not researched by private sector. Drawing from the indigenous African livestock genomes - a dart aimed at sustainability By Dr. Mary Ndila Mbole-Kariuki Dr. Ndila gave a background of Small-holder farmers: there are over 500 million small-holder farmers, approximately 2 billion depend livestock for livelihoods and they produce 80% of the food consumed in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Main challenges small holder livestock farmers face in Africa include: “Negative selection” where farmers sell off the best breeds leaving only weak ones in their flock; prevalence of disease and disease vectors; continual ineffective traditional animal husbandry practices; knowledge gap; poor extension services and eminent climate change. The adverse effects on the genetic resources are loss of genetic diversity, loss of adaptive traits and endangered breeds. Concerned that sustainability continues to be evasive in Africa, for example the diminishing numbers of the indigenous East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) an admixed population – indicine and taurine, that is well adapted to aridity and heat and is resistant/tolerant to infectious diseases (ECF) and vectors (Ticks), Dr.Ndila embarked on a study in Western Kenya. The genotypic data revealed that 40% are from European breeds, while the genetic structure is mainly from Africa. There was also evidence of European taurine introgression in several generations. This results from cattle markets and sources of animals. Farmers love cross breeds as opposed to the indigenous breeds. This shift of focus is to a perceived economically beneficial animal as opposed to an ecologically fit one e.g. drought survival. In spite of this, there is need to strike a balance between ecologically important traits, the environment and economically important traits. There is a big dip in genetic diversity and to stop the genetic diversity decline calls for conservation and genetic utilization.
  30. 30. 30 Dr.Ndila concluded by noting that sustainability of the livestock sector in Africa is hampered by a knowledge deficiency. Farmers should uphold Darwinian adaptations in indigenous breeds to maintain sustainable populations; Scientists must promote sustainable use of Africa’s genetic resources (landscape genomics, genomic selection); breed improvement programs need to match projects to environments that support sustainable productivity. Governments/policy makers (AU- IBAR) should develop policies for driving sustainability (KAGRC should stock indigenous breeds genetic material, share genetic material across borders). Towards a competitive and sustainable African world class livestock: How to Feed Africa in 2050? By Guy Delhomme - IMV Technologies The African continent will face the challenge of feeding a growing population: 1.8 billion inhabitants in 2050 vs 0.850 billion today. Life expectancy in 1950 was 48 years while in 2010 it was at 69 years. Rising of middle class will boost consumption of animal protein and increase in urban population will drive demand for animal protein. Africa has the highest percentage increase in milk production from 2005 to 2010: +22%, it represents over 15% of world’s population but produces 5% of milk and the average milk production per capita in Africa is 50% less than in Asia. The African dairy cow situation today: Africa has the second largest dairy cattle population in the world and four countries are in the top 10 in number of Dairy cows i.e. Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. Livestock artificial insemination statistics: worldwide there are 270 Million cattle inseminations, 500 Million doses produced and 70% of the dairy cows are inseminated in Developed Countries. Livestock artificial insemination statistics in Africa - 240 Million Heads which is 16 % of worldwide; 62 Million dairy cows which translates to almost 25 % of worldwide; 3 Million AI in 2012 equals to 1.1% AI worldwide and 6 million doses produced i.e. 1.2% produced worldwide. The African continent will have to strengthen its livestock sector with innovative technologies to fulfill the meat and dairy production demand and many opportunities abound ; Genetic potential combining production efficiency and heat and tropical diseases deficiency to come up with new
  31. 31. 31 hybrids adapted for local conditions and capable of producing high milk yields. Reproductive and DNA technologies have the potential to combine the adapted traits of African local breeds with Elite breeds to raise milk and meat production. Three successful world examples of livestock genetic and efficiency Improvement: genetic selection since 1960 in France resulting in 100 % increase in Holstein breed in the last 20 years. The white revolution/National Dairy Plan of India in 1970 which led to a 5% annual increase of dairy production since 1974, 20 Million AI in 1999 and 41 Million AI in 2010 and India turning to be the biggest dairy producer in the world in 2010. Brazil's genetic improvement with biotechnologies resulted in a crossbreed with combined characteristics - the Girolando breed produces 80 % of the total milk in Brazil and AI is correlated to the development of the dairy Breed Girolando. Today, advanced DNA technologies combined with reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, hormonal synchronization and semen sexing has the potential to develop a competitive and sustainable livestock sector. Synchronization by hormones: hormones cycling of cattle optimize the timing and cost of AI for the vet, reduces the period between two calvings, plan unseasonal lactation for getting a higher price on milk and avoids transfer of sexual pathogens. Sexing technologies allow for Artificial inseminations with 90% gender accuracy and farmer has the option to choose preferred sex percentage on their herd. Artificial insemination facilitates selection on the semen (bull with high potential), possibility of storage of semen, better profitability of the semen (1 bull ejaculate equals to more than 1000 doses) and there is no distance limit between the male and female. Genetic engineering and biotechnologies (genomic selections) offer a combination of the most efficient DNA sequences referring to the typical situation.
