Personality A Psychological Perspective on what makes us Human
What is Personality? What shapes it? How do we develop our personalities? Can our personalities change? How important is personality in defining who we are? What are personality traits? -Brainstorm as many as you can with a partner?
Personality TraitsCharacteristics & behaviours that make us unique. Predispositions to behave in a certain way in various situations
Case Study Mark & Tony are two students who attend the same school. They come from the same neighbourhood, are the same age and have similar family backgrounds. Mark has a girlfriend, but few other close friends. Mark does not talk much to others and gets angry easily if questioned about his behaviour. Tony has a range of friends. He is witty and outgoing, likes parties and is a leader in his group of friends. Both of these students have the same biological drives and live in similar social environments, yet they are quite different. This difference is “personality”. List words that might describe Tony or mark. Any others?
What forms our Personality? Nature vs. Nurture -The debate over the role [importance] of our biology vs. our environment Nature = genetics, biology, gender, hormones Nurture = environment, experiences, conditioning, socialization
Concept of Personality From the Greek- “persona” meaning mask Today we define it as those characteristics that account for consistent patterns of behaviour Personality Type Theory attempts to classify people into categories [introvert vs. extrovert] Personality Trait Theory places people on a continuum [range from introvert to extrovert]
Theories on Personality Development PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT[Freud-Austria, 1856-1939] -the force behind our personality = the unconscious 3 Parts of the Unconscious: 1. The ID primitive part of the personality that pursues only pleasure/instant gratification
Freud cont’d… 2. EGO Is aware of reality & is in contact w/the outside world. Considers the consequences of an action. 3. SUPEREGO Your conscience. Guides towards morally acceptable behaviour
Freud’s Developmental Stages:Psychosexual ORAL stage Infants fixated on objects in the mouth Traced to nursing Difficulties at this stage can lead to oral fixation- over eating, smoking, biting nails, etc..
Psychosexual Development… ANAL stage Toddler stage, potty training Inability to resolve conflicts of this stage can result in anal retentive or expulsive fixations PHALLIC stage Ages 4-6 Oedipus (and Electra) complex Penis envy
Carl Jung: 1875-1961 A student of Freud, later a rival Father of “Type Theory” Personalities categorized according to 4 different pairs of traits You will take a Jung Typology test to determine your personality type…
Jungian Type Theory Extraversion/Introversion [E/I] -describes interaction with others and if we prefer to spend time alone or w/others Sensing/Intuition [S/N] -describes whether we are more observant or introspective (pay more attention to outer or inner world)
Thinking/Feeling [T/F] -determines whether we think with our head or our heart Judging/Perceiving [J/P] -determines how we run our lives -perceivers keep options open, don’t like schedules, judgers like routine **the result of your type test will give you 4 letters. For example Hewitt = ENFJ
Cognitive Theory [Piaget] Personality develops in stages as we learn Stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational
Cognition = learning
Looking Glass Self[Cooley]
Form our sense of self [self concept] based on how we think others see us, their reactions to us
Part of social learning and ongoing(beyond childhood)
Psychosocial Stages [Erikson] Challenges must be overcome at each life stage Personality develops over the course of our life Stages: -trust v. mistrust (infancy)HOPE family -autonomy v. shame & doubt (toddler)WILL family -initiative v. guilt (pre-schooler)PURPOSE family/daycare -industry v. inferiority (6-puberty)COMPETENCE family/ peers/ school/community -identity v. role confusion (teens)FIDELITY family/ peers/ school/comm. -intimacy v. isolation (young adult)LOVE family/ peers/school/comm. -generativity v. stagnation (middle age)CARING peers/fam./comm. -integrity v. despair (old age)WISDOM peers/fam./comm
Pseudo-Scientific Theories These theories are not scientific, but many people believe in them… Ancient Greece-Galen’s 4 Humors Personality first studied by Hippocrates & Galen Their ideas dominated the Western & Islamic worlds for thousands of years
The 4 Humors Personality (and mental & physical health) set by a balance of 4 body liquids: -blood[too much makes you sanguine; lustful careless, friendly] -yellow bile [choleric = decisive, dynamic, deceitful] -black bile[melancholy = moody, depressed, self-conscious & sensitive] -phlegm [phlegmatic = peaceful, faithful, prone to sloth]
The Zodiac Astrological signs-what’s your sign??? Chinese Zodiac Do you believe that you are like your sign?
Birth Order Personality affected by the relationships we develop with parents/siblings as we grow up
Body Type[Sheldon] Personality determined by our build (seriously!) 3 body types 1. Endomorph: -round & soft -enjoys food, comfort, relaxation, people -needs acceptance
Body Type Theory… 2. Mesomorph -hard body, muscular -assertive, loves action, energetic, direct 3. Ectomorph -thin, slender, fragile -private, self-aware, nervous, sensitive, shy
What other factors influence personality? Media Toys Peers Parents Genes Religion Culture Ourselves *Which of these factors are environmental and which are genetic?