In order to define project management, we need to understand what a project is. A project is a temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, which brings about beneficial change or added value. Projects have end dates!
ASK THE AUDIENCE?? Do we have any project managers in the audience?? Does anyone know what the PM Triple Constraints are? (GIVE CANDY) The PM Triple constraints are the keys to quality and success! These three are interdependent and create quite a balancing act for Project Managers. The time constraint is the amount of time available to complete a project. All projects have deadlines or end dates. This may be the most difficult constraint to manage. The cost constraint is the budgeted amount available for the project. Remember that cost also translates to resources – people, equipment, and materials. The scope constraint is what must be done to produce the project's end result – the system you need – meeting your requirements! These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope, or managing the project over a longer period of time to take advantage of various funding opportunities without a loss of continuity ! The discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team ( not just the project manager ) to organize their work to meet these constraints.
The textbook definition of PM is: The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements And Organizing and managing resources so the project is completed within defined scope, quality time, and cost constraints.
This outlines the steps in project management – the process is iterative so when you are implementing the project you do not stop looking to identify stakeholders etc. A classic example here is the Brent Spar project where Shell failed to identify Greenpeace as a stakeholder until the project was beyond saving! Each of the steps will be outlined in the following slides.
ASK THE AUDIENCE – what skills are important? (GIVE CANDY!) (CLICK) The PM doesn’t have to be an expert in the application area but – they do need to understand the application area, the standards required, and the regulations that apply (includes functional, technical, financial, and procurement). (CLICK) Understand the project environment! What are the cultural, social and political characteristics you are doing with? (DON”T TALK ABOUT INTERPERSONAL SKILLS) There are big differences between FSP & WIC - and even more between government and private industry! (think about dealing with contractors!) Educate yourself, listen and try to understand.
(CLICK) (CLICK) (CLICK) (READ SLIDE) KEY POINT: The Project Manager is responsible for ensuring the work gets done – not DOING all the work!
(CLICK) Define requirements in detail (CLICK) Establish a speedy conflict resolution process! WRITTEN and part of the SOW or Contract (CLICK) Make contingency Plans – if things didn’t go wrong you wouldn’t need a PM ! A risk management plan is NOT a contingency plan. Risk is something you anticipate! Contingency is something you must be ready to react to! (CLICK) Plan a reasonable roll-out schedule. You are not just putting in a new system – you are also changing the way your do business and this has a huge impact. Allow time to deal with it .
(CLICK) Communicate objectives frequently – keep everyone on the same page! (CLICK) Recognize different perspectives KEY POINT!!!! Recognize that with the various stakeholders (program staff, IT, workers, management) come different perspectives that are all valuable to the project! Listen!! These reflect their concerns and interests. Repeat them back to make sure you understand! (CLICK) Check assumptions Remember those system goals and objectives we discussed during the alternatives analysis? These need to be reiterated to make sure assumptions stay consistent and are truly reflective of the business case.
(CLICK) Identify all stakeholders up front! (CLICK) Develop the project plan before starting the project (CLICK) Establish communications protocols – this should be written. Who reports to who, who carries the message to whom!
(CLICK) Manage expectations of all stakeholders – need to be realistic and match the actual work involved. Sometimes states think this will solve all your problems – save time, money, staff, etc. These expectations, if overblown, can cause problems. Be very honest about what the new system will or will NOT do. Don’t give false expectations. Remember change brings a fear factor with it. Assuage fears. Encourage success. (CLICK) Share success and broadcast achievements Broadcast achievements throughout the project – newsletters, e-mails, announcements at meetings – too often only hear about the problems – need to hear the good as well! Use on-line forums or even a project blog. (CLICK) Invite feedback Invite feedback from all stakeholders throughout the project! Good or bad! Be ready to manage it! KEY POINT!!! A Project Manager has to be willing and able to tell the truth to power! Remember PM’s should be empowered and this includes being the messenger to the senior managers – the project champions!