  32. 32. 32 These technologies can leverage the bovine biodiversity of the African continent while injecting the protein production genes of bovine breeds from other parts of the world. Hybrids combining milk production and resistance to heat stress and parasitism can be produced rapidly and fulfill the growing need and constraints of protein production in Africa. Plenary Discussions Africa needs to do the right things to solve the food insecurity problem, doing wrong things, with good intention leads to poor/bad results. Policies that will facilitate effective breeding programmes and enable farmers shift towards competitiveness should be put in place. It's critical to stop the genetic diversity melt-down and seek out the adaptive traits before they are entirely lost and make them work to the farmers’ advantage. There are many success stories as well; Carora-Holstein crosses - Carora (composite venezuelan breed) - slick hair gene and exotic Holstein; Girlando – Gir (zebu breed in Brazil) and exotic Holstein; Kurolier chicken (indigenous and exotic crosses) and lastly in Kenya Dual purpose goat – crosses of indigenous East African and Galla with exotic Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian. On the other hand there is huge potential in Africa to use advanced DNA and reproductive technologies as they will open the door for efficient breeding and with a willing strategy and commitment to enhance the African livestock potential, Africa can become self-sufficient in the next 30 years.
  33. 33. 33 Farmers know the different traits of indigenous animals and the benefits of different animal breeds, the problem they do not really understand the science behind the different genetic traits (exotic breeds, indigenous breeds and mixed breeds) nor do they know the market requirements and demands e.g. demand for heavy animals. There is need to create demand for the different local/indigenous breeds. Breed improvement programmes should be regulated and they need to be well advised. Efforts to document and characterize local/indigenous breeds with new technology and share the data and information (through a catalogue of genetic diversity in each country) with appropriate institutions e.g. government and researchers across the countries should be worked out. Questions and answers What kind of model will make Public-Private Partnership successful e.g. complimentarily among researchers and governments? Sidai is trying to create a professional framework for everyone to operate in and is in the process of finding qualified vets and looking for different revenue streams by engaging with NGO’s. Sidai is in the process of involving community health workers in their programmes and are currently in talks with local universities for further Diploma or Certificate training. Is the Sidai business model bankable and does it condemn and replace the current/local models of the input supply chain? What are the inbuilt safeguard mechanisms for Sidai franchises? Sidai looks at economies of scale, works with qualified people and is involved in community programmes for upgrading and improving service delivery. Sidai encourages farmers to look for a holistic package of preventive services rather than single incidence problem solving. Sidai undertakes capacity building and facilitates the improvement of input supply chain aimed at creating a sustainable supply chain. Sidai partners with the Kenya veterinary board in many operations for instance in certification of the professionals. Does the Sidai model imply that private sector enterprises cannot be harnesses for the good of the nation? Sidai is not replacing the private sector but offering farmers with a reliable more service based alternative which includes training and Herd Health Packages (AI, Vaccination, and Diagnostics). The competition brought about by entry of Sidai will stimulate quality and price stabilization.
