Say the colors as fast as you can
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Born in Switzerland
Doctorate at 21 in Natural Science
Biology to Philosophy to Psychology
His central theme: that adaptation
is according to the achievement
of a successful equilibrium in the
interactions of the organism and
Piaget’s Stage of Cognitive
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth Until Age 2) In this stage,
behaviors are largely spontaneous and always
Preoperational Stage (Age 2 Until Age 6 or 7) In this
stage language enable children to communicate with
others. At the later part of this stage, children show
early sign of logical.
Concrete Operations Stage (Age 6 or 7 Until Age 11
or 12) Logical thinking is used when children moved
into this stage, logical operations that enable them to
integrate various qualities and perspectives of an
object or event.
Formal Operations Stage (Age 11 or 12 through
Adulthood) Children acquire proportional thinking in
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
Children construct their
Development cannot be
separated from its social
Prior conceptions and new
conceptions are interwoven
Language plays a central role
in mental development
Implications of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s
Children can learn a great deal through hands-on
Puzzling phenomena can spur children to acquire new
Piaget’s stages can provide some guidance about
when certain abilities are likely to emerge.
Interactions with peers can promote more advanced
People can learn from their mistakes.
Ormrod, J. (2011). Human Learning. 6th-ed. Pearson Education,
Chapman, M. (1988). Constructive evolution: Origins and
development of Piaget’s thought.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Piaget, J. (1937). La construction du reer chez I’enfant. Geneva :
Delachaux et Niestle.
Piaget, J. (1953). To understand is to invent. New York:
Grossman (French: Ouva
Mayer, S. (2008). Dewey’s Dynamic Integration of Vygotsky and
Piaget. Education and