Personality
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Personality

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Personality Personality Presentation Transcript

  • Personality
    A Psychological Perspective on what makes us Human
  • What is Personality?
    What shapes it?
    How do we develop our personalities?
    Can our personalities change?
    How important is personality in defining who we are?
    What are personality traits?
    -Brainstorm as many as
    you can with a partner?
  • Personality TraitsCharacteristics & behaviours that make us unique. Predispositions to behave in a certain way in various situations
  • Case Study
    Mark & Tony are two students who attend the same school. They come from the same neighbourhood, are the same age and have similar family backgrounds. Mark has a girlfriend, but few other close friends. Mark does not talk much to others and gets angry easily if questioned about his behaviour. Tony has a range of friends. He is witty and outgoing, likes parties and is a leader in his group of friends. Both of these students have the same biological drives and live in similar social environments, yet they are quite different. This difference is “personality”.
    List words that might describe Tony or mark.
    Any others?
  • What forms our Personality?
    Nature vs. Nurture
    -The debate over the role [importance] of our biology vs. our environment
    Nature = genetics, biology, gender, hormones
    Nurture = environment, experiences, conditioning, socialization
  • Concept of Personality
    From the Greek- “persona” meaning mask
    Today we define it as those characteristics that account for consistent patterns of behaviour
    Personality Type Theory attempts to classify people into categories [introvert vs. extrovert]
    Personality Trait Theory places people on a continuum [range from introvert to extrovert]
  • Theories on Personality Development
    PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT[Freud-Austria, 1856-1939]
    -the force behind our personality = the unconscious
    3 Parts of the Unconscious:
    1. The ID
    primitive part of the personality that pursues only pleasure/instant gratification
  • Freud cont’d…
    2. EGO
    Is aware of reality & is in contact w/the outside world. Considers the consequences of an action.
    3. SUPEREGO
    Your conscience. Guides towards morally acceptable behaviour
  • Freud’s Developmental Stages:Psychosexual
    ORAL stage
    Infants fixated on objects in the mouth
    Traced to nursing
    Difficulties at this stage can lead to oral fixation- over eating, smoking, biting nails, etc..
  • Psychosexual Development…
    ANAL stage
    Toddler stage, potty training
    Inability to resolve conflicts of this stage can result in anal retentive or expulsive fixations
    PHALLIC stage
    Ages 4-6
    Oedipus (and Electra) complex
    Penis envy
  • Carl Jung: 1875-1961
    A student of Freud, later a rival
    Father of “Type Theory”
    Personalities categorized according to 4 different pairs of traits
    You will take a Jung Typology test to determine your personality type…
  • Jungian Type Theory
    Extraversion/Introversion [E/I]
    -describes interaction with others
    and if we prefer to spend time
    alone or w/others
    Sensing/Intuition [S/N]
    -describes whether we are more observant or introspective (pay more attention to outer or inner world)
  • Thinking/Feeling [T/F]
    -determines whether we think with our head or our heart
    Judging/Perceiving [J/P]
    -determines how we run our lives
    -perceivers keep options open, don’t like schedules, judgers like routine
    **the result of your type test
    will give you 4 letters.
    For example Hewitt = ENFJ
  • Cognitive Theory [Piaget]
    Personality develops in stages as we learn
    Stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational
    • Cognition = learning
    Looking Glass Self[Cooley]
    • Form our sense of self [self concept] based on how we think others see us, their reactions to us
    • Part of social learning and ongoing(beyond childhood)
  • Psychosocial Stages [Erikson]
    Challenges must be overcome at each life stage
    Personality develops over the course of our life
    Stages:
    -trust v. mistrust (infancy)HOPE family
    -autonomy v. shame & doubt (toddler)WILL family
    -initiative v. guilt (pre-schooler)PURPOSE family/daycare
    -industry v. inferiority (6-puberty)COMPETENCE
    family/ peers/ school/community
    -identity v. role confusion (teens)FIDELITY family/ peers/ school/comm.
    -intimacy v. isolation (young adult)LOVE family/ peers/school/comm.
    -generativity v. stagnation (middle age)CARING peers/fam./comm.
    -integrity v. despair (old age)WISDOM peers/fam./comm
  • Pseudo-Scientific Theories
    These theories are not scientific, but many people believe in them…
    Ancient Greece-Galen’s 4 Humors
    Personality first studied by Hippocrates & Galen
    Their ideas dominated the Western & Islamic worlds for thousands of years
  • The 4 Humors
    Personality (and mental & physical health) set by a balance of 4 body liquids:
    -blood[too much makes you sanguine; lustful careless, friendly]
    -yellow bile [choleric = decisive, dynamic, deceitful]
    -black bile[melancholy = moody, depressed, self-conscious & sensitive]
    -phlegm [phlegmatic = peaceful, faithful, prone to sloth]
  • The Zodiac
    Astrological signs-what’s your sign???
    Chinese Zodiac
    Do you believe that you are like your sign?
  • Birth Order
    Personality affected by the relationships we develop with parents/siblings as we grow up
  • Body Type[Sheldon]
    Personality determined by our build (seriously!)
    3 body types
    1. Endomorph:
    -round & soft
    -enjoys food, comfort, relaxation, people
    -needs acceptance
  • Body Type Theory…
    2. Mesomorph
    -hard body, muscular
    -assertive, loves action, energetic, direct
    3. Ectomorph
    -thin, slender, fragile
    -private, self-aware, nervous, sensitive, shy
  • What other factors influence personality?
    Media
    Toys
    Peers
    Parents
    Genes
    Religion
    Culture
    Ourselves
    *Which of these factors are environmental and which are genetic?