Management Reporting is crucial to a successful project – management buy-in and continued sponsorship is dependent upon good communications! Establish reporting requirements upfront (frequency, delivery method (meeting, written, conference call), items to be included. This is where you should establish a change control process. Remember these are management reports – be brief but provide accurate and sufficient information for managers in language they understand about the current status and any issues. Remember the higher up the food chain you go the shorter the attention span, but believe it or not management really does want to know! If they don’t, your project has another problem!
A good project team doesn’t mean leaving the uncooperative people out of the room – make the extra effort to co-opt them! Draw on all areas of expertise! You need the subject matter experts on your team! Involve your stakeholders – encourage synergy and collaboration! Being a team member also gives stakeholders a sense of ownership and commitment. Good teamwork makes the Project Manager look good and the project successful!
To plan a project in detail - essential when you need to allocate funding or resources - you will need to analyse it in detail. The drill down technique enables you to do this. It is a simple technique for breaking complex problems down into progressively smaller parts. To use the technique, start by writing the project aim down on the left-hand side of a large sheet of paper. A little to the right of this, write down a list of points relating to the project. These may be reasons for doing the project, ideas about methodology, plans for evaluation. This process of breaking the problem down into its component part is called 'drilling down'. For each of these points, repeat the process. Keep on drilling down into points until you fully understand the factors contributing to the project. If you cannot break them down using the knowledge you have, then carry out whatever research is necessary to understand the point. Alternatively, discuss this with your supervisor - you will have a focus for your early research meetings. Drilling into a question helps you to get a much deeper understanding of it. The process helps you to recognise and understand the factors that contribute to it. Drill Down prompts you to link in information that you had not initially associated with a problem. It also shows exactly where you need further information.
Drill down is useful for identifying all the tasks involved, but one of the most difficult elements of project planning is the allocation of time to each task. It is important to get time estimates right for two main reasons: Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines for delivery of projects, and hence peoples' assessments of your reliability They often determine the allocation of resources and hence their efficiency. Usually people vastly underestimate the amount of time needed to implement projects. This is true particularly when they are not familiar with the task to be carried out. They forget to take into account unexpected events or unscheduled high priority work. People also often simply fail to allow for the full complexity involved with a job. At this stage you are learning the skills of research management so ask for input from more experienced researchers about your plan.
From the previous session - to revise Gantt Charts are useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects. They: help you to lay out the tasks that need to be completed give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project, help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date. When a project is under way, Gantt charts help you to monitor whether the project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows you to pin-point the remedial action necessary to put it back on schedule.
Once the project is under way it is important to monitor progress. Benefits: you can fine tune or reschedule tasks if your time estimates were not realistic you can see which tasks are falling behind and allocate extra resources or investigate why you can report on progress at any time as well as reviewing the project, you are reviewing your plan, so you can improve your planning skills for next time
If you discover or anticipate a delay it is essential to take action Report the implications of delays - other projects or work may be depending on the outcome of your project so give people time to react Discuss changes in plans - involve others so they can make suggestions Direct resources - use the CPA to see what tasks need to be completed Avoid persecution - if someone else is telling you about problems, be constructive - or next time they may not tell you until it is too late Respond early - so there is time to get back on track or re-think Be flexible - use your project plans to find alternatives Involve the client and stakeholders - they may have ideas or be prepared to be flexible too
(Read Definition from slide) Scope creep occurs when additional requirements, sometimes minor, are identified and added to the project. Overtime, these collectively may result in scope change and cause cost and schedule overruns. OFTEN DON’T RECOGNIZE IT BECAUSE IT HAPPENS WHEN EVERYONE IS AGREEING! Delineate between requirements and enhancements. You need buy-in from all of the stakeholders to add enhancements.
Stop! Ask these questions? Have a change control process that involves all of your stakeholders, so you know you have their buy-in, particularly if the change significantly impacts the budget or timeline.