  34. 34. 34 Do the farmers understand the genetic diversity? That is putting farmers in a tight spot to balance the two; there is still not a well defined breeding strategy. How can we balance ecological and economic traits for continuity and reinforcement of breeds? Promote breed enhancement with traits that work for African farmers e.g. heat stress tolerance by first conducting a needs assessment. The survey by Dr. Ndila showed that farmers are not fully aware of the genetic traits, there is a general knowledge deficiency across the board (farmers/breed improvers) and effort should be put towards knowledge creation and dissemination. Since we don’t know our indigenous animal genetic resources, are there continental efforts to characterize our indigenous animals’ genetic resources and disseminate this information to scientists, farmers, policy workers e.t.c? Farmers know their breeds and therefore the focus should actually be on preserving the genetic trait. Are there efforts to document and characterize local breeds and share with appropriate institutions e.g. government and researchers across the countries? What policies do we have to support the implementation of such technologies? We need to do genetics with new technology. The challenge is with the policy makers if they can agree to share the genetic make-ups regionally. How do you link your research agenda to the economic realities of farmers. Do those who carryout research prioritizes African farmers’ research needs? The financiers of genetic research have the farmers interest at heart, the only gap that needs to be bridged is between the farmers, the breeders and the government. It was listed that conservation of breed traits as a private good, given that some of the breed traits are not economically important does it make sense for the private sector to undertake such ventures? The most important thing is breed enhancement, there is knowledge deficiency among farmers and scientists should focus more on what traits works for us. Has awareness creation been conducted among the farmers to enhance indigenous knowledge? How far is research undertaken, does it recommend appropriate business models and technologies and is the research information relevant for the business
  35. 35. 35 environment or suitable only for academic work? Why does research not impact the public? Who finances research and what are their interests? Partners who finance research and projects generally have good intentions for farmers. Nevertheless there is need to bridge the gap between farmers, scientists, breed improvement programmes and financiers. Researchers should go a notch higher so that the findings not only end up in papers, but dissemination of the research outputs should be scaled further to the users/farmers. Is Sidai bankable? How long does it take to break even? Sidai hopes to break even in 3-4 years and hopes to be sustainable by then. It takes time for the business to be viable as well as find structures to support this kind of projects. AU is implementing a programme on veterinary governance and will launch a genetic animal resource programme to expedite conservation of animal genetic resources. SESSION FOUR: A LOOK AT DAIRY, BEEF, POULTRY AND PIGS VALUE CHAINS Unleashing the potential of admix crossbred dairy cattle populations: The opportunities and frameworks for increased milk production in low input production systems: New approach to livestock service delivery By Okeyo, A.M - ILRI Smallholder dairying/mixed intensive systems in the developing world are key but under significant pressure. The current population of approximately 2.5 billion people is projected to rise to 3.4 by 2030. Smallholders manage approximately 500 million farms and provide 80% of food consumed in large parts of developing countries with 150 million cattle increasing to almost 200 million by 2030. Crop yields are stagnating e.g. wheat, rice thus increasing food insecurity all in the same or increasingly less land compared to 15-20 yrs ago! Severe water constraints are already being experienced in some places and predicted in many regions. Climate change means tropical regions will not produce as much grains and pasture in future therefore need for resilient and productive breed type. In E. Africa 70 % of milk is produced by smallholders, but productivity remains low hence need for increased efficiency.