Monitor project spending to ensure it stays within the baseline plan for spending rates and totals When spending varies, determine the cause. Change the execution of the project to bring the spending back in line within the budget, or recognize the original estimate was incorrect or you require additional funding due to variances in scope or time and either submit an APDU to request approval of additional funding or reduce the scope of the project Keep your stakeholders, particularly executive sponsors in the loop. Prevent unapproved changes to the project
Here’s our Top 10 list based on our experience and it pretty much mirrors the industry trends we see. CLICK CLICK CLICK
CLICK – READ #4 Change management process has to be defined upfront at the beginning of the project! It should be written and agreed upon. Once you finish your risk management plan, you need to focus on change management! It will happen! How are you going to deal with change – it can affect scope, time, and budget. Changes can be things that you realize must be part of the core requirements or to your core requirements. Or they may be the start of your enhancement list! They can also be hardware changes. CLICK CLICK Realistic schedule is not just about our review time. It’s about giving yourself enough time to review deliverables. You’re going to have some large, maybe daunting technical documents to review. Make sure you allow yourself enough time – not only to comment but also to consolidate the comments from all reviewers, to resolve any conflicting comments, and then to deliver the comments in a professional manner to the developer! CLICK
(USER LASER POINTER) We first saw this back in the IAPD session on Functional Requirements. Obviously, this project did not have a PM – or not a good one anyway! How the Customer explained it! How the Project Leader/Manager understood it! How the analyst designed it! How the Programmer wrote it! How the Business Consultant Described it! How the project was documented! What was installed! How the customer was billed! How it was supported! What the customer really needed! This is why we need Project Management!
Projectmanagement Refresher for Trainees
Training Project Management Siep Littooij Manager International Project Desk 5 Februari 2010 Professional and conscientious behavior is critical to a successful outcome!
Getting to know each other <ul><li>Who are you, where from? </li></ul><ul><li>What degree do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>What job do you currently have (or want to have)? </li></ul><ul><li>What learning, what experience do you have with PM </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect to learn today? </li></ul>
Program Closing 1700 Discussion, questions 1630 Video ‘Scrum’ 1615 Presentations 1545 Assignment 1500 Video Bubble Gum project 1445 Break 1430 Project management 101 1330 Start, acquaint 1300
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Defining project management </li></ul><ul><li>The skills of the project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for project management </li></ul><ul><li>Keys to a successful project </li></ul>
What is a Project? <ul><li>A temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service, which brings about beneficial change or added value </li></ul>And it is someone’s responsibility
PM Triple Constraints <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul>Manage these or they will manage you!
Delivering the results <ul><li>Successful project management is delivering a quality product that meets the customer’s requirements within time, scope, and budget. </li></ul>
Defining Project Management <ul><li>The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing and managing resources so the project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraints </li></ul>
Lifecycle of a project Identify Stakeholders Define the Scope Identify the tasks Identify the risks Plan Implement Review
What makes this all work? <ul><li>A good, solid professional project manager </li></ul>
What you need as Project Manager <ul><li>Program area knowledge, standards, and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the project environment </li></ul><ul><li>General management skills (budgeting, scheduling) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul>
<ul><li>Ensure strong, committed management support </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the business goals to the development project </li></ul><ul><li>Establish clearly defined directions </li></ul><ul><li>Be proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Listen and please stakeholders </li></ul>Be a Leader
<ul><li>Define your requirements in detail </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a speedy conflict resolution and escalation process </li></ul><ul><li>Make contingency plans </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a reasonable roll-out schedule </li></ul>Plan
<ul><li>Identify all team members up front! </li></ul><ul><li>Get commitment! </li></ul><ul><li>Define roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Establish communications protocols </li></ul>Manage the team RACI Grid
<ul><li>Identify stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Know their Perspective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Share success and broadcast achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Invite feedback </li></ul>Manage the Stakeholders
Report! <ul><li>Establish reporting requirements upfront </li></ul><ul><li>Include the good, the bad, and the ugly </li></ul><ul><li>Be brief but accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Management really does want to know! </li></ul>
Be effective <ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Effective meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural competences </li></ul>
<ul><li>How do we perceive cultural differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise Exaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>No Problem Terrible….. </li></ul><ul><li>Either minimisation or exaggeration both unhelpful: it is simply a risk for which measures can be designed to ensure success </li></ul><ul><li>Why focus on cultural differences? </li></ul>Intercultural and Multi-location teams