  36. 36. 36 Production gap and opportunities include maximum (dark coloured) and minimum (light coloured) levels of milk production for different genotypes of cattle in Sub-Saharan Africa and diverse genetics and systems. Unfortunately some are inappropriate - high calf mortality rates, long calving intervals (>>15 months), low milk production and mainly forage based diets which are inadequate. Smarter strategies are needed in light of the large populations of crossbreds of variable genetic merits which already exist. In Eastern Africa alone, there are more than 26 million milking cows, 55% of which are crosses; assuming 70% are females, 60% of which are reproductively active, with only 50% AI usage and each cow needing 1.3 inseminations per conception (4 million doses), each charged at rate of US$15 each, then we have an industry worth US$59million annually. Africa is lagging behind in production and there is therefore a need to change both the management and genotype. It has been observed that the crossbreeds have not been given their full potential. The proposal therefore in regard to improved production and management is to have an internet cloud. This shown below. Crossbreeding is important because different environments require different genetics! Most smallholders are not breeders, but are milk producers so they should use genetics that give them higher profits. Crossbreeding to improve productivity and broaden the smallholders’ income base require: • Increased calf and cow survival rates • Increased conception rates and shorter Calving Intervals (CI) • Increased cow longevity (reduced replacement costs)
  37. 37. 37 • Lower somatic cell counts (lower veterinary cost) • Better feed utilization • Heavier cull cows and faster growing bull calves A platform to support genetic improvement of livestock is critical because of the small herds, hence pooling is the logical option. National programs are currently too small with inadequate infrastructure and capacity to allow effective population of purebreds with local and international genetic links to enable genetic evaluation. A large pool of admix already exist from which selective breeding would be feasible. Technologies (IT & genomic) exist to enable data collection, timely synthesis and feedback across borders. We need to create incentives for investments in local dairy genetics business and encourage more prudent use of existing international and regional resources and institutional frameworks as shown in the figure below. AI-Services Records Health reports Conformation -Milk Adaptability -Body Weights -Fertility Information From Countries Pedigree information Genetic evaluation information Breeding plans Basis for management decisions: Dairy, Sales, Feeds, Health, etc. Feedback to Farms Centralized Recording Breeding Services Extension Genetic Evaluation Research Productivity of smallholder dairy herds currently is too low, but has huge potential for improvement. Population of crossbred cattle is high but there is no supportive breed improvement service in place, yet it makes business sense. Synthetic multipurpose cattle breed development is technically feasible and economically viable (there is market for it, let us grab the opportunity now)! Globally, crossbreeding of dairy breeds is taking place for good reasons, but no local supportive policies and systems exist in Sub-Saharan Africa. A regional genetic improvement
  38. 38. 38 platform to sustainably support implementation of livestock genetic improvement programs is proposed. Strengthening of the local capacity to sustainably manage the process is required to deliver/share improved cattle genetics. In conclusion, it is pointed out that; • Productivity of smallholder dairy herds currently too low, but have huge potential for improvement • Population of crossbred cattle high, but no supportive breed improvement services in place, yet it makes business sense • Synthetic multipurpose cattle breed development is technically feasible and economically viable (there is market for it, lets us grab the opportunity now) • Globally crossbreeding of dairy breeds is taking place for good reasons, but no local supportive policies and systems exist in SS Africa • A regional genetic improvement platform to sustainably support implementation of livestock genetic improvement programs is proposed • Strengthening of the local capacity to sustainably manage the process is required to deliver/share improved cattle genetics needed The untapped potential: the Pig sector in Kenya By Dr. Christine Mosoti Pig farming has a range of benefits including:  Pork is high value animal protein and the most consumed meat in the world  Contribute to food security: pig fat is a highly valued source of energy in times of unstable food supply  Quick return on investment: pigs are fast maturing, give birth to many (on average 12-16) and reproduce on average 2.2 times per year. The key message is here is the need to strongly advocate for cross breeding to increase productivity of the livestock sector. Additionally, for effective policy decisions, all the custodians of data/databases for the livestock sector should communicate with one another. Another key recommendation is to have all data in a central place and this calls for goodwill and resources from the different stakeholders and sub-sectors. Infrastructure is very important for the success of the livestock sector.
  39. 39. 39 Pig business is big business, the world imports in 2011 was worth US$20.5b and Africa's share was only US$15m. Pig is dominant in central Kenya and Nairobi because of access to abattoirs and markets, but scarce in coast and north eastern provinces of Kenya due to cultural issues. The pig value chain in Kenya comprises: pig breeds, pig feeds, AI, equipment and technology, value addition. There is lack of standardised systems for feed production, and for AI services there is only one company i.e. farmers choice. There is low use of equipment and basic technology in the pig sector is lacking. Value addition is limited with only few companies undertaking value addition. Main challenges for the pig sector are market access and limited good abattoirs, low technical support with very few experts, high cost of feeds and high variation and limited value addition. Opportunities for the pig sector: diversification and specialisation e.g. in AI services; value addition and processing e.g. bacon, sausages. Value addition increases the shelf life thereby reducing the problem of glut. Enterprise integration - pig and fish farming where pig manure fertilises the fish ponds. There is potential for Peri urban production as pig farming does not require expansive land. Key benefit for peri urban farming is the ready market in urban centres and availability of hotel wastes. Easy entry into pig business and fast returns are considered as incentives. The pig industry can be improved by establishing pig farmer cooperatives which will boost value addition, capacity building and support services. Comments on the pig sector It is critical to encourage governments in the region to urgently look at the pig sector because there is a positive trend in consumption of pig meat and the world demand is also very high. The quality and cost of feeds need to be streamlined to ensure growth of pigs. Current AI practices which use fresh semen need to be revolutionalised as fresh semen only survives for a maximum of three days after which it loses its potency. The main problem on AI uptake is inadequate knowledge, and this calls for awareness creation amongst farmers and extension service providers.
  40. 40. 40 ruminosis - presence of undigested food substance Questions, Answers and comments How do you fight African swine fever in DRC and in Kenya? Zoonosis currently an area of focus in one-health concept and pigs has been cited as one of the livestock species blamed for this. Zoonosis and the African swine flu greatly affect the pig industry. This can be contained by keeping breeds that are adapted to the diseases, undertaking right pig management practices (cleanliness), use of vaccine and capacity building for the farmers. In Malawi, there is an act of parliament stipulating that all pigs must be raised in enclosures. High penalties are given for owners found rearing pigs on free range and thus free movement of pigs is controlled. What is the policy on semen production for pigs in Kenya? Currently semen is not stored/frozen like in the case for bulls, they are imported from Denmark. It’s only Uganda that has started AI systems for pigs. Pigs compete with household for same food/feeds. This poses a serious challenge for poor households struggling to feed its household members. Farmers are encouraged to have enterprise integration e.g. in south Asia there is a symbiotic relationship between pigs and fish farming. Formation of cooperatives that will invest in feed mills to produce good quality feeds will also enhance pig productivity. Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Cows: Nutritional Manipulations By Dr. Chandrakant N. Patil, Consulting Animal Nutritionist There are dramatic changes in the dairy industry with large herds and high producing cows. However metabolic disorders decrease fertility by affecting conception rate and cycling interval. The basic concept of metabolic disorders: increase in milk yield is more a manifestation of metabolic processes. Pathological phenomena affects key organs i.e. uterus, ova and udder. A ‘symptom’ which is not a genuine disease can be effectively controlled by improved methods of feeding and
  41. 41. 41 husbandry. Metabolic disorders are in three forms: energy related (milk fat depression, laminitis, ruminal acidosis, ketosis and fatty liver): fiber related (acidosis and milk fat depression) and mineral related (hypocalcaemia, hypomagnaesemia, udder oedema, retained placenta and metritis). Metabolic disorders lead to reduced production, impaired reproductive performance and risk to develop other disease by the animals. Specifics for prevention of metabolic disorders include: yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), malate supplementation and Ionophore supplementation. Increased dry matter intake stimulates forage digesting bacteria which stabilises PH and increases microbial protein supply leading to increased nutrient supply to the animal. Economically, milk fever for example, leads to less milk in subsequent lactation, impaired reproductive performance (2.4 times risk for ketosis, 2.3 times risk for displaced abomasum, 2.2 times risk for retained