<ul><li>A good project team can be the key to a successful project! </li></ul>
Project Management Tools <ul><li>Mind Map, identifying features </li></ul><ul><li>Logframe for logical planning </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts time planning </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Tracking </li></ul>YOU bring structure to the project
Tool 1 Mind Map <ul><li>Useful at the earliest stage of a project </li></ul><ul><li>Set out all possibilities and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Helps gives structure to project </li></ul><ul><li>Makes linkages more evident </li></ul>
Drill Down <ul><li>A technique to identify all tasks associated with a project </li></ul><ul><li>Start on the LHS with the project objective </li></ul><ul><li>Identify obvious tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Break these down into smallest parts </li></ul><ul><li>List questions or points to clarify </li></ul>
Tool 3 Structuring the timebound relations in the project <ul><li>Use list of tasks (activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify time relationships between tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate time for each task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>include: project management, detailed planning, liaison with experts, meetings, information gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check and get feedback </li></ul>
Gantt Chart <ul><li>lay out the tasks that need to be completed </li></ul><ul><li>show when these tasks should be carried out </li></ul><ul><li>assist the allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><li>help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date </li></ul>
Monitoring Progress Complete Behind Complete Ahead Behind Time Now Activity A Activity B Activity C Activity D Activity E Activity F Activity G Activity H Actual Anticipated
When Reality beats the Schedule <ul><li>Report the implications of delays </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss changes in plans </li></ul><ul><li>Direct resources </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Respond early </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Involve your supervisor(s) and others </li></ul>
Tool 4 Projects and Risks <ul><li>Identify sources of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Assess likelyhood of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Assess magnitude of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Develop response </li></ul>
Risks <ul><li>Running out of time </li></ul><ul><li>Set quality levels too expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Materials unavailable, not accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation not forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders change their mind </li></ul>
Risk Management: redefine to mitigate and reduce risk Likelyhood Impact low low high high
Tool 5 Performance tracking Goals Time Money Within scope Parameters
<ul><li>Scope Creep: Gradual, progressive increase in the project’s scope that is not noticed immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when additional requirements result in scope change and can cause cost and schedule overruns </li></ul>
Ask these questions! <ul><li>What are you trying to achieve in your project? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you clear on the limits of your investigations? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you know when the project is complete? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ‘the new thing’ a must? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the customer/user do the job without it? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it contribute to the viability of the system? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it add value as a feature/function to the system? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it worth the additional cost? </li></ul>
Budget/Cost Management <ul><li>Monitor project spending </li></ul><ul><li>When a variance occurs, determine the cause </li></ul><ul><li>Change the execution of the project, reduce scope </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent unapproved changes to the project </li></ul>
Projects Success! <ul><li>Sound project management processes </li></ul><ul><li>Project tied to the organization’s business goals </li></ul><ul><li>Senior management commitment </li></ul><ul><li>4. Good change management </li></ul><ul><li>5. Detailed requirements </li></ul>
Why Projects Succeed <ul><li>6. Realistic schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Good stakeholder relationships </li></ul><ul><li>8. Empowered project manager </li></ul><ul><li>9. Skilled and appropriate team members with defined roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>10. Availability of funding </li></ul>
Bubble Gum Assignment <ul><li>Split in groups of 2 for groupwork </li></ul><ul><li>Each group, pick ‘American’ & ‘Asian’ </li></ul><ul><li>Study the Bubble Gum project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4u2LjkRhrc4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research the project team, implementation, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider intercultural/ multiple locations aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make mock-up project design with 5 project tools! </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate skills in presentation </li></ul>Now until 16.15 hrs
PM Alternative method: SCRUM <ul><li>Often used in </li></ul><ul><li>product development </li></ul><ul><li>software development </li></ul>Becauze…. not all projects can be planned from the start Team must work on-site
Truisims for Discussion <ul><li>You can force someone into committing to an impossible deadline, but you cannot force him to meet it. </li></ul><ul><li>What we need is an exact list of specific unknown risks we might encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>A change ‘freeze’ is like the abominable snowman: it is a myth and would melt anyway when heat is applied. </li></ul>
The story of the project design as teamwork challenge