placenta and 2.1 times risk for Metritis) and increases incidences of cystic ovarian diseases. Laminitis which is associated specifically with RUMINAL ACIDOSIS reduces profitability of herd, production and reproduction performance. To prevent milk fever, a farmer should undertake dietary restriction of Ca in dry period, dietary acidification prior to calving and feeding anionic salts. A farmer should try to fulfill the DMI (daily mass index) through feeding maximum of 2.25kg of concentrate at one point, live yeast: 60 days pre-partum and 90 days post-partum, bypass fat (CaSFA): 60 days- 14 days pre- partum, 14 days- 90 days post- partum, mineral premix: 365 days a year (min. 135g per day), MHA Chelated premix: 14g/ animal/ day in transition phase and Yeast metabolites: 50g/ animal/ day. For concentrate feed farmers should ensure the following crude protein level: • Max. 19% during 90 days post- partum • Max.18% during mid- lactation • Max. 16% during late lactation • Max. 12% during dry period and transition period
  42. 42. 42 The output will be efficient digestion, milk yield, efficient reproduction and efficient economic returns as a result of lower incidences of lactic acidosis, mastitis and metritis and locomotive disorders. In conclusion, to have more milk, there is need to feed two systems to improve animal nutrition i.e. plant system and mammalian system/animal system. The Kuroiler chicken as a means of reducing poverty and providing nutritional security in Uganda By Dr. Daniel K. N. Semambo In Uganda, poultry is an integral part of rural households providing food, income and social roles. Uganda has a poultry population of 42m (88% indigenous and 12% exotic). The Kuroiler project was initiated in Uganda in 2009 because village production was inadequate to meet nutritional and economic needs of an average family and production remains poor despite efforts to increase production. The projects vision is to reduce poverty and to improve the quality of life for impoverished rural households in Uganda. Kuroiler is a hybrid chicken suitable for village environment, dual purpose, phenotypically similar to local indigenous chickens, the Hen lays 200 (vs 40) eggs and males weigh 3+ kg (vs 1.5 -2.0 kg). Kuroiler is suitable for rural Africa because of high hatching results, high growth rates and egg production compared with ugandan Indigenous poultry. Farmers perception and experience claim that Kuroiler meat tastes better, texture of meat is soft, meat/bone ratio is better and the sizes of Kuroiler eggs are larger. Conclusions from the trials indicate that Kuroiler can survive and produce under Ugandan conditions, outperformed local chickens: meat and eggs, co-existed peacefully with local chickens, did not introduce new exotic diseases, not more vulnerable than local to predator and majority of farmers preferred Kuroiler meat to indigenous chicken.
  43. 43. 43 The project has been able to import 85,000 day old chicks, 6000 parents stock and 15,000 hatching eggs fortnightly. Its expecting to produce 2.7million day old chicks starting from November 2013 and to acquire grandparent stock to be located in an identified centre. Questions, answers and General comments The key message is there is need to strongly advocate for cross breeding to increase productivity of the livestock sector. Additionally, for effective policy decisions all the data/databases for the livestock sector should communicate with one another. Another key recommendation is to having all data in a central place and this calls for goodwill and resources from the different stakeholders and sub-sectors. Infrastructure is very important for the success of the livestock sector. There should be concerted efforts to build agriculture as a key component of the education curriculum at primary, secondary and even at tertiary levels. Continuous capacity building of farmers should be sustained. Smallholder farmers may not be very skilled in the area of cross breeding and genetics and therefore require guidance. Cooperation among farmers, private sector, universities and researchers should be initiated and they should work together in improving existing admix by fully utilising the available tools. Greater collaboration between university and private sector has benefits; as an example, Stellenbosch University secured funding from Standard Bank for Centre for business. Both benefit from the centre. University of KwaZulu Natal (south Africa) provides support directly to farmers which in turn yields closer collaboration in funding. University of Cape Town has a Unilever Centre which provides routine and concise strategic information for business. How can the different stakeholders at the different levels be capacitated and incentivised? This can be achieved by investing in technologies for making the livestock sector less laborious especially for the dairy sector. Public private partnerships to make livestock farming profitable and the enhanced use of Information technology e.g. move from traditional methods of tracking genetics and use mobile phones to query on real-time who has the best stock and verification of genetic characteristics.
  44. 44. 44 Strategies for unlocking genes will have to vary between the pastoralists communities and zero grazing farmers. While matching genetics and crossbreeds is important, good animal management practices are important in improving productivity. Regrettably there is territorial hoarding of information and mechanisms to break the boarders/boundaries are required as this will provide opportunities for genes to be unlocked. Use of internet for sharing admix should be commenced and as well as investing together as Africa. HOW CAN A REGIONAL GENETIC PLATFORM BE ESTABLISHED FOR AFRICA? It should not take away from the national systems but permit benefits from a collective and wider system. The reproductive systems are already characterized but they need to be reviewed and updated. The current and future systems need to be understood in view of changing environments e.g. climate change, population increase, technology dynamics and many others. This calls for SMART strategies which should be holistic, incorporating and addressing productivity, marketing and financing. Is there a simple test for identifying animals with ketosis that can be applied at farm level. A simple test is the smell of urine or checking the breadth of the animal if its sugary or has molasses- like smell and the presence of gas bubbles in dung. At what stage should we introduce curriculum in agriculture, should it be optional in high school, in elementary school etc? Yes we need to introduce agriculture at all levels of our high school and college curriculum but in variable doses and in an integrated way, use production to compile data for use in mathematics and statistics classes to make learning more interactive and interesting to pupils and farmers. SESSION FIVE: LIVESTOCK SECTOR: FEEDING AFRICA Kenya Animal Genetics Resource Centre By Dr. Wamukuru H.K, Chief Executive Officer The livestock sector significantly contributes to the Kenyan economy (entire national GDP (10%)) and overall socio-economic development in the Country. In agriculture, the livestock sub-sector
  45. 45. 45 contributes to just below 50% of the total agricultural GDP and about 30% of the marketed agricultural products. The potential therefore is great and the country needs to unlock the latent potential existing in the Arid and Semi Arid (ASAL) lands of Kenya which account for about 80% of the current contribution of the livestock sector. The new constitution of Kenya clearly recognizes veterinary services as vital to development of both county and national governments and appropriate policies and legal framework to support development and coordination of animal breeding programmes are being put in place. This will strengthen the role of breed societies, farmers and other stakeholders in animal improvement activities and will also apply equitably to all animal species. The Kenya Animal Genetic Resources Centre (KAGRC) formally, Central Artificial Insemination Station (CAIS), was established in 1946 through Gazette Notice No. 557 as a semen production and distribution Centre. It’s visions is to be the leading producer of the best Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) in the World. Its functions include: establishment of a national livestock resources genebank, custodian of livestock tissues, DNA, semen and embryos of all important livestock and emerging livestock, strategic semen production and serves as reference laboratory for certification, testing of semen, embryos, and related livestock reproductive materials for purposes of exportation and importation; develop and produce chemicals, media and laboratory products for use in the production of animal GermPlasm; provide information to livestock farmers on the suitability and effectiveness of animal breeding products; provide training and consultancy services on animal resource conservation procedures, semen, in-vitro embryo production and transfer, and related technology transfer. KAGRC works in close collaboration with other breeding organizations such as Kenya Stud Book, Dairy Recording Services of Kenya and Livestock Recording Centre, research organizations, universities, international entities, and community based organizations and individual farmers. GENOMIC selection of bull dams, bulls and their heifers, and contract mating programs for efficient performance of the centre are routine continuous processes. The centre participates in Public Private Partnership and hence national planning always ensures the long term supply of public good and its sustainability. KAGRC is in the process of undertaking animal recording and genetic evaluation and wide stakeholder’s scope (breeders and livestock keepers). KAGRC intends
  46. 46. 46 to be a reference laboratory for certification and is thus embarking on testing of semen embryos, and related livestock reproduction. KAGRC has 124 bull studs (54 Friesians, 52 Ayrshires, 8 Jerseys, 4 guernseys, 4 Sahiwals and 2 borans. It has 48 semen distribution outlets and the current national bull semen demand is estimated to be at 1.2 million straws. KAGRC produces 50 litres of liquid nitrogen per hour with a monthly production of about 16,000 litres, monthly demand of 40,000 litres and the deficit is sourced from private factories. There have been challenges in the conservation, management and utilization of the AnGR emanating from low human, infrastructural and professional capacities. The centre is yet to attain all the requisite ISO standards, especially Laboratory Best practices, ISO 17025; however the centre has put in place a quality management system to improve its performance and be in line with the best and modern practices and has been issued with the ISO 9001:2008 certificate. The government and bilateral partners are committed to promote germplasm preservation and conservation of animal genetic materials. KAGRC is duty bound to generate knowledge about good practices and lessons learned. Aflatoxins: Impact on Livestock and Livestock Trade By Dr. Amare Ayalew, Plant Pathologist/Mycotoxicologist, PACA Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites (naturally occurring) produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that are toxic to humans and animals. They are highly stable compounds, that withstand normal food/feed processing procedures. Aflatoxin contamination occurs at pre-harvest, harvest and storage. Maize, groundnut, cottonseed and byproducts are highly susceptible but it occurs in wide ranging food and feed. Grass, silage and hay do not contain appreciable levels. Aflatoxin occurrence is influenced by drought stress and high temperature, insect damage, and improper harvesting, drying and storage. The Aflatoxin challenge in Africa leads to the following.
  47. 47. 47 In Agriculture and food security: 25% of the world food supply is contaminated with aflatoxins (FAO, 2000). In health: aflatoxin is linked to cancer, immune-system suppression, growth retardation, liver disease, and death in both humans and domestic animals, In Trade: aflatoxin undermines efforts to streamline SPS issues continent-wide. Factors contributing to the Aflatoxin challenge in Africa include: conducive climatic conditions, traditional crop production practices, inadequate harvesting, drying and storage practices, policy and institutional capacity and lack of awareness. Aflatoxins have acute effects on animals including: mortality and morbidity (acute toxicity) where the major organ affected is the liver, low dietary concentrations lead to (chronic effects) thus decreased milk and egg production, poor weight gain, recurrent infection due to immunity suppression and reduced fertility, abortion, and lowered birth weights. Productivity of the livestock industry is seriously affected by aflatoxins e.g. production losses to the U.S. poultry and swine industries exceed $100 million per year. Aflatoxin regulations restrict flow of animal feed and export of dairy, meat and fish products is increasingly subject to aflatoxin testing. There are several Aflatoxin regulations impacting on trade including: codex standards are advisory, national standards vary widely depending largely on the level of economic development and the susceptibility of a nation’s crops to contamination (stringent based on the “precautionary” principle). Regulations have significant economic consequences accruing form lost trade and enforcement costs mainly to developing countries. Aflatoxin contamination is a complex problem: its hard to solve by a single actor/discipline, requires multi-stakeholder actions, focus on the cause rather than the symptoms and thus no single answer but requires a bag of tricks). Integrated and coordinated actions are needed. In conclusion, Aflatoxin is unavoidable as a natural toxicant but options are available to manage it successfully. Aflatoxin is a complex problem that can be addressed through integrated measures and coordinated actions. The competitiveness of the African livestock industry is at stake unless the aflatoxin problem is addressed proactively